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 Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment
whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input
such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data.
 AR is, therefore, in essence, the process of a computer embossing stuff that does not exist
on stuff that does exist.
 In theory, AR needs four types of hardware to be implemented: a processor, a sensor, a
display and a manual input device. Other important, albeit not strictly essential components
include global positioning systems, accelerometers, odometers and access to the Internet.
 The ability of mobile phones to have all of the features listed above makes them a favourite
for augmented reality applications.

 AR has found applications in a variety of industries, such as retail, supply chain management,
and entertainment.
 AR systems must impose a realistic animation upon the environment, thereby making the
picture obtained after imposing, as believable to the observer as possible.
 The measure of success for an AR system therefore becomes how realistically the
augmented images are perceived, when mixed with the real world.
 Contrary to popular opinion, AR is not just the facile embroidery of cartoons on a picture
taken by a camera. The first step in AR is to obtain real world coordinates without the help
of a camera, or any other sensory input. Secondly, certain real-world objects are detected
using image processing algorithms. Now the images of these objects are manipulated and
processed, thereby working towards the formation of the final image. Finally, the user is
presented with the final, augmented image.
 Another performance measure is the time interval for which the user has to wait before
receiving the augmented image.
 The gaming company Niantic is considered to be a pioneer in augmented reality. The
company has created two very successful augmented reality games, Ingress and Pokemon
 Ingress involves a science fiction back story, with the AR contributing to a continuous
narrative. Competition in Ingress is primarily between the two opposing factions rather than
between individual players, and players never interact directly in the game or suffer any kind
of damage other than temporarily running out of "XM", the power that fuels all actions
except movement and communication. The gameplay consists of capturing "portals" at
places of cultural significance, such as public art, landmarks, monuments, etc., and linking
them to create virtual triangular "control fields" over geographical areas. These monuments
represent the real world upon which AR is implemented, to obtain these “portals”. In
September 2014, Niantic Labs introduced missions to the game. A mission is a user-created
set o f places to visit (waypoints) and interact with in specified ways. These implementation
of these missions too, is achieved by using AR.

 Google Glass is an optical head-mounted display designed in the shape of a pair of

eyeglasses. It was developed by X (previously Google X) with the mission of producing
a ubiquitous computer. Google Glass displayed information in a smartphone-like hands-
free format. Wearers communicated with the Internet via natural language voice
commands. Google started selling a prototype of Google Glass to qualified "Glass
Explorers" in the US on April 15, 2013, for a limited period for $1,500, before it became
available to the public on May 15, 2014.[13] It also has a camera attached to it.
 The headset has received a great deal of criticism and legislative action due to privacy
and safety concerns. On January 15, 2015, Google announced that it would stop
producing the Google Glass prototype but remained committed to the development of the
product. According to Google, Project Glass was ready to "graduate" from X, the
experimental phase of the project.[14]

Ingress open world in the city of Le Mans in France.

 Niantic also published the AR game Pokemon GO along with The Pokemon Company. In the
game, players use a mobile device's GPS capability to locate, capture, battle, and train virtual
creatures, called Pokémon, who appear on the screen as if they were in the same real-world
location as the player. The game was rather sensational: it was credited with popularizing
location-based and augmented reality technology, promoting physical activity, and helping
local businesses grow by way of increased foot traffic. Features on the map include
PokéStops and Pokémon gyms, which are imposed upon accurate and real-world maps.
When a player encounters a Pokémon, they may view it either in augmented reality (AR)
mode or with a live rendered, generic background. AR mode uses the camera and gyroscope
on the player's mobile device to display an image of a Pokémon as though it were in the real
world. Niantic used the crowdsourced data from Ingress to populate the locations for
PokéStops and gyms within Pokémon Go, and data from Google Maps to spawn specific
Pokémon on certain terrain or environment. The Pokémon Go Plus is a Bluetooth low energy
wearable device, developed by Nintendo's Platform Technology Development division, that
allows players to perform certain actions in the game without looking at their smart device.
When a player is near a Pokémon or PokéStop, the Plus vibrates. The player can then press
the button to capture the Pokémon or receive items from the PokéStop; the player cannot
check what they have received until the next time they sign in to the app on their mobile

 Another prominent application of the use of AR for retail has been realized by DIY furniture
company IKEA. The IKEA catalogue app, when downloaded, apart from allowing a user to
view IKEA products in 3D, also allows them to see how exactly these products will fit against
a particular environment. For example, the app can be used to check how a table fits in a
particular room. An icon will appear on the device display, which gives users access to the
AR mode. The app then instructs the user to close the printed version of the catalogue and
place it in the spot where the customer intends to put the new furniture. The approximate
dimensions of the virtual furniture are based on the size of this physical, real-world IKEA
catalogue. The camera wakes up again and a product outline appears in the frame. This can
be rotated, repositioned and manipulated so that it looks just right, before confirming the
selection from a scrollable list. Finally, a virtual version of the new sofa, desk or bookcase
with the room in the background is shown onscreen.
 A lot of exciting applications are being investigated, including:
1. Better insights into architecture and building, by projecting images of potential
structures against land or other environments.
2. If a doctor is performing surgery, a live image of a human subject is accessible.
3. Virtual dressing rooms where customers are free to try clothes from the entire
inventory of the store. This also saves a lot of space in dressing rooms.
 In conclusion, it may be said that while development in augmented reality is still in its
incipient stages, it packs a lot of promise for efficiently solving problems that right now are
tedious, menial and pesky.

Virtual reality :

What is virtual reality?

Virtual reality is the term used to describe a three-dimensional, computer generated environment
which can be explored and interacted with by a person. That person becomes part of this virtual
world or is immersed within this environment and whilst there, is able to manipulate objects or
perform a series of actions.
Applications of VR:

Cinema, users can be even more deeply immersed in their movie experiences. They can
watch movies on a huge virtual screen, something like their own personal theater, or even
watch as if they were inside the movie itself, surrounded by the imagery and sound effects.
And if you are a sports fan, the virtual-reality platform company LiveLike VR has built
a virtual stadium so you can have the thrill of game day experiences with your friends, right
from the comfort of your couch.

. Virtual-reality simulations, such as those created by software companies Surgical

Theaterand Conquer Mobile, use actual diagnostic images from CAT scans or
ultrasounds to construct 3D models of a patient’s anatomy. The virtual models help
both new and experienced surgeons determine the safest and most efficient way to
locate tumors, place surgical incisions or practice difficult procedures ahead of time.

Beyond surgery, virtual reality could also serve as a cost-effective and engaging tool
for rehabilitation. Stroke and brain injury victims across Europe can now use an
immersive virtual-reality therapy created by MindMazeto regain motor and cognitive
function faster than with traditional physical therapy, according to the company. The
virtual exercises and real-time feedback in MindMaze are made to feel like games,
helping to motivate patients to practice everyday activities.


The U.S. military often uses virtual-reality simulators to train soldiers before they are
deployed. Noncommercial versions of games like Virtual Battlespace 2 and Unity 3D
are used to prepare troops for combat. The gamelike simulations allow teams to
practice working together in realistically replicated environments before they have to
use real-world tactical equipment. And this immersive environment is extremely
important, because training that captures the attention of the learner is often retained
longer and is better understood.