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The ROADS to MBB Sprinting the last All about the user Up in the air
2020 with CloudRAN mile with WTTx with U-vMOS with 5G

Running with
the clouds

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Content and connectivity:
Corporate Communications Dept. A magical combination
Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Editor-in-Chief: We’re witnessing history’s largest technological migration – the digital

Sally Gao (
migration of humankind to a completely mobile Internet architecture. Mobile
Editors: Internet has transformed life and work, realizing huge efficiency gains and
Gary Marcus Maidment, Linda Xu
Julia Yao, Kyra Mi, Pan Tao
presenting mobile operators with huge opportunities. But, questions remain.
Xue Hua, Cao Zhihui How can operators develop new wireless data services and grow their
mobile broadband business? How should mobile networks evolve? How can we
Art Editor:
Zhou Shumin protect existing investment?
Huawei has worked with mobile operators across the globe to formulate
Qiu Heng, Wang Yufeng the following priorities:
Sun Xun, Chen Yifang, Zhao Zhipeng Deliver ubiquitous connectivity to realize a cycle of value creation based
He Yingtao, Song Xiaodi
Zhang Fupeng, Liu Zhen, Zhang Hua on enhancing bandwidth and boosting connectivity and service capabilities.
Ding Jiangbo, Yu Luo With HD video, virtual, reality, augmented reality, and driverless vehicles all on
the rise, we need to provide innovative services that maximize user freedom.
Expand service boundaries by combining business models to cover various
Tel: +86 755 28786665, 28787643
scenarios involving people and things. We can then build a fully connected
Fax: +86 755 28788811
Address: B1, Huawei Industrial Base, world and extend operators’ service boundaries into new blue oceans. We
Bantian, Longgang, Shenzhen
must redefine wireless business models so they provide platforms and network
518129, China
capabilities, not just connectivity. And we must re-engineer wireless business
Publication Registration No.: markets so they connect households and vertical industries, not just individuals.
Yue B No.10148
Evolve wireless network architecture to face an undefined future with
Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., definite rules. After all, we may not be able to predict traffic growth or service
Ltd. 2016.All rights reserved.
No part of this document may be reproduced
demand. Mobile operators need to rebuild their networks’ commercial capabilities
or transmitted in any form or by any means by enhancing basic capabilities and evolving network technologies sequentially,
without prior written consent of Huawei
Technologies Co., Ltd.
including the co-existence of multiple generations: 3G, 4G, 4.5G, and 5G.
What have we done to achieve all this? We’ve innovated service-focused
solutions such as video optimization. We’ve moved into wireless household
The contents of this document are for
information purpose only, and provided “as connectivity, IoT, and radio trunking networks to expand services from B2C to
is”. Except as required by applicable laws,
B2B. And we’ve developed CloudRAN, a next-gen, evolvable, and flexible cloud
no warranties of any kind, either express
or implied, including but not limited to, the network architecture.
implied warranties of merchantability and We thus hope to provide users with the ultimate experience through
fitness for a particular purpose, are made
in relation to contents of this document. To
content and pure freedom through full connectivity.
the maximum extent permitted by applicable
law, in no case shall Huawei Technologies
Co., Ltd be liable for any special, incidental,
indirect, or consequential damages, or lost
profits, business, revenue, data, goodwill
or anticipated savings arising out of or in
connection with any use of this document.
Deng Taihua, President of Huawei
Wireless Network Product Line

CloudRAN: Running
with the clouds
CloudRAN features a re-
CONTENTS communicate ISSUE 80

segmented wireless
management framework,
multiple connectivity
capabilities, and elastic
deployment architecture.



The ROADS to MBB On the path to 5G

2020 with CloudRAN with 4.5G
CloudRAN is a key support
Evolving 4.5G in parallel to
technology for mobile
5G new air interface will
operators to create new
help operators develop
markets and target new
new services, user
segments and consumers.
behaviors, and business

P10 P16


Sprinting the last NB-IoT: A shot in the

mile with WTTx arm for cellular IoT
Using WTTX avoids NB-IoT provides operators
trenching and wiring, with a technological edge
yielding quicker TTM, faster for a competitive shot in
user growth rate, and a the arm in CIoT market and
shorter payback period. for transformation.

P21 P25

All about the user Keeping safe with

with U-vMOS 4.5G broadband
Broadening horizons
with MBB Open Indoor digitalization
Interconnect for full connectivity

P33 P40


China Mobile's Philippines Globe:

oriental pearl New network
shines even configuration, new
brighter With 4.5G MBB gains
Shanghai Mobile taps
into the power of 4.5G.
WTTx gives Sri
Lanka wings to soar

P44 P50


MBB: Where agility Up in the air with 5G

and growth go hand
in hand P62
UMTS+: Adding up to


CloudRAN Yang Chaobin

Chief Marketing Officer, Huawei

Running with the clouds Wireless Network Product Line

Based on cloud architecture and SingleRAN, CloudRAN features a re-segmented wireless

management framework, multiple connectivity capabilities, and elastic deployment
architecture. The solution provides a powerful radio access network (RAN) development
strategy to help operators achieve a better connected future.

4 2016.10 ISSUE 80
CloudRAN: Running with the clouds / Cover Story

he rise of mobile Internet has network management, basebands, and
unleashed new types of services master control. The SingleRAN solution
Over the next
carried on public mobile networks significantly reduced RAN investment and
that would have once been maintenance costs, becoming the wireless
two to three
regarded as impossible. These include HD industry's de facto standard architecture. years, mobile
video, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality network
(AR), driverless vehicles, real-time industrial SingleRAN is one of Huawei Wireless' most operators'
control, ubiquitous access to high-speed impressive achievements in the past ten
most pressing
cloud content anytime, Internet of Things years. But, for the future, how will Huawei
services, and public safety services – all are Wireless meet the challenges to come?
issues will be
confirmed as key future wireless network maximizing the
applications. As network capabilities are The next decade will see great changes value of mobile
opened and mobile edge computing (MEC) in wireless communications. 4.5G, 5G and networks,
goes mainstream, the number of innovative new forms of network construction and
mobile Internet business models will increase. mobile applications will revolutionize mobile
connectivity. But, evolution from 4G to 5G alone
Over the next two to three years, mobile will not prompt transformation. Far from it. mobile access
network operators' most pressing issues will networks, and
be maximizing the value of mobile networks, Reconstructing basic interconnectivity future service
constructing future-facing mobile access capabilities as part of carriers’ digital innovation.
networks, and future service innovation. New transformation will increase in prominence,
wireless architecture will need to connect because it will kick off a new stage of service
everything and adapt to an uncertain future. interconnections and open reconstruction. In the
future, new network architecture will be needed
Evolve to adapt to meet a multitude of new requirements like
network flexibility. These requirements will
RAN architecture has evolved over two come from diverse services, new business
stages. In the era of traditional RANs – the models, and the need for faster connections and
first stage – operators built networks using anytime, ubiquitous, and consistent experiences
different technologies based on independent on complex multi-band, multi-standard
designs, hardware components, and heterogeneous networks.
operating teams. They were expensive and
flexibility was poor. Huawei's SingleRAN With this uncertainty, Huawei Wireless
solution in 2007 marked the start of has upped its game since SingleRAN with
the second stage: SingleRAN enabled the CloudRAN, its latest breakthrough in wireless
integrated deployment of the following communications networking.
standards: GSM, WCDMA, CDMA2000, and
LTE. This was completed on a single access Cloud tech on mobile
platform that used the same hardware architecture
components, spectrum, transmission,

2016.10 ISSUE 80 5

Six distinctive features of CloudRAN architecture

1 Cloud-based
architecture 2 Multi-standard
connectivity 3 Elastic
Adopting a cloud-based hardware and C l o u d R A N i nte g r ate s a l l a c c e s s CloudRAN's new network layering
software system, CloudRAN includes a Unleash the technologies Unleash
on to the
a single platform,Build an agile standard means the Enable
system is oriented
series of systematic cloudi capabilities power of power of data
including 4G, 4.5G, and future 5G architecture
to functions rathercarriers'
and digital
than network
like functions virtualization, resource bandwidth and and drive the
technology, and various non-licensed open platform transformation
elements. This allows flexible, fast,
provide the
cloudification, distributed architecture, spectrummigration of the
access technologies such to address and elastic functions and build the
layered capabilities , and flexible best service as Wi-Fi. IT infrastructure the diverse next-generation
based on service development
coordination. experience to the cloud application requirements.operations
scenarios systems

CloudRAN is designed to help difficult part to cloudify, putting the also be applied to terminals for the
operators deal with the complexity last piece of the puzzle in place for optimum user experience.
of tomorrow's tech integration, full cloudification – an unprecedented
service diversification, and business innovation in wireless infrastructure. The industry agrees that 5G and LTE
model fragmentation. Featuring multiple connectivity are the future.
redesigned wireless management CloudRAN transforms the RAN and Mainstream mobile terminals are
architecture and capabilities like delivers cloud capabilities like functions capable of multi-standards access,
resource management, multi- virtualization, resource cloudification, but only in a single connectivity state.
tech connectivity, and elastic architecture distribution, capabilities But, spurred by the industry, multiple-
architecture, carriers can better layerization, and flexible coordination. connectivity will happen. CloudRAN
cope with future uncertainties. The solution enables hardware consolidates all access technologies
resource pooling to maximize resource on a single platform; the completed
Cloud-based architecture
sharing. With fully distributed standards include TDD and FDD LTE dual
With cloud-based hardware and software architecture resembling connectivity and LTE Wi-Fi aggregation.
software systems, CloudRAN enables those of Internet companies, CloudRAN
operators to build a service-driven gives elastic capabilities such as The new architecture will be able to
and user-centric elastic network flexible fault handling and resource connect to multiple types of access
that supports 4G and 5G connectivity scheduling, and fully automates technologies, including traditional
and embraces the diversity of future service deployment, resource 4G, 4.5G, and future 5G technology,
MBB and services for verticals. scheduling, and troubleshooting. and various non-licensed spectrum
access technologies such as Wi-Fi.
Multi-standard connectivity
Cloud architecture is the basis of
future networking. Huawei's All Cloud CloudRAN architecture adopts CloudRAN architecture overcomes
strategy sets out a blueprint for full multi-connectivity technology to anchor point selection with multiple-
E2E network cloudification. Huawei's overcome the complexity of a multi- connectivity technology. The anchor
CloudRAN fully integrates cloud standard, multi-band, and multi- point enables service distribution,
concepts into the RAN, the most layer integration environment. It can carries out unified management, and

6 2016.10 ISSUE 80
CloudRAN: Running with the clouds / Cover Story

4 General virtualized
containers 5 Capability
opening 6 Mobile edge
CloudRAN features the new function With CloudRAN, the network capabilities CloudRAN enables the flexible deployment
element Mobile Cloud Engine to handle of wireless base stations can be more of core network gateways, service
the physical deployment location of easily opened through virtualized gateways, cache servers, and application
resource management and scheduling containers. CloudRAN's capability opening servers based on scenarios, allowing
and provide loading and management function will continue to evolve from service development to be closer to
for the E2E slicing functionality simple APIs to complex APIs. This base stations and users, which
of 5G. will be scenario-based and enables mobile edge
Internetized. computing.

allocates high-level data, which is optimal collaboration efficiency and

restored on the terminal via different fast and elastic function deployment to
air interface technology pipes. This reflect service growth requirements. Like the early
enables operators to maximize the
distributed base
use of technology, spectrum, and Base station atomization considers
hardware resources to increase the benefits as well as the technical
station design,
overall resource efficiency. costs. Dividing the horizontal layer CloudRAN balances
Elastic networks
of base stations into real-time and distribution and
non-real-time sections will enable the centralization
Like the early distributed base station system to better adapt to diverse
through a
design, CloudRAN balances distribution network environments and implement
and centralization through a new, multiple connectivity, multi-carrier,
new, layered
layered framework. All network and multi-streaming technologies. framework.
functions can be configured and In principle, real-time components
managed on-demand to deal with are closer to base stations, enabling
business model fragmentation and super-low latency and accelerating
service growth in verticals. post-processing on complex data
calculations at the front end.
CloudRAN's new network-layering
standard means the system is function- Centralizing non-real-time
oriented rather than based on network components can support multi-
elements. Resource management dimensional wireless standard
adds more detailed functions to the management and service
traditional vertically managed wireless distribution unification. With elastic
architecture systems. These capabilities architecture, real-time and non-real-
can be configured on-demand and time scheduling on different layers
network functions atomization for enables transition from network-

2016.10 ISSUE 80 7

centric to service-centric deployment. by OTT companies and verticals to innovate

CloudRAN General virtualized container design
architecture CloudRAN will open management capabilities CloudRAN's capability opening function will
can be used to better serve verticals. Huawei has keep evolving from simple to complex APIs
in different included its Mobile Cloud Engine into the and into scenario-based and Internetized
wireless new architecture to configure where capabilities, helping operators to further
resource management and scheduling are expand individual and household markets,
physically located and to provide loading and traditional enterprises, vertical industries,
environments management on E2E slicing for 5G by opening and Internet markets. Operators can then
and scenarios capabilities and resource management. expand and succeed in the digital economy.
to deal with Enabling mobile edge computing
different Mobile Cloud Engine is an optimized virtual
machine for wireless capabilities that can CloudRAN allows core network gateways,
run on dedicated platforms and general service gateways, cache servers, and
commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms with application servers to be flexibly deployed
Cloud OS under a COTS cloud infrastructure. based on scenario, allowing service
It offers carrier-class disaster recovery and development to be closer to base stations
on-demand deployment, flexible capacity and users. This will also enable MEC,
expansion, independent feature upgrades, and functions like reducing transmission distance
other functions of native cloud architecture. and latency, and optimization processing.

Opening capabilities: A hotbed of

Each function component can share computing
service innovation
and storage resources, lowering service
Communications networks must be able to development costs and greatly increasing MEC
open network capabilities. Thus, operators innovation. Running services as close to end
need to get involved in the Internet users as possible slashes latency, enabling rapid
industry chain, and by monetizing network feedback on network status and lessening
capabilities, transform towards bilateral congestion on the rest of the network. Tighter
business models. If RANs are closer to users, integration with wireless components enables
network information is more accurate. CloudRAN to acquire information on traffic,
Opening RAN capabilities can bring more wireless, and terminal device location more
business value for operators. CloudRAN easily, which in turn allows big data analysis and
architecture opens wireless base station new business models.
network capabilities through virtualized
containers, including anonymized user Benefits for verticals
locations, network optimization parameters,
QoS, billing, users' context network CloudRAN architecture can be used in different
information, and service APIs. These valuable wireless network environments and scenarios
data sources and interfaces can be used to deal with different kinds of uncertainty

8 2016.10 ISSUE 80
CloudRAN: Running with the clouds / Cover Story

that will occur in future as wireless collaboration and significantly improves to service type. For example, video
networks evolve. This will enable cell edge user rates, thus guaranteeing services can be deployed closer
wireless networks to become the core user experience. CloudRAN also to the end user to reduce the
infrastructure and key innovation supports the automatic selection of transmission resources needed by
driver of socioeconomic development. different collaboration levels according the system, shortening latency and
to deployment conditions to maximize ensuring an optimal user experience.
Sharing network resources
the value of operator assets.
Two issues are that different CloudRAN architecture also allows
operators offer a wide variety of These functions greatly increase developers to fully leverage the
network transmission resources and spectral usage efficiency. value of network capabilities
fiber-to-the site rates differ from through opening network
Ultimate experiences with
country to country. Achieving on- capabilities. Developing services
demand provisioning of network that match user needs can increase
resources requires resource sharing, CloudRAN's multiple concurrent commercial value and service
including baseband resources and connections capability allows users innovation; for example, anonymized
computing and storage. CloudRAN to receive signals from multiple user location data can help retailers
architecture allows maximum technologies and simultaneously select sites and push advertising or
adaptation to current network connect to multiple base stations. In yield IoT surveillance information on
environments, enabling operator the future, when Wi-Fi operates on crops to predict crop yields.
networks to flexibly provision unlicensed bands and LTE on licensed
baseband, storage, and computing bands, multi-connectivity technology CloudRAN architecture also enables
resources and services with maximum will allow simultaneous connections the on-demand deployment of real-
efficiency. They can then provide to Wi-Fi and LTE, or enable users time/non-real-time resources based
different services and deliver the best to simultaneously connect to LTE on particular service requirements
experience for different users. and 5G and macro and micro base and the distribution of base stations,
stations. This multi-connectivity will server rooms, and fiber resources
Higher spectral efficiency,
improve user perception of speeds. to guarantee service experience and
higher income
CloudRAN will also support functions minimize network deployment and
CloudRAN architecture turn such as ultra-high bandwidth carrier OPEX.
interferences into gains by centrally aggregation, fast collaboration, and
deploying non-real-time management balanced scheduling. These functions Mobile IoT will increase the value
units. This allows multi-dimensional will enable gigabit+ download brought by CloudRAN. According to
collaboration between different speeds, meeting the requirements industry visionary Kevin Kelly, "We're
standards, frequency bands, base of applications like video and VR/AR. at the most important stage, the
stations, and layering technology beginning. It's a process. Every new
Service diversification
through greater ranges of time, thing we create is in essence still at
and service innovation
spectrum, space, and different the beginning stage." With CloudRAN,
processing functions. It also allows operators will be ready for the
increased system capacity through CloudRAN architecture allows the arrival of the better connected
multi-site and multi-user MIMO flexible deployment of MEC according mobile era.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 9
Experts' Forum

The ROADS to MBB 2020 Wang Yufeng

with CloudRAN
Director of MBB Solution
Support Dept., Huawei

Mobile operators must continue improving the value of their networks, evolve
connectivity capabilities, and build a future-oriented mobile industry. To do so, they
need to create new markets by opening platforms and network capabilities and target
new segments and consumers, for example, households and verticals. CloudRAN is a key
support technology for achieving this.
By Sun Xun, Ding Jiangbo, Yu Luo

10 2016.10 ISSUE 80
The ROADS to MBB 2020 with CloudRAN / Experts' Forum

The MBB 2020 vision COMMUNICATE: MBB 2020 is a

commercial vision. What are the

e’re fast approaching main differences between MBB
a key stage of 2020 and operators' aims?
development for
the mobile industry: Wang Yufeng: The next five Rather than
MBB 2020. Rather than describing years will see dramatic changes describing a type
a type of network and particular in basic connectivity capabilities,
of network and
point in time, MBB 2020 represents and mobile operators will need
a commercial and solution-led vision to expand the scope of their
particular point
of mobile network development current services and introduce in time, MBB 2020
over the next five to ten years. innovative business models to represents a
create new revenue streams. With commercial and
Huawei proposed the ROADS concept the rapid development of wireless
solution-led vision
for the MBB 2020 vision at the end of technology, wireless networks
2015, setting out a path of continual can now carry services that they
of mobile network
evolution for the commercial previously couldn’t. This forces us development over
capabilities of mobile networks to redefine the business models the next five to ten
and the construction process for and target markets of wireless years.
the network technologies that will networks. Business models now
support this. Huawei hopes to help include Connectivity as a Service,
operators improve the commercial Platform as a Service, and –
value of their networks and evolve to open network capabilities –
the connectivity capabilities of their Infrastructure as a Service.
networks to build a future-oriented Wireless commercial markets
mobile industry. have expanded from Business to
Customer (connectivity services
CloudRAN is a key support for individual users) to Business to
technology for achieving this vision. Household (B2H) and Business to
Huawei will use CloudRAN as the Business (B2B).
bridge linking 4G and 5G. How will
this and MBB 2020 be achieved? We B2H: An interesting fact is the
asked Wang Yufeng, Director of the B2H market, for example, family
MBB Solution Support Department, plans with shared data and
to share his views. bundled fixed broadband and
mobile services, has the lowest
churn rate. User loyalty increases
Exploring new
greatly once services extend from
markets is a must for an individual user to a household.
mobile operators Mobile operators can offer home

2016.10 ISSUE 80 11
Experts' Forum

broadband access for the B2H market COMMUNICATE: Do mobile operators have
using their wireless networks to increase unique advantages in these new markets?
revenues. These services also provide a
solid foundation for providing smart home Wang Yufeng: Mobile operators have huge
and home automation services. unique advantages in the new business
scenarios of home broadband and CIoT.
B2B: The Internet of Things (IoT) is
expected to grow into a trillion-dollar Home broadband market: Mobile operators
market. Operators need to build more can use wireless home broadband access
IoT networks and leverage Low Power as a way to quickly boost their market
Wide Area (LPWA) technology to increase share. When it comes to coverage,
the share of cellular IoT (CIoT) from its traditional fixed-line networks are hindered
current figure of 6 percent to 50 percent. by trenching and deployment difficulties as
Operators' wireless networks can also well as high costs. Mobile broadband (MBB)
provide services for previously closed but networks, however, can cover dozens
lucrative markets such as public safety. of square kilometres from a single well-
Current wireless networks can meet the located base station, with peak speeds of 1
needs of specialist applications for high Gbps and high-speed services that average
levels of security and quality, and provide 30 Mbps. According to ITU, the average
wide coverage, low cost, and fast service global cost of FBB is 1.7 times higher than
rollout. B2B services represent a new MBB, which makes it easier to create a
blue ocean market for operators. Diving wireless home broadband network. MBB
into this market will help them increase enables coverage to be rapidly extended to
revenue. rural and urban areas where FBB coverage
is limited and shortens ROI from six years

12 2016.10 ISSUE 80
The ROADS to MBB 2020 with CloudRAN / Experts' Forum

to two. operators need to rebuild the

commercial capabilities across
CIoT market: Operators have their entire networks. This will be
LPWA is expected
natural advantages in system divided into two steps. First, they to account for 70
security, wide area coverage, need basic capabilities to generate percent of the CIoT
QoS guarantees, and ecosystem new value and cope with the market by 2020,
maturity. A good IoT network coming network traffic explosion
with up to 2 billion
should meet the following four by eliminating capacity bottlenecks,
requirements: 1) Network security; utilizing spectrum, well-planned
connected devices.
2) Seamless network coverage; 3) base station solutions, innovating, LPWA will be vital for
Support for a mature ecosystem; and indoor digitalization – factors enabling operators to
and 4) Affordable terminals. CIoT unrelated to technology. Second, increase the number
technology meets these four operators will need to deal with
of CIoT devices.
requirements. the problem of the generational
evolution of network technologies,
Wireless network technology has including strategic positioning
innate advantages in security and and the coexistence of multiple
wide coverage, and it’s easy to generations of technologies like 3G,
accelerate ecosystem maturity and 4G, 4.5G, and 5G.
make devices affordable. LPWA is
Increasing air interface
expected to account for 70 percent
of the CIoT market by 2020, with up
to 2 billion connected devices. LPWA The three types of infrastructure
will be vital for enabling operators involved in increasing air interface
to increase the number of CIoT capacity are base stations,
devices. spectrum, and indoor digitalization.
The formula for air interface
capacity is as follows: Network
capacity = no. of sites × spatial
commercial gain (no. of cells and MIMO etc.) ×
capabilities amount of spectrum. The following
methods can thus be used to
COMMUNICATE: In the future, increase network capacity:
mobile operators will meet many
new commercial opportunities. Building more base stations: Crowd
Will their networks provide sourcing when acquiring new types
sufficient support? of sites, such as street light sites
and wall sites, to accelerate the
Wang Yufeng: To access these deployment of micro base sites and
strategic opportunities, mobile enable precision investment.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 13
Experts' Forum

Innovating solutions: New splitting considerations: Whether or not a

solutions that create parallel data technology remains in use depends on its
5G is the future
streams over the air interface, enhancing commercial viability. GSM, which is a long-
of wireless investment efficiency. term basic voice and universal access
networking and network, will continue to be used as a thin
a mid- to long- Obtaining more spectrum: By 2020, MBB network for supporting roaming and low-
term evolution networks will require 1340 to 1960 MHz end users. UMTS will become a basic data
of total spectrum. This means that most access network, and due to its maturity
countries will need to add 600 to 800 and low-cost industry chain support, will
MHz of spectrum. If this is insufficient, continue to deliver commercial returns
unlicensed spectrum for on-demand use over the long term.
will be required.
CloudRAN is the bridge
The evolution and coexistence of multiple
generations of technology: Looking to COMMUNICATE: Can you give more detail
the future and the advancement of IoT about the solution and how it will work?
technology, all verticals will become
digitalized, intelligent, and more efficient. Wang Yufeng: Huawei's answer to the
However, different verticals require complex business objectives of the future
different things from mobile networks. For is CloudRAN, a solution that considers
operators, the best approach is to fully the unique traits of wireless networking.
use their existing network resources. CloudRAN enables completely different
network capabilities than the simple base
Operators must continue to evolve station as access capability center model
networks from 4G to 4.5G: The 4.5G of the past.
evolution of networks – that is,
incorporating 5G technology into 4G CloudRAN incorporates cloud technology
networks – will help operators increase into wireless access networks and
the value of their 4G networks and supports access for different air interface
maximize the value of network resources. technologies. By modernizing 4G network
architecture in advance using CloudRAN,
5G is the future of wireless networking operators won’t need to modify network
and is a mid- to long-term evolution architecture when 5G is introduced.
target: 5G will bring higher speeds (> 10 Deploying CloudRAN architecture will enable
Gbps), shorter latency (< 1ms), and enable operators to improve 4G performance.
many verticals by acting as a cross- And because the architecture is 5G-based,
industry point of integration. operators only have to carry out simple air
interface upgrades to support 5G when it’s
The use of GSM/UMTS may persist over rolled out.
the long term because of commercial

14 2016.10 ISSUE 80
The ROADS to MBB 2020 with CloudRAN / Experts' Forum

CloudRAN can improve the nodes on an on-demand basis interoperable interface

experience for end users. Current according to service requirements, technologies and implementation
mobile phones can only receive one and flexible architecture that systems. Interoperable interfaces
type of signal and connect to a adapts to different transmission include GSM, UMTS, and LTE, which
single base station. In the future, network conditions, to maximize are defined by standards. These
they’ll be able to receive multiple network efficiency and user ensure seamless connection
signals and connect to multiple base experience. between terminals and networks,
stations, which will increase mobile enabling end users to roam
speeds by many times. CloudRAN deployment will be seamlessly anywhere in the
divided into two stages. In the world. SingleRAN (which was
In the future, mobile networks current stage of 4G and 4.5G defined by Huawei) is a type of
will carry people-to-things construction, deploying CloudRAN implementation system that
communication as well as people- will allow operators to better operators can use to implement
to-people communication. CloudRAN support technologies such as standardized technologies such as
supports the flexible deployment of LTE Dual Connectivity, LWA, and GSM, UMTS, or LTE. Operators favor
different services, meeting the QoS LAA. In the next stage, when 5G SingleRAN over other methods
requirements of different types of is introduced, CloudRAN network because it guarantees the lowest
service. architecture will be ready to TCO. Likewise, CloudRAN is a type
support new 5G air interfaces and of implementation architecture
COMMUNICATE: What challenges standards without needing any that can implement LTE and
will operators face when changes. 5G. We believe that CloudRAN
deploying CloudRAN? What does architecture is the best choice for
the commercial progress and Huawei has been talking with operators to deliver better end-
timeline look like? top-tier operators around the user experiences, minimize TCO
world for the past two years, for whole network deployment
Wang Yufeng: CloudRAN and will begin testing CloudRAN and O&M, and better tap into
architecture is flexible and it can with a number of them this year. future new business opportunities
meet different usage scenarios. In addition, initial commercial other than people-to-people
It’s no secret that operators' adoption is expected to commence communication.
transmission networks have at the end of 2017.
widely varying conditions and The future of MBB is impossible to
quality. Deploying CloudRAN on COMMUNICATE: Will standards predict. Looking back at history,
different transmission networks need to be developed for transformation in infrastructure
with differing conditions is a huge CloudRAN? When will the has driven huge socioeconomic and
challenge. Huawei's CloudRAN standardization process be cultural advances. The ongoing and
is a complete solution, with a completed? future evolution of communications
hierarchical design for network technology will transform the basic
function elements. Real-time and Wang Yufeng: Mobile capability infrastructure of society
non-real-time layers that can be communication systems are and usher in a Better Connected
deployed on different network made up of two main things: World.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 15

On the path to 5G with 4.5G

In 2020, operators must support the coexistence of 4.5G and 5G new air interfaces if they
want to deliver a superior mobile broadband experience. Evolving 4.5G in parallel to 5G new
air interfaces will help operators develop new services, user behaviors, business models,
and industry chains before 5G arrives, paving the way for next-gen 5G tech.
By Zhou Dongfei

16 2016.10 ISSUE 80
On the path to 5G with 4.5G / Focus

uawei announced the 4.5G concept standardization. With 5G widely predicted
in October 2014, with the 3GPP to be commercially deployed in 2020, why
standards organization later should operators invest in 4.5G now? What
officially dubbing it LTE-Advanced is the relationship between 4.5G and 5G?
Pro. A year or so on, there‘s been major
progress in 4.5G technology and deployment. The rise of mobile
Meanwhile, the ITU set out the marker, broadband
vision, and timeline for 5G in June 2015.
4G cannot meet new service and
business demands
3GPP has started on the path to 5G
Huawei's mLAB forecasts that MBB users
will double to 6.7 billion between 2015
and 2020, while average monthly data
consumption per user will balloon tenfold
to 5 GB. In the next two to three years,
new services with higher demands on MBB
network speed, capacity, and latency will
start to emerge, including 2K and 4K video,
virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR),
and remote drones.

According to GSMA, the number of CIoT

connections will surge to 1 billion by 2020,
up from 243 million in 2014. As the report
doesn’t take into account the possibility
of new services that could generate
explosive data growth, the actual number
of connections may be much greater than

The demands of the latest MBB services in

terms of peak speeds, capacity, massive
connections, and low latency already
exceed the capabilities of today’s 4G.
Targeting new businesses individuals,
homes, companies, and different verticals
with MBB services requires 4G needs to be
multi-purpose – something 4G networks
were not designed to be.

Ultra-high capacity, massive

2016.10 ISSUE 80 17

connections, and ultra-low latency RF modules. NB-IoT can also reuse the
Next-gen mobile 4.5G and 5G technology vast majority of legacy RF modules. 4.5G
will be defined using three measurement therefore only requires software upgrades
criteria: peak speed (plus capacity), and a small amount of new hardware to
number of connections, and latency. implement.

3GPP officially renames 4.5G

Peak speed: 4G is defined as 150 Mbps, 4.5G
as 1 Gbps and above, and 5G as 10 to 20 After Huawei proposed 4.5G, it approached
Gbps. the 3GPP to standardize the name.
Following a process of discussion involving
Connection numbers: A 4G network cell operators, equipment vendors, and chip
can carry several thousand, 4.5G uses CloT makers, 3GPP confirmed LTE-Advanced Pro
to carry 100,000, and 5G will be required as the name for the LTE next-gen evolution
to carry 1 million connections per square solution on October 22, 2015. The approval
kilometer. of the marker and specifications indicated
an industry consensus on 4.5G.
E2E latency: Commercial 4G networks
average 50 ms, 4.5G is required to deliver Major vendors have since released white
10 ms, and 5G aims for 1 ms. papers describing the evolutionary path
to next-gen LTE, and have started to
Protecting investment
incorporate 4.5G into their product plans.
When 4.5G was proposed, the aim was Qualcomm, for example, launched a 1
to achieve technical targets through 4G Gbps modem chipset at the Mobile World
network evolution to protect operators’ Congress (MWC) 2016, and demonstrated a
investments and maximize the value of 1 Gbps smart device prototype with Huawei.
network resources.
4.5G goes global
Key 4.5G technologies include Massive CA 4.5G network benchmarks: Gbps,
(carrier aggregation), High Order MIMO, Experience 4.0, and Connection+
and 256QAM high order modulation, which
can increase peak speeds and capacity, Huawei has worked closely with the world's
and Narrow-Band IoT (NB-IoT) for massive leading operators to discover their network
connections. Each of these technologies pain points and service development trends
can be built on current technology. for the coming two to three years and
has developed three network construction
Massive CA reuses existing carrier benchmarks for 4.5G: Gbps, Experience 4.0,
baseband boards, requiring only additional and Connection+.
RF modules or baseband resources for new
carriers. 256QAM high-order modulation Gbps: increases peak rates from 4G's 100
can reuse the vast majority of existing Mbps to 1 Gbps. Gbps is synonymous with

18 2016.10 ISSUE 80
On the path to 5G with 4.5G / Focus

MBB pipeline capability and boosting coexistence

peak rates, capacity, and cell edge
4.5G is the path to 5G
rates. As of May 2016, 20
4.5G is an essential step to 5G.
4.5G commercial
Experience 4.0: requires MOS Although the ITU outlined the
(voice service quality) and vMOS marker, vision, and timeline for 5G and test networks
(video service quality) scores of 4.0 in June 2015, the telecom industry had been deployed
for high-definition voice and video. has yet to set out a process for around the world,
moving from 4G to 5G. Why? with 60 more
Connection+: currently supports
expected before the
technologies such as NB-IoT, LiTRA Widespread commercial
(LTE integrated Trunked Radio) deployment of 5G still a long way
end of the year.
broadband trunking for public off: According to the ITU's timetable
safety, and WTTx (wireless to the x) for 5G, technical performance
to power vertical markets. requirements and evaluation
methods will be defined over 2016
The year of 4.5G: 2016 to
and 2017, technical proposals will
see 60 networks rolled out
be accepted and evaluation carried
out between 2018 and 2019, and plus devices per cell. In addition,
As of May 2016, 20 4.5G commercial final specifications will be set in there is LTE-V Internet of Vehicles,
and test networks had been 2020, which means widespread 5G which is the next major 4.5G
deployed around the world, with 60 deployment will likely start after target market. 3GPP will begin
more expected before the end of 2020. more standardization work on
the year. this in 2016 and 2017 to speed up
5G is likely to adopt higher development.
1 Gbps-plus transmission rates on frequency spectrum: The
commercial networks have been advantage of using higher 4G needs to lay the groundwork
demonstrated in Norway, Turkey, frequency spectrum is greater for 5G's arrival: Adjusting wireless
Germany, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE, bandwidth. But, the cost of deep network architecture using
China, Japan, Canada, Singapore, and wide-area network coverage is CloudRAN will make it easier for
Thailand, and the Philippines. The UK too high, so legacy low-frequency operators to introduce new 5G air
and Korea have begun constructing networks must coexist with 5G for interfaces onto existing networks
national LiTRA-based public-safety the long-term to make up for a lack so as to avoid the need to carry
networks, and pre-commercial of coverage. out large-scale E2E network
deployment of NB-IoT is underway reconstruction.
in Spain, South Korea, China, UAE, New 5G services can be cultivated
4.5G evolving in parallel with
and Germany. on 4G networks: An example of
this is NB-IoT's first commercial
4.5G and 5G set deployment in 2016. NB-IoT From 2016, the 3GPP will start
for long-term supports connectivity for 100,000 5G standardization in step with

2016.10 ISSUE 80 19

ongoing LTE evolution. This will permit individual users, gigabit throughput on
introduction of 5G technology on 4.5G a single module, single site x-gigabit
CloudRAN networks. This 4G-ization of 5G, or capability, and a seamless indoor
enables introducing 5G technology on 4G networks, gigabit experience. GigaRadio is over
operators in fact began before the standardization a year ahead of the industry in terms
to carry out process. of capabilities, and will help drive
technological innovation, user experience,
Massive MIMO: A key 5G technology. and commercial success for operators.
network Commercial deployment of LTE TDD
architecture supporting 128T128R (128 transceiver During the Huawei Global Analyst Summit
cloud channels) is already underway in China. 2016, Huawei announced the CloudRAN
transformation FDD Massive MIMO that can support 16, solution. Using a cloud-based hardware
on 4G and 4.5G 32, and 64 antennas is being continually and software system, CloudRAN supports
refined in 3GPP's R13 and R14. functions virtualization, resource
cloudification, and systematic cloud
Shorter TTI (transmission time interval): capabilities that can be flexibly coordinated.
A crucial technology for achieving the 1 ms CloudRAN enables fully flexible new
latency target of 5G, and one that 3GPP network architecture from topology to
has begun standardizing. 4.5G is expected resource distribution. The solution's multi-
to support OFDM (Orthogonal frequency- connectivity supports 4G, 4.5G, 5G, and Wi-
division multiplexing) symbol-level latency, Fi for multiple technology and multi-cell
which approaches 5G air interface latency coordination, on-demand deployment of
requirements. real-time and non-real-time functions, and
network slicing.
Network slicing: Another key 5G
technology that has been introduced in CloudRAN enables operators to carry out
4.5G networks. Network slicing allows NB- 5G-oriented network architecture cloud
IoT, LiTRA, and WTTx to be implemented transformation on 4G and 4.5G networks,
on a single network. The next step will which will allow them to directly deploy 5G
introduce CloudRAN architecture for air interfaces via CloudRAN architecture
more flexible and efficient RAN slicing, when the 5G era rolls around.
enabling multiple services on a single
network. By 2020, it will be essential for operators
to support 4.5G and 5G new air
Huawei spearheads 4.5G interface collaboration and coexistence
if they want to deliver a superior MBB
At MWC 2016, Huawei announced experience.
GigaRadio based on 4.5G network
construction standards. The solution
supports gigabit peak speeds for

20 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Sprinting the last mile with WTTx / Focus

Sprinting the last mile with WTTx

WTTx is a new approach for solving the old last mile problem. Using WTTx avoids trenching
and wiring, yielding quicker time to market, faster user growth rate, and shorter payback
By Wu Shengfei

ccording to the State of
Broadband 2015 report
issued by the ITU and UNESCO,
broadband connectivity is an
important economic growth enabler
that ordinary people should be able to

ITU data shows that 4.2 billion

people lack Internet access. For
the 3 billion connected, basic
broadband services no longer meet
requirements, hence the slew of
national broadband plans being
implemented across the planet.

Whether the objective is connecting

the unconnected or boosting speed,
the last mile problem for broadband digit growth to reach this number WTTx: As fast as fiber
networks persists. With the rapid in just six years. But, will this trend
development of wireless tech and continue over the next five? Benefiting from 4G and 4.5G, peak
fiber optic taking over from copper, rates from WTTx keep jumping.
a new approach is necessary. If 4G is used to provide the last mile New tech like 4x4 MIMO, 256QAM,
of broadband, a landmark turning FDD+TDD CA, Massive CA, and
WTTx covers the gap point will have been reached. If 4G, Massive MIMO require only 40 to
4.5G, and 5G apply to fixed broadband 60 MHz of spectrum to enable
Ovum states that the number of scenarios as WTTx, can they provide gigabit cell peak rates, so better
global 4G users crossed the 1 billion a wireless access solution to rival the home broadband can arise from
mark in 2015, with strong double- FTTx experience? WTTx based on 4.5G.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 21

As fast as fiber Shorter TTM Faster ROI

Connecting the Boosting the SMEs
unconnected connected

Fixed/nomadic Visualization of Customizable Start-up

applications subs. development package subsidy

Numerous sites Powerful technologies More carriers

Leveraging MBB sites 4G / 4.5G / 5G 40MHz - 100MHz

WTTx Value House

The jump in single user peak rates – from Other than video, VoIP over WTTx is a
150 Mbps (UE CAT 4) to 600 Mbps (UE CAT mature service that can provide triple-play
12) and then to 1 Gbps (UE CAT 16) – means – data, video, and voice – over WTTx as
WTTx surpasses copper and matches easily as fixed-line broadband can.
fiber optic in terms of experience. More
Sharing resources
importantly, improving cell capacity
can solve direct restraints on capacity WTTx quickly provides high-quality services with
growth; for example, supporting up to fast ROI, while FTTx is known for its stability and
100 MHz spectrum can increase cell reliability. Thus, the two are complementary.
capacity. Using Massive MIMO to achieve In areas that need broadband, a WTTx solution
spatial multiplexing for large numbers of can explore the potential of the business-
users increases cell capacity fivefold, so to-household (B2H) and B2B markets. Once a
operators can carry more WTTx users and certain user base has been developed, fiber
boost single user rates. optic can be rolled out according to demand,
enabling targeted FTTx construction.
WTTx: Same services
TV has moved on from a device that WTTx and MBB are both based on 4G/4.5G
receives broadcasts to one that provides technology. WTTx serves households, while
video on demand. How can Internet video MBB serves individuals. Both can, to a
be delivered to millions of households cost- certain extent, share network resources.
effectively? WTTx, which can bear IPTV, When fiber optic is extended to areas
can deliver TV shows, Internet video, and that have WTTx coverage, WTTx network
web browsing. Its multifunctional design is resources can be released to meet the
also affordable for most households. surging demand in MBB traffic.

22 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Sprinting the last mile with WTTx / Focus

Two types of resources can be is between six and eight times coverage in developing countries
shared between WTTx and MBB: site higher than mobile APRU. It’s thus
Searching for spectrum
resources and carrier resources. a blue ocean of income for mobile
When MBB loads are light, individual operators, with WTTx as the best Spectrum is the key to wireless
MBB users and household WTTx vessel for sailing into the future. networks. A 3G carrier uses 5
users can share the same carrier MHz, a 4G carrier 20 MHz, while
WTTx for the home
without obvious conflict in resource a 5G carrier will use 100 MHz.
demand. When loads are heavy, Typically low-churn, B2H services Technology has boosted spectrum
WTTx and MBB typically use different include family plans with shared efficiency, but the market is calling
frequency bands or carriers to avoid data and bundled fixed-broadband for greater bandwidth. Because it’s
demand conflicts. For example, WTTx and mobile services. Mobile for household and enterprise users,
uses 2.3 GHz, 2.6 GHz, and 3.5 GHz, operators can provide these types WTTx has a much larger demand
which offer large bandwidth and are of services on wireless networks, for bandwidth than MBB, and so
efficient and inexpensive. MBB uses paving the way for smart homes. operators are looking in earnest for
frequency bands such as 1.8 GHz and more spectrums to provide a better
800 MHz, which often carry massive Household broadband penetration WTTx experience. For example, Saudi
amounts of mobile users but have with fixed-broadband is typically less Arabia's largest operator STC has 50
comparatively limited resources. than 20 percent in many developing MHz of spectrum in the 2.3 GHz band
Guaranteeing mobile user experience countries, and much lower in populous and 70 MHz of spectrum in the 3.5
is necessary so that main income countries like Indonesia, where it’s GHz band. Sri Lanka's leading mobile
streams are not affected. only 6.7 percent. Fixed line broadband operator, Dialog, has 75 MHz of
is often unfeasible: in many countries, spectrum in the 2.3 GHz band. In early
WTTx creates a copper infrastructure is terrible, and 2016, Norway's number one and two
new B2H blue ocean building FTTx is costly and hindered – Telenor and TeliaSonera – acquired
by private property rights and other 90 MHz and 100 MHz of spectrum in
restrictions. the 3.7 GHz band, which they plan to
Mobile operators' focus on B2C, use to expand B2H and B2B services.
with SIM cards sitting at the core In more developed countries where
of their service models from 2G to market leaders own copper and WTTx: The way to
today’s 4G. Over the past 20 or so fiber resources, competitors cannot success
years, operators have introduced provide household broadband or
some B2B services, the majority of profit from doing so due to high rental WTTx offers a low barrier for
which are bundled sales of simple costs. The big players can also offer entry, fast service provisioning,
service combinations on a B2C basis. bundled packages with mobile, fixed- and rapid profits. Assuming a
B2H is a good direction for operators line broadband, and IPTV. Providing certain amount of spectrum and
seeking to move beyond B2C. home broadband services via WTTx, site resources are available, our
therefore, can act as a powerful deployment recommendations are
Little competition exists in the tool for smaller operators to take on as follows:
fixed-line broadband market for the top-tier operators in developed
Get scenario based
households, the APRU of which countries and expand broadband

2016.10 ISSUE 80 23

In some developing countries, governments economic viability of WTTx has greatly expanded
stipulate that newly released BWA spectrum the potential market size for operators and
Through can only provide fixed broadband services, increased broadband penetration, bringing
combining wired meaning that CPE can be locked to a certain enormous socioeconomic benefits.
and wireless, cell to prevent roaming and thus meet
universal regulatory requirements. In China, for example, the Chinese government
launched a National Broadband Strategy in
broadband is
In developed countries, governments 2013, and in 2014 the Ministry of Industry
becoming more generally have policies of spectrum neutrality. and Information Technology released a policy
feasible, opening In addition to providing fixed broadband promoting rural broadband penetration. This
up a new blue applications, operators also support nomadic generated a positive response in the nation’s
ocean market applications, which suits out-of-town trips – a central and western provinces, with Jilin Mobile
for operators common behavior in many countries. growing broadband penetration by 300,000
rural households in the span of just a year.
and, ultimately, Visualize for precise service rollout
connecting the WTTx is a wireless network, so it’s difficult In Saudi Arabia, where broadband development
unconnected. to accurately predict which areas can grow has been relatively slow, just 2 million
users at what rate, which in turn impacts households out of 5 million have fixed
service rollout efficiency. Our mature broadband access. To increase broadband
coverage and capacity planning methods and penetration, the government released a
experience can visualize user development, wireless broadband plan in 2012. The two
greatly increasing the success of WTTx. leading operators, STC and Mobily, constructed
WTTx on 2.3 GHz and 2.6 GHz bands and, in
Don't forget enterprises
three years, added 3 million subscribers.
Enterprise customers tend to generate Alongside wired networks, universal broadband
high profits, often requiring VPN support access had almost been achieved.
alongside broadband to set up their own
private networks over public networks. With the advent of the digital era, universal
broadband is viewed as a basic human right in
Early subscriber subsidies
many countries. ITU figures show that 148 nations
Like MBB, WTTx requires a certain scale of already have national broadband plans in place
subscriber base to succeed, and early stage to promote universal broadband penetration.
subsidies provide some necessary fuel.
The success of WTTx around the world shows
WTTx drives universal how this new approach is an effective way to
broadband solve the last mile problem. Through combining
wired and wireless, universal broadband is
WTTx has already been widely adopted around becoming more feasible, opening up a new blue
the world, and not just in large emerging ocean market for operators and, ultimately,
markets. The simple implementation and connecting the unconnected.

24 2016.10 ISSUE 80
NB-IoT: A shot in the arm for cellular IoT / Focus

NB-IoT: A shot in the arm for cellular IoT

Offering deep coverage, low power consumption, low cost, and large numbers of devices,
Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) meets the requirements for LPWA (Low Power Wide
Area) applications. It can provide operators with a technological edge for a competitive
shot in the arm in the cellular IoT (CIoT) market and for transformation.
By Yu Hui

s IoT devices become With ubiquitous coverage, high- meters was a few US dollars, which
more commonplace, the speed connectivity, security and was too expensive. So, Company
penetration of short- reliability, today's 4G networks are T sought to reduce the number of
range communications more than capable of supporting batteries per meter.
technologies, such as Wi-Fi, ZigBee, such applications and are thus the
Bluetooth, and Z-wave, continues best choice. Due to the high-power cellular
to rise in the CIoT market. technology, each meter needed a
Products released by innovators Low speed or LPWA applications minimum of three batteries for a
like Sigfox and LoRa have kicked include smart meters, smart 10-year lifecycle. However, a low-
off the global deployment of IoT parking, and asset tracking. power CIoT network would only
networks, which have quickly These applications require require two batteries per meter,
become established in a number broader networks of sensors and thus saving millions of dollars.
of markets. With IoT becoming a information collection, but require Delivering a low-power network
new driver of growth, how can ultra-low pricing alongside very would also give the telco supplying
traditional operators respond to high network performance. it a competitive edge against
the challenges of competition and other low-cost technologies on the
opportunities offered by this blue Low-power NB-IoT market, something that would be
ocean market? saves gas company difficult to achieve with current 2G,
3G or 4G networks.
"T" millions
NB-IoT: CIoT’s cutting
edge Over a two year replacement Enter Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and
program, gas Company T in country its excellent low-power functions:
High-speed CIoT applications include J planned to replace its legacy gas Power Saving Mode (PSM) and
video surveillance and vehicle- meters, which had already been in Extended Discontinuous Reception
mounted multimedia. They require use for two decades. Requiring a (eDRX). PSM is a new type of deep
high speed, high capacity, and specific type of 2400 mAh battery, sleep state for IoT terminals.
relatively high levels of power. the lowest price for new smart Terminals in PSM have a current

2016.10 ISSUE 80 25

intensity of only 0.005 mA, compared could support deep coverage because, in
to 1 mA in traditional idle mode. Some apartment blocks, water meters could be
As the NB- IoT applications, such as water meters, deployed up to two stories underground in
IoT solution which only need to report data once basements or pipe shafts.
is based on a day can enter PSM state between
narrowband reporting intervals and consume ultra- The telco needed a CIoT technology that
lower power. supports deep coverage to prevent rivals
technology, NB-
from providing company S with IoT services:
IoT's Power eDRX mode meets the requirement NB-IoT provides excellent deep coverage. As
Spectral of applications that need to support the NB-IoT solution is based on narrowband
Density (PSD) downstream control messaging and technology, NB-IoT's Power Spectral Density
is 10+ dB uphold certain latency requirements – (PSD) is 10+ dB higher than 2G, 3G, or 4G at
higher than gas meters, for example, must provide equivalent transmission powers. NB-IoT also
remote shut-off with two minute-latency. features LTE 4R, UL CoMP technologies, and
2G, 3G or 4G
In DRX mode, terminals cycle through idle supports higher repetition, giving it 20 dB
at equivalent and paging reception states, allowing for more coverage than 2G, 3G or 4G. NB-IoT
transmit a fast response but at the cost of high provides better deep coverage than other
power. power use. eDRX mode enables terminals competing technologies, and doesn’t have
to enter PSM state after several cycles. the complexity of a short-range two-hop
A timer triggers re-entry into paging network.
reception state to balance response
latency and power consumption. Implementing the NB-IoT solution only
required an upgrade to the operator's
With these technologies and the low power legacy network, and so deployment was
consumption enabled by NB-IoT chipsets, fast. This met the requirements of Company
gas Company T was able to power a smart S for rapid commercial application and
meter for a 10-year lifecycle with just provided a powerful competitive advantage
two batteries, giving the telco a powerful for the operator.
competitive edge.
Competition in the LPWA IoT market
NB-IoT deep dives for continues to intensify, requiring operators
Company S CIoT networks to be technologically leading-
edge to meet the demanding technical
Due to high labor costs, water Company requirements of different applications.
S in country A wanted to introduce Offering deep coverage, low-power
smart meters to slash OPEX from manual consumption, low cost, and large numbers
meter reading. In Country A, meters were of devices, NB-IoT meets requirements for
deployed in two main types of scenarios – LPWA applications and can give operators
houses and apartments. Company S was a competitive shot in the arm in the CIoT
therefore looking for a technology that market.

26 2016.10 ISSUE 80
NB-IoT: A shot in the arm for cellular IoT / Focus

and maintenance costs for solution and its IoT platform can
NB-IoT: Helping customers, with the core service help operators transform their
operators transform modules of different verticals still CIoT to help operators overcome
CIoT independently deployed for service these challenges and tap into the
differentiation. Operators can then available opportunities.
With NB-IoT entering more move from being a pipeline to being
verticals, operators will need a support service provider. Working together on
to transform and change their NB-IoT
CIoT operating models. For one The IoT platform's virtualization
thing, service diversification and openness enhances operators' The commercial deployment of NB-
means that IoT operations have IoT capabilities, enabling service IoT will be a step-by-step process
become more complex. As the providers to build support for operators. They’ll need to think
number of NB-IoT application capabilities targeted at verticals, about upgrading their cellular
types increases, operators have including service metrics, process networks to provide ubiquitous
seen a significant cost hike as definitions, and other public sub- NB-IoT services, and move deeper
a result of aligning IoT network services. Vertical industries can into vertical industry applications,
protocols between verticals and also leverage the platform's cloud- integrate and improve existing
the differences between their based services and open interfaces services, and discover new
service systems. to dynamically call for or share potential CIoT applications.
data resources, enabling cross-
To sail on IoT's untapped blue ocean industry service integration and As a leading ICT solutions
market, mobile operators will operations and creating new provider, Huawei is the
need to transform beyond pipeline business value. industry's most complete and
services and tap into higher-value advanced provider of NB-IoT
terminals and cloud operations. The Operators can also quickly and solutions. When it comes to
NB-IoT E2E solution provides an IoT easily develop and bring online CIoT construction, tapping into
platform that increases operators' thousands of services that vertical industry markets, and
operating capabilities. The platform multiple operators can swiftly IoT operations, Huawei is the best
provides a unified IoT operations replicate and which verticals can partner for operators. With its
architecture that adapts to swiftly deliver without needing to understanding of operator CIoT
network protocols in different IoT invest in network or application strategy, strong E2E product and
service systems, and integrates the infrastructure. solutions capabilities, and global
functions of infrastructure layers, business and terminal resources,
including SIM management, device Facing competition from LoRa and Huawei knows it can give the
management, asset management, short-range technology solution shot in the arm operators need
and security authorization. providers, which use internetized for successful NB-IoT network
operating models, traditional construction and development.
Integrating the operations of mobile operators need to improve
different verticals into a unified their operations support systems
platform reduces customization and models. The NB-IoT E2E

2016.10 ISSUE 80 27
Industry Perspectives

All about the user with U-vMOS

Huawei's U-vMOS is an E2E mobile video solution for measuring, planning, and
optimizing viewing experience. It helps operators build video-centric mobile
broadband (MBB) networks that makes the most out of the world’s increasing
appetite for video.
By Zhang Yongshun

By Mohammad Alakhras

28 2016.10 ISSUE 80
All about the user with U-vMOS / Perspectives

Despite this, no unified standard

Video on the move exists to evaluate user experience. Huawei’s U-vMOS

esearch by mLAB shows At the Huawei Global Analyst
helps operators
that 51.4 percent of mobile Summit 2016, Yang Kun, from the IP
subscribers watch video Multimedia Commission under the
buildvideo - centric
between one and three China Communications Standards mobile broadband
times a day. YouTube corroborates Association, summed up the current networks that enable
this trend, stating that more than situation: "Users don’t like frame them to plan, measure,
half of its users watch video on their freezes and erratic displays at a
and optimize user
phone. Meanwhile, an even greater lower price, preferring instead to pay
proportion of Facebook users – 75 a moderate price for excellent quality.
percent – watch videos on the go. The industry needs a complete set
of evaluation standards to measure
video service quality scientifically.
Researchers have evaluated video
picture quality before, but only in
lab conditions. It’s doubtful that this
reflects actual user experience."

Traditional networks that center on

capacity and coverage are no longer
up to the job, not least because
networks with good KPIs can still
provide a bad user experience.
Therefore, network construction
must involve a unified standard for
evaluating video quality from the
user perspective. Operators must
consider how to define and evaluate
user experience and how to build
and manage experience-centric
networks given the increasing
demands on network performance.

Huawei’s U-vMOS helps operators

build video-centric mobile
broadband networks that enable
them to plan, measure, and
optimize user experience.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 29

tools: a user-level test app, a network-

U-vMOS: Subjective and level data analysis tool, and a U-vMOS SDK
objective for integrating third-party testing tools.
ITU-T’s objective assessment model defines
the conditions for objective experiments, as The user-level test app SpeedVideo allows
well as measurement methods and evaluation users to test the video experience on
standards. Its subjective assessment their smartphones. The app displays the
model uses an algorithm to define a set of U-vMOS score, showing users the network's
parameters based on objective inputs to current video quality and giving the option
estimate multimedia quality. to improve their experience. Available on
Google Play and the App Store, users in over
Using the ITU-T standard assessment 140 countries have downloaded SpeedVideo,
models, Huawei identified the top three creating over 700,000 test samples.
impact factors on which to base U-vMOS:
quality, interactivity, and viewing Operators need to know whether users
experience. U-vMOS covers videos on are satisfied with their video experience,
demand (VOD) in mobile scenarios, live and be able to identify what’s causing any
videos, and VOD services in fixed scenarios, problems. Therefore, they have to evaluate
and provides network indicators for each video experience on the entire network,
impact factor. which cannot be done using a DT tool
because they can only test a limited number
In partnership with Oxford University and of samples for analysis. The network-level
Beijing University, Huawei mLab fixed three U-vMOS, however, can analyze every video
measurable qualitative network indicators service in an entire district. The Huawei
affecting video experience: resolution, iDART/PRS tool supports network-wide
initial buffering delay, and stalling ratio. For U-vMOS evaluation, and provides geographic
quantitative measurements, they created displays and grid-level displays with 50x50
a unified model that combines users’ m precision based on measurement reports
subjective scores with the objective scores (MR) and call history records (CHR). It's
from perception measuring equipment. By a professional-grade tool for identifying
applying machine learning for model training, video experience bottlenecks and problem
the team devised a computational formula demarcation for analysis.
for U-vMOS in mobile scenarios. To measure
experience, U-vMOS gives a score from 0 to 5. Operators have already started using
Huawei’s U-vMOS SDK, which is designed
U-vMOS smashes for third-party testers and assessing
bottlenecks OTT service integration. In January 2016,
an operator in Nanjing used WorkTour –
To simplify video experience evaluation, a drive testing tool with U-vMOS testing
Huawei developed three U-vMOS testing functions developed by DingLi, one of

30 2016.10 ISSUE 80
All about the user with U-vMOS / Perspectives

Top three factors influencing video watching experience

Video quality Interactive experience View experience The target of
traditional MBB
network construction
used to be pipelines,
but it’s now moved
to core service

0 distortion 0 waiting 0 damage

• HD • Fast video loading • 0 blocking
• Smoothness • Fast video handover • 0 frame freezing
• High fidelity

China's largest testing equipment quantitative measurement of

manufacturers – to carry out mobile video performance and
U-vMOS testing on a commercial analyze video consumption
network in six different scenarios. habits using objective
The test results helped the Nanjing indicators.
operator understand the user
experience of its network for •• Analyze gaps and causes:
precise network optimization, and define problems and classify
expanded tests are planned. root causes in areas where
video experience is poor.
Covering all sides
•• Implement solutions and
The target of traditional MBB optimize iteration: perform
network construction used to be coverage and capacity planning
pipelines, but it’s now moved to based on the causes of
core service experience. Huawei's substandard results, including
Video Coverage planning method solutions such as carrier
for MBB networks helps operators expansion, sector splitting,
build ubiquitous HD MBB networks. adding sites, and deploying new
It comprises three steps: features. Iteration planning can
continually improve network
•• Evaluate networks and set experience.
goals: identify key areas
for network planning using Video Coverage has been used for

2016.10 ISSUE 80 31

network construction across the world OTT players to collaborate and encouraging
including Australia, South Korea, the United new business models. Operators can open
In the MBB Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia. A up network information like available
era, video leading UAE operator proposed a video-centric bandwidth for subscribers and their
is gradually traffic strategy to provide a superior HD location information so OTT companies can
supplanting video experience, opting to use the U-vMOS accurately transmit suitable bitrate and
evaluation system for analysis in target areas deliver a much smoother video experience.
voice as a new
to provide 1080p online video services.
core service Jiangsu Mobile worked with iQIYI to move
for mobile After the mobile video solution was the CDN downstream to the Evolved Packet
operators. deployed, the proportion of grids with a Core (EPC) gateway and open up user
U-vMOS above 3.8 increased from 60.9 location information, allowing the gateway
percent to 82.4 percent. Initial video to better carry location information using
buffering delay was reduced by 0.49 the HTTP header, so iQIYI could carry out
s, fulfilling targets and improving user precise CDN node selection. This doubled
experience. As a result, data traffic average user download speeds and boosted
consumption shot up by 38 percent within U-vMOS scores by more than 20 percent.
three months, and encouraged overall
network improvements that have boosted With the flexible charging policy, operators can
other services. deploy different charging modes based on levels
of video experience, video types, time periods,
E2E mobile video for and content. For example, a combination of
better business a free basic experience and charging for HD
experience can attract more users to try a
Huawei's E2E mobile video solution features video service, while backward charging and
multi-carriers aggregation, 4x4 MIMO, and targeted OTT plans can boost profits.
256QAM advanced modulation techniques
for increased last-mile capacity. A two- In the MBB era, video is gradually
level TCP proxy reduces initial video supplanting voice as a new core service
buffering delay on the wireless and PS for mobile operators. Huawei believes
sides, while the distributed Content in openness and cooperation. We work
Delivery Network (CDN) cuts the distance with operators and partners in the
between the content source and user. video industry to build an internationally
A video QoS mechanism ensures a good recognised evaluation system for video
experience and minimally impacts other that’s agreed upon in the industry, optimize
services, and medium and heavy video load user experience, and safeguard operators'
scenarios prompt the load optimization investments. Huawei strives to support
function. Huawei's mobile video solution also operator and OTT cooperation by opening
supports network capability opening and network capabilities, thus boosting the
fully flexible billing, helping operators and mobile video industry as a whole.

32 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Broadening horizons with MBB Open Interconnect / Perspectives

Broadening horizons
with MBB Open Interconnect
With increasing ICT service convergence, MBB Open Interconnect opens up connectivity
capabilities and network information. It can help mobile broadband (MBB) operators drive
service growth, introduce new business models, and create new revenue streams.
By Liu Jian

New opportunities the communications market. Yet businesses that converge CT and
despite the explosive growth in IT. In recent years, the growth of
with ICT convergence mobile data traffic, operators mobile Internet, cloud computing,

ver the last decade, there haven't seen a proportional and the Internet of Things (IoT)
has been a continual rise in revenue. In response, has significantly boosted the
value shift towards they’ve sought to internetize development of converged ICT
Internet IT services in their operations and form ICT services.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 33

Mobile internet connectivity, from real-time capabilities

for the Internet of Vehicles to a low-power
Due to the rise of mobile Internet, requirement for smart meters. This will
traditional industries are incorporating make it increasingly difficult to strip away
Internet tech into their operations, network connectivity capabilities from IT
creating new ecosystems for banking, services.
transportation, medicine, and education.
According to Ralph Haupter, Microsoft With increasing ICT service convergence,
CEO for Greater China, "In the future, all mobile broadband (MBB) operators can
companies will be software companies." act as a key pipeline for mobile Internet
Enterprises will increasingly use APIs to by transmitting data from services
integrate with and provide services for to terminals, providing ubiquitous
each other. In e-commerce, for example, connectivity, and collecting big data
businesses might use China UnionPay's on network information. By opening
online payment API to make payments. up these connectivity capabilities
Or a loan company might invoke a telco's and network information, operators
payment records API to find out a user’s will drive service growth, introduce
credit score. Service diversification new business models, and create new
means that operators will have many revenue streams. This is known as MBB
opportunities to leverage their telecom Open Interconnect.
capabilities to tap into this enterprise
services market. In recent years, numerous operators
and enterprises have trialed MBB Open-
Cloud computing
Interconnect models. Successful cases
Cloud computing technology, in particular include opening up a billing API to allow
Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) OTT providers to issue free data offers
and Software Defined Networking (SDN), is through backward charging, which quickly
driving telecoms networks to be software attracted many new users and drove
based. Network functions have been service growth. 51 Credit Card Manager
decoupled from customized hardware, and is an example of a financial service
are now operated in cloud data centers that checks users' payment records by
(DC), greatly speeding up version iteration invoking operator billing information API
and innovation, creating agile networks, and issues small loans based on users'
and facilitating new business. credit scores.

Putting telecom
The growth of IoT technology has capabilities to use
increased different types of connectivity
requirements. Different types of services Today, ICT products and services are
have led to varied requirements on becoming more diverse, with an increasing

34 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Broadening horizons with MBB Open Interconnect / Perspectives

number of different types of delete sponsored data plans that device model, available bandwidth,
businesses moving into the ICT give users free traffic packages as mobile and session status, and
industry. Operators have a part of a promotion. cell congestion status. Google's
chance to take advantage of this Congested Cells API, for example,
Location APIs
and leverage telecom network obtains cell congestion information
capabilities and pipeline big data, Location APIs include real-time from operators to optimize
thus playing an important role in location APIs and location history services, including video bit rate
the ICT industry ecosystem in the analysis APIs. Application scenarios selection. The online payment
future. There are currently five for real-time location APIs include company Danal partnered with AT&T
types of network capabilities that indoor positioning, navigation, on anti-fraud user authentication,
can be opened: and car parking. Indoor real- making use of information such as
time positioning technology, such user ID, account information, real-
QoS-class APIs
as Apple's iBeacon, has received time location, and device model.
QoS-class APIs deliver network widespread attention in areas like
Third-party app integration
acceleration and QoS guarantees. guided shopping and electronic
For example, mobile games that fence advertising for shopping Operator pipelines are not the
involve real-time multiplayer malls. Compared to iBeacon, only source of pipeline capabilities.
battles require very low latency. If using mobile networks for indoor Third-party partners are also able
latency increases due to network positioning is low cost and easy to to provide pipeline capabilities,
congestion or in places where set up. such as TCP optimization, video
coverage is weak, users can invoke optimization, URL filtering, and
network acceleration functions to The application scenarios of firewalls. This can help operators
quickly lower latency and maintain location history analysis APIs increase pipelines’ capabilities and
user experience. include managing crowd congestion, extract more value. In a win-win
analyzing population movements, situation for both parties, cloudified
The network acceleration function assessing outdoor billboard value, multi-service integrated platforms
can be packaged as an in-game and selecting retail shop locations. allow third-party software vendors
tool and sold to players. Network Another important application is big to easily access operator pipelines
acceleration can also be used in data. Governments and commercial and quickly create value-producing
other application scenarios to organizations have wide-ranging services.
improve the chance of success, for requirements for location-based big
example, purchasing tickets for data applications, and operators Huawei's solutions
popular events, opening WeChat can provide the most reliable light the MBB Open
red envelopes, or trading mobile sources of data. Interconnect fire
User/network context
Huawei's CloudMSE (Multi-
Billing APIs information APIs
Service Engine) for third-party
Billing APIs enable sponsored data User/network context information app integration and CloudUIC
functionality. Enterprise users can encompasses information such as (Unified Intelligence Center) can
invoke a billing API to add, modify or user account type, billing status, open network capabilities to help

2016.10 ISSUE 80 35

operators develop the MBB Open joint commercial trial of game pipeline capabilities and data to
Interconnect industry. Huawei has acceleration for WE FIRE, giving third parties, they will attract
partnered with numerous operators users who purchased the tool an thousands of industry partners
and third parties around the world advantage. with whom they can team up
in successful commercial trials of to provide better services for
Operator "Z" tests fraud
these solutions. enterprise and individual users.
prevention methods
Sky plc's integrated video
If a hacker attempts to use a The MBB Open Interconnect
optimization service
stolen account to carry out a industry must be rooted in CT
With video optimization technology, mobile payment, the back-end and rely on IT to open up. The
operators can perform real-time payment system calls the operator development of the industry
video transcoding to provide low API to discover the real-time must be shaped by the current
bit-rate video to users affected by location of the user's mobile phone. development status of MBB
insufficient network bandwidth, If this differs from the payment networks and continually seek
guaranteeing the video playback location, a payment confirmation new opportunities in enterprise
experience. message is sent to the user, application requirements and
preventing the unauthorized industry trends. To drive the
Sky used Huawei's CloudMSE payment from proceeding. Credit development of the MBB Open
solution to integrate Opera's card payments can also be Interconnect industry, Huawei has
dynamic transcoding software, protected in a similar way. developed short-term, medium-
and can now flexibly provide term, and long-term goals.
video optimization services Operator "Z" has run commercial
for users, increasing user trials of this service using Huawei's In the short-term, Huawei will
satisfaction. CloudUIC. focus on mobile network QoS
experience guarantees and billing
Guangdong Mobile joins
A bright future for for OTT applications. The medium-
forces with Tencent in
mobile game acceleration Open Interconnect term goal is to research how MBB
networks and OTT applications
Huawei predicts that by can be leveraged to enhance
For online games, network speed is 2025 there will be 100 billion applications' network usage
critical. Even 50-ms latency can be connections worldwide, 8 billion efficiency.
a disadvantage in certain types of of which will be smart terminals.
games. Mobile game acceleration At this time, average daily data Long-term research will be
enables mobile gamers to maintain usage will be 1.7 GB per user. This shaped by evolutionary trends in
low latency even in low-signal or will create a huge number of networking. It will explore how to
congested spots. opportunities for mobile operators incorporate innovative Internet
– they’ll be the platform for services based on future network
Leveraging Huawei's CloudUIC this data and a vast range of architecture.
platform, Guangdong Mobile and industry applications. If operators
Tencent Gaming carried out a can organize and open up their

36 2016.10 ISSUE 80
/ Perspectives

safe with 4.5G
LTE-based broadband trunking is perfect for delivering broadband data services. It provides
emergency communications technology that can enhance efficiency and ensure safe cities,
making broadband trunking the new choice for public safety communication networks.

By Lin Peng

The face of the future trunking only supports narrowband

Broadband trunking:
voice and SMS, but not broadband

ublic safety services data services like video and
A new chapter in
have traditionally used HD surveillance. This degrades public safety
private network trunking public safety services, leaving
LTE: standards and future
systems such as TETRA user experience stuck in the
evolution of broadband
and P25. However, these kinds 2G era. As a former New York
trunking networks
of communications systems are police chief puts it, "The wireless
no longer able to meet growing communications capabilities of a Traditional private network
public safety requirements – be teenager's smartphone far surpass trunking standards were
it network coverage, service what police and auxiliary police are jointly developed by a number
experience, or maintenance costs. equipped with." of standards organizations,
Limitations include transmission including TCCA, OMA, and ETSI.
speeds, dispatch capabilities, and With today’s proliferation of Oriented toward private users,
inconsistent trunking system broadband networks, LTE-based the system's overall framework
standards. broadband trunking represents is completely loose-coupled and
the future of emergency network the industry chain is relatively
Traditional private network solutions. closed. There are significant issues

2016.10 ISSUE 80 37

with interoperability between different for 2012 using the LTE 700 MHz spectrum
vendors, leaving no scope for evolving the with a US$10 billion investment. In March
technology to support broadband data 2014, 231 sites were built in Los Angeles
services. as part of the first phase of the project
at a cost of US$175 million.
In cooperation with trunking standards
organizations, government regulators, United Kingdom: A national public safety
and operators, 3GPP formulated a new broadband LTE network is planned for
Work Item (WI) focused on public safety. construction from 2015 to 2020, which
The WI created an entirely new public will allow operators to build public safety
safety standards framework based on LTE networks over the LTE public network
network architecture, enabling Mission spectrum. The first phase of construction
Critical Push to Talk (MCPTT) services on began in 2015 with an investment of £1.2
LTE. billion.

3GPP's R13 set out new standards for an South Korea: In 2014, the country began
end-to-end standards framework in 2015. building a national broadband emergency
Using standardized and opened interfaces disaster prevention network with a total
solves the issues of interoperability investment of more than US$2 billion. The
between different vendors and the first phase kicked off in 2015, with the
closed industry chain. R13 defines key aim of constructing 205 base stations
LTE public network trunking functions, and distributing 5,000 terminals in
including MCPTT, IOPS, GCSE, and proSE. It Pyeongchang County at a cost of US$40
also enables emergency video and calling million.
services on operator networks. With the
New model for public safety
freezing of R13, operators now have new
commercial opportunities.
The UK Home Office announced in December
Rebuilding the capabilities to build
2015 that it would partner with the UK's
safe cities
largest wireless operator EE to build a
As of 2015, more than 30 countries public safety network. EE's 4G mobile
around the world had started assessing, network will provide public safety services
planning, or deploying LTE public trunking for the UK's 330,000 public safety workers,
networks with a view to building new including police, fire, and ambulance crews.
communications capabilities for safe cities. Carrying broadband trunking services on
The progress of these projects in various a public LTE network for the first time will
countries is as follows: represent a historic step.

United States: FirstNet, a national public The decision by the UK government to

safety broadband network, was planned replace the existing TETRA network with

38 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Keeping safe with 4.5G broadband trunking / Perspectives

an operator’s public network to emergency communications supplants traditional narrowband

provide public safety services, safeguards. push-to-talk (PTT) services, including
with very stringent requirements, voice and SMS, and provides
was not made lightly. A specialist After winning the contract for broadband trunking (e.g. Push to
company was commissioned to building the UK's new public safety Video) as well, fully leveraging
carry out detailed comparative network, EE CEO Olaf Swantee existing operator LTE networks. By
analysis and feasibility studies said that, "We’re immensely utilizing the broadband trunking
on carrying broadband trunking proud to be selected to deliver capabilities provided by LiTRA
communication services on TETRA this vital new network...we've application servers, operators
vs LTE public networks. The worked closely with police, fire, can quickly deploy national public
research concluded that using a and ambulance crews to show safety networks and enhance the
public network offered obvious the power of EE's 4G network in commercial value and brand of
advantages in terms of coverage helping save time and save lives. their networks.
and service experience, and We will now work tirelessly to
would be able to meet demanding deliver a highly resilient, truly LiTRA is based on open 3GPP
requirements on dimensions such nationwide 4G network to serve all protocols and uses an open
as latency. of Britain's public safety workers." interface. This enables operators
EE's wireless network will more to work with more partners
Estimates show that deploying than likely become the UK's most to provide a wide variety of
a trunking system on an LTE reliable network, offering the best services such as telemedicine,
public network will save the coverage and experience, which video surveillance for major
UK government £1 million a day will in turn provide a huge boost for events and incidents, and drones.
compared to a private network. EE's brand value. LiTRA's openness also maximizes
Over five years, the new solution compatibility with the mature LTE
will see network construction and Lighting up new terminal industry chain, bringing
maintenance costs fall from over markets with LiTRA in a large number of partners
£2 billion to £1.2 billion. At the same that operators can work with to
time, with government investment, According to estimates, LTE build future national public safety
EE will be able to improve network trunking services will have been networks and safe cities.
coverage and user experience, and deployed to 150,000 base stations
boost its brand equity. globally by 2020, creating a With the construction of LTE
market worth tens of billions of networks accelerating around the
Brand building
dollars. With the rapid growth globe, LiTRA will help operators
Operators cover large chunks of broadband trunking services, enter the new arena of national
of the population, but public we’re set to see a wave of public safety network solutions,
safety services place higher trunking systems constructed adding a new string to their
technical and service experience over public LTE networks in the revenue-creation bow.
requirements on operator near future.
networks, including reliability,
coverage, user priority, and LTE integrated Trunked Radio (LiTRA)

2016.10 ISSUE 80 39

Let's stay indoors for full connectivity

Small Cell is packed with features for full indoor connectivity: E2E digitalized architecture,
high capacity, high yield, fast deployment, and strong evolution potential.

By Ding Zhibin, Cui Xiaoying

ccording to GSMA's recent America, it will reach a massive spend more than 60 percent of
Mobile Economy 2016 22 GB each month. More than 80 their time indoors. Here, they have
report, the CAGR of mobile percent of this will be generated higher requirements for mobile
data traffic over the indoors. services, especially 2K and 4K video
next five years will hit 49 percent, and loading times, in stationary or
and the global average user will The great indoors slow-moving scenarios.
consume 7 GB of mobile data per
month by 2020. In Europe that Research by Huawei mLab on user We can also expect the first wave
will stand at 12 GB, while in North dwell time reveals that people of commercialized ultra-broadband

40 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Indoor digitalization for full connectivity / Perspectives

services including virtual reality (VR) and depends on outdoor macro network
augmented reality (AR) to take place absorption because it increases building
indoors. penetration losses in outdoor macro Small Cell
networks. This is also intensifying DAS's is the new
The amount of traffic generated in super- capacity bottleneck. linchpin
high traffic areas during major events can
technology for
be hundreds of times higher than network Accelerated technological evolution:
averages. On the first day of Mobile World 1G-to-2G evolution took 20 years, 2G-to-
building a fully
Congress 2016, for example, attendees 3G evolution 10 years, and 3G to 4G just 5 connected
transmitted 828 GB of mobile data in the years. Over this time, speeds have evolved indoor world.
convention hall. from tens of Kbps to several Mbps. The
pace of evolution of new technology is
Indoor coverage is tough accelerating in the 4G era, and subscriber
speeds have evolved quickly from several
Big changes in user service models, available Mbps to hundreds of Mbps. Meanwhile, the
spectrum, and the 4G, 4.5G, and 5G eras commercial application of some 5G tech
means that the traditional analog indoor in 4G networks has caused a speed leap
coverage solution – Distributed Antenna from megabits to gigabits. DAS's analog
System (DAS) – can’t make the grade. radio frequency (RF) architecture makes
it extremely difficult to incorporate it into
Changes in service models: The shift multi-antenna and high-order technologies
from synchronistic voice services to data without large-scale changes to existing
services and an accompanying shift in networks.
operators’ revenues are accelerating,
placing greater challenges like service As a traditional indoor coverage solution,
bursts and the tidal effect on DAS. DAS can meet the demands of 2G/3G
era voice and mid-to-low-speed data
Changes in spectrum resources: The services. But against a surge in indoor
mobile data surge is pressuring spectral MBB requirements in the 4G/4.5G era, DAS
resources, leading to the use of high has become a developmental bottleneck
frequency bands, including 1.8 GHz, 2.1 for indoor MBB due to the lack of
GHz, 2.3 GHz, 3.5 GHz, and even unlicensed network capacity, scalability, and poor
5 GHz spectrum. Although these bands are evolution potential, limiting demand for
now the mainstream in mobile broadband subscriber services. In the future, DAS will
(MBB) network construction, they’re even restrict the evolution of operator
not suitable for DAS, which suffers high networks. With E2E digital architecture,
transmission loss in high-frequency bands high capacity, high yield, fast deployment,
through DAS coaxial feeds. High-frequency and evolvability, Small Cell is the new
spectrum is reducing the efficiency of linchpin technology for building a fully
the outside-in model, where indoor traffic connected indoor world.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 41

architecture, so spectral efficiency and

Huawei's indoor vision: network capacity can constantly improve.
From x to y
Digitalized network architecture: From Flying high with LampSite
centrally placed signal source of the analog
system to RF digital processing elements Indoor scenarios are more complex and
extended to the front end in digital systems. diverse than outdoor ones. Network
The high number of passive components in construction in indoor scenarios must also be
analog systems causes high interference more closely aligned with owners, requiring
and limits capacity, while expansion requires diverse solutions to meet the varying service
onsite re-modification, but digital systems demands of different segments.
can greatly lower interference, improving
MIMO performance and enabling on-demand Medium-to-large public areas, such as
capacity expansion through software- stadiums, transportation hubs, conference
defined frequency ranges. centers, and shopping malls, are priority
areas for operator investment due to
Digitalized O&M: From the black-box type their size and high crowd densities. Digital
management of analog systems to the solutions based on CloudBB architecture
precise monitoring of faults and service like Huawei's LampSite are the best
volumes on each node to enable O&M choice for many operators worldwide in
and visualization across the whole indoor this kind of scenario. LampSite supports
system, improving O&M efficiency. multiband multimode, large capacity,
flexible expansion, rapid deployment, E2E
Digitalized service capability: From a management and control, and long-term
focus on voice services and meeting smooth evolution with new technology.
coverage the demands of analog systems
to focusing on digital services, meeting The world's largest deployment of LampSite is at
capacity demands, and providing value- Beijing International Airport, the world's second
added service capabilities. This will increase largest airport, with 220,000 passengers per
operator revenues through opening the day and nearly 84 million a year. Deployment
capability of their digital pipelines and was completed in three months, with 2,200
fostering cooperation with application LampSite pRRUs providing comprehensive 4G
developers. coverage of the terminal departure and arrival
halls, baggage claim hall, VIP lounge, office area,
Sustainable future evolution: From and even the airport parking lot and basement
analog’s difficulty with upgrades to the area. Total deployment time was reduced by
smooth software upgrades of digital. more than two-thirds compared with traditional
This enables new technologies, such as DAS deployment. The new solution delivers peak
distributed MIMO, 256QAM, LAA, and the user download speed of 140 Mbps, with figures
latest 5G-oriented wireless cloudified showing yearly data traffic 27 times higher

42 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Indoor digitalization for full connectivity / Perspectives

after deployment, indicating greatly Wi-Fi AP’s sites, transmission, and the foreseeable future, Wi-Fi will
enhanced user experience and thus power supplies to provide optimal continue to be the primary home
profits for the operator. MBB services and maximize hotspot MBB solution.
value. For these kinds of scenarios,
Other successful examples where Pico is the optimal solution based on As well as providing an excellent
LampSite has been successfully cost-performance ratio. MBB access experience, indoor
commercially deployed include digitalized networks yield more
exhibition halls for the Barcelona As LWA and LAA technologies value-added services like indoor
Mobile World Congress, Beijing mature, Pico can tap into the navigation, visitor flow statistics,
National Stadium, China's National potential of unlicensed bands in the and precision advertising. In indoor
Centre for the Performing future for increased capacity and venues with digital systems,
Arts, Beijing Workers' Stadium, better user experience. operators and owners can create
Zhengzhou Railway Station, new revenue streams through
Jakarta's main airport, Singapore's A Thai operator successfully opening network capabilities,
Marina Bay Sands hotel, and Qatar deployed Huawei's Wi-Fi-integrating which in turn enables service
Villaggio shopping mall. These Pico solution in its stores. New innovations such as digital shopping
examples show how this indoor equipment deployment and service malls, airports, and stadiums, and
network construction strategy has launch was completed in just maximizes the value of digital
gained worldwide recognition. two weeks in more than 100 of networks and data traffic.
the operator’s service centers.
Small and medium businesses, such This was possible because the Upgrading for the win
as coffee shops, retail stores, and solution fully utilizes the existing
restaurants, have comparatively Wi-Fi AP’s site and transmission Indoor mobile networks are critical
large capacity requirements. Many and power supply resources, and for operators in the MBB era,
deploy Wi-Fi networks, but due to benefits from PnP and zero on- not only providing tremendous
protocol and technological limitations, site configuration capability. opportunity but also raising a
they cannot meet the requirements Following deployment, actual user series of challenges. Upgrading
of HD voice and video-driven MBB peak rates exceeded 130 Mbps, the traditional analog network
services, particularly in scenarios greatly improving network user ecosystem will not be achieved
with high numbers of users. User experience. The operator plans to overnight and in isolation. Instead,
experience tends to be very poor. carry out large-scale deployment realizing the concept of indoor
of Pico in thousands of its other digitalization will require a
The Pico solution leverages stores, 7-Elevens, and coffee shops concerted effort, impetus from
multiband multimode to integrate in Thailand. multiple industries, and even cross-
Wi-Fi and single-node fast industry partnerships. It will even
networks. Based on Iub interfaces, When it comes to home scenarios, be necessary to break up the chain
Pico supports automatic network immature business models have of interests in traditional analog
discovery, Plug and Play (PnP), hampered the success of the Femto networks before the upgrade, so
and automatic planning and home base station solution, despite business success can be achieved
configuration to re-use existing trials by many mobile operators. In for all.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 43
HOW TOPerspectives

China Mobile's oriental pearl

shines even brighter with 4.5G
China Mobile has achieved great things with 4G network construction. In three years, the
operator has deployed 1.32 million base stations and gained 429 million 4G subscribers.
Shanghai has become China Mobile's shining pearl of 4G construction thanks to continual
innovation and 4.5G technology.

By Wang Qiang

44 2016.10 ISSUE 80
China Mobile's oriental pearl shines even brighter with 4.5G / How to Operate

hanghai, China's pearl subscriber base has grown to more Growth in services, especially VoLTE
of the Orient, is an than 429 million. services, led to requirements for
international city that deep coverage. But it was becoming
stands at the forefront of Shanghai covers an area of 6,340 increasingly difficult for Shanghai
rapid development in China. Equally, square kilometers and has a Mobile to acquire macro station
China Mobile is the nation’s leading population of 25 million. Shanghai sites the traditional way.
telco. In the span of three short Mobile has 22 million subscribers,
years from when the operator including 10 million 4G users. The Shanghai Mobile worked with Huawei
began building a 4G network in 2013, operator has built 20,000 4G base to solve this problem. The partners
China Mobile has deployed over 1.32 stations, which provide 99.5 percent introduced D-band RRU (remote
million 4G base stations and its 4G 4G service coverage. Shanghai radio units) that could support
Mobile is the dominant player in the F-band signal reception during
Shanghai communications market. the network capacity expansion
phase. In addition, algorithms were
Phase 1 (2012-2013) deployed that gave F-band reception
capability to the new modules
In the 3G era, China Mobile was and existing sites that would be
constantly playing catch-up thanks used together. This supported 16
to a poor user experience. To turn upstream channels, increasing
things around, China Mobile kick- the system's reception power
started a 4G expansion pilot project and enhancing F-band upstream
in 2012 on trial networks, Shanghai coverage by 3 dB. This solution
Mobile deployed 1,000 4G sites, and greatly boosted F-band coverage.
carried out network verification, Shanghai Mobile has now widely
accumulating technical expertise deployed this solution, ensuring
and experience. This later helped network capability for services
the operator rapidly implement the such as VoLTE, which require deeper
widest 4G network coverage in the coverage.
city. Today, Shanghai Mobile's 4G
Exploring micro station
network service coverage has hit
resources to deepen
99.5 percent thanks to a range of
coverage and widen capacity
The cooperative F/D RF solution has
Capacity of existing macro
helped improve coverage capabilities.
stations maximized through
However, it didn’t meet all coverage
a collaborative F/D RF
requirements. New station
acquisition remained a necessary
Shanghai Mobile's 4G network area in which to explore new
macro stations cover F (2010-2025 solutions. As a large international
MHz) and D (2575-2635 MHz) bands. city, Shanghai has many security

2016.10 ISSUE 80 45

and surveillance poles that need a potential rankings, but also to create a faster data
platform for new cell sites. rate experience.
Leveraging mobile spectrum
Mobile's Shanghai Mobile's innovative solution
and TDD technology to increase
innovative involved sharing big data with the Shanghai
network speeds and build
Public Security Bureau in exchange for poles
solution capabilities for the fastest 4G
for site deployment. By analysing mobile user
involved network
data in cells in its coverage area, Shanghai
sharing big Mobile can obtain real-time information on In 2014, Shanghai Mobile rolled out 2CC CA
data with the source, number, distribution, and flow in the City God Temple and Xintiandi areas,
the Shanghai trends of people in the area. This kind of attaining a downstream rate of 220 Mbps.
information is also useful for the police and In 2015, the operator successfully piloted DL
security services. 3CC CA, UL 2CC CA, and 64QAM technologies,
Security increasing download speeds to 330 Mbps and
Bureau in Shanghai Mobile first conducted a pilot in upload speeds to 30 Mbps. In 2016, Shanghai
exchange for the Bund area, deploying 20 micro stations Mobile attained a download rate of 1 Gbps
poles for site on surveillance poles. The pilot helped and upload rate of 50 to 60 Mbps through
deployment. improve coverage and gave security the use of 4x4 MIMO and 256/64QAM.
services valuable information. Following By enhancing network speed capabilities,
the pilot, the scheme entered its second Shanghai Mobile stepped into the Gigabit era
phase at the end of 2015. Shanghai's in 2016.
public security systems provide over 300
China Mobile became the first
surveillance poles, covering the City God
operator to roll VoLTE out city-
Temple, Xintiandi, and Lujiazui areas of
wide, enhancing 4G users' voice
Phase 2 (2014-2015) Voice services are the key to China Mobile's
growth and the main part of its business.
At the end of 2013, China issued 4G licenses, Developing VoLTE services is a strategic
and the mobile market in China boldly focus for China Mobile in the 4G era. One
stepped into the 4G era. With the big three factor behind this strategy is to enhance
operators all making a big push for 4G, a user voice experience by increasing voice
question that concerned China Mobile was quality from its original 2G level. Another
how to ensure its competitive advantage. is to free up valuable 2G spectrum by
The heart of Shanghai Mobile's strategy shifting the 2G network voice load to the 4G
is user experience. The operator actively network, and thus create a flexible strategic
promoted the commercial adoption of reserve of spectrum for future use.
VoLTE while continuing to leverage new
4.5G technology. The aim was to not only Shanghai Mobile launched commercial VoLTE
consolidate its lead in voice experience trials in 2015, the culmination of a year

46 2016.10 ISSUE 80
China Mobile's oriental pearl shines even brighter with 4.5G / How to Operate

of comprehensive preparations efficiency compared to traditional Super base stations and

in 2014. In 2016, with the rapid 8T8R networks, greatly enhancing user experience-centric
maturation and proliferation of 4G mobile network capability. network construction will
handsets, Shanghai Mobile rolled ensure industry leading user
out VoLTE to customers, increasing Shanghai Mobile carried out the experience
the number of customers using the world's first Massive MIMO pilot on
service. a commercial network in September As networks continue to grow,
2015. On the 2615-2635 MHz band, 16 Shanghai Mobile and Huawei will
Phase 3 (2016-) commercial handsets (Huawei Mate continue to explore ways to
7s) attained total cell throughput continue optimizing user experience
Shanghai Mobile currently has 10 of 670 Mbps and 340 Mbps cell on networks in the future by
million 4G subscribers, which is throughput when carrying out unleashing the full potential of
expected to exceed 15 million by 50 percent scrambling on nearby traditional sites. These methods
the end of 2016. In some hotspots, networks. Compared to the existing include super base stations,
it’s difficult to meet experience 8T8R network, this was a five-to- construction strategies for user
requirements by traditional sixfold increase in network capacity. experience-centric networks,
expansion. This has become a interference suppression technology
priority issue for Shanghai Mobile Huawei and Shanghai Mobile worked and algorithms, and flexible site
as it enters the mature phase of 4G together to develop an innovative construction solutions.
network development. Massive MIMO solution that uses
BBU+AAU split architecture. This Continuous innovation has helped
Shanghai Mobile's solution has been allowed the parties to leverage Shanghai Mobile to solidify its
to 4G-ize 5G tech by using future 5G their experience of traditional competitive advantage. The operator
technologies in its current network BBU+AAU network deployment, dominates the market, with close to
to increase network capacity facilitating project implementation 80 percent of mobile subscribers and
fivefold, which will help it easily and maintenance. In addition, the almost 90 percent of 4G subscribers
deal with the challenge of explosive solution enables the full potential of in Shanghai. It’s also made
service growth. baseband to be leveraged, enabling significant improvements in terms
subsequent adaptations based on of user DOU and average revenue
Deploying Massive MIMO
algorithms and network evolution per user. China Mobile's shining
boosts network spectrum
requirements to be carried out to oriental pearl, Shanghai Mobile,
lay the foundation for continual has continually tapped into the
Massive MIMO is a key 5G performance improvements and power of 4.5G. Through continuous
technology that uses a large- evolution to 5G. innovation, it’s consolidating its
scale antenna matrix to support network capabilities, building a
extremely powerful three- In 2016, Shanghai Mobile will improve superior experience, and developing
dimensional beamforming and the technical requirements of Massive new site mode. The operator's
algorithms. The technology boosts MIMO and further explore commercial wireless communications business
network traffic capacity to realize scenarios by taking into account real- will continue to go from strength to
a fivefold increase in spectrum world requirements and scenarios. strength.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 47

Philippines Globe: New network

configuration, new MBB gains
The Philippines has a population of more than 100 million and a rapidly growing base of
mobile broadband (MBB) subscribers. Like everywhere else, MBB subscribers enjoy surfing
the web, playing online games, and using social media. The local mobile operator, Globe
Telecom, is delivering a better broadband experience by deploying multi-sector networks
that greatly increase network capacity.

By Ashish Pilani, Senior Technical Advisor of Wireless Engineering & Implementation, Globe

MBB subscribers by 2020 (GSMA The Huawei 6-sector solution

New MBB services, Intelligence), with the number of 3G increases network capacity by
new subscribers subscribers increasing by 1.6 times utilizing special antennas to split

here are 121.8 million and 4G subscribers by 6.5 times a 120-degree sector into two
mobile connections over the 2015 figures. 60-degree sectors, thereby doubling
(GSMA Intelligence) in the the number of cells and air interface
Philippines, with mobile However, this rapid growth in data resources. This technology has
broadband penetration hitting 45 services has placed enormous the advantages of higher capacity
percent and growing at an ultra- pressure on the operator's wireless gains, lower cost, and a shorter
fast rate. In 2013, Globe began network capacity. In Manila, a large deployment cycle compared to other
attracting more subscribers and number of 3G sites experience a solutions, such as adding new sites.
encouraging them to use data resource utilization rate of over 80
services by providing special percent during busy hours, which New network, new
promotions for popular social leads to lower than desired user competitiveness
media platforms like Facebook experience. The network was in
and Viber. Globe also launched urgent need of capacity expansion Globe and Huawei jointly planned the
highly attractive packages to due to the growth of new services deployment of the 6-sector solution
gain more subscribers and boost and the need to improve user across the entire network in the
data usage, triggering demand experience. Manila area to increase individual
for data services to surge. Data site capacity by 70 percent and
services since then have turned A quick-win and efficient solution thus cater for the requirements of
into Globe's main revenue growth was needed to address this rising MBB user numbers and traffic
driver. According to forecasts, challenge. growth.
Globe will serve almost 60 million

48 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Philippines Globe: New network nonfiguration, new MBB gains / How to Operate

If 3-sector sites are reconstructed A good quality network that successfully launched in the highest-
to 6-sector sites in a piecemeal, provides a better user experience value area (the capital area).
patch-it-up fashion, only short-term attracts more subscribers. In May
demand can be met and the network 2016, the number of active HSDPA Smooth evolution to
will be unable to accommodate users in Globe's network grew by 68 LTE multi-sector
growing capacity demands. To percent over the same period last
improve the value of sites and year. As the prices for LTE terminals are
consider future needs, Huawei and decreasing and LTE penetration rises,
Globe jointly aligned Globe's whole Systematic LTE capacity bottlenecks in some
network with future demand in deployment regions will occur in the short term.
terms of spectrum, infrastructure, By splitting sectors and sharing user
and new technology. In this way, When it comes to whole- numbers, deploying 6-sector on LTE
Globe could deploy 6-sector as a network deployment, there are networks can also alleviate future
benchmark for UMTS sites in urban still many challenges facing the pressure on capacity and guarantee
areas, changing its strategy from 6-sector solution such as complex user experience. The whole-network
passive capacity expansion to the deployment, un-targeted delivery deployment of 6-sector in urban
whole network deployment of progress, and strong interference. areas is a simple capacity expansion
6-sector. The 6-sector deployment The situation was worse in urban solution that provides many years
approach lays a solid foundation for areas where radio frequency of value.
future network growth. (RF) issues occurred on targeted
sites, affecting capacity gains and The whole-network six-sector
Three types of sites were targeted network KPIs. solution in Manila area has provided
for the 6-sector upgrade: congested Globe with a solid foundation
sites, high-profile customer service The Huawei 6-sector solution is an for developing new services and
sites, and sites with the potential end-to-end (E2E) solution that covers subscribers, monetizing data traffic,
demand for high capacity. The initial the whole delivery procedure, and improving user experience. It
plan was to reconstruct over 80 from planning and execution has addressed network capacity
percent of sites in the Manila area to optimization. In the planning pressures and provided valuable
to 6-sector sites, and thus increase stage, accurate site planning (ASP) lessons for deploying 6-sector,
network capacity. In sites where meets the requirements of special which will be incorporated into
6-sector was already deployed scenarios to mitigate the potential future whole-network 6-sector
on UMTS 2100 MHz, a large traffic network impact after deployment. deployment.
boost was observed: downlink data In the execution and optimization
traffic grew nearly by 50 percent, stages, site optimization tools such More importantly, the whole-
uplink data traffic by 74.73 percent, as automatic cell planning (ACP) and network 6-sector solution in urban
and voice traffic by 31.69 percent. SmartRNO accelerate deployment areas has set a new network
In addition, the drive test results and reduce potential RF issues. deployment benchmark for the
showed that user throughput had industry to develop 6-sector
improved by more than 100 percent, With the help of these tools, over network topology.
greatly boosting user experience. 1,000 6-sector sites have been

2016.10 ISSUE 80 49

By ?Zhang Aijun

WTTx gives Sri Lanka wings to soar

WTTx deployment has narrowed Sri Lanka's digital gap with the world, introduced the
nation’s people to a new dawn of broadband services, and helped it businesses hop on to
the fast track to growth.
By Li Quanling, Xu Changqing

ocated at the southern tip of the Lanka’s infrastructure is underdeveloped;
Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka however, since the war, the Sri Lankan
is famous for the beauty of its government has moved quickly with
natural environment and friendly economic reconstruction, placing a
people. This pearl in the Indian Ocean has particular focus on developing ICT, having
a population of approximately 20 million, developed its national broadband policy
and despite its status as a developing and e-Sri Lanka strategy.
country, education levels are high. Due
to the civil war that ended in 2009, Sri Rapid advances in communications

50 2016.10 ISSUE 80
WTTx gives Sri Lanka wings to soar / How to Operate

technology based on the Internet has felt the profit squeeze

and social media have made in the mobile market. Dealing
By leasing customer
people's lives better. However, with competition and finding a
broadband penetration is only sustainable way to make money is premise equipment
2 percent, far below the global a problem facing all operators in (CPE) to users, the
average of 9.3 percent, meaning this space. operator can reduce
that many people are excluded the initial broadband
from digital dividends. This is Dialog understands the strengths
service fee, lowering
because the rate of urbanization and benefits of wireless
is relatively low, with some 80 broadband (WBB). In 2010, the
the threshold for
percent of Sri Lankans living in operator launched WiMAX WBB accessing broadband
the countryside, where population services to satisfy the need for services.
density is low and the provision of broadband access for some home
fixed-line broadband coverage is users. In the last few years, with
very expensive. Small and medium the TD-LTE industry chain rapidly
enterprises (SMEs) are particularly maturing, Dialog has recognised
affected. SME users have a the value of evolving from WiMAX
high need for broadband, but to LTE and TDD spectrum. So in
the slow speed of 3G broadband 2012, the operator acquired 75
technology is unable to meet their MHz of TDD 2.3 GHz spectrum
needs. This impacts the growth after acquiring the broadcast
and efficiency of businesses. company Sky TV; then, in 2013 it
Developing broadband for home partnered with Huawei to roll out
and SME users to bridge the digital Sri Lanka's first home broadband
divide is a high priority for Sri service based on TD-LTE using a
Lanka's government and telecoms WTTx (wireless to the x) access
industry. solution.

WTTx deployment WTTx offers low network

bridges the digital construction costs and rapid
divide deployment. By leasing customer
premise equipment (CPE) to
Sri Lanka's mobile communications users, the operator can reduce
market is relatively mature, the initial broadband service
with five major mobile operators fee, lowering the threshold for
providing mobile communications accessing broadband services.
services in a fiercely competitive Compared to the high initial
environment. Even Sri Lanka's deployment costs and equipment
leading mobile operator, Dialog, usage fees of fixed-line

2016.10 ISSUE 80 51

broadband, the competitive advantages users. To provide enterprise solutions for

of WTTx are clear. SME customers, Dialog offered packages
that included voice, VPN, and multi-user
Dialog's WTTx operating broadband access. The tariff was six times
strategy higher than for a normal home user plan.

Before stepping into the broadband Third, it adopted strategies to increase

services arena, Dialog formulated user stickiness and reduce churn such
several key strategies after extensive as cultivating pre-paid users and bundles
research, including where to develop for CPE and equipment, TV and broadband
WTTx services, which users to target, services, and Wi-Fi and WBB services.
and how to provide high-quality services. Fourth, it launched new innovative
Detailed research on aspects such as Sri services for WBB, such as the Dialog
Lanka's broadband market, population Video App. Fifth, Dialog set up experience
distribution, per capita income, and data areas in customer service centers to let
traffic distribution helped Dialog compile a customers experience the convenience of
top 10 list of target areas, which included WBB services first hand.
the capital Colombo, Galle, and Gamphaha.
This answered the question of where to This series of measures helped Dialog
develop WTTx services, so Dialog quickly rapidly attract users. Dialog also focused
deployed a network and rolled out its on deploying new technologies, including
WTTx service. 8T8R RRU, indoor and outdoor CPE, and 4x4
MIMO and CA. These innovative software
As for which users to target, Dialog also and hardware solutions helped the
had a unique strategy: First, the operator operator provide an excellent broadband
quickly deployed WBB and rapidly experience for subscribers.
attracted users who had no fixed-line
broadband coverage by lowering initial WTTx deployment has narrowed Sri Lanka's
broadband costs with measures like Buy digital gap with the rest of the world,
& Plug & Play, operator subsidies, and introduced the Sri Lankan people to a new
leasing CPE to users. dawn of broadband services, and helped
Sri Lankan businesses hop on the fast
Second, Dialog offered flexible tariffs track to growth.
to target different types of users, for
example, setting fees for plans with voice Consolidating WBB
services 30 percent fee higher than those market lead
with no voice services. The operator also
used a differentiated QoS strategy to Dialog deployed the WTTx network in 2013,
attract high-ARPU subscribers and SME quickly meeting the need for some SME

52 2016.10 ISSUE 80
WTTx gives Sri Lanka wings to soar / How to Operate

and home users for broadband, Continual evolution

with the number of Dialog WTTx
helps Dialog stay
subscribers quickly breaking the
100,000 mark in less than two
ahead In the future,
years. In 2015, Dialog adopted 2CC On April 4, 2016, Huawei and WTTx will bring
CA to deal with the rapid growth Dialog signed a Memorandum of broadband access
in data traffic. At the end of Cooperation to conduct a joint 4.5G to even more
2015, the operator's broadband (TDD+) trial to verify the technology
homes and give Sri
subscriber base had surged to and accelerate its commercial
300,000, and its mobile broadband adoption. Huawei will soon launch
Lanka's economic
market share had grown to 10 CPE equipment that will provide development the
percent. gigabit peak rates, using Qualcomm wings it needs to
1 Gbps 4.5G chip sets, which were soar.
Huawei is a long-standing partner recently announced at MWC 2016.
of Dialog, helping it stand at the Users will soon be able to enjoy the
forefront of the WBB arena and ultimate zero-latency experience of
achieve continuous commercial watching HD TV and virtual reality
success. Looking to the future, over the Internet. The wide-scale
traffic on mobile broadband and commercial adoption of 4.5G (TDD+)
home broadband networks is technology will help WTTx continue
set to grow at an astonishing to deliver higher capacity and a
rate, as smartphones and HD better experience.
TV services proliferate. In 2016,
Dialog and Huawei launched a joint More than 300,000 users in Sri
4.5G (TDD+) trial. Dialog's aim is Lanka currently access WBB
to provide users with a faster services through WTTx, enabling
and better user experience by many to enjoy the convenience of
leveraging new technology. Huawei mobile Internet. WTTx technology
and Dialog's collaboration reaches will complement fixed-line
a new level every year, and the broadband services and go a
two jointly developed an optimal long way to achieving the e-Sri
WTTx business model to achieve Lanka strategy of connecting
commercial success. the unconnected. In the future,
WTTx will bring broadband access
Dialog's WTTx deployment project is to even more homes and give Sri
a landmark in terms of broadband Lanka's economic development the
construction in Sri Lanka and wings it needs to soar.
a milestone for the Sri Lankan
government's National Broadband Plan.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 53
SOLUTIONS Perspectives

MBB: Where agility

and growth go hand in hand
With the total number of base stations set to double over the next five years, Huawei's
MBB 2020-focused GigaRadio and Agile Site solutions can adapt to multiple scenarios and
environments, simplifying site acquisition and accelerating deployment.
By Chen Hui, Qi Youjun

o better deliver people- coverage and to meet demand for density is uneven, with the per
to-things connectivity for mobile broadband (MBB), which capita number of sites in densely
mobile users, operators continues to rise. populated regions such as Asia,
need to build many Africa, and Latin America far below
more new base stations for full Globally, mobile base station the global average. As explosive

LampSite/Integrated Site

54 2016.10 ISSUE 80
MBB: Where agility and growth go hand in hand / Solutions

global growth in MBB continues, analysis services, the solutions

projections show that the total provide innovative E2E site Delivered with
number of sites worldwide will solutions and simplified site
network consulting
double within five years. acquisition. They can adapt
to multiple scenarios and
and analysis services,
The Achilles heel environments to improve overall the solutions
site investment and ROI, and help provide innovative
Optimizing mobile networks operators resolve the pain points E2E site solutions
requires new sites, but space in of increasing site density and
and simplified site
cities is increasingly scarce – a building mobile communications
conflict that’s intensifying. Factors networks ready for MBB 2020.
such as public concern over signal
radiation and complex site approval Joint innovation by Huawei and
procedures add to the difficulties. its partners has found that an
effective approach to increasing
In the past, little consideration base station density includes the
was given to how traditional base following features:
stations fit in with the surrounding
environment. Now people care, 1. Use existing site resources
and operators have to defend by providing wireless network
existing sites. Studies show a 5 to consultation and site construction
7 percent loss in the number of planning services. The agile site
sites per year worldwide, which is construction concept involves
a net loss for density. fully using existing sites and pole
resources to improve network
But, operators are ramping up construction topology (super-macro
construction to the extent that multi-sector/centralized sites +
investment is disproportionate to remote simple sites), simplifying
income. With power consumption, sites and transmission, and
rental, O&M, and service costs increasing coverage and capacity.
for base stations on the rise, ROI
and energy savings are operators’ 2. Develop new solutions to
priorities. acquire site resources. For urban
public infrastructure such as
Getting agile street lights and bus stops, site
sharing across industries plus
With MBB 2020 approaching, faster and bulk site acquisition
Huawei has released its GigaRadio can be realized through industrial-
and Agile Site solutions. Delivered aesthetic site designs, innovative
with network consulting and street light solutions, and Smart

2016.10 ISSUE 80 55

Site Access Node (SAN) solutions. There are two types of centralized
sites: The first type is transmission with
3. Adopt agile site construction to provide centralized backup power. This type
outdoor micro-sites and indoor Small Cell fully uses existing poles and municipal
solutions for valuable regions and high- pipes and wiring, and BBU/Power/
traffic indoor areas to help operators Battery centralization and Easy Macro/
quickly capture high-value areas and remote RRU are used to streamline end
increase ROI. sites. It suits scenarios where there
are difficulties with mains supply and
Zero footprint
transmission, and where municipal
Centralized base stations simplify site pipelines or overhead wiring are
structure, while Huawei's Blade Site available. The second type is transmission
solution resolves the issue of limited space centralized sites. These fully use existing
for sites with base stations constructed poles, AirHub RRN and RLN one-to-many
from stackable blades that can be flexibly transmission solutions, and Easy Macro/
installed outdoors. RRU end site local backup power. This site
suits scenarios that have difficulties with
Lite Site/Hub centralized base station: wired backhaul and power supply.
The solution adopts a "1 carry n" mode
to streamline simple sites. It lowers Blade Site: GigaRadio provides a complete
acquisition time and electricity supply and Blade Site solution, and includes a full series
transmission costs; simplifies site design, of outdoor BBU, BBU, battery, microwave
planning, and deployment; streamlines transmission, and AirHub blades. This enables
end sites, and increases site deployment flexible combinations and modules to be
agility. assembled seamlessly on outdoor poles,

56 2016.10 ISSUE 80
MBB: Where agility and growth go hand in hand / Solutions

making base station installation Open cooperation with the industry multiband power (1-10W) sites,
as easy as fitting together Legos. chain, such as local municipal the solution can adapt to a
Site construction simply requires and electricity departments wide range of scenarios. These
a pole to build a zero-footprint or operators, allows the bulk include outdoor utility poles and
site. Other than standard macro acquisition of sites and utilization lamp posts, railway stations,
site scenarios, Blade Site provides or transformation of existing billboards, and telephone booths
the simplest site solution for linear infrastructure. Integrated street in central business districts,
coverage scenarios (highways/ light/base station design enables residential areas, and other
high-speed rail), and rural wide- invisible components and cables, as locations where site selection or
coverage scenarios. well as completely natural outdoor coverage is difficult using macro
cooling. sites. Projections show that micro
Focusing on form factor
sites will account for up to 20
Rapid advances in integrated In the UAE, Egypt, South Africa, and percent of sites by 2020. Outdoor
circuits have reduced the size of China, operators and government micro sites have a modular
equipment, enabling industrial- departments are working together design that supports automatic
aesthetic designs. The agile site to use street lights for fast site deployment and utilizes
solution uses unobtrusive site deployment and to create the distributed MIMO, 256QAM, and
designs to better incorporate latest base station platform using LAA for 4.5G gigabit peak rates.
equipment into urban environments. open IoT tech to unify planning
Jointly designing and planning with smart city systems. Thus, Small Cell for high-traffic areas:
base stations and municipal they can maximize site value. There are a high number of high-
infrastructure creates a new way traffic indoor areas where MBB
Boosting coverage for
to acquire sites. traffic has been restricted for a
quicker returns
considerable time. The Small Cell
Easy Macro lightweight street- High-value areas have long indoor digitalized solution comes
side simple sites: Lightweight sites been a key battleground for at the perfect time to meet this
lie between the level of a macro operators. Agile sites can provide need. The solution's indoor RRU/
site and a Small Cell, which account comprehensive indoor and outdoor LampSite and Pico solutions can
for an estimated 20 percent of all coverage solutions to help be adapted to a wide range of
sites. They can be deployed quickly operators capture high-traffic scenarios, including airports,
to boost network coverage and areas and ensure rapid returns on stadiums, commercial office
capacity. Easy Macro incorporates site investment. buildings, subways, campuses,
ultra-wideband RF antennas and and residential areas. The solution
can easily be integrated with an Outdoor micro sites: Lighter enables the flexible and smooth
attractive design for integration micro-level base stations are multiband and multimode expansion
with the surrounding environment, needed to meet requirements of single cell capacity. It can be
significantly reducing the difficulty for deep coverage in high-traffic flexibly and conveniently installed,
of site acquisition. urban areas. From single-mode including terminal RF coverage
low-power (<1W) in the past visualization and direct network
Street lights and green sites: to today's various multimode, management.

2016.10 ISSUE 80 57

Green thumbs million in OPEX annually.

The mobile communications industry uses Mixed new energy: Adding multi-energy
the 4 billion
huge amounts of energy, causing heavy scheduling to power-hungry sites can
unconnected carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the increase site-level efficiency to 94 percent.
with MBB vast number of base stations means that In areas where mains supply is poor or
connections, operators shoulder gigantic electricity unstable, mixed power supply can reduce
and a 20- costs, placing pressure on them to cut power consumption by 50 to 70 percent.
energy consumption. In areas where mains supply is good or
fold growth
energy prices are high, adopting site power
in network Continual improvement of energy overlay can also reduce OPEX. For example,
capacity efficiency of base stations: High- in a project in Pakistan, low-power base
are central efficiency power amplification (PA), new stations and high-efficiency power, cooling,
to the MBB materials/chip sets, cooling chimneys, and and mixed power supplies helped the client
cooling teeth have increased PA efficiency reduce OPEX by 80 percent and TCO by 56
2020 vision.
from 19 percent to 55 percent. With percent in five years.
distributed base stations, the RF is closer
to the antenna, reducing feeder loss by New growth
3 dB. The outdoor modularization of the
Blade Site solution enables natural cooling, Constructing base stations that are
removing the need for air conditioners closer to people and objects and have
and equipment rooms. Compared to the greater capabilities, connecting the 4
3,000W of power required by traditional billion unconnected with MBB connections,
2G base stations, SingleRAN multimode and a 20-fold growth in network capacity
base stations reduce power consumption are central to the MBB 2020 vision. As a
to below 1,600W, but give dozens of times valuable asset of operators, base stations
higher capacity and connectivity capability. are critical to increasing network capacity
and a cornerstone of achieving this vision.
Maximized site energy efficiency:
Existing network equipment rooms Huawei's series of innovative agile site
have a large number of old power (and construction solutions, such as Blade Site,
backup power) supply and air conditioning Easy Macro, Micro Site, and LampSite –
components that operate at around 80 a joint innovation with operators – can
percent efficiency. Replacing them with simplify the site construction process,
high-efficiency ones that run at 96 to beautify site locations, and reduce
98 percent efficiency can reduce energy network TCO. These solutions will help
waste and OPEX. For example, during a operators quickly increase site density
modular transformation project, British and boost MBB coverage and capacity,
Telecom replaced 10,000 equipment rooms creating new room for MBB growth and
and 30,000 sets of old modules, saving £22 paving the way for MBB 2020.

58 2016.10 ISSUE 80
UMTS+: Adding up to success / Solutions

UMTS+: Adding up to success

Over the last 10 years, UMTS networks have proliferated in many countries. Mobile
Broadband (MBB) adoption has grown rapidly around the world since 2008, when smart
devices first emerged and sparked the first MBB revolution. Today’s surge in devices and
social media use has seen UMTS network traffic skyrocket.
By Wang Mingxuan

perators have seen their The rising popularity of new social provision half as much spectrum as
growth increasingly media applications like Instagram developed ones. Moreover, 42 percent
hindered by a number of and Snapchat has seen users of the world's operators have only 8
practical issues, including leaving more established brands like MHz of spectrum at the golden 900
the explosive rise in data, limited Facebook and Twitter in developed MHz spectrum. Operators urgently
spectrum, and insufficient number markets, spurring the latter need new tech that can enhance
of sites. Intense market competition to invest in emerging markets. spectrum utilization to help them
has forced operators to consider However, today’s Facebook is more increase ROI.
approaches that can maximize than the simple message-based
returns from existing assets like social media platform it once was, The low-frequency 900 MHz band
spectrum and sites. The UMTS+ as it now incorporates new types is crucial for MBB broad coverage.
solution was developed in response of media such as video ads and live Traditional technology requires at
to these requirements in this new broadcasts. least 7.4 MHz of spectrum for 2G and
era. Encompassing Spectrum+, Site+, 3G to coexist on the 900 MHz band.
Subscriber+, and Experience+, the This has led to a surge in network Huawei's Spectrum+ solution utilizes
UMTS+ solution enables operators to traffic in developing nations. powerful narrowband and broadband
extract value from existing assets According to Huawei's projections, interference suppression technology
to maximize ROI and boost revenues. MBB traffic in these markets will to enable 2G and 3G subscribers to
see a sevenfold increase over 2016 coexist on a minimum of 5 MHz of
Due to large user numbers and the levels by 2020. spectrum. The solution boosts MBB
late development of MBB, a huge capacity by 40 percent or more
latent demand for MBB exists, Ubiquity with on the same amount of spectrum,
promising enormous potential Spectrum+ meaning that operators never have
demographic dividends for operators. to choose between 2G and 3G.
According to GSMA, the number Spectrum scarcity has become a
of UMTS users will grow to nearly major challenge for developing nations. Agile sites with Site+
4 billion between 2016 and 2020, a According to Huawei's statistics on
threefold increase. And most of these spectrum resources around the Globally, there are on average
users will be in developing countries. world, developing countries can only 1,000 sites per 1 million people, but

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in some developing countries this number improve its network capacity by more than
drops to as low as 100 to 200. Indeed, 30 percent, without negatively impacting
the biggest obstacle to expanding MBB the visual environment around the Olympic
coverage in emerging markets is the lack of sites in Brazil.
sites and difficulty of deploying new ones.
Huawei's Site+ solution was designed with Demographic dividends
such situations in mind, applying sector with User+
splitting technology to maximize single
site efficiency. The split antenna multi- At Mobile World Congress 2016, Facebook CEO
sector solution can increase the number of Mark Zuckerberg called for the development
sectors in a cell from three to six, or even of network infrastructure to bring the
nine, boosting capacity by up to 2.2 times. Internet to more people, showing his
With 3D-sector technology, capacity can be awareness of the vast potential of developing
enhanced by as much as four times, greatly countries. As of 2016, 40 percent of people in
increasing single site capacity. The solution emerging markets are still unconnected to
has been deployed by over 70 operators the Internet, with the vast majority still on 2G
around the globe, boosting UMTS network networks. Quickly migrating 2G subscribers
capacity by an average of 70 percent. to MBB networks would increase operators'
demographic dividends.
The Site+ solution also includes agile site
addition capabilities to facilitate new site Huawei's User+ solution uses visualization
deployment, reduce equipment and labor tools to identify the high-value customers
costs, and simplify site acquisition. The that operators should prioritize for migration.
solution offers a number of different Subscribers who consume large amounts
types of sites, including street light and of data every month, even on 2G networks,
underground sites. Street light sites are have demonstrated a willingness to use MBB.
installed inside the existing municipal Another type of potential MBB subscribers
structures. Underground sites make use are those using 3G handsets on 2G networks.
of underground-type APM30 cabinets that With reasonable tariffs, this type of customer
contain equipment, including the RRU RF will also quickly migrate to 3G.
module, power supply, and batteries.
Several operators have adopted the User+
By using the underground site solution, VIVO solution with great success. Thailand AIS
Brazil was able to obtain a site construction completed the migration of 5 million 2G
license in a month, 95 percent quicker subscribers to 3G in five months using a
than normal. It was then able to complete subscriber migration strategy with four
site deployment in 15 days, 75 percent main measures: 1) Network level: increase
faster than normal. Site construction coverage in areas of poor coverage
costs and site rental fees were halved. The and reduce 3G subscriber fallback; 2)
underground cabinet solution helped VIVO Flexible planning: set different plans for

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UMTS+: Adding up to success / Solutions

different user groups to appeal organizations and government Mbps, which easily satisfy 720p and
to more subscribers. 3) Precise bodies also regularly test network even 1080p HD video requirements.
user migration: employ telephone quality, with voice quality being the The H.265 video standard halves
consultants or over-the-air most important metric. the required speed for HD video,
technology to migrate subscribers enabling HD videos to be streamed
using smart devices. 4) Economical Huawei's Experience+ solution over 3G networks without difficulty.
MBB terminals: work with vendor leverages the 3G wideband AMR
partners to launch low-cost codec, together with "crystal- Peak rates aren’t the only factor
smartphones. clear voice seamless coverage" that impact HD experience for users.
and "crystal-clear deep coverage" Video experience at cell edges is also
The entire migration process went software capabilities, providing the key to user satisfaction. A lack
without a hitch. A survey showed subscribers with an MOS 4.0 of site coordination capabilities in
that 81 percent of subscribers immersive HD voice experience. In traditional site tech can lead to poor
enjoyed an improved 3G network Switzerland, an independent Swiss user experience at cell edges, and
experience post-migration, and 97 authority ranked the operator in particular at site edges. In 3GPP,
percent were satisfied with the Sunrise first in voice in 2015, up from the X2 interface is a 4G element for
migration process. third three years earlier. It achieved communication between eNodeB
this by quickly improving its network base stations. In the UMTS+ solution,
HD and more with capability with the HD voice solution. the technology is used between two
Experience+ 1080p HD for growth
3G NodeB base stations. The UX2
interface supports cross-site DB
As iMAX cinemas show, users will Operators are already switching HSDPA between two NodeB sites and
pay for great quality. Similarly, their focus to video services. Even upstream COMP, greatly increasing
operators are switching focus from in developing countries, data traffic upstream and downstream
KPIs to user-oriented KQIs. A good from video is surging. In Egypt, for throughput, enabling users at cell
network today is not simply one example, traffic from video services edges to enjoy 720p and 1080p HD
that lets subscribers connect or grew from 21.5 percent to 30 video experiences.
doesn’t drop calls; it must also be percent in the span of a year. Huawei
able to deliver a great voice and predicts that video services will With a huge demographic dividend
data experience, including HD voice account for over 50 percent of data still up for grabs, UMTS+ represents
and video. traffic in emerging markets by 2020. a milestone in the 3G MBB era.
Boosting service experience will help UMTS+ helps operators maximize
Immersive HD voice
operators raise their brand equity the value of existing network assets
In developing countries, up to 80 with high-end subscribers. and boost revenues, and builds
percent of operator income still networks to support MBB 2020 for
comes from voice services. However, A common misconception is that all. Then, everyone can be connected
with the rise of OTT apps, they HD video requires super high rates. and enjoy a better MBB experience
aren’t the only choice. Moreover, With Dual-Cell High Speed Downlink wherever they are.
apps are available that test network Packet Access (HSDPA) or Dual-Band
quality, while independent testing (DB) HSDPA, 3G peak rates can hit 42

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CUTTING Perspectives
Industry EDGE

Up in the air with 5G

F-OFDM, SCMA, and Polar Code are the three key technologies that
underpin Huawei's 5G new air interface concept. F-OFDM is a basic
waveform technology that supports a unified air interface and uses
flexible numerologies to enable radio slicing. SCMA and Polar Code
increase the number of connections, reliability, and spectral efficiency.

By Zhang Dong

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Up in the air with 5G / Cutting Edge

ir interface technology A matter of design meet diverse, even conflicting,
is the jewel in the crown requirements. Revolutionary new 5G
that differentiates each Requirements guide the goals and air interface technologies are needed
generation of mobile direction of 5G research. In June to meet ITU's 5G requirements.
communications. It also has the 2015, the ITU-R defined three main
most contending technologies, each 5G application scenarios: enhanced 2. Long-tailed: 5G will expand the
vying to emerge victorious as the mobile broadband (eMBB); Massive boundaries of mobile communications
5G sky begins to clear thanks to Machine Type Communication by embracing verticals and boosting
3GPP 5G standardization. Of these (mMTC); and Ultra Reliable & Low their efficiency. Verticals have
technologies, Huawei's series of Latency Communication (uRLLC). extremely varied requirements on
new 5G air interface technologies The organization also defined 5G mobile Internet services, and as
is the star that’s shining the network capability requirements in typical long-tailed markets, bring in
brightest. eight areas, including throughput, much lower revenues. The long tail
latency, connection density, and structure dictates that it will be
spectral efficiency. impossible to develop different air
interface designs to suit each type
Future 5G services will be defined of industry. Instead, it will require
by three main characteristics, the use of different parameters
each of which will place different (numerology) or radio slicing, so that
demands on air interfaces: the air interface can adapt to the
requirements of different verticals.
1. Diversity: All generations up to
4G focused on people-to-people 3. Uncertainty: The next four to five
communication via mobile Internet; years will bring a lot of uncertainty,
but, 5G will need to enable the and may include services that were
Internet of Things (IoT) and enhance impossible to predict. Therefore, we
mobile Internet. must consider what drives services
as well as keeps our technology a
An unparalleled flourishing of little ahead of the industry. Future
services and requirements will occur 5G services will be diverse, long-
in the 5G era. We will see remote tailed, and hard to predict. This will
control applications that require ms- require a new unified air interface
level latency; demand for gigabit that has a high degree of flexibility
broadband to support virtual reality to adapt to different services. The
(VR), augmented reality (AR), and new air interface design will need
ultra-high definition video; and to improve spectral efficiency –
LPWA IoT that will require millions of always a goal of air interface design
connections per square kilometer. – given its importance in lowering
operator network deployment costs
Air interface design will have to and ensuring the maturity and

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prosperity of the entire industry chain. technology. The Internet of Vehicles, for
example, requires ms-level latency and

New 5G air interface: key very short time symbol duration and TTI
(Transmission Time Interval), requiring sub-
enablers carrier spacing with wide frequency division.
In IoT's massive connections scenario, the
To overcome the challenges described overall system must handle a high number of
above, Huawei has proposed a new 5G connections even though data transmission
air interface concept and a series of from individual sensors is low. For frequency
key enabling technologies, covering division configuration, this will require
fundamental waveform, multiple access relatively narrow sub-carrier spacing. For
schemes, channel coding, access protocols, time division, the ISI problem doesn’t need
and frame structures. We’ve also carried to be considered, and there’s no need to
out field tests and verification with use CP because symbol length and TTI are
pioneering operators. sufficiently long. In addition, asynchronous
operations save energy at the terminal side.
Superstructure is determined by underlying
infrastructure. The same applies in air OFDM cannot meet these flexibility
interface design. This article will therefore requirements. OFDM's time-frequency
explore new waveform, new multiple access, resource allocation is a fixed 15 KHz
and new coding techniques, the critical new of frequency division on sub-carrier
technologies of 5G physical layer design. bandwidth, compared with MBSFN, which
is 7.5 KHz. Once the sub-carrier bandwidth
Filtered-OFDM: new waveform
is determined, numerology such as time
Fundamental waveform design enables division symbol length and CP length are
a unified air interface that supports also basically determined.
flexibility and spectral efficiency. To
illustrate the case for Filtered-OFDM, it’s If the system's time-frequency resources
useful to explore the reasons why OFDM are like a train carriage, the OFDM solution
cannot meet 5G requirements. is used to furnish it. OFDM can only
provide seats (sub-carrier spacing) of a
OFDM modulation converts high-speed data fixed size for all passengers regardless of
into orthogonal sub-carriers via serial/parallel whether they are fat, thin, rich, or poor.
converters, and uses cyclic prefix (CP) to A train design like this would be illogical,
deal with Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). insufficiently user-centric, and unable to
OFDM was widely used in the 4G era, but the meet people's diverse needs.
technology's main problem was inflexibility.
For 5G, the hope is to provide a variety
In the 5G era, different applications will have of train seats (spacing) – hard, soft,
very different requirements on air interface sleepers, private compartments – all

64 2016.10 ISSUE 80
Up in the air with 5G / Cutting Edge

flexibly customized based on flexibility and spectral efficiency. efficiency, more passengers need
passengers' height and size (service Thus, it’s a key technology for 5G to fit into a limited number of seats.
requirements), with whatever air interface slicing. For example, squeezing six people
adjustments required possible. This into the space of four seats sounds
New multi-access: Sparse
would be like the Harmony Express easy enough, and would increase
Code Multiple Access
of the China high-speed rail with the number of connections by 150
its many customizable seating Sparse Code Multiple Access (SCMA) percent, but achieving it is another
arrangements – this is the idea on determines the allocation of air matter.
which F-OFDM is based. interface resources, and is thus
a key technology for increasing This is where low-density spread
F-OFDM can provide different sub- the number of connections and spectrum comes in. In this first key
carrier spacing and numerology for spectral efficiency. With F-OFDM SCMA technology, the user data of
different services to meet time- enabling flexible multiplexing a single sub-carrier is spread on to
frequency resource requirements. on frequency division and time four sub-carriers, with six users
Sub-carrier spacing in different division and minimizing the use of using these four sub-carriers. The
bandwidths no longer possesses guard bands, what other domains name refers to the fact that user
orthogonal properties, so guard can multiplexing be applied to data is only spread over two sub-
bandwidth needs to be used. that further enhances spectral carriers, with the other two sub-
For example, OFDM requires 10 efficiency? carriers empty. This is like six
percent guard bandwidth. Guard passengers sitting on four seats,
band guarantees the flexibility of The two that come to mind are with each passenger only able to
F-OFDM, but does it lower spectral space domain and code domain. sit over two seats at most. This is
efficiency? In the past, there’s Spatial multiplexing MIMO was what the "sparse" in SCMA refers
always been a conflict between proposed during the LTE era; it to. Why must it be sparse? If data
flexibility and system expenditure. will further flourish in the 5G era were not sparsely spread, it would
But the optimized filter design of thanks to multi-antenna. As for be spread over an entire sub-
F-OFDM greatly reduces out-of- code domain, the technique seems carrier. This would mean the same
band leakage, and the spectrum to have been forgotten in the LTE sub-carrier carrying the data of six
spent on guard bands between era, so can it be revived in the 5G users and there would be too much
different sub-bands can be reduced era? In fact, this is what SCMA conflict and demodulating the data
to around 1 percent, greatly does by using sparse codebooks of the six users would be impossible
increasing spectral efficiency and sparse code multiple access to complete.
and making it possible to utilize (SCMA) to increase the number of
fragmented spectrums. connections threefold. However, once six people sit on
four seats, the space between
F-OFDM has inherited all the Returning to the train metaphor, them isn’t strictly orthogonal. Each
advantages of OFDM like high F-OFDM adapts the seats (sub- passenger occupies two seats,
spectral efficiency and MIMO carriers) according to passengers' so the passengers cannot be
adaptability, but also addresses needs (service requirements). distinguished by seat number (sub-
some of its flaws by boosting To further enhance spectral carrier). On a single carrier, conflict

2016.10 ISSUE 80 65

still exists between the data of three distinguish the passengers.

users, so difficulties with demodulating the
Using data of multiple users remains. In field validation tests under acceptable
nonscheduling levels of complexity, a threefold increase
technology This is where multidimensional modulation in the number of upstream connections
(MD) – the second key SCMA technology – compared to OFDMA has been achieved
can greatly
plays a role. MD is a very abstract concept using SCMA and non-orthogonal sparse code
reduce data because traditional IQ modulation only had division, as well as significantly improved
transmission two dimensions – amplitude and phase. So downstream user throughput (over
latency to what do the extra dimensions represent? 50 percent) using non-orthogonal code
meet 1 ms division and power division multiplexing. In
Here we need to engage our imaginations addition, because SCMA allows a certain
air interface
a little. Imagine the process of an Alpha level of conflict between users, using non-
latency Centaurian alien opening up a proton into scheduling technology can greatly reduce
requirements. a 3D multi-dimensional circuit and then data transmission latency to meet 1 ms air
reducing the number of dimensions again. interface latency requirements.
Eventually, a single proton is formed into
New coding technology: Polar
an all-powerful computer, but the proton is
still a proton, except its function has been
greatly enhanced. The ultimate goal of Polar Codes – Shannon
capacity: The goal of channel coding is
Similarly, through MD technology, it’s to ensure the reliable transmission of
still the phase and amplitude that are information using the least amount of
modulated, but the Euclidean distance resources. At a particular error rate, the
between the constellation points of the smaller the amount of resources needed,
multi-users is shortened, considerably the higher the coding efficiency, and hence
boosting the performance of multi-user the higher the spectral efficiency. For
demodulation and anti-interference. researchers of channel coding techniques,
Each user data uses sparse codebooks attaining the Shannon limit is the ultimate
allocated by the system to carry out goal.
multidimensional modulation. The system
knows each user's codebook, making it So what is the Shannon limit? Shannon's
possible to demodulate different users second theorem states that as long as the
when a non-orthogonal waveform is used. information transmission rate is less than
the channel capacity, a type of code exists
This is equivalent to sticking coloured that can enable the information transmission
stickers onto passengers to identify them error probability to be made arbitrarily
when it’s no longer possible to do so by small. In the narrow sense, the Shannon
seat number; the stickers together with limit describes the minimum signal-to-noise
the seat numbers make it possible to ratio (SNR) required to achieve error-free

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transmission using a code. For example, the codes, Turbo codes, and LDPC codes, which
Shannon limit of an AWGN channel under have been widely applied in different kinds
ideal circumstances is around -1.6 dB. In of communications systems. However, no
practice, however, the cost of achieving code has been able to achieve the Shannon
error-free transmission is too high. In the limit, until the introduction of Polar Codes.
general definition of the Shannon limit,
that’s the minimum SNR required for a Basic principle of Polar Codes: Erdal
particular acceptable error rate. Arikan, a professor at Turkey's Bilkent
University, proposed the concept of channel
Communications can be likened to logistics. polarization in 2007. The theory outlines the
In logistics, the goal is to transport goods first known demonstrable channel coding
to an end point. Take the example of a method to achieve the Shannon limit, which
glass factory, a shipment of glass products Arikan termed Polar Codes. This discovery
needs to be sent from A (information was a major breakthrough in coding
source) to B (information sink). The road theory. Polar Codes have clear and simple
between A and B is equivalent to the encoding and decoding algorithms, and the
channel, and the potholes and bumps along error correction performance currently
the road are channel noises. To reduce the achievable by Polar Codes is superior to the
amount of losses due to breakage (errors) widely used Turbo and LDPC codes.
during transport, the products need to
be packed into cardboard boxes (coding) To understand Polar Codes, we must
and then unpacked at point B (decoding). first understand the concept of channel
Although packaging (coding) increases polarization. As the term suggests, it
overheads and reduces the number of involves polarization of the channel
products that can fit into each container and refers to a group of independent
(information payload), the method greatly symmetric binary-input discrete
reduces breakage rates (bit error rate). memoryless channels that use the
When there is an allowable breakage rate coding method to enable different sub-
(bit error rate), improving the packaging channel reliability. When the code length is
(coding) method can minimize requirements increased, a ratio of the channels become
on the road and transport vehicle (SNR). perfect (error-free), while the rest become
This minimum requirement (minimum SNR) pure noise channels.
is the Shannon limit.
Continuing with the example of the glass
Shannon's theorem posits the existence of factory, the original packaging method
such a code, but doesn’t explain what code (coding method) makes it impossible to
can achieve this. This has frustrated coding predict the location of products that will
scientists who, for the past 50 years, have break during transport. But with a Polar
proposed multiple error correction coding Codes packaging method, it’s possible
techniques, including RS, convolutional to guarantee that a certain proportion

2016.10 ISSUE 80 67

of products in a certain location won’t in fact than Turbo codes under equivalent
be damaged during transport (perfect complexity. This greatly extends the
When channels) no matter how bumpy the road, battery life of IoT sensors, which demand
standards are while the rest in the other locations will ultra-low power consumption.
defined, all certainly break (pure noise channel). This
characteristics of channel polarization Some things bear repeating: F-OFDM is a
allows products (information bits) to be fundamental waveform technology for
and directions placed in the perfect channel and nothing supporting a unified air interface that
are worthy of (constant bits) in the pure noise channel uses flexible numerology to enable air
respect and location. And because the distribution interface slicing. In addition to F-OFDM,
remembrance of the perfect channel is known when SCMA and Polar Codes enhance the number
as the produce the goods are packed, decoding when of connections, reliability, and spectral
unpacking them becomes much simpler. In efficiency, meeting ITU's 5G capability
of wisdom and
fact, improved Successive Cancelation List requirements. These are the three key
for their role (SCL) decoding algorithms for Polar Codes technologies underpinning Huawei's new 5G
in driving 5G approach the performance of maximum air interface concept.
advancement. likelihood decoding with acceptable
Competition drives 5G
The advantages of Polar Codes are: 1) The curtain has just been pulled back on 5G
higher gain than Turbo codes: In actual and we stand on the cusp of a great era. In
measurements under equivalent error each generation of mobile communications,
rate, Polar Codes have 0.5-1.2 dB lower there are competing directions and
SNR requirement than Turbo codes, and candidate technologies.
higher code efficiency means increased
spectral efficiency; 2) Thanks to Hamming Ultimately, the best directions and
distance and strong SC algorithm design, technologies survive the filters of theory,
Polar Codes have no error floor and practice, and market. Through integration
reliability is much better than Turbo codes. and validation, they are transformed and
(Turbo codes use sub-optimal algorithm, proliferate, leaving an indelible mark on the
and thus have an error floor). For the world.
ultra-high reliability requirements of 5G
service applications (such as remote real- When standards are defined, all
time control and driverless vehicles), technologies and directions are worthy
Polar Codes support 99.999% reliability, of respect and remembrance as the
ensuring reliability for vertical industries; producers of wisdom and for their role in
3) Polar Codes use a SC-based decoding driving 5G advancement. Let's look forward
scheme that significantly reduces decoding to the new super connected world of 5G.
complexity; terminal power consumption
is therefore much lower, 20 times lower

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