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516.

23076 BAN GIAO VIEN NANG KHIEU TRUCiNG THI

T527T N J G U Y E N eC/C e O N G ( C h u bien)

PHAN LOAI
VA PHl/OfNG PHAP
GIAITHEO
CHUYEN DE

• BOI Dl/dNG HQC SINH GIOI


• CHUAN B! THI TU TAI, DAI HOC VA CAO DANG

BOG
Ha NOI NHA XUAT BAN OAI HOC QUOC GIA HA NOI
BAN GIAO V I E N NANG K H I E U TRl/CfNG THI
NGUYEN DLfC D 6 N G {Chu hien)

TUYEN TAP 500 •


BAITOAN

HDIH imm GIAN


C H O N LOG
• •

• PHAN LOAI VA PHUdNG PHAP G I A I THEO 2 3 CHUYEN

• B o i difdng hoc s i n h g i o i
• C h u a n b i t h i T i i t a i , D a i hoc v a Cao d a n g

(Tdi ban idn thvt ba, c6 svCa chUa bo sung)

THir ViEN TiiVH BiKH liik^m

NHA XUAT BAN DAI HOC QUOC GIA H A NOI


NHA XUAT BAN DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA NQI
16 Hang Chuoi - Hai Ba Trcfng - Ha Npi
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Bien tap: THUY HOA
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SACH LIEN K E T
TUYEN TAP 500 BAI TOAN HJNH KHONG GIAN CHON LOG
Ma so: 1L - 195OH2014
In 1.000 cuon, kho 17 x 24cm tai Cong ti Co phan V3n hoa VSn Lang - TP. Ho Chi IVlinh.
So xuat ban: 664 - 2014/CXB/01-127/OHQGHN ngay 10/03/2014.
Quyet dinh xuat ban so: 198LK - TN/QO - NXBOHQGHN ngay 15/04/2014.
in xong va nop IIAJ chieu quy il nSm 2014.
LCilNOIDAU

Chung t o i x i n g i d i t h i $ u den doc gia bp sdch: Tuyen t a p cdc b ^ i toan d k n h cho


hoc sinh Idp 12, chuan b i t h i vao cac trucrng D a i hoc & Cao d i n g .

Bo sach gom 7 quyen :

. T U Y E N T A P 546 B A I T O A N T I C H P H A N

. T U Y E N T A P 540 B A I T O A N K H A O S A T H A M SO

. T U Y E N T A P 500 B A I T O A N H I N H G I A I T I C H

. T U Y E N T A P 500 B A I T O A N H I N H K H O N G G I A N

. T U Y E N T A P 696 B A I T O A N D A I SO

• T U Y E N T A P 599 B A I T O A N L U O N G G I A C

. T U Y E N T A P 6 7 0 B A I T O A N RCJI R A C V A C l / C TRI

NhSm phuc vu cho viec r e n luyen va on t h i vao D a i hoc b k n g phucrng phdp t i m


hieu cac de t h i dai hoc da ra, de tiT n a n g cao va chuan b i k i e n thiJc can t h i e t .

De phuc vu cho cac do'i tUcfng t\i hoc : Cac bai g i a i luon chi t i e t va ddy d u , p h a n
nho tCrng loai toan va dua vao do cac phucfng phap hop l i .

Mac du chiing t o i da co g^ng het siic t r o n g qud t r i n h bien soan, song vSn k h o n g
t r a n h k h o i nhiJng t h i e u sot. Chiing t o i m o n g don n h a n m o i gop y, phe b i n h tii quy
dong nghiep ciing doc gia de Ian xuat ban sau sach ducfc hoan t h i e n hcfn.

Cuoi Cling, chiing toi x i n cam cm N I l A X U A T B A N D A I H O C Q U O C G I A H A N O I da


giiip da chiing t o i m o i m a t d l bo sach dUdc r a dcfi.

NGUYEN DtfC DONG

3
B A N G K E CAC K I H I E U V A CHLf V I E T T A T T R O N G SACH
CAC K I H I E U T O A N HOC v A CAC T l / V I E T T A T
(i)
• <=> : (i) tUcfng dUcfng • [ ( A B C ) ; ( E F G ) ] : goc tao bori 2 mp
(il ( A B C ) va ( E F G )
• => : (i) keo theo ->
• C > : Phep t i n h tien vectcf v
• <!> : k h o n g tUdng dilcfng V
• d> : k h o n g keo theo • D A : Phep doi xOmg true A
• = : dong n h a t
• Do : Phep doi xiiTng true 0
• i : k h o n g dong n h a t
• Q(0; cp) : Phep quay t a m O, goc quay
• Sv\nc = S ( A B C ) = d t ( A B C ) : d i e n . t i c h (p.
AABC
• V T ( 0 ; k ) : Phep v i t u t a m 0, t i so k.
• V s A H c = V ( S . A B C ) : the t i c h h i n h chop
S.ABC • D N : dinh nghla
• Stp : D i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n • D L : dinh ly
• Sxq : D i e n t i c h xung quanh • H Q : he qua
• V : The t i c h • C M R : chiJng m i n h r i n g
• A ' = ''7(ai A : A ' la h i n h chieu ciia A • B i : budc i
xuong m a t p h i n g (a)
• T H i : t r u d n g hop i
• A ' = ''Vfd) A : A ' l a h i n h chieu cua A
xuong dtfcfng thftng (d) • V T : ve t r a i
• d [ M ; (D)l : k h o a n g each tiT d i e m M d e n • V P : ve p h a i
ducfng t h i n g (D) • B D T : bat d i n g thijfc
• d [ M ; ( A B C ) I : k h o a n g each tii diem M
• y c b t : yeu cau b a i toan
den mat phang ( A B C )
• d p c m : dieu p h a i chuCng m i n h
• (a; P ) : goc n h i d i e n tao bcfi 2 mfa m a t
• gt : gia thiet
phang (a) va ( P )
• ( S ; A B ; D) = ( A B ) : n h i dien c a n h A B • K L : ket luan
• D K : dieu k i e n
• (3r3^ : goc tao bdi h a i dUomg t h i n g d
va d' • P B : phan ban
• [ H T C A B C T I : goc tao bdi du&ng t h i n g d • C P B : chiTa p h a n ban
va mp(ABC)
4
Chuyen de 1 : TONG QUAN V E C A C KHAI NIEM
T R O N G HINH H O C K H O N G G I A N

• H i n h hoc k h o n g gian la m o t mon hoc ve cac v $ t t h e t r o n g k h o n g g i a n ( h i n h h i n h hoc


t r o n g k h o n g gian) ma cac d i e m h i n h t h a n h nen v a t the do t h u d n g thiTcrng k h o n g ciing n f t m
t r o n g mot m a t phang.
• N h i f vay ngoai d i e m v a d i i d n g t h d n g k h o n g drfoTc d i n h n g h i a nhiT t r o n g h i n h hoc
phAng; mon h i n h hoc k h o n g g i a n con xay di/ng t h e m mot doi tuong can n g h i e n ciifu nCfa la
k h a i n i # m m g t p h a n g c u n g k h o n g difoTc d i n h n g h i a . K h i noi tori k h a i n i e m nay t a
lien tuang den m o t m a t ban b a n g phang, m o t m a t ho nildc yen l a n g , m o t tb giay dat d i n h
sat t r e n mot m a t da di/gc l a m phang.... No duoc k y hieu b d i cac chCf i n L a T i n h n h a : (P),
(Q), (R), ... hoac cac chCf t h u d n g H y L a p nhU (a), ((5), (y), ....
• M a t phang k h o n g ducfc d i n h n g h i a qua mot k h a i n i e m k h a c ; n h i f n g thifc te cho thfi'y mSt
ph&ng CO nhutng t i n h chat cu t h e sau, goi la cac t i e n de :
O T I E N D E 1: C o i t n h a t b o n d i e m t r o n g k h o n g g i a n k h o n g t h ^ n g h a n g (nghia la
luon luon c6 i t n h a t 1 d i e m d ngoai m o t m a t p h ^ n g tiiy y).
O T I E N D E 2: N e u m p t dtfdng th&ng v a m p t m a t p h ^ n g c 6 h a i d i e m c h u n g t h i
dUcTng th&ng a y se n S m t r p n v ^ n t r o n g m a t p h a n g n e u t r e n .
O T I E N D E 3: N e u h a i m a t p h & n g c 6 d i e m c h u n g t h i c h t i n g c 6 v 6 so' d i e m c h u n g :
n e n h a i m a t p h S n g do c S t n h a u t h e o m p t d U d n g t h ^ n g d i q u a v 6 so' d i e m
c h u n g a y . Di/cfng t h a n g ay goi la giao tuyen cua h a i m a t ph^ng.
O T I E N D E 4: C o m p t v a c h i m p t m $ t p h a n g d u y n h a t d i q u a b a d i e m p h a n b i # t
khong th^ng hang.
O T I E N D E 5: T r e n m p t m § t p h a n g t u y y t r o n g k h o n g g i a n c a c d i n h l y h i n h h o c
ph&ng scf c a p (da hoc tCr Idp 6 den Idp 10 va cac d i n h l y n a n g cao) d e u d i i n g .
O T I E N D E 6: M o i d o a n th&ng t r o n g k h o n g g i a n d e u c 6 dp d a i x a c d i n h : t i e n de neu
len sU bao toan ve dp dai, goc va cac t i n h chat lien thuoc da biet t r o n g h i n h hoc p h i n g .
• TiT do chung t a c6 m o t so each xac d i n h m a t p h 4 n g n h i / sau :
O H E Q U A 1: C o m p t v a c h i m p t mfit p h S n g d u y n h a t d i q u a m p t d U d n g t h S n g v a
m p t d i e m n S m n g o a i dt^dng t h a n g do.
O H E Q U A 2: C o mpt v a c h i mpt m^t p h d n g duy n h a t d i q u a h a i di^cAig t h ^ n g cSt n h a u .
O H E Q U A 3: C o m p t v a c h i m p t m ^ t p h a n g d u y n h a t d i q u a h a i di^c/ng t h d n g
song song.
• Dong t h d i t a phai hieu t h e m r k n g mot m a t phang se r o n g k h o n g bien gidi va dUcmg t h ^ n g c6
do dai v6 t a n mac du t a se bieu dien no mpt each h i n h thiifc hflu h a n va k h i e m t o n nhU sau:

• De thuc h i e n dirge phep ve c h i n h xdc m 6 t h i n h h i n h hoc t r o n g k h o n g g i a n ngoai cac dudng


t h a y ve l i e n n e t , t a can p h a i n a m chac di/pc k h a i n i e m di/dng k h u a t ve b k n g net dijft doan:
Mpt dtfdng b i k h u a t t o a n bp h a y c h i k h u a t m p t d o a n c u e bp n a o do k h i v a c h i
k h i t o n t a i i t n h a t m p t m a t p h S n g du'ng p h i a trvC6c h o ^ c p h i a t r e n c h e n o m p t
e a c h t o a n bp h o a c c u e bp ti^cAig uTng.

5
• Muon xac d i n h n h ^ n h m o t m a t p h ^ n g t r o n g k h o n g gian t a con chon t h u thuat thUc h a n h :
M p t h i n h t a m g i a c , tii" g i a c h o a c d a g i a c ph&ng ( k h o n g g e n h ) , dUcfng i r o n ,
l u d n x a c d i n h m p t m ^ t p h S n g t r o n g k h o n g g i a n . T a gpi c a c m&t p h ^ n g do l a m^it
p h S n g h i n h thvCc v d i c a c k y h i p u ( A B C ) , ( A B C D ) , ( C ) , ... txictng vtng.
• M a t p h d n g h i n h thu^c h i k h u a t n e u c 6 m p t h a y n h i e u m ^ t ph&ng n a o do c h e n o .
• M p t dvictng t h d n g n ^ m t r o n g m ^ t p h & n g h i n h thd'c m a m a t do h i k h u a t c u e bp
h a y t o a n bp v a k h i dUcTng t h ^ n g do k h o n g l a b i e n c u a m a t p h d n g b i k h u a t do,
t h i di^dng th&ng do c u n g tii'oTng vlng k h u a t c u e bp h a y t o a n bp.
• Mpt d i e m nhm t r o n g m p t m $ t ph&ng h i n h thuTc b i k h u a t t h i goi l a d i e m k h u a t .
• Noi h a i d i e m m a it n h a t c 6 mpt d i e m k h u a t t h i dUpc mpt dUcfng k h u a t cue bp h a y
t o a n bp : n e u h a i diictag do k h o n g l a b i e n c u a c a c m^t phAng h i n h thufc c h e no.
• C A C H I N H A N H M I N H HQA
\(d)
• (d) b i (a) che k h u a t cue bo, do (d) c6 1 doan ve
net dijft doan n k m dudi (a).
S • (d) b i m a t p h ^ n g (SAC) che k h u a t cue bo, do (d)
CO m p t doan ve duft doan n k m sau (SAC) (hien
n h i e n (d) cung d sau cac m a t (SAB), (SBC)).
• C a n h AC b i h a i m a t p h a n g (SBC) v£l (SBC) che
k h u a t toan bo, do ca doan AC x e m n h u hoan t o a n d
sau dong t h d i h a i m a t p h ^ n g (SAB), (SBC).
-AA. • A ] H b i che t o a n bo do ca doan A ] H n k m sau m a t
p h i n g ( A i A D D i ) , mSc dij no d trU<Sc m a t p h a n g
( A B B j A i ) va d t r e n m a t p h a n g (ABCD).
c./—1—^VFJL^ • (d) b i che k h u a t cue bo v i c6 doan E F ve net duTt
doan n a m sau h a i m a t p h a n g ( A D D i A j ) ; ( C D D j C j ) ,
mac dij doan E F d p h i a trUcJe h a i m a t phang
( A B B j A i ) ; ( B C C i B i ) ; va d t r e n m a t p h a n g (ABCD).
• C A C KY H I E U C A N ^fHd
Thiir trf Ky hieu Y nghta Ghi chu
1 A e (d) D i e m A thuoc ducfng t h i n g (d) hay dadng H a y v i e t n h a m la :
t h i n g (d) chura A. Ac(d)
2 A i (d) D i e m A or ngoai difdng t h i n g (d) hay H a y v i e t n h a m la :
dUcfng t h i n g (d) k h o n g chtifa A. Acz(d)
3 (d) c (a) DU&ng t h i n g (d) n k m t r o n g mat p h i n g (a) H a y v i e t n h a m la :
hay (a) quay quanh (a) neu (a) luu dong. (d) e (a)
4 (d) // (a) Difcrng t h i n g (d) song song \6\t p h i n g Cach v i e t khae :
(a). (d) n (a) = 0
5 (d) n (a) = A Difdng t h i n g (d) e i t m a t p h i n g (a) t a i A. e a c h v i e t khdc :
(d) n (a) = {A}
6 (d,) n (da) = A H a i dUcfng t h i n g ( d i ) , (da) dong quy t a i A. Cach v i e t khac :
(d,) n (da) = {A}

7 (di)//(d2) H a i difdng t h f t n g ( d i ) , (da) song song n h a u H a y v i e t n h a m la :


neu chiing. ( d i ) o (da) = 0
8 («)^(P) H a i m a t p h a n g (a) va ([5) t r i i n g nhau k h i Cach v i e t khac :
Cling chijfa 3 d i e m A , B, C p h a n biet k h o n g (a) = (p)
t h i n g hang.
9 (a) = (ABC) M a t p h a n g (a) xac d i n h bdi ba d i e m A , B, (ABC) : l a m a t p h I n g
C p h a n b i e t va k h o n g t h i n g hang. hinh thijfc vdi ba
dildng bi&n A B , BC,
AC.
10 (a) = (A; d) M a t p h i n g (a) xac d i n h b d i d i e m A va (A; d) ; la m a t p h I n g
ducfng t h i n g (d) k h o n g qua A. h i n h thufc
11 (a) s ( d i ; dz) M a t p h I n g (a) xac d i n h bdi h a i dudng • d i , da CO the song
t h i n g d i , da. song hoac dong quy.
• ( d i ; da) la m a t
p h l n g h i n h thuTc.

Loai 1: T t M G I A O T U Y I N C U A H A I M A T P H A N G

I. p m r o N G P H A P ,
Co so cua phiiong phap t i m giao tuyen cua
hai m a t p h l n g (a) va (P) can thUc h i e n 2 budc
CO ban :
• B , : T i m h a i d i e m chung A , B cua (a) va (P).
n Ba : Difdng t h i n g A B l a giao tuyen can t i m
hay A B = (u) n (P) (ycbt).

n. PHirONG PHAP,
• Ti/ong t u nhtr phaong phap 1 k h i chi t i m ngay dtfoc 1 d i e m chung S.
• Luc nay t a c6 h a i trifcfng hap :
> H a i m a t p h l n g (a), (P) thuf tif chiJa h a i difdng
t h i n g ( d i ) , (da) ma (dj) n (da) = I
=> S I la giao tuyen can t i m .
> H a i m a t p h l n g (a), (P) thuf t i f chtifa h a i difdng
t h i n g ( d i ) , (da) ma ( d i ) // (da).
S_

D i f n g xSy song song v d i (dj) h a y (da)


=> xSy la giao t u y e n can t i m .

7
m. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A M
Bai 1
Cho tiif giac l o i A B C D c6 cac canh doi k h o n g song song va d i e m S d ngoai (ABCD). T i m
giac tuyen ciia :
a/ (SAC) va (SBD). hi (SAB) va (SDC); (SAD) va (SBC).
Giai
a/ Xet h a i m a t p h a n g (SAC) va (SBD), t a c6 :
• S la d i e m c h u n g thuf n h a t . (1)
• T r o n g tuT giac l o i A B C D , h a i ducmg cheo A C
n B D = O : d i e m c h u n g thijf n h i (2). ^
Ti/(1) va (2) suy r a :
(SAC) o (SBD) = SO (ycbt)
hi Xet hai m a t p h a n g (SAB) va (SDC) cung c6 :
• S la m o t d i e m chung.
• H a i canh ben A B va C D cua t i l giac A B C D
theo gia t h i e t k h o n g song song.
^ A B ^ C D = E : la d i e m c h u n g thut h a i .
Do do : (SAB) n (SDC) = SE (ycbt)
Tucfng t i f : (SAD) n (SBC) = SF (ycbt); v d i F = A D ^ BC; do A D / / BC.
Bai 2
Cho t i l d i e n A B C D . Goi G j , Ga la t r p n g t a r n h a i t a m giac B C D va A C D . L a y theo thuT t i i I ,
J , K la t r u n g d i e m ciia B D , A D , C D . T i m cac giac tuyen :
aJ (G1G2C) o ( A D B ) hi (G1G2B) n ( A C D ) c/ ( A B K ) o (CIJ>.
a/ (G1G2C) n ( A B D ) = I J
hi (GiGaB) n ( A C D ) = GgK hoSc A K
d (ABK) ^ (CIJ) = G,G2
Bai 3
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 day A B C D la h i n h b i n h h a n h t a m O.
aJ T i m giao t u y e n cua h a i m a t phSng (SAD) va (SBC).
hi T i m giao t u y e n cua h a i mSt p h i n g (SAB) va (SCD).
c/ T i m giao t u y e n ciia h a i m a t p h ^ n g (SAC) va (SBD).
Giai
aJ Xet h a i m a t phSng (SAD) va (SBC), t a c6 :
• S la d i e m c h u n g thur n h a t .
• De y A D c ( S A D ) ; BC c (SBC) m a A D // BC.
Ta d u n g xSy // A D hoac BC.
[(SAD) = (xSy; AD)
^ |(SBC) = (xSy; BC)
=^ (SAD) n (SBC) = xSy (ycbt).
hi Tifang t i r , difng uSv // A B hoftc C D
8
=> (SAB) r^ (SCD) = uSv (ycbt)
c/ Goi O = A C n B D , tiTcrng t a b a i 1
=> (SAC) n (SBD) = SO (ycbt).
Bai 4
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 day la h i n h t h a n g A B C D v d i A B l a day Idtn. Gpi M la m o t d i e m
bat ky t r e n SD va E F l a difang t r u n g b i n h cua h i n h t h a n g .
a/ T i m giao t u y e n ciia h a i mSt p h i n g (SAB) va (SCD).
b/ T i m giao t u y e n cua h a i m a t phSng (SAD) va (SBC),
c/ T i m giao t u y e n cua h a i mSt p h a n g ( M E F ) va ( M A B ) .

Doc gia t u g i a i tUcfng t u n h u cac b a i t r e n .


Bai 5
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 A B C D l a h i n h b i n h h a n h . Goi G,, G2 l a t r o n g t a m cac t a m giac
SAD; SBC. T i m giao t u y e n cua cac cSp mSt p h a n g :
a/ (SGiG^) va ( A B C D ) b/ (CDGiGz) va (SAB) 0/ (ADG2) va (SBC).
UvCdng d§Ln
Goi I , J , E, F thur t a Ik t r u n g d i e m cac doan t h i n g A D ,
BC, SA, SB theo thur tvt d6. Thifc h i e n cac l a p l u a n nhtf cac
bai toan t r e n ;
a/ (SG1G2) n ( A B C D ) = I J (ycbt)
b/ (CDGiGa) n (SAB) = E F (ycbt)
c/ (ADG2) ^ (SBC) = xG2y (ycbt)
T r o n g do xGay // A D hoSc BC.

L o a i 2 : T l M G I A O D I £ M C U A D U d N G T H A N G 1fA M A T PHANG

L PHirONG PHAP

Ca sd cua phaang phap t i m giao d i e m O cua dudng t h a n g


(a) va m a t phSng (a) l a xet 2 h a i k h a nSng xay r a :
n T r i r d n g hop (a) chiJa dudng t h S n g (b) va (b) l a i c&t diicrng
t h d n g (a) t a i O.
T i m O = (a) n (b)
=> O la d i e m can t i m .
n Trtfdng hap (a) k h o n g chiifa dUcmg t h i n g nao cat (a).
T i m ( P ) ^ ( a ) v a ( a ) n ( P ) = (d)
> T i m O = (a) o (d)
=> O la d i e m can t i m .

n. CAC BAI TOAM G O B A N

Bai 6
Cho tuf d i e n A B C D . Goi M , N I a n lugt la t r u n g d i e m cua A C va BC. L a y d i e m K e B D sao
cho K B > K D . T i m giao d i e m ciia h a i dudng t h i n g CD va A D v d i ( M N K ) .

9
Giai
• De y den K B > K D => K N k h o n g song song C D
Do do t r o n g (BCD) K N o CD = I .
Ma K N c ( M N K ) CD ( M N K ) = I (ycbt)
• Taong t a xet I M c ( M N K ) , t r o n g ( A D C )
Ta CO : AD n IM = E
=> A D n ( M N K ) = E (ycbt)
Bai 7
Cho tiJ dien A B C D . L a y d i e m M t r e n A C va h a i d i e m N va K thuf tiT nSm t r o n g cac t a m
giac B C D va A C D . D u n g giao d i e m cua CD va A D \di ( M N K ) .
HtfdTng d i n
Doc gia t u g i a i , x e m h i n h ben.
a/ CD ( M N K ) = P (ycbt)
b/ A D n ( M N K ) = Q (ycbt)
Bai 8
Cho h i n h chop tuf giac S.ABCD. L a y t r e n SA, SB va BC ba d i e m M , N , P theo t h i i t\i sao
cho M P k h o n g t h e c&t A B hay C D . T i m giao d i e m cua SC va A C v d i ( M N P ) .
Giai
ThUdng t h u d n g do ycbt t i m giao d i e m
NP o SC = K
SC n ( M N P ) = K (ycbt)
ma NP c (MNP)
Trong mp(SAC) M K o AC = H1
ma M K c (MNP) |
=> A C r> ( M N P ) = H (ycbt)
Bai 9
Cho m o t t a m giac A B C va m o t d i e m S d ngoai m a t p h i n g chila t a m giac. T r e n SA va SB
ta lay hai d i e m M , N v a t r o n g m a t p h i n g (ABC) ta lay mot d i e m O. D i n h ro giao diem cua
( M N O ) v d i cac dudng t h i n g A B , B C , A C va SC.
Hi^dng d i n
Tuang t u , doc gia t u g i a i (xem h i n h ben)
A B n ( M N O ) = E (ycbt)
BC o ( M N O ) = F (ycbt)
A C n ( M N O ) = G (ycbt)
SC n ( M N O ) = H (ycbt)
10
Loal 3 : Cfll/NG MWfl B A D I £ M T R O N G K H O N G G I A N T H A N G H A N G

I. pmroNG P H A P

Co so cua p h i i o n g phap can p h a i chufng m i n h ba d i e m


trong yeu cau b ^ i t o a n l a d i e m chung cua 2 mSt phSng nao
do (chfing b a n A, B, C nSm t r e n giao t u y e n (d) cua h a i m a t
phSng do nen A, B, C t h a n g hang).
O day k h o n g l o a i triJ k h a n&ng chiJng m i n h difoc difdng
thang A B qua C => A, B, C t h i n g hang.

n. C A C B A I T O A N C O BAM
B a i 10

Xet ba d i e m A, B, C k h o n g thuoc m a t p h i n g (u). Goi D, E, F I a n l u o t l a giao d i e m ciia A B ,


EC, CA va (g). ChCifng m i n h D, E, F t h a n g hang.

Giai
De y t h a y D, E, F viTa a t r o n g m p ( A B C ) vifa d t r o n g mp(a).
Do A, B, C g (a), nen (a) va (ABC) p h a n b i e t nhau.
=> ( a ) n (ABC) = A (A chuTa D , E, F)
D, E, F t h i n g h a n g t r e n A (dpcm).

B a i 11
H a i t a m giac A B C , A B C k h o n g dong p h i n g c6 A B n A B ' = I , A C n A C = J , BC n B C = K
ChiJfng m i n h I , J , K t h i n g h a n g .

Giai
De y I , J , K I a n l u o t d t r e n h a i m a t p h i n g p h a n
(P) ^ (ABC) va (Q) = ( A ' B ' C ) .
N e n no 1^ diim c h u n g cua h a i m a t p h i n g do
I , J , K e (A) = (ABC) n ( A ' B C )
=> 1, J , K t h i n g h a n g (dpcm).

B a i 12
Cho A, B l a h a i d i e m d h a i p h i a khac n h a u doi v d i m a t p h i n g a va A B c i t a t a i O. D i t o g
hai dUdng t h i n g x'Ax, y ' B y song song n h a u theo thuf tiT c i t a t a i M va N . ChuTng m i n h M , N ,
O t h i n g hang.

Kvldng dSn
fM, O, NG(S)
TifOng t\l:
^ • [8 = (Ax; By) n (a)

=> M , N , O t h i n g h a n g t r e n (8)

11
t o a l 4 : CmiUG MWfl M Q T DtfCiNG T H A N G T R O N G KHONG G I A N
Q U A M O T D I £ M C O DINH
I. PHirONG PHAP,
Ca sd cua phucfng phap chuTng m i n h diXcrng t h i n g (d)
qua m o t d i e m co d i n h :
Ta can t i m t r e n (d) h a i d i e m tuy y A ; B va chuTng m i n h
2 d i e m do t h i n g h a n g v d i m o t d i e m I co d i n h c6 sSn t r o n g
khong gian.
=> (d) qua I CO d i n h (dpcm).
IL PHtfONG PHAP,
Co sd cua phiTcfng phap can thuc h i e n ba bifdc ccf ban :
n B i : T i m dUctng t h i n g a co d i n h d ngoai mSt p h 5 n g co
d i n h (a) ma (a) chila d (liOi dong).
• B2 : T i m giao d i e m I = a ^ d
=> I l a d i e m co d i n h ma d d i qua
m. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A N
Bai 13
Cho A , B l a h a i d i e m co d i n h t r o n g k h o n g g i a n d ve h a i p h i a khac n h a u cua m&t p h i n g co
d i n h a. X e t d i e m M luu dong t r o n g k h o n g g i a n sao cho M A n a = I va M B n a = J . ChuTng
m i n h difdng t h i n g I J luon d i qua m o t d i e m co d i n h .
Giai
Goi O = A B n (a) => O co d i n h ( v i A , B co d i n h vk
a 2 p h i a cua (a))
T a CO : mp(P) = ( M A ; M B ) n (a) = I J
De y t h a y : O e I J => O, I , J t h i n g hang.
N g h i a l a dacfng t h i n g I J d i qua O co d i n h (dpcm)
Bai 14
Cho h i n h t h a n g A B C D ( A B // C D va A B > CD). X e t d i e m S e ( A B C D ) va m a t p h i n g a luu
dong quanh A C v d i a '-^ SB = M , a n SD = N . ChuTng m i n h difdng t h i n g M N luon luon d i qua
mot d i e m co d i n h .
De t h a y dxiac n g a y M N c (SBD) va
AC c (SAC) va M N o A C = O t h i O e
B D = (SBD) n (SAC)
=> M N qua O co d i n h (dpcm).
12
Bai 15
Cho h a i d i f d n g t h f t n g d o n g q u y O x , O y v a h a i d i e m A , B k h o h g n S m t r o n g m a t phing
(xOy). M o t m a t p h a n g l i f u d o n g ( a ) q u a A B l u o n l u o n c a t O x , O y t a i M , N . C h i i f n g t o M N q u a
mot d i e m co d i n h .

Giai
D e y t h a ' y k h i ( a ) q u a y q u a n h A B co d i n h n h t f n g vAn co :
( a ) n [ ( O x ; O y ) ^ (P)] = A ( q u a M , N )
1 AB CO d i n h
Nhung -j[P CO d i n h
ABo(p) = I e A

N g h i a la d u d n g t h a n g M N = A l o u dQng nhOng
v a n qua I co d i n h . ( d p c m )

toal S : C H O N G MWfl B A O U d N G T H A « G T R O N G KHONG G I A N D O N G Q U Y

L PHUONG PHAP,

Co so cua p h i f a n g p h a p l a t a c a n c h i i f n g m i n h d U d n g thiif n h a t
qua g i a o d i e m c i i a 2 d i f d n g c o n l a i b a n g 2 budrc co b a n :

• Bi : T i m (d,) o (d^) = O

• B2 : C h u f n g m i n h (d;j) q u a O .
=> ( d i ) , (d2), (d.i) d o n g q u y t a i O ( d p c m )

Q. P H U O N G PHAP,

C o s d c u a p h a a n g p h a p l a t a c a n chijfng m i n h chung
doi m o t cat n h a u v a d o i m o t d t r o n g 3 m a t p h a n g p h a n
b i e t q u a 2 bifdc ca b a n :
d], c: a; d j 0 da = I i id3 \
da, d;j cz P; da ^ d3 = I2
• B i : Xac d i n h < A \
dg, d , e Y; dg n d j = I3 di \
a, p, y p h a n bi§t

• B2 : K e t l u a n ( d , ) ; (da); (d;,) d o n g q u y t a i 0 = I i = I2 = I3

m. c A c BAI TOAN C O BAM

Bai 16
C h o t i l d i e n A B C D . G o i E , F , G l a b a d i e m t r e n b a c a n h A B , A C , B D sao c h o E F n B C = I ,
E G o A D = J ( v d i I ^ C wk J ^ B). C h i j f n g m i n h C D , I G v a J F d o n g q u y .

Giai
X e t b a difcfng t h A n g C D ; I G v a J F , t a tha'y :
CD, I G e ( B D C ) va C D IG / 0
• IG, J F c (EFG) va I G n J F * 0
J F , C D e ( A C D ) va J F r> C D * 0

Va ba m a t p h a n g ( B C D ) , ( E F G ) , ( A C D ) l u o n p h a n b i e t
( v i I ?t c v a J ?t D ) => C D , I G , J F d o n g q u y t a i O ( d p c m ) .

13
O Cach khac
D o c g i a churng m i n h r S n g J F q u a O = I G n C D => C D ; I G v a J F d o n g quy.
B a i 17
C h o h a i t a m giac A B C , A B C sao cho A B c a t A ' B ' a E , A C cdt A C d F ; B C c a t B C d G .
a/ Chufng m i n h b a d i e m E , F , G t h S n g h a n g .
b/ C h i J n g m i n h difcfng t h a n g A A ' , B B ' , C C d o n g quy.
Gidi
a/ D e y t h a y E , F , G l a b a d i e m chung cua h a i m a t ph^ng p h a n biet
(a) ^ ( A B C ) v a (P) = ( A B ' C ) .
D o do : E , F , G e (A) = ( a ) n (P).
V a y E , F , G th^ng h a n g (dpcm).
b/ N h a n x e t n h u s a u :
: AA', B B ' cr ( E A A ' ) ; A A ' o B B ' # 0
^ B B ' , C C c ( G B B ' ) ; B B ' r^ C C * 0
Ice, AA' c ( F C C ) ; C C n AA' # 0
^ A A ' , B B ' , C C d o n g quy t a i O (dpcm).
Chuyen de 2 : QUAN HE SONG SONG
t o a i 1: C H t J N G MWfl HAI DLfCJNG THANG SONG SONG
I. PHirONG PHAP
C o S0 c u a p h a o n g p h a p c a n t h i i c h i e n h a i hxidc CO b a n c h o d i n h n g h i a a // b
j a , b c: (a)
'a^b = 0
• B i : K i e m t r a h a i difdng t h a n g a c u n g t r o n g m o t m a t
p h a n g h a y hifeu n g a m r a n g h i e n n h i e n d i e u do x a y r a
n e u c h u n g t r o n g 1 h i n h p h a n g n a o do. ( 1 )
• B 2 : D u n g d i n h ly T h a l e s , t a m giac dong dang, t i n h c h a t bac cau ( t i n h c h a t cung song
s o n g \6i difdng thiJ b a ) l a h a i c a n h c u a h i n h t h a n g , h a y h a i c a n h doi c u a h i n h b i n h h a n h ,
... de k h a n g d i n h h a i difcfng t h ^ n g do k h o n g c6 d i e m c h u n g . ( 2 )
T i f ( 1 ) v a ( 2 ) => ( y c b t )
n. C A C BAI TOAN CO BAN
B a i 18
C h o h i n h c h o p S . A B C D c6 G j , G 2 , G3, G , I a n lucft l a t r o n g t a m c a c t a m g i a c S A B , S B C ,
S C D , S D A . C h u m g m i n h tiJf g i a c G i G a G g G , l a h i n h b i n h h a n h .
14
Giai
SG, SG2 2
SE SF 3
Theo t i n h chat t r o n g tarn, t a c6 : - i ,
SG3
t SG4 2
[ SH SK 3

Dinh l y Thales va t i n h chat diTcfng t r u n g b i n h

G,G2// = - E F ; E F 7 / = i A C
' ^ 3 2
• G1G2 // = G;jG4
G.G,, // = - H K ; HK// = - AC
^ ' 3 2

G1G2G3G4 l a h i n h b i n h h a n h (dpcm).
B a i 19
Cho diem S d ngoai m a t phSng h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D . X e t m S t p h d n g a qua A D c^t SB
va SC Ian lucft d M va N . Chiirng m i n h A M N D l a h i n h t h a n g .
Giai S
D6 y thay h a i m S t phSng (a) v a (P) c6 2 d i e m M vfl N 1^ d i ^ m chung.
'(a) 3 AD
=> M N = (a) n (SBC) ma^(SBC)3BC N
iAD//BC

va theo each d i m g M N // A D (hoftc BC)


=> A D N M l a h i n h t h a n g day lorn A D . (dpcm)
B a i 20
Cho tuT dien A B C D . Goi M , N I a n li^gt l a t r u n g d i e m cua B C va B D . G g i P l a d i e m t u y y
tren canh A B sao cho P ?t A v a P # B. X e t 1 = P D A N va J = PC o A M .
ChiJng m i n h r S n g : I J // C D .
Giai
Xet h a i m a t p h a n g ( A M N ) v a (PCD) c6 h a i d i e m chung l a I va J .
IJ = ( A M N ) r-. (PCD)
'CD c (PCD)
N h i m g < MX CT (AMN)
• va MN // CD

^ I J // M N hoac C D (dpcm).

toai Z : CfltJfJG M W H DiidfiG T H A N G S O N G S O N G TfCl M A T F H A N G


L PHtrOWG P H A P ,
Co so ciia phuong phap m o t l a sii dung d i n h l y phuong giao t u y e n song song.
De chiing m i n h d // a t a can thUc h i e n h a i bade CO b a n chufng m i n h : d
y r- a = a
• E l : Chufng m i n h d = y o p m a p n a = b.
a//b

• B2 : K e t l u a n t i f t r e n d // a.

15
n . PHOONG PHAP^
Ca sd ciia phifcng phap la stf dung dieu k i e n can va du
chijfng m i n h di/dng t h i n g (d) song song vcJi m a t p h a n g (a)
b a n g h a i btfdrc :
• B i : Quan sat va quan l y gia t h i e t t i m dudng t h i n g ou
v i e t (A) cz (a) va chiJng m i n h (d) // (A).
• B2 : K e t l u a n (d) // (a) theo dieu k i e n can va dii.
m. cAc BAI T O A N C O BAM
Bai21
T r o n g tuf dien A B C D , chufng m i n h rSng dean no'i h a i t r o n g t a m G i , G2 cua h a i A A B C va
A A B D t h i song song v6[ ( A C D ) .
Giai A
Goi A i , A2 l a t r u n g d i e m BC va B D theo thut tiT do, t a c6 :
AG) AG2 2
AA, ' AAg 3
Theo d i n h l y T h a l e s , t a c6 :
' 0 , 0 2 / / A , A2 B
' m a A,A2 //CD (tinh chat dUcrng trung binh)
Theo t i n h bSc cau => G1G2 // CD c: (ACD) =j. G1G2 // (ACD) (dpcm)
B a i 22
Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD day l a h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D . G o i M , N l a t r u n g d i e m SA va SB.
Chijfng m i n h : M N // (SCD) v a A B // ( M N C D ) .
Giai
Theo t i n h c h a t dudng t r u n g b i n h t r o n g t a m giac
=> M N // A B , ma A B // CD
=> M N // C D cz (SCD)
Theo dieu k i e n can va du => M N // (SCD) (ycbt).
O Cach khac
De y M N = ( M N C D ) n (SAB) va t r o n g h a i m a t p h a n g do
chiJa theo thijf tiT cac doan t h i n g C D // A B D
M N // A B va C D => M N // (SCD) 3 CD (ycbt)
TifOng tyl : A B // M N c ( C D M N ) => A B // ( C D M N ) (dpcm).
B a i 23
Xet h a i h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D va A B E F k h o n g dong p h l n g . Goi M , N l a h a i d i e m thoa
AM - i AC va BN = - BF . Chufng m i n h r i n g M N // ( D E F ) .
3 3
Giai
De y t h a y M , N l a t r o n g t a m cua b a i t a m giac A B D va
A B E theo thijf t u do.
Keo d a i t h i D M o E N = P : l a t r u n g d i e m A B .
PM PX 1
^ PD PE 3
Theo d i n h l y T h a l e s
^ M N // E D c ( E F D C ) ^ ( D E F ) (dpcm) D
16
Bai 24
H i n h c h o p S . A B C D c6 d a y l a h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D , t a r n O . G o i M , N I a n \\iqt l a t r u n g

d i e m S A , S B v a x e t h e t h i J c v e c t o : 3 S I - 2 S M = 3 SJ - 2 S N = 0*. ChuTng m i n h r S n g :

a/ I J / / ( S C D ) b/ S C / / ( M N O ) .

Hvfdrng d i n
I J // M N , M N // A B ; A B // C D M N // C D
a/ i
CD c (SCD)

=> I J / / ( C S D ) ( d p c m )
AM AO
b/ S C // M O c ( O M N )
AS AC

S C // ( O M N ) ( d p c m )

Bai 25
C h o A x , B y l a h a i nijfa d i T d n g t h S n g c h e o n h a u . T r e n A x l a y d i e m M , t r e n B y l a y d i e m N
sao c h o A M = B N . C h i j f n g m i n h r S n g dUcfng t h i n g chufa d o a n M N l u o n l u o n s o n g s o n g w6i m a t
p h a n g CO d i n h .

Q u a A d u n g A x ' // B y ; q u a N d i f n g N N ' // B A ; v6i N ' e A x ' . L u c d o tii g i a c A N N B l a h i n h


b i n h h a n h n e n : A N ' = B N => A M = A N '

De y A A M N ' c a n d A n e n t i a p h a n giac n g o a i A t cua STAJT se s o n g s o n g v6i M N ' v a t i a A t


n a y co d i n h h a y A B v a A t x a c d i n h m a t p h S n g co d i n h ( P ) .

lMN'//At
Ta CO : < ( M N N ' ) // ( P )
[
N N ' // A B

V a y : M N // ( P ) tiifc l a M N l u o n l u o n s o n g s o n g v6i m&t p h a n g co d i n h (dpcm).

toal 3 : HAI M A T P H A N G S O N G S O N G

Dang 1 : C H Q N G MINH HAI MAT P H A N G S O N G S O N G

L PmrOHG PHAP
Co sd cua phuong phap chiJng m i n h hai mat
p h a n g fx v a P s o n g s o n g n h a u t a c a n thiTc h i e n h a i
bUdc CO b a n t r o n g k h i siJf d u n g d i e u k i e n c a n v a d u
nhu sau:

• B i : Chufng m i n h " m a t p h a n g ( a ) c h i i a h a i dUcJng


t h a n g a, b d o n g q u y thijf t i f s o n g song v d i h a i
dUoing t h a n g a', b ' d o n g q u y t r o n g m a t p h a n g P".

• B2 : K e t l u a n ( a ) // (P) t h e o d i e u k i e n c a n v a d u .

17
THL; VJENTifJHglNHTHUAN
n . ckc BAITOAN C OBAM
Bai 26
T r e n b a t i a c u n g c h i e u , s o n g s o n g v a Ichong d o n g p h ^ n g A x , B y , C z M n lifot l a y c a c d i e m
A ' , B ' , C s a o c h o : A A ' = B B ' = C C c 6 do d a i k h a c k h o n g . ChOfng m i n h ( A B C ) // ( A B C ) .
Giai
AA' =3 BB' A'B' IIAB c (ABC)
D e y : <i (I)
; AA' = CC' =j. A'C // AC c (ABC)
N e n t a c 6 h a i dUcrng t h ^ n g d o n g q u y A B ' , A C
trong mp(A'B'C') thoa dieu k i e n (I).
=> ( A B ' C ) // ( A B C ) ( d p c m )
Bai 27
C h o h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D . Tir A v a C k e A x c a C y song song cung chieu v a khong n k m
t r o n g m a t p h S n g ( A B C D ) . Chiifng m i n h ( B ; A x ) // ( D ; C y ) .
Gi&i
Tirang t u xet h a i m a t p h i n g ( B ; A x ) v a
( D ; C y ) , thuT t a chuTa c a c c a p d u d n g thing
d o n g quy.
fAB//CD
IAx//Cy
=> ( B ; A x ) // ( D ; C y ) ( d p c m )
Bai 28
C h o h a i h i n h binh h ^ n h A B C D v a A B E F d trong h a i m a t ph^ng khac nhau. Chilng m i n h
( A D F ) // ( B C E ) .
Giai
H a i m a t p h l i n g ( A D F ) v a ( B C E ) thiif tiT chuTa c a c c a p dirdng
t h d n g d o n g quy. / A;
iAF//BE
( A D F ) // ( B C E ) ( d p c m )
AD//BC
Dang 2 : CHUfNG MINH CAC Dl/dNG THANG D6NG PHANG
LPBirONGPBAP
Ccf s d c u a p h u a n g p h a p chiifng m i n h c a c d u d n g t h i n g d i , d2, dg... d o n g p h i n g l a c a n p h a i
thiTc h i ^ n h a i bi/<Jc c a b a n :
• B i : C h v i n g m i n h d ] , dg, ds, ... d o i m o t c a t n h a u v a c u n g s o n g s o n g v d i m p t m a t p h i n g ((i)
n a o do.
18
• B2 : Ket luan d], d2, ds, ... c (a) // (P) => d i , d2, d^j, ... dong p h i n g trong (a); (a) phai
chufa cac giao diem cija d,, da, ds, ....

n. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A N

Bai 29

Cho tiJ dien ABCD c6 AB = AC = AD. Chufng minh rSng ba diTcfng phan giac ngo^i cdc goc
SAC. CAI), I5AB cung nSm trong mot mat phlng.

Giai
Goi A t i , At2, Ata la ba diTdng phan giac
ngoai ciia goc : fiAfc, CXt), I5A6 theo thuT t u do.
Do cac tam gidc can tai dinh A nen cac
phan giac ngoai song song vdi canh day, nen :
At, / / B C c (BCD)
A t a Z / C D e (BCD)
;At3//BDc(BCD)

At,, At2, At3 // (BCD)


=> A t , , At2, Ata dong ph^ng (trong (P) // (BCD) \k (P) qua A) (dpcm).
Bai 30

Cho hinh chop day la luc gidc deu. Chufng minh rang giao tuyen cua mat ben doi nhau thi
dong phlng.

Giai
De y thay :
(SAB) n (SED) = t, // AB, E D
(SBC) o (SEE) = ta // BC, E E
^(SCD) n (SEA) = // CD, FA

=> t , , ta, tg//(ABCDEF)


Vay t , , t2, tg dong ph^ng trong (a) // (ABCDEF)
va (a) qua S. (dpcm)
Bai 31

Tren bon tia phan biet Ax, By, Cz va Dt song song cung chieu, lay cac diem A', B', C , D'
sao cho AA' = BB' = CC = DD'. Chutng minh r i n g A B , B'C, CD', D A ' , A C , B'D" cung song
song vdi mat ph^ng ABCD.

Htfdng d i n
Doc gia t u giSi iMng t\l hai bai toan tren.

19
D E S H Li" THAIJES T R O N G K H 6 N G GIAN
•k D i n h l y i (thu|ln) : Hai ditang thing tuy y d,, d2 trong
khong gian chdn tren cdc in^t phdng song song nhau (a)
II (P) II (y) tao ra cdc doan thang tUcmg ling ty le :
A,A.
-k D i n h l y 2 ( d a o ) :
• TrUdc k h i xet d i n h ly dao, t a quan tarn d e n h a i k h a i
n i e m s a u k h i xet d e n cac d a y ty so, c h i n g h a n :
A, A B1B9
(*)
A2A3 B2B3
• ( A i ; B ] ) l a c a p goc c u a d a y t y so ( * ) .
• (A2; B2) v a (A3; B3) l a c a c cStp n g o n c u a d a y t y so ( * ) .
• D o a n n o i c a p goc v a c d c cftp n g o n l a ( d o a n ) b a c t h a n g c u a d a y t y so ( * ) .
A,A.
• D i n h l y : Neu c6 day ty so trong khong gian : (*) da, xdy ra tren hai dudng
thdng (d,), (d2) thi cdc bac thang AiB,, A2B2, A3B3 cung song song vai mot mg,t phdng c6
dinh. (di) (dz)
O G h i c h u : T a c6 p h a t b i e u k h a c c u a d i n h l y (goc)Ai
^ B,(goc)
T h a l e s dao nhif s a u :
(ngpn tren) A2 B2 (ngon tren)
Vai dieu kien c6 day ty so (*) da xdy ra tren hai
dudng thdng (dj), fd^) thi mot trong 3 bac (ngon difdi) A 3 B 3 (ngon dU(Ji)
thang A,B,, A2B2, A^B^ se song song vdi mot
mat phdng chda hai bac thang con lai.
" A , B i / / ( a ) = (A2B2 ; A 3 B 3 )
A2B2//(P)-(A3B3;AiBi) (A)
A3B3//(Y) S (A,Bi ; A2B2)
(mat phang co dinh)\
Dang 3 : CHUfNG MINH DJCiNG THANG SONG SONG MAT PHANG
BANG DINH LY THALES
L PHirONG P H A P ,
C o s d c u a p h u o n g p h a p chufng m i n h dUdng t h i n g s o n g s o n g v d i m S t p h i n g b a n g e a c h suf
d u n g d i n h l y T h a l e s d a o t r o n g k h o n g g i a n g o m h a i budc c a b a n s a u d a y :
• B i : X a c d i n h t r e n h a i d u d n g t h i n g tiiy y c h a n g h a n ( d i ) , (d2) de t i m t r e n do d a y t y so :
^1^2 ^ B1B2
AjAs B,B3
X d c d i n h c S p ( A i ; B j ) l a c S p goc, c d c c S p ( A j ; B2) v a (A3. B3) l a h a i c S p n g o n .
n B 2 : L u c do c a c d o a n b a c t h a n g A i B i , A2B2, A3B3 dirac k e t l u a n c u n g s o n g s o n g v d i m S t
p h a n g ( P ) ( x e m •.>).
20
•. pmroNG PHAPj
Ta chutng m i n h dUdng t h i n g (d) n a m t r o n g m a t p h i n g (a) // (()) => (d) // (p).

m. c A c BAI TOAN C O B A N

Bai 32
Cho tut dien A B C D c6 A B = C D . Goi M va N l a h a i d i e m lUu d o n g t r e n A B va C D sao cho
AM = C N . Chutng m i n h M N luon song somg vdi mSt p h I n g co dinh^

Giai
Neu dat A B = C D = a; A M = C N = x. De y t h a y t r e n A B va C D ta co day t y

AM ^ CN i(A; C) la cap go'c


AB CD |(M; N) v a (B; D) la hai cap ngon tUcJng ufng.

Ap dung d i n h l y Thales dao t r o n g k h o n g g i a n t h i ba bac


thang A C , M N va B D ciing song song v<Ji mot mSt phIng (a)

due nay (a) chUa co d i n h v i day t y so — chUa l a h k n g so).


a
Ta diTng (a) n h u sau : goi E, F , G la t r u n g d i e m cac canh A B ,
DC, CB theo thuf t i l do t h i (a) = (EFG) va (a) t h o a yeu cau l a
mat phIng CO d i n h va cung song song vdri A C , B D va M N .
Vay M N // (EFG) = (a) co d i n h (dpcm)

Bai33
Cho h a i h i n h binh h a n h A B C D va A B E F k h o n g dong phIng; tren cAc dUOng cheo A C va
AM BN
BF Ian lucft lay cac d i e m tuy y M , N sao cho . Chutng m i n h rSng t a luon co : M N //
AC BF
(DEF).

Giai
AM BN
Tir gia t h i e t (*)
AC BF
A p dung d i n h l y T h a l e s dao cho cac doan bac
t h a n g : A B , M N , CF.
=> M N // ( C D F ) ; v i A B // C D c (CDF)
=> M N // ( D E F ) = (CDF) (dpcm)
Bai 34
Cho h i n h vuong A B C D va A B E F d t r o n g h a i m a t p h I n g khac n h a u . T r e n cac difdng cheo
AC va BF, ta I a n l u g t lay cac d i e m M , N sao cho A M = B N . Chutng m i n h r a n g M N // ( C E F ) .

Giai
Do h a i h i n h v u o n g A B C D , A B E F b a n g canh nen
bang nhau => A C = B F .
„.,,,..-^ AM BN
Gia t h i e t => =
AC BF
A p dung d i n h l y Thales cho cac doan bac t h a n g :
A B , M N , C F voti de y E F cz ( C E F ) ; A B // E F c (CEF)
^ M N // (CEF) (dpcm)

21
Bai 35
T r e n h a i t i a A x v a B y c h 6 o n h a u , t a I a n luat l a y h a i d i e m M N sao c h o A M = k . B N ( k >
0 cho t r a d e ) . C h u f n g m i n h r S n g M N l u o n l u o n s o n g s o n g v d i m p t m S t p h S n g co dinh.
HUoTng dim
B y la'y d i e m N , d i n h b d i : B N , = 1
Trade het:
A x l a y d i e m M j d i n h b d i : A M ; = k ( v i k > 0, cho t n / d c )
H i e n n h i e n 1^ h a i d i e m M j \k N ] co dinh.
T h e o g i a t h i e t v a tii e a c h d a n g t r e n h i n h t a co :
AM, AM , AMi BNi
BN, BN AM BN
Nen t h e o d i n h l y dao cua d i n h l y T h a l ^ s MN
l u o n l u o n s o n g s o n g v d i m S t p h i n g co d i n h ((5) =
(A; Bd) chaa A B va d a d n g t h i n g d qua B song
song vdi N , M ] . (dpcm)
B a i 36
Cho h a i d a d n g t h i n g c h e o n h a u d j v a d2. M l a m o t d i e m c h u y e n d o n g t r e n d i v a N l a mot
d i e m c h u y e n d o n g t r e n d2. T i m q u y t i e h t r u n g d i e m I cua d o a n M N .
Hu&ng dan
G o i A B l a d o a n v u o n g goe c h u n g c u a d i v a d 2 ( A e d j , B di
d 2 ) ; O l a t r u n g d i e m eiia AB.
Taeo: = = i
OB IX d'2
O M'
T h e o d i n h l y T h a l e s dao t h i 0 1 nkm trong mat phlng
( P ) qua O song song vdi di va da, tiifc l a m a t phang xac N'
dinh bai hai d a d n g t h i n g d'l va d'2 q u a O I a n lacrt song
s o n g v d i d ] v a d-^.
Giai han ; M va N c h a y t r e n d] va k h o n g co rang
huge n e n I c h a y t i i y y t r e n ( P ) .
• Dao : L a y m o t d i e m I G ( P ) . Q u a I t a d O n g dacfng t h i n g s o n g
s o n g v d i d'2, d a d n g t h i n g n a y c i t d ' l t a i E . L a y d i e m M ' e d'l
do'i x O n g vdri O q u a E.
M I clt d'2 d N ' . D i n h ly dadng trung binh cho thay I la
t r u n g d i e m cua M ' N ' . TCf M ' v a N ' d i f n g cac dadng t h i n g song
s o n g v d i A B . C h u n g I a n l a g t e l t d ] d M v a d2 d N .
H a i t a giac O M ' M A va O N ' N B deu la n h f l n g h i n h chS n h a t :
=> ,^ ^ ^ _^ M N ' N M ' l a m o t h i n h b i n h h a n h do d o I l a t r u n g d i e m c u a MN
M M = N N
V a y quy t i e h t r u n g d i e m I cua d o a n M N l a m a t p h i n g ( P ) d i qua O s o n g s o n g v d i d j v a
22
Chuyen de 3 : PHlTONG P H A P T I E N D E

Ta da t h a y di/gc k h i g i a i t o a n h i n h hoc t r o n g k h o n g gian t i f h a i chuyen de trUdc mot each


chi/a t i i d n g m i n h iSm viec sCf d u n g h a i t i e n de 5 va t i e n de 6 t h e nao ?
Den day, de" khftc phuc viec do. Chung t o i diTa vac mot chuyen dfe PHUCfNG PHAP TIEN' DE
vdi mot mong muon la doc gia se thiTc sa thay difoc mot each c h i n h xac h a n , tUdng m i n h h o n :
si^ c a n t h i e t c u a t i e n de 5 v a t i e n de 6. H i e n n h i e n viec gidi thieu r o n g r a i n h i f t h e doi hoi
doc gia can chuan b i mot i t k i e n thiife ve sir vuong goc va nhOmg k h a i n i e m ve cac h i n h k h o i .
Sau nhOrng suy n g h i va t r a n t r d t r o n g suot qua day hoc va v i e t sach c h i i n g t o i h y v p n g
duge doc gia dong cam vcii vi$e d a t chuyen de 3 a v i t r i nay t r o n g quyfin sach c h i m o t each
lidc le cung l a du.

L nnxova PHAP

Co so ciia phifong phap l a sii d u n g sii c^n t h i e t cua h a i t i e n de 5 va t i e n de 6 d4 xay diTng


va chufng m i n h m o t so b a i t o a n co b a n t r o n g k h o n g gian k h i h i n h t h a n h n e n cac v a t the ( h i e n
nhien 4 t i e n de d trirdc da duoc n g a m hieu la luon luon di/gc sOf dung).

n. C A C B A I T O A M C O B A M

B a i 37

Cho a, b, c la ba difdng t h i n g k h o n g ciing nkm t r o n g m p t m a t phAng va d o i m o t cSt n h a u .


Chufng m i n h rSng : a, b, c dong guy.

Giai
T h a t vay : gia sijf a, b, c k h o n g dong quy, t h i cac giao d i e m ciia c h i i n g lap t h a n h ba d i e m
khong t h a n g h a n g va ba difcfng t h f t n g cung nam t r o n g m o t m a t p h a n g . T r a i v d i gia t h i e t .
Theo phep chufng m i n h p h a n chiifng ycbt dUcrc chijfng m i n h xong.
B a i 38

Cho 3 t i a Ox, Oy, Oz doi m o t vuong goc.


a/ Chufng m i n h r k n g ba t i a do k h o n g cung n k m t r o n g mot m a t p h a n g .
b/ Ijay t r e n ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz I a n lifgt cac d i e m A, B, C (khac goc O). Chijfng m i n h r a n g :
(AB + BC + CAf ^ eiOA' + OB^ + OC^)
c/ K y hieu a, p, y la ba goc tarn giac A B C , a, b, c la do d a i OA, OB, OC. T i n h cosa, cosp, cosy
va chufng to r a n g a, [3, y n h o n .

Giai
a/ T h a t vay : gia sCf ba t i a cijng thuge mot mat
phang, v i Ox va Oy ciing vuong goc v6i Oz, nen Ox va
Oy cung n a m t r e n m o t du'dng t h a n g . Dieu do t r a i v d i
gia t h i e t .
Do do ycbt di/gc chufng m i n h b a n g phep chufng
m i n h phan chufng.
b/ Ap dung bat d a n g thufc Bunhiacovky, ta eo :
(AB +BC +CA)^ < 3 ( A B ' + BC^ + CA^) = 3(0A^ + 0B^+ OB^ + OC^ + OC^ +OA^)
(AB + BC + CAf <i 6(0A^ + OB^ + OC^)
c/ Ap dung d j n h ly h a m cos cho AABC, t a c6 :
BC^ = AC^ + A B ' - 2AC.AB.cosa

23
cosa = >0
<=> a n h o n (dpcm)
Tirang tif t a c6 : cos(i = > 0; cosy = > 0
Va^ + b ^ V b ^ + c ^ Vc2 + b2.Va^+c2
Do do : P, Y cung n h o n (dpcm)
B a i 39
Cho t r o n g k h o n g gian ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz doi m o t tao vdri n h a u mot goc 120". Ch\jtng m i n h
rSng ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz p h a i dong phSng.
Giai
Gia siif Ox, Oy, Oz k h o n g dong phSng va t a chon sAn t r e n Ox; Oy cac d i e m A, B theo thuT
tif do sao cho : OA = OB = 1 (dvcd)
Dong t h d i t r e n t i a doi Oz' cua t i a Oz, t a chon diem C sao cho OC 1 AC. Luc do AABC cho ta:
AC = OAsin60" AC = —
i 2
OC = OAcos60" OC = -
2
D i n h l y h a m cosin t r o n g A BOC cho t a :
BC^ = O B ' + O C - 2OB.OCcos60°
« BC' = 1 + i ~ 2.1.-.i = -
2 2
« BC =
Do do : A C = BC = (1)
Tifong t u : AB^ = O A ' + OB^ - 2OA.OBcosl20'' = 1 + 1 - 2.1.1(-1) = 3
« AB = Va (2)
Ttf (1) va (2) t a difgc : CA + CB = A B <=> C e A B <=> Ox, Oy; Oz dong p h ^ n g (v6 l y v d i dieu
gia stf ban dau)
Vay Ox, Oy, Oz p h a i dong phang. (dpcm)
B a i 40
Cho ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz sao cho xOy ^ x & = 45" va y(5z = 90". ChiJng m i n h r i n g ba t i a do
cung thuoc m o t m a t phang.
Hi^cTng d a n
Gia sU Ox, Oy, Oz k h o n g dong phSng va chon t r e n do theo thtf
t u cac d i e m A, B, C sao cho : OA = a; OB = OC = a V 2 .
Do gia stf => A e (OBC)
Stf dung d i n h l y h a m cosin
=> AB = AC = VOC^ + OA^ - 20C.OA.COS45"
AB = AC = ha^ . a ' - 2.a>/2.a. ^ = = a
Ma : BC = a ^/2.^/2 = 2a
24
=> A B + A C = B C <=> A , B , C t M n g h a n g (do d o d i e u g i a siif l a v 6 l y )
V a y Ox, O y , Oz d o n g p h a n g (dpcm)
Bai41
C h o b a t i a O x , O y , O z t h o a d i e u k i e n xOy = 6 0 ° , yOz = 9 0 ° v a z6x = 120°.
1/ C h u f n g m i n h r a n g b a t i a O x , O y , O z k h o n g c i i n g n k m t r o n g m o t m a t p h ^ n g .
2/ L a y b a d i e m A s O x , B e O y , C e Oz sao c h o O A = O B = O C = a. C h i l n g m i n h r S n g A A B C
vuong v a t i m quy t i c h t a m ducfng t r o n n g o a i t i e p t a m giac k h i a t h a y d o i .
1 1 1
3/ L a y 3 d i e m A , B , C n h u cau 2, n h i i n g l a i t h o a t h e m d i e u k i e n • + - 1 . Chutag
\ e . • OA OB OC
m i n h rang m a t p h a n g ( A B C ) k h i l i f u d o n g l u o n l u o n d i q u a m o t d i e m co d i n h .

Giai

^0
y /

(h.l) (h.2)
1/ G i a sd O x ; O y ; O z d o n g p h ^ n g t r o n g m p ( a ) n a o d o , t a co h a i k h a n&ng :
T i a O y h o a c n a m t r o n g m i e n goc xOz ( x e m h . l ) h o a c m i e n n g o a i goc ic8z ( x e m h . 2 ) t h i
xOy = 3 0 ° * 6 0 ° ( h . 2 ) h o a c x O y = 1 5 0 ° * 6 0 ° ( h . l ) ( v 6 l y v d i g i a t h i e t xOy = 60°)
V a y ba t i a Ox; O y ; Oz k h o n g d o n g p h S n g ( d p c m ) . z
2/ D i n h l y h a m cosin cho ta :

• A B = VOA"* ^ OB^ - 2 O A O B c o s 6 00

AB = + - 2a.a.— = a

A C = V O A ^ +OC''^ - 2 O A O C c o s l 2 0 °

=> A C = j a ^ - a ^ - 2 . a . a . f - ~ l = a Vs
V V 2;

M a B C = a V2

AB'^ ^ B C ^ ^(aV2)2 = Sa^


D o do : i AC^ = A B ^ + BC^ AABC vuong d B (dpcm)
A C ^ = (aVs)^ = 3a^

G o i ( d ) l a t r u e t r o n n g o a i t i e p zVABC v a I l a t a m dUcfng t r o n n g o a i t i e p t a m g i a c d o , t a co :
O A = OB = OC O e (d)
AABC vuong tai B t h i : l A = IB = IC I e ( d ) v a I l a t r u n g d i e m A C => O I c: ( d )
Q u y t i c h cua I l a t i a O t l a t r u e c i i a ( A B C ) .
3/ T r o n g A O A C , v d i D l a c h a n dUcrng p h a n g i a c t r o n g O D , t a co :

, ^20°1
2 cos!
1 1 _ K ^ ) 1 1 1
(1)
OA OC OD OA OC OD
T i f a n g t i f A B O D , vdfi E l a c h a n dUc(ng p h a n g i a c t r o n g O E , t a co :

2cos|:^i „ S5D
1 1 V 2 J 1
2 cos-
1
(2)
OD OB OE OB OE OD

25
Luc do, (1) + (2) cho t a gia thi§'t:
fliOt)
2 cos
1 V ' )
= 1 <=> ' =.1 o O E = 2cosf^^ (3)
OA OB OC OD OE OD
H a i t i a OA; OC co d i n h t r o n g k h o n g gian nen t i a p h a n giac O D cung c6' d i n h .
H a i t i a O B ; O D co d i n h t r o n g k h o n g gian n e n t i a p h a n giac OE co d i n h , ma a (3) da c6
rgOt)^
OE = 2cos = const cho t a d i e m E co d i n h t r o n g k h o n g g i a n .
I 2 J
Vay k h i A, B, C lou dong sao cho - + •— = 1 t h i m a t p h ^ n g (ABC) liiU dong theo
OA OB OC
n h u n g luon qua E co d i n h
B a i 42
Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD co day l a h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D . T r e n cac canh SA, SB, SC lay
SA SC
taang ufng c^c d i e m A ] , B i , C j sao cho : k (k > 0, k cho san). ChuTng m i n h r a n g k h i
SA, SCi
A i , B i . C i t h a y doi t h i m p ( A i B i C i ) cat SO t a i 1 d i e m co d i n h (vdi O = A C o BD).
Giai
Goi A M la t r u n g t u y e n cua ZiABC tuy y con
B', C t u y y thijf t i i t r e n A B va AC. (h.2)
K h i A M o B ' C = M ' , t a co ngay he thufc :
+— =2 — (*) (Doc gia t u chufng m i n h )
AB' AC AM' • ^ ^
Do d6, neu goi SO ^ A , C , = O', t h i t a co :
(*) SA SC ^ SO
=> (1) (h.l)
SAi SCi SO'
SA SC , (h.2)
Nen (2)
SAi SC]
„ SO , SO' 2
<=>
2 = k <=> = — (k > 0, cho sSn)
k
SO' SO
<=> O' CO d i n h (ycbt).
B a i 43
Cho h i n h chop deu co canh ben va canh day deu b a n g a. T i m d i e m M e SA sao cho dien
t i c h A M B D nho n h a t , hay c h i r a gia t r i nho n h a t do.
Giai
Goi S l a dien t i c h A M B D S = i BD.MO = | . a V 2 . M 0 (1)
=> m i n S xay r a m i n M O xay r a
N h u n g m i n M O = d l O ; SA] = O H
V i tOf dien deu n e n AC n B D = O t h i SO l a dudng cao.
=> ASOA v u o n g t a i O (2)
26
OA
Trong d6 :

K 4 K 4 2
(21
V2 a>/2 a
ASOA vuong can tai O => OH = OA.
2 2 2 2

minS= i . a V ^ . ^ = ^ xa r a k h i H Ik trung diem SA. (ycbt)


xay

Bai44
Trong mat phang (P) cho hinh vuong ABCD, tren dudng t h i n g (d) khong nam trong (P)
qua A lay diem S. T i m vi t r i cua S de I = (SA^ + SB^ + SC^ + SD^) dat gia t r i nho nhat.
Giai
Ap dung dinh ly dUdng trung tuyen trong cac tarn gidc ASAC va ASBD, ta c6 :
-,2
SA^ + SC^ -~ 2SO^ + — (1)
^ 2

ISB^+SD^ = 2 S 0 2 + : ^ (2)
I 2
1 1(2) „
Lay ^ S = 480^ + ^ +
^ 2 2
^ S = 4SO^ + AC'^ (3)
Be y trong (3) chi c6 SO la thay doi, do do S nho
nhat khi va chi khi SO nho nhat. Trong mp(0; d) co
dinh ha OH 1 d tai H.
=> OH = d[0; (d)] = minSO (do (d) co dinh)
=> minS = 40H^ + AB^ xay ra k h i S = H (ycbt)
Bai 45
Cho 3 diem A, B, C khong thuoc mat phang (P). Gia sd cac doan t h i n g AB va BC deu c l t
(P). Chufng minh rang doan t h i n g AC khong c l t (P).
Giai
Gia suf AC n (P) = I va goi :
M = AB - (P); BC n (P) = N
• Do M , N , I thuoc hai mat p h i n g phan bi$t (P) va (ABC)
nen t h i n g hang.
• NhUng M , N , I la ba diem n l m trong ba canh cua AABC
ma t h i n g hang t h i dan den di6u v6 ly.
Vay doan AC khong the nao c l t mp(P) difoc. (dpcm)
Bai 46
1/ Cho n diem trong do khong co 4 digm nao dong phlng. Chijfng minh r i n g khong co 3 diem
nao trong chung t h i n g hang.
2/ Cho n diem trong do bat ky 4 diem nao cung d6ng phlng. ChuTng minh r i n g n diem do
dong phlng.

27
Giai
1/ Chon tuy y A , B, C, D la 4 diem lay ra tU n diem da cho. Gia sif A , B, C 1^ 3 diem t h ^ n g h^ng.
Goi d la diTcrng t h S n g d i qua A , B va C. Dudng t h i n g nay
cung v d i d i e m D xac d i n h m o t m a t phftng (a). T a c6 : / ^rv ^ ^
D ; A ; B ; C e (a) (1)
De y tha'y (1) t r a i v o l gia t h i e t " k h o n g c6 4 d i e m nao /
t r o n g n d i e m da cho cung phang". /" \
Vay k h o n g t h e c6 3 d i e m nao t r o n g n d i e m ay t h i n g h a n g (dpcm).
2/ Bay g i d t a xet n d i e m khac v d i t i n h chat la 4 d i e m bat k y nao t r o n g chiing deu dong
phang.
Goi n d i e m ay l a A^; A2; A 3 ; A„. ( n ^ 4)
• K h i n = 4 t h i b a i t o a n difang n h i e n dung.
• Gia SLf n > 4.
Ba d i e m A i ; A2; A 3 xac d i n h m a t p h l n g (a). X 6 t d i e m
Aj (v(Ji 3 < i < n ) . Theo gia t h i e t 4 d i e m A j ; A j ; A 3 va Aj
dong p h a n g tiJc la Aj e (a) v d i m o i i = 4; 5; n.
N h i r vay t a t ca n d i e m ay thupc mp(a) (dpcm).
B a i 47
Cho tiJ d i e n A B C D . Goi I ; J I a n lugt l a t r u n g d i e m cua h a i canh doi A B v ^ C D . L a y M l a
mot d i e m t u y y t r e n canh A C . M a t p h l n g ( I J M ) cat canh B D t a i N . Chufng m i n h rSng I J chia
t h i e t dien I M J N t h a n h h a i p h a n dien t i c h bang nhau.
Giai
Trong mat p h i n g (IJM) => M N o I J = O
lA JC
= 1
IB " J D
Theo d i n h l y Thales dao t h i A C ; B D ; I J n a m t r o n g ba
m a t p h a n g song song va each deu nhau.
=> O l a t r u n g d i e m ciia M N .
Do do cac difdng cao M H va N K t r o n g t a m giac M I J va
N I J l a b a n g nhau.
dt ( M I J ) = dt ( N I J )
Vay I J chia t h i e t d i e n I M J N t h a n h h a i phan dien t i c h
b a n g nhau. (dpcm)
B a i 48
Cho tuf dien A B C D . T i m d i e m M t r o n g k h o n g g i a n sao cho I = MA^ + M B ^ + MC^ + M D ^
dat gia t r i nho n h a t .
Giai
Goi I , J , G I a n lifcrt l a t r u n g d i e m ciia A B ; C D va I J .
D i n h l y difcfng t r u n g tuye'n cho :
AB-'
MA^ + MB^ = 2MI'^
2
28
2

^./c/-i2 TT2 AB^+CD^ ^ AB^+CD^ ,,2 L i


=> L = 4 M G ^ + IJ'' + > + IJ'' = h a n g so
2 2
Dang thufc xay ra k h i va chi k h i M = G => E = M A ^ + M B ^ + M C ^ + M D ^ d a t gia t r j nho
nhat k h i va chi k h i M d G, t r o n g tarn cua tuT d i e n . (ycbt)
B a i 49
Cho tarn dien Oxyz vuong va m o t d i l m A co d i n h ben t r o n g t a m d i e n . K h o a n g cdch tCr A
den ba m a t (Oyz); (Ozx) va (Oxy) Ian luat la a; b; c. M o t m a t p h a n g luu dong (a) qua A cMt Ox
d M ; Oy o N va Oz or P.
b
1/ ChiJng m i n h : = 1 (1)
OA OB OC
2/ D i n h v i t r i cua mat p h i n g (a) de h i n h chop O . M N P c6 the t i c h nho n h a t .

Giai
1/ De y thay h i n h chop O . M N P xem n h u duac hap t h a n h bdi ba h i n h chop A . O N P ; A . O M P ;
A.OMN

Ta CO : VQ.MNP = VAO.NP + VA.OMP + VA.OMN

Khoang each tif A den ba m a t p h l n g (Oyz); (Ozx) va (Oxy) la :


A I = a; A J = b; A K = c

Ta CO : - OM.ON.OP = - ON.OP.a + - OP.OM.b - OM.ON.c


6 6 6 6

Chia h a i ve cua d ^ n g thilc n a y cho —OM.ON.OP, t a diiac


6
1 = (dpcm) (1)
OM ON OP
2/ Ap dung ba't d ^ n g thiJc Cauchy va dua no vao (1) ta c6:

1 > 3
10M ON OP

O M . O N . O P > 27abc

<=> Vo.MNP ^ I abc

Dang thilc xay r a k h i va chi k h i :


0 M = 3a
a b c 1 ON = 3b
OM " ON ~ OP " 3
0 P = 3c

Vay the t i c h tuT d i e n O . M N P nho n h a t b ^ n g - abc xay r a k h i mp(a) = m p ( M N P ) dugc d i n h

n h u t r e n . (ycbt)

29
Chuyen de 4 : QUAN H E V U 6 N G GOC
Loai 1 : D U C I N G T H A N G W O N G G O C fdJ^T P H A N G
D a n g 1 : C H Q N G M I N H Ol/dNG T H A N G V U O N G GOC V d l M A T PHANG
BANG D I E U K I E N CAN VA DU
L PHiroNo P H A P
Ca sd cua phuang phap chufng minh difcfng thftng d vuong goc
vdi mat p h l n g a bSng dieu k i ^ n can va du \k can p M i chutng
minh : difang th^ng d vuong goc vdri hai difcfng th^ng a, b dong
quy Irong mSt phSng a. / A
dla;bcu; a^b=0 = > d _ L a (dpcm).
n. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A N
B a i 50
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD d i y ABCD la tiJ gidc loi. Biet hai ASAB va ABAD vuong tai A.
Chiifng minh rSng AB 1 (SAD).
Giai
' AB 1 SA CI (SAD)
Ta CO :
^^AB L DA c (SAD)
AB 1 (SAD) (dpcm).
B a i 51
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD c6 day ABCD la hinh binh hanh tam O va SA = SC va SB = SD.
Chufng minh SO 1 (ABCD).
De y den hai tam giac can tai S : ASAC v^ ASBD c6 trung tuyS'n SO.
=> SO cung la dudng cao tuong uTng.
tSO L BD c (ABCD)
^ isO i AC c (ABCD)
=> SO 1 (ABCD) (dpcm). A
B a i 52
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD day ABCD la hinh thoi. Gia stf SA = SC. Chutog minh AC 1 (SBD).
Giai
De y ABCD \k hinh thoi tSm O.
=> A C l B D c ( S B D ) (1)
Khi SA = SC, t h i ASAC can vdi SO la dudng trung tuyen.
AC J_ SO c (SBD) (2)
TCr (1) va (2) cho : AC 1 (SBD) (dpcm).
30
B a i 53

Cho h i n h ch6p S . A B C D c6 day la h i n h cha n h a t \k SA J_ ( A B C D ) . G o i A E , A F 1^ dudng


cao cua cac ASAB va ASAD. ChOfng m i n h r ^ n g SC 1 ( A E F ) .

Giai
D6y AD±(SAB)va BC//AD
^ BC 1 (SAB) 3 EA ^ E A 1 BC (1)
(Sau nay t a c6 t h e chufng m i n h (1) bSng d i n h l y 3 dadng
vuong goc se n h a n h h d n hoac b d n g t i n h c h a t giao tuyen
cua h a i mftt p h i n g vuong goc).
Hon nOa E A 1 SB (c^ch dung) (2)
Tif (1) vk (2) cho : E A _L (SBC) 3 SC SC 1 E A (3)
M o t cAch t u a n g t i f S C I A F (4)
Tif (3) va (4) => SC 1 ( A E F ) (dpcm).
B a i 54

Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD c6 day A B C D l a h i n h chuT n h a t , goi I , J l a t r u n g d i e m A B , C D v^


gia sii SA = SB. ChOfng m i n h r S n g C D 1 ( S I J ) .

Giai
De y t h a y I J l a dtTorng t r u n g b i n h cua h i n h chO n h a t A B C D .
=>IJ//ADvaBC =>CDlIJc(SIJ) (1)
Taong t i f A S A B can t a i S c6 S I l a t r u n g t u y e n nen n6 cung
la dudng cao.
A B 1 S I ; ma C D // A B ^ CD 1 SI c (SIJ) (2)
TH (1) va (2) => C D 1 ( S I J ) (dpcm).
B a i 55

Cho tijf d i e n A B C D c6 H , K l a true tarn cdc tarn gidc A B C va D B C . G i a sC( r k n g H K 1


(DBC). Chufng m i n h A H , D K va BC dong quy.

Giai
Goi A I , D I i 1^ cdc d u d n g cao qua H vk K .
^ , fKH I (DBC) 13 BC BC 1 H K
Ta CO : <
[BC x DIi (each difng)

BC 1 ( A D I i ) 3 A l l => BC 1 A I , (1)
Theo each difng B C _L A I (2)
BC 1 All
Tif (1) va (2) cho : I i ^ I
BC 1 KI

Vfiy A H , D K v ^ BC dong quy t a i I .


• C a c h k h a c : X e m cau a), B a i 56.
B a i 56

Cho tiJ dien SABC c6 SA 1 (ABC). Goi H va K I a n l u o t l a trifc t a r n ckc tarn gidc A B C v ^
SBC. Chufng m i n h ;
a/ A H ; SK; BC dong quy b / SC 1 ( B H K ) c/ H K 1 (SBC).

31
Giai
a/ Cho A H o B C = A'. De chiing minh S; K ; A' t h i n g
hang ta chufng minh : S A ' ± B C
BC^AA'
T a CO :
' B C I S A (do S A X ( A B O )
Tif do ta suy ra : B C 1 (SAA') => B C 1 SA '
Vay CO the noi : A H ; S K va B C dong quy (dpcm).
b/ Theo gia thiet ta c6 : S C 1 B K (1)
Matkhactaco : \^^^^^
JBHXSA ( d o S A K A B O )
nen : B H 1 ( S A C ) ^ BH 1 SC (2)
Tif (1) va (2) ta suy ra : S C ± ( B H K ) (dpcm).
d Theo cau a/ ta c6 : B C ± (SAA') => B C ± H K (3)
Theo cau b/ ta c6 : S C _L ( B H K ) => S C J_ H K (4)
Tif (3) va (4) ta suy ra : H K ± ( S B C ) (dpcm).
B a i 57
Cho hinh vuong A B C D nam trong mat phAng (P). Qua A ditag nijfa dUcmg t h i n g Ax 1 (P).
Chon M la mot diem lUu dong tren Ax. Badng thang qua M vuong goc vdi mp(MCB) cSt (P)
tai R. difdng thSng qua M vuong goc \6i mp(MCD) cat (P) tai S.
1/ Chufng minh : A; B; R thang hang.
2/ T i m quy tich trung diem I cua doan R S k h i M lifu dong tren nijfa dudng t h i n g Ax.
Gi^i
1/ Theo gia thiet ta c6 : MR 1 (MBC) MR 1 B C MR 1 A D (vi A D // B C )
Ma da CO : A D 1 A M ^ A D 1 (MAR) => AD 1 AR
Vay A R ; A B ; A D cung a trong mp (P) ma A R va A B
cung vuong goc vdi A D => A; B ; R thang hang (dpcm).
TiJong tif tren => A, D , S thang hang.
2/ Do M R ± ( M B C ) ^ M R ± M B .
T a m giac M B R vuong d M c6 difcrng cao M A nen :
MA' = AB.AR
Tifcrng tif: M A ' = A D . A S
AB.AR = AD.AS
^ AR = AS
=j> I thuoc difdng t h i n g A C .
Do R chay tren tia Au (la tia doi ciia
tia A B ) va S chay tren tia Av (tia doi tia A D ) nen I or ngoai h i n h vuong A B C D .
Vay, I chay tren tia doi At cua tia A C (bo diem A).
Vay sau k h i l a m phan dao thi quy tich cua I la tia At (khong ke diem A) (ycbt).
32
Dang 2 : C H J N G M I N H Dl/dNG T H A N G V U O N G G O C Vdl M A T P H A N G
B A N G T R U C Dl/CiNG T R O N
L PHirONG P H A P
Ca stf ciia phi/ang phap chiirng m i n h difdng t h i n g d vuong
goc v6i m a t p h a n g a bftng van d u n g d i n h n g h i a t r u e dxidng
tron: l a dxtiing t h S n g v u o n g g o c vdri m a t p h a n g chii'a
dUdng t r o n t a i t a m c u a n o b a n g h a i btfdp ca b a n nhU sau :
n Bi : T i m m o t d i e m S a d i n h each deu cac d i n h da giac
day ABC... n h a sau : SA = SB = SC = ...
T i m d i e m O d day each deu cac d i n h da giac day ABC...
OA = OB = OC =...
• Ba : No'i h a i d i e m S, O do t h a n h true d cua di/crng t r 6 n .
No la dudng thftng vuong goc v d i m o i m a t p h a n g ehiJa
duac di/cfng t r o n (ABC).

n. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A N
B a i 58
Cho h i n h vuong A B C D c a n h a. Ve cung ve m o t p h i a ( A B C D ) ; cac doan AA'' C C vuong goc
(ABCD) sao cho A A ' = C C = a. Chufng m i n h : A'C 1. ( B C D ) .
Giai
De y den m p ( B C ' D ) (a v i t r i cac d i n h cua t a m giac BC'C), t a c6 : ^
• CB = C C = C D = a
=* C e (d) : true di/orng t r o n ( B C D ) ngoai t i e p A B C D .

I AT) VAA^TAD^

• Tuang tU : < A ' C - A C = V A B ^ - A D ^ a - ^

A - B - VA'A'^ + A B 2 = a - ^

=> A' e (d)


Vay : A C c (d) hay A C ± ( B C D ) (dpcm).
B a i 59

Cho h i n h chop S.ABC c6 fisC = 120°, CsX = 60°, A ^ = 90° v a S A = SB = SC = a. Goi I l a


trung d i e m BC. ChiJtng m i n h r a n g :
a/ AABC vuong. b/ S I J _ (ABC).
Giai
a/ Dat : SA = SB = SC = a > 0 (cho san)

BC = 2 C I = 2 . ^ = a V s (ASIC 1^ niJra A d e u )

Ta CO : •iCA = a (.\ASC deu)


A B = a>/2 ( A A S B v u o n g c a n t a i S)

< <^ B C ' = CA^ + A B 2


[CA^ - AB^ = a^ - 2a^ - Sa^

Theo d i n h l y Pythagore dao => A C A B vuong t a i A (dpcm).

33
b/ T h e o t i n h c h a t dUcfng t r u n g t u y e n Cifng v d i c a n h h u y e n cua t a m g'lAc A B C v u o n g t a i A .
=> l A = I B = I C (1)
H a n nffa da CO S A = S B = SC (2)
T i ^ (1) v a (2) c h o : S I l a true ducrng t r o n n g o a i t i e p zVABC => S I 1 ( A B C ) ( d p c m ) .
Bai60
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D d a y A B C D l a h i n h t h o i c6 IJAC = 6 0 " va SA = S B = SC. ChiJng
m i n h r S n g SG x ( A B C D ) . V d i G l a t r o n g t a m t a m giac A B C .
Giai
B A - B C (canh h i n h thoi)
D e y A A B C c6 : i A A B C deu.
i gAC 60" (gt)
=> G l a t a m d u d n g t r o n A B C n g o a i t i e p t a m g i a c d e u A B C .
D o do ; G A = G B = G C
--^ G 6 ( d ) t r u e e i i a d u d n g t r o n (ABC)
G i a t h i e t c6 : S A = S B = S C S e (d)
T o m l a i SG c (d) h a y S G 1 ( A B C ) h a y SG 1 ( A B C D ) (dpcm).
B a i 61
C h o h i n h c h o p S . A B C D c6 S A = S C = S D v a ADt = 90" G o i I l a t r u n g d i e m A C . ChuTng
m i n h r k n g S I -L ( A B C D ) .
Giai
De y tif t a m giac A D C (6 = 9 0 ° )
=> l A = I C = I D
K c t hcrp g i a t h i e t S A = S C = S D .
=i> S I l a t r u e d u d n g t r o n ( A C D ) n g o a i t i e p . \ A C D .
=^ SI 1 (ACD) ^ (ABCD)
«. S I l (ABCD) (dpcm).
Bai 62
C h o h i n h c h o p S . A B C D c6 A B C D l a nijfa l u c g i a c d e u c6 S B t ) - SCT) = 90". Goi O va I Ian
lifgt la t r u n g d i e m A D va SD. Chijfng m i n h rftng 01 1 ( B C D ) va S A 1 ( A B C D ) .
Giai
D e y d e n t i n h c h a t c i i a d u d n g t r u n g t u y e n ufng \'6i c a n h
h u y e n c u a t a m g i a c v u o n g , t a eo :
A S B D (fi = 9 0 " ) : > I B = I D
IB = IC = I D (1)
A S C D (C 9 0 ° ) :r> I C = I D
X e t nijfa l u c g i a c d e u A B C D ( l a m c i i a l u c g i a c d e u l a O )
=> O B = O C = O D (2)
T i r (1) v a (2) => 10 l a true di/dng t r o n ( B C D ) ngoai t i e p t a m giac B C D .
=> I O 1 ( B C D ) (dpcm)
M a S A // - O I SA 1 (ABCD) = (BCD) (dpcm).
2
34
tool I: DUdNG T H A N G W O N G G ^ C DUdJNG T H A N G

Dang 1 : CHUfNG M I N H HAI Ol/dNG T H A N G VUONG GOC N H A U B A N G DjNH NGHIA

OUdNG THANG VUONG GOC Vdl MAT PHANG


LPBUONGPHAP

Co sd cua phiTOng phap chOfng m i n h dudng t h i n g d vuong goc vdfi diTcfng


thSng a k h i t a sit dung d i n h n g h i a : d 1 a => d 1 a (tuy y t r o n g a),
qua 2 bade ca b a n :
• B i : Quan sat v a quan l y gia t h i e t t i m mp(a) chijfa dudng t h d n g
a can chufng m i n h no vuong g6c v d i d.
• 8 2 : ChOrng m i n h d _L ( a ) => d 1 a (dpcm).

n. c A c B A I T O A N C O B A N

Bai63
Cho t i l di?n A B C D c6 A C = A D v a B C = B D . ChiJng m i n h A B 1 C D .
Giai
Goi I la t r u n g d i e m c a n h C D v a de y h a i t r u n g tuyen cung l a
dudng cao t r o n g h a i tarn giac can cung ddy C D l a : A A D C v a ABCD.
I CD 1 BI c (ABI)
C D 1 ( A B I ) 3 A B => C D J_ A B (dpcm).
[CD 1 A I c (ABI)

Bai64

Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD c6 d^y A B C D l a h i n h t h o i v ^ SA 1 (ABCD). Chijfng m i n h B D 1 SC.

Giai
De y : B D c ( A B C D ) m a SA 1 ( A B C D )
=> B D 1 SA; m a SA <z (SAC)
HtJn nuTa do t i n h chat h a i dudng cheo h i n h t h o i
^ BD 1 AC; m a A C c (SAC)
Do do D B 1 (SAC)
Ta CO : SC c (SAC) => D B 1 SC (dpcm).
Bai65

Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 A B C D l a niJfa h i n h luc giac deu v a S A 1 ( A B C D ) . M o t m a t


phang qua A vuong goc v d i S D t a i D ' cat SB; SC t a i B', C . ChuTng m i n h t i l giac A B ' C ' D ' n o i
tiep difoc.

Giai
, _ i CD 1 AC (ti'nh chat luc giac diu)
^ ^ ' ^CD L SA (vi SA ^ (ABCD))

=> CD 1 (SAC); m a (SAC) 3 A C => A C 1 CD (1)


Theo each d i l n g SD 1 (a) EE (AB'C'D') AC
=> A C 1 SD (2)
Tir (1) va (2) => A C J_ (SCD); m a (SCD) ZD C D '
=> A C 1 C D ' <=> Actr = 90° (3)
Tuong t i f : BD 1 (SAB) 3 AB' => AB' 1 BD (4)

35
Theo each difng (a) ^ (AB'C'D') => A B ' 1 SD (5)
Tif (4) va (5) => A B ' 1 (SBD); ma (SBD) 3 B'D'
=> AB' ± B'D' « ABTT = 90" (6)
Cung t i f (5) va ( 6 ) => TuT giac A B ' C ' D ' n o i t i e p duac (dpcm).
B a i 66
Cho tiif dien A B C D . ChiJng m i n h D I E U K I E N DAI s6 sau de tijf dien c6 canh doi nhau vuong goc
AB 1 CD ^ AC'' - A D ' = B C ' - BDl
Giai
Ta c h i l n g m i n h dieu k i e n b ^ n g h a i trtfcrng hop :
• D i e u k i # n (=>) : Gia sijf A B 1 C D CD ± (ABH)
H la chan dUcmg cao B H => C D ± A H
A p d u n g he thiJc l u a n g t r o n g t a m giac vdri M la t r u n g d i e m C D .
f AC' - A D ' -_ 2 C D . M H
=> <i
iBC'-BD^ - 2CD.MH
=> A C ' - A D ' = B C ' - B D ' (dpcm).
• D i ^ u k i $ n (<=) : G i a A C ' - A D ' = BC' - B D ' (1)
Gpi M la t r u n g d i e m C D , A H j , B H 2 la cac chan di/dng cao
I A C ' - A D ^ = 2Ci5.MH7 (2)
t u o n g tfng, t a CO : \
; B C ' - B D ' = 2CD.MH2 (3)
Sijf d u n g ( 1 ) cho ( 2 ) va ( 3 ) :
2 C D . M H , = 2CD.MH2 => M H , = M H 2 <=> H i = H 2 (4)
N g h i a la \.\S (4) t a c6 C D 1 ( A B H i ) ^ ( A B H 2 ) , ca h a i m a t phSng ( A B H i ) ; ( A B H j ) deu chuTa
A B , do do C D 1 A B (dpcm).
O K e t lugin : Dieu k i e n can va du (dai so) de h a i c a n h doi A B va C D cua tiJ dien A B C D
vuong goc nhau la A C ' - A D ' = B C ' - B D ' (dpcm).
B a i 67
Chiifng m i n h r k n g h a i c a n h doi bat k y ciia tuf d i e n deu t h i vuong goc v<Ji nhau.
Giai
Goi E l a t r u n g d i e m c a n h A B . Theo t i n h chat cua t a m giac deu d
cac m a t t i l d i e n :
'AB ^ CE c (CDE)
|AB 1 DE C (CDE)
=> A B 1 ( C D E ) ; ma C D c (CDE)
A B 1 C D (dpcm).
Tuang tir t a chiifng m i n h difac BC 1 A D va A C L B D (dpcm).
O G h i c h u : Boc gid xem each chiing minh khdc a phdn goc cua hai diictng thang trong
khong gian. Viec nha tinh chat nay, chung toi xin nhdc : rdt ti^n ich trong qua trinh tinh
todn tren cdc til dien dSu.
Doc gid cUng c6 the dung diSu kien dai so cila Bai 66.
36
Bai 68

Cho tiif d i e n A B C D c6 A B J_ (BCD) va Sct) = 90". Goi B H la dadng cao A A B C . C h i l n g m i n h


ABHD vuong.

Giai
CD 1 BC1
Dey : C D 1 (ABC) 3 B H
C D x ABi

B H 1 CD c (ACD)
Cach difng dirdng cao => B H 1 A C c ( A C D )
B H _L ( A C D ) 3 H D
B H 1 H D hay A B H D vuong d H (dpcm).
B a i 69

Chufng m i n h rSng : T r o n g mot t i l di$n neu c6 2 cSp canh doi vuong goc nhau t h i c&p c a n h
doi thuT ba cung vuong goc nhau.

Giai
ABICD
Gia sur cho tiJ d i g n A B C D c6 :
ACIBD

Ta can c h i l n g m i n h : BC 1 A D
T h a t vay d i m g A H 1 ( B C D ) . Ta c6 :
C D l AB (gt)
C D _L ( A B H ) => C D 1 B H
CDiAH

;BDlAC(gt)
Va: B D ± ( C A H ) => B D 1 C H
[BDlAH

H a i ket qua t r e n cho t h a y H la t r i l c t a m cua A B C D luc d6 :


fBCiDH
BC 1 ( A D H ) BC 1 A D (dpcm).
^ ^BCIAH

• Ghi chii : Co thi chvCng minh bdi todn bdng phuang phdp vecta.
Dang 2 : CHUfNG MINH HAI OUCiNG THANG VUONG GOC NHAU
BANG DjNH LY BA Dl/CJNG V U O N G GOC

L PHODNG PHAP

Ca sd cua phuang phap can v a n d u n g d i n h l y ba dudng v u o n g goc n h u sau :


, »,T , . > I A M la dildng xien (so vdi (a))
Gia stf A H 1 (a) => < ,
; H M la hinh chieu (ciia AM xuong (a))
t h i difcrng (d) n'km t r o n g (a) thoa :
(d) 1 A M (ducrng x i e n ) c* (d) J. H M ( h i n h chieu)
Do do philcfng phdp gom 2 budc thuc h a n h :
• B i : Xac d i n h dudng vuong goc v d i m o t m a t phSng (a) t^
do t i m ra dudng x i e n ® va h i n h chieu ® .
n B2 : Dirdng t h i n g thut @ la (d) n a m t r o n g m a t p h l n g (c
• Neu : (D 1 ® (D J_ ® => (ycbt).
• Neu : (D ± ® (D 1 ® => (ycbt).

37
n. cAc BAI TOAN C O B A N
B a i 70
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 SA 1 ( A B C D ) va A B C D la h i n h cha n h a t . Chutog m i n h bon m a t
ben (SBA), (SBC), (SCD), (SAD) deu Ik n h f l n g tarn giac vuong.
Giai
|SA X AB _^ JASAB vuong d A (ycbt)
Ta CO : SA 1 ( A B C D )
ISA 1 AD ^ [ASAD vuong d A (ycbt)
SB : la dUcJng xien
De y t h a y : SA 1 ( A B C D )
AB : la hinh chieu
M a BC 1 A B => BC 1 SB ( d i n h l y ba dtfcrng vuong g6c)
=> ASBC vuong a B (ycbt).
Tirang t i i D C 1 SD ( d i n h l y 3 dudng vuong goc) => ASDC vuong d D (ycbt).
T o m l a i h i n h chop c6 4 m&t ben deu la n h i f n g t a m giac vuong (dpcm).
B a i 71
TUT dien A B C D c6 A B _L C D vk A C 1 B D . Goi H l a h i n h chieu cua A xuong (BCD). Chijfng
m i n h rSng H la trUc t a m t a m giac B C D va A D 1 BC.
Gi&i
BH sao cho BH r> CD = B,
CD ± AB (gia thiet)
Keo d a i : CH s a o c h o C H n B D = Ci Ta CO :
CD 1 A H (vi A H 1 (BCD))
DH sao cho DH n BC = D j
=> C D 1 ( A B H ) 3 B H
=> C D _L B H t a i B i hay B B , l a dUcfng cao ABCD (1)
Ti/ong t a B D ± ( A C H ) z. C H BD ± C H tai Cj.
=> C H la dudng cao A B C D (2)
Tii (1) va (2) cho t a : H la trUc t a m A B C D (dpcm)
A D j : \k dudng xien
De y t h a y A H J_ ( B C D )
HD, : la hinh chieu
M a BC 1 H D i ( v i H l a trifc t a m ABCD) => BC J_ A D j
=> BC 1 ( A H D i ) ^ ( A D D i ) 3 A D BC ± A D (dpcm).
B a i 72
Cho Cx, D y l a h a i dUdng vuong goc v6i m a t p h ^ n g h i n h chC? n h a t A B C D . MQt mp(P) qua
A B cat Cx, D y t a i E va F. Chufng m i n h r a n g A B E F la h i n h chQ n h ^ t .
Giai
y X
EB : Ik dudng xien
Bi y EC 1 ( A B C D )
CB : Ik hinh chieu
(P)
Ma A B 1 CB => AB 1 EB (1)
\
Vi
Theo d i n h l y giao t u y e n song song t h i A B E F l a h i n h b i n h
h ^ n h va no t h o a (1) n e n l a h i n h chif n h a t (dpcm).
/
1^ /f
O C a c h k h a c : D l y t h a y D C 1 (EBC) ma A B / / C D
=> A B X (CDE) r. E B => A B 1 E B (1) => (dpcm).
38
Bai 73
Trong h i n h chop S . A B C D d a y la h i n h chC n h a t A B C D . G o i S H la diTcfng cao h i n h chop va
SK; SL thijf t u la dirdng cao cac t a m giac S A B va SCD. Chijfng m i n h r S n g H , K , L t h S n g h a n g .

Giai
fSH : la dudng xien
Deyvdi S H I (ABCD)
^HK : ]k hinh chieu

MaAB 1 S K (each difng) A B i H K ( d i n h l y ba dif&ng vuong goc)


TucJng t u C D ± H L ( d i n h l y ba di/cing vuong goc)
'ABx HK
Tom t a i : <CD ± H L => H , K , L t h f t n g h a n g (dpcm).
HK// H L B

Bai 74
:1
Cho tiJ dien SABC c6 A B C l a t a m giac deu canh a, cac mftt (SAB); (SBC) v a (SCA) h a p v d i
(ABC) cac goc bftng nhau v a bftng a.
1/ Chiitng m i n h rftng : h i n h chieu H cua S l e n (ABC) l a t a m du&ng t r o n n o i t i e p AABC
2/ Tinh tong dien t i c h 4 mftt cua tuT dien S.ABC.
Giai S
1/ Goi 1, J , K I a n lifot la h i n h chieu ciia H l e n B C ; C A ; A B
Do d i n h l y ba dUcfng t h f t n g vuong goc.
BC 1 S I ; C A 1 SJ; A B 1 S K
Do d6 goc p h i n g cua cac m f t t ben (SBC); (SAC) v ^ ( S A B )
tao vdi (ABC) I a n lugt la S ^ , SJi?, gS^

g l i l =S3tl - SKfi = a
De y t h a y t a m giac vuong S H I , S H J , S H K bftng nhau n e n :
HI = HJ = H K
Vay, H l a t a m dUdng t r o n HQI t i e p AABC. ( H cung l a t r o n g t a m , true t a m , t a m difdng t r 6 n
ngoai t i e p cua AABC) (dpcm).

-.S HAB
cos a
[SHAB = SsAB COS a I
1
2/ Theo d i n h l y d i e n t i c h v a h i n h chieu t a c6 : •JSHBC = ^sac cos a <=> -ISSBC .S HBC
COS a
SHCA =SscACOsa
1
'SCA
COS a
.sIICA

SsAB + SsBC + SscA + SABC = (SHAB + S,IBC + ^HCA) + S^Bc


COS a

SSAB + SsBC + SscA + SABC = " " SABC + SABC

a^Va (l + cosa)a2,^
(ycbt).
I, COS a 4 COS a

39
toai 4 : M A T PHANG W O N G TfCJI M A T PHANG
Dang 1 : CHLJfNG MINH HAI MAT PHANG VUONG GOC NHAU
L PHtfONG P H A P ,
Ccr sd cua phuang phap can sijt dung dinh nghia de
chufng minh hai mat phflng vuong goc nhU sau : b
Chufng minh goc cua hai mat phang do bang 90".
(p = 90°/
(p = aMfe = (o?^ = 90°
(a) K P )
n. PHirCMG PHAP,
Ca so ciia phuang phap can sii dung dieu kien can va dii.
Chufng minh mat thuT nhat chijfa mot ducfng thang vuong goc
v(Ji mat thijf hai qua hai b L f d c ccf ban :
• B i : Quan ly gia thiet de t i m ra dudng t h i n g (d) (c6 tinh
lAi viet cho bai toan) va (d) c (P).
• Ba : Chifng minh (d) _L (a) t h i ket luan ducfc :
(a) ± (P) (ycbt).
m. C A C B A I T O A N ca BAN
B a i 75
Cho hinh chop S.ABC c6 SA 1 (ABC) va AABC vuong a A. Chtjfng minh : (SAC) X (SAB).
Giai
De y thay ( S A C ) va ( S A B ) c6 giao tuyen la S A
jAB^SA
va
|AC^SA
90" = S A C = [ ( S A B ) ; ( S A C ) ] ( S A B ) 1 ( S A C ) (dpcm).
fABlSA
O C a c h khac : De y : ^ AB 1 (SAC)
A B X AC
ma AB c (SAB) (SAB) ± (SAC) (dpcm).
B a i 76
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD c6 SA ± (ABCD) va ABCD la hinh vuong. ChOfng minh rang :
a/ (SAB) ± (SBC). b/ (SBD) ± (SAC).
Giai
a/ De y : BC // AD ma AD 1 (SAB)
=> BC ± (SAB)
Lai CO BC c (SBC)
=> (SBC) -L (SAB) (dpcm).
b/ Ta CO : BD ± AC (vi ABCD la hinh vuong)
40
B D 1 SA (vi S A 1 ( A B C D ) BD)
=^ B D 1 (SAC)
ma BD c ( S B D )
=> (SBD) 1 ( S A C ) (dpcm).
Bai 77
Cho hinh chop S . A B C D c6 day l a hinh chuT nhat A B C D va S A i ( A B C D ) . Goi E v a F l a
hinh chieu cua A len S B va S D . Chilng minh rSng :
a/ (AEF) 1 (SCD). b/ ( A E F ) _L (SAC).
Giai
, „ , A E 1 SB (do M c h dtfng)
a/ Ta CO : •!
AE i BC (vi BC J . (SAB))

=> A E 1 (SBC)
Ma A E c ( A E F ) => ( A E F ) 1 ( S B C ) (dpcm).
hi Phan trade ((d) 1 (a)), ta da chufng minh duac :
SC 1 (AEF)
Ma S C c ( S A C ) ^ ( S A C ) 1 ( A E F ) (dpcm).
Bai 78
Cho tuT dien S . A B C c6 S A = S B = S C va ZSLABC vuong can t a i B . Goi I va J 1^ trung diem
AC va B C . Chufng minh rkng ( S A C ) ± ( A B C ) va ( S I J ) 1 ( S B C ) .
Giai
[SA = SB = SC (gia thiet)
De y :
[lA = IB = IC (AABC vuong can d B)

^ SI 1 (ABC); V I S I la true difdng tr6n ngoai tiep A A B C .


Ma SI c ( S A C ) => ( S A C ) 1 ( A B C ) (dpcm).

Ta CO : I J l a difcfng trung binh A A B C =; I J / / = : -AB


2
^ BC 1 IJ
BC 1 (SIJ)
Lai CO : BC i SI (vi SIl(ABC) ID BC)

Mat khac B C c ( S B C ) => ( S B C ) 1 ( S I J ) (dpcm).

Dang 2 : CHUfNG MINH Dl/dNG THANG VUONG GOC VCI MAT PHANG
BANG GIAO TUYEN CUA HAI MAT PHANG

LPHirONG P H A P ,
Ca sd cua phi/ong phap can sijf dung dinh ly lien quan
den giao tuyen cua 2 mat p h i n g vuong g6c nhau nhu sau :
De chufng minh (a) 1 (a) ta chiJng minh :

7
(a) c (P) ± (a)
vk (a) 1 (d) = (a) n (P) (tai M).
/ M

41
n. PHiroNG PHAP,
Ca sd cua phucfng phap can siJf dung dinh ly lien quan
den giao tuyen cua 2 mat ph^ng cimg vuong goc vdi mSt
p h i n g thiir ba nhu sau :
De chufng minh (a) J_ (a) ta chufng minh : /
(a) = (P) n (y) /
va ^p) ± w); (y) ± (a)
/
m. c A c B A I T O A M ca BAM
Bai 79
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD c6 ASAB can tai S va ABCD la hinh chfl nhat. Goi I la trung diem
AB va gia suf (SAB) 1 (ABCD). Chumg minh rkng :
a/ SI 1 (ABCD). b/ BC 1 (SAB).
a/ Ta CO : ASAB can t a i S nen trung tuyen SI cung Ik dUcfng cao
^ SI 1 AB; SI c (SAB)
Ma (SAB) 1 (ABCD) theo giao tuyen AB
^ SI ± (ABCD) (dpcm).
b/ Tuang t u BC 1 AB; BC cz (ABCD)
ma (SAB) 1 (ABCD) theo giao tuyen AB jy
^ BC L (SAB) (dpcm).
B a i 80
Cho hinh chop S.ABC c6 AABC deu; hai mat phlng (SAC) va (SAB) cung vuong goc vdi
(ABC). Goi I la trung diem BC con O va H Ian lUcft la true tam hai tam giAc ABC va SBC.
ChOrng minh rkng :
a/ S A l ( A B C ) b/ (SAI) 1 (SBC) c/ SB 1 (COH) d/ OH 1 (SBC).
Giai
SA = (SAB) n (SAC)
a/ X e t : SA 1 (ABC) (dpcm).
I (SAB); (SAC)l (ABC)
fSI: \k dudng xien
b/ De y : SA 1 (ABC) => <
[AI : la hinh chieu
ma BC 1 A I (1)
^ B C l SI (2) (do AABC deu)
TO(1) va (2) => BC ± ( S A I )
ma BC c (SBC) => (SAI) 1 (SBC) (dpcm).
, fCO 1 AB (vi O la trifc tam ,\ABC)
^ ' 1 CO 1 SA (vi SA 1 (ABC) o CO)
=> CO 1 (SAB) ma SB c (SAB) => SB 1 CO (3)
De y den H la trUc tam ASBC => SB 1 CH (4)
Tix (3) va (4) => SB 1 (COH) (dpcm) (5)
(5)
dJ Luc do : SB c (SBC) => (COH) ± (SBC)
42
Tirong tii chufng minh difcrc (BOH) ± (SBC)
=> (COH) n (BOH) = OH 1 (SBC) (dpcm).
Bai 81
Cho hai tam giac ACD va BCD n&m tren hai m&t phSng vuong goc nhau.
Cho biet AC = AD = BC = BD = a va CD = 2x. Goi I va J Ian lifcrt la trung diem cua AB v^
CD.
1/ Chufng minh : I J 1 AB va I J J . CD
2/ Tinh AB va I J theo a va x.
3/ m gia t r i nao cua x thi (ABC) 1 (ABD) ?

Giai
1/ Hai tam giac can AACD = ABCD
JA = JB => I J 1 AB (tai I)
Van do cic tam giac ACD val BCD can tai A va B

=> CD ± (AJB) => CD 1 I J (tai J) (dpcm).

2/ Theo gia thiet (ACD) ± (BCD) theo giao tuyen CD ndn :


AJ 1 CD => AJ 1 (BCD) AJ 1 JB
Tam giac AJC vuong goc d J , tam giac AJB vuong d
J cho nen :

'AJ2 = AC^ - CJ2 = - 1 1 r-. V-


, => I J = - A B = - V 2 ( a 2 - x ^ ) (ycbt).
AB^ - AJ2 + JB^ = 2(a2 - x^) ^ AB = 72(0^ 2 2
3/ ACAB cfin d C nen : C I 1 AB

C I l ID « I J = -CD <=> AB = CD
2
« 2(a^ - x^) = 4x^ <^ x=* = ^ « X= ^ (ycbt).
3 3

Oang 3 : Di/NG DOAN THANG QUA MOT DIEM VA VUONG GOC Vdl MOT MAT PHANG
L P H V O N G P H A P ,

Co sd cua phaang phap difng thiir nhat nhu sau;


gom hai budc ca ban :

• B i : Tim mSt ph^ng ( P ) 1 (a) va ( P ) 3 M .

• B2: Ha M H 1 (d) = (a) n (P)

M H la doan t h i n g thoa yeu cAu bai toan.

43

IT
IL PHirONG PHAP2
Ca sa ciia phifcfng phap thil nhi gom hai bUdc :
• B j : T i m dif&ng thSng c6 sftn trong khong gian.
(a) X (a).
• B2 : Difng difcfng thAng (b) qua M dong thdi (b) // (a)
va goi H = (b) o (a)
=> M H la doan thftng can dimg.
m . C A C B A I T O A N CO BAN
B a i 82
Cho hinh chop S . A B C D c6 S A 1 ( A B C D ) va A B C D la hinh chO nhat. Mat ph^ng a qua B C
cat S A tai M. Hay dang doan vuong goc tif S den a.
Giai
De y B C c (a); ma B C ± ( S A B )
=> (a) 1 ( S A B ) theo giao tuyen Bx.
Ha S H 1 Bx; H e Bx
Vay S H la doan t h i n g can difng (ycbt).
B a i 83
Cho hinh chop S . A B C D c6 S A J_ ( A B C D ) va day A B C D la hinh thoi tam O vdri 0 < S < .
Xac dinh hinh chieu cua A va trung diem M ciia A O len tren (SBD).
Giai s
jjg. , , fBD 1 AC (tinh chat hai difdng ch6o h i n h thoi)
^ ^ ' | B D 1 SA (vi (ABCD) 12 BD
^ ( S B D ) 1 ( S A C ) theo giao tuyen S O .
H a A H 1 S O tai H A H 1 ( S B D ) tai H
Vay H la hinh chieu cua H tren ( S B D ) (ycbt)
Da CO A H 1 ( S B D ) . Dirng M K // A H ; K e S O
=> M K 1 ( S B D ) tai M Xc
Vay K la hinh chieu ciia M tren ( S B D ) (ycbt).
I V . GlAl T O A N T B I
B a i 84 ( H O C V I E N Q U A N Y - 2000)
Cho hinh chop S A B C c6 day A B C la tam giac vuong tai A, canh S B vuong g6c vdi ddy
(ABC). Qua B ke B H vuong goc vdi S A ; B K vuong g6c vdi S C . Chufng minh S C vuong g6c vdi
( B H K ) va tinh dien tich tam gi^c B H K , biet rang : A C = a; B C = a V3 va S B = a V2 .
Giai
Theo dinh ly ba dUcrng vuong g6c
=> AC 1 SA
Ma : AC ± AB
A C 1 ( S A B ) r. B H
=> ACIBH (1)
44
Nhifng: S A I B H (2)
Tir(l)va(2) BH _L (SAC) 3 SC; HK.
Do do : BH 1 SC (3)
BH 1 HK (4)
Ta lai c6 : BK 1 SC (5) (each ditag).
CQng tCf (3); (5) => SC 1 (BHK) (ycbt).
Xet rieng (4) cho ta ABHK vuong tai H
Tir ABBA 1
BH^ SB^
1
BH^ 2a 2a' a
BH^ = a^ » BH = a
HK SH
Xet : ASHK oo ASCA CA SC
(6)

V6i ASBA vuong can tai B => S H =_ (aV2 )v/2 _


2
(6) SH lyfE
H K = CA. a.a
SC V(aV2f + (aVsf
Vay dien tich S cua ABHK la :
1 aVs Vs a
S = - B H . H K = -.a. 10 (ycbt).

Chuyen de 5 : PHUONG PHAP THAI CO THE


THEN MOT MAT PHANG
I. PHLfdNG PHAP
Co so cua phuong phap la sCt dung hai tien de 5 va tien de 6 : nghia la khi trai mot co the
len tren mot mat phftng (ifu viet di/dc chon sSn c6 loi cho bai toan) thi tien de 5 va tien de 6
cho ta each qua bai toan phSng se lam cho bai toan don gian hon. Gom 2 hiidc ca ban :
• B i : Lira chon mot mat phSng (a) dac biet OU viet c6 Igi cho bai toan, sau do chuyen doi cac
yeu to trong khong gian quan he vdi vat the hinh hoc d gia thiet xuong mSt ph4ng (a) do.
O B2 : Ap dung tien de 6, ta thay trong (a) cac yeu to difOc chuyen doi luon bao dam cac tinh
chat ve goc va do dai ... Ap dung tien de 5 de dirge phep sijf dung cac dinh ly so cap.
Tir do ta xay diTng phep dUng hinh tiTcfng quan giffa cac yeu to dugc chuyen doi vdi cac yeu
to da dugc chuTng minh sSn (Dinh ly va He qua) trong mat phang (a) de dan den eac ycbt.
Trong chuyen de phep chijfng minh phan chufng cung thong thirdng dage sut dung.
Hien nhien viec siif dung cac tien de khac trong bai toan van ngam hieu la luon luon duoc dat ra.
45
n. cAc B A I T OA N C O B A N
B a i 85
Cho ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz doi m o t tao viSi nhau mot goc 60°. D o n g t h d i chon t u y y 3 d i e m A ,
B, C thuT tif t r e n ba t i a do. Chufng m i n h rSng :
a/ Ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz tao t h a n h m o t g6c t a m d i e n . b/ A B + BC + CA > O A + OB + OC
Giai
a/ Gia sOf ba t i a Ox, Oy, Oz dong phSng t r o n g (a), ta c6 2 k h a n&ng : cho t i a Ox p h a n bi§t v d i
hai t i a Oy, Oz da tao v d i nhau m o t g6c ydz = 60° t h i x9z = 120° hoac ic8y = 120° (v6 l y vdi
gia t h i e t )
Vay Ox, Oy, Oz k h o n g dong p h a n g hay chung tao t h a n h mot goc t a m dien. (dpcm)
O
,z
O , p
b/ Dua b a i t o a n ve bai toan p h a n g , bang each xet AOAB va dUng ode t a m giAc deu : AOAA' va
AOBB' t r e n m p ( O A B ) do, ta da c6 t r o n g h i n h hoc p h a n g :
2AB > OA + OB (1)
2 A C ^ O A + OC (2)
Tuang tir:
2 B C ^ O B + OC (3)
Cong theo ve (1) + (2) + (3) => 2(AB + A C +BC) ^ 2(OA + OB + OC)
=> A B + A C + B O O A + OB + OC (dpcm)
B a i 86
Cho tijf d i e n c6 d i ^ n t i c h ciia bon mat deu bang nhau. Chufng m i n h r k n g cac cap canh doi
cua chung bang n h a u .
Giai
Chon (a) = ( A B C ) , t r a i cac A D A B , A D C B . A D C A xuong (a) theo true t r a i Ian Itfcft la A B ,
BC, CA (nhif h i n h ve) sao cho :
: Al) - ADi = AD:s ^
<BD = BDi = BD2
I CD = CD2 = CD3
S
AB = CD2 = CD;, CD
<BC ^ ADj ^ AD;, - AD (dpcm)
AC = BDi - BDa = BD
B a i 87
Cho tiir d i e n A B C D c6 l o n g cac goc phSng t a i cac d i n h A va B deu b a n g 180°. Chufng m i n h
rang : CD ^ AB.
Giai
T r a i luf d i e n xuong mat p h a n g (a) s (ABC) theo cac true t r a i la cac canh A B ; BC; CA. Ta
CO cdch d u n g sau :
46
AM = A N = AD
^BM BE = BD

Vdi gia t h i e t t o n g cac g6c d cac d i n h A va B bSng 180°.


=> 2AB = N E
=> 2AB ^ N C + EC ( v i N , C, E chua t h S n g hang)
2AB < 2CD A B ^ C D (dpcm)
Bai 88

Cho tur dien A B C D c6 A B = CD = a; A C = B D v ^ A D = BC. X i c d i n h v j t r i d i e m M t r e n


canh AB d6 cho A M C D c6 chu v i nho n h a t , xac d i n h gia t r i nho n h a t cua chu v i do.

Giai
T r a i A D A B xuong mp((x) = ( A B C ) v d i true t r a i A B t h i :
BC = AC = BD
AABC = AABD M C = MD
AC' = BC = AD

Luc do chu v i 'f ciia z\MCD l a :


r = M D + M C + CD = ( M C + MC) + CD
r » C'C + a
Do do : min'f = (C'C + a) x a y r a <=> C , M , C t h S n g h a n g
Vay M HE Mo = C'C A B , t h i m i n ^ = (C'C + a) (ycbt)
Bai 89
Cho tiir d i e n A B C D c6 A C = A D = BC = B D = 1; A B = a; C D = b ; con M , N I a n lifort la t r u n g
diem A B va C D . T i m t r e n c a n h A D d i e m P sao cho t o n g ( P M + P N ) dat gia t r i nho n h a t .

Giai
Cac t a m giac A C M D (can t a i M ) va A A N B (can t a i N ) thuT
tif ciing t r u n g tuyen M N va cung la dUcfng cao
fMNlAB
MN^CD

lYai AACD tren mp((i) s (ABD) vdi true t r a i la A D difoc A A D C


AC - 1
DC = b

Goi N ' la t r u n g d i e m canh D C => P N = P N '


Luc do t o n g : I = P M + P N = P M + P N ' > M N '

ASTD - A5ct) = 90°


De y t h a y : < AMD = A5?t) - 90°
AXT) A J C D ^ 90°

=> Tijf giac A M D N ' noi tie'p t r o n g dUcfng t r o n dudng k i n h A D


= 1, nam t r o n g m p ( A B D ) .
=> m i n S = M N ' xay ra k h i va chi k h i M , N ' , P t h S n g h a n g .
Hay P ^ Po = M N ' A D (ycbt)
B a i 90

Cho h i n h chop S.ABC, cac goc p h a n g d i n h S dou b a n g a (0 < a < —) con c a n h ben SA = 1.
3
Churng m i n h r a n g : A B + BC + CA ^ ^2(\ cos 3u) .

47
Giai
T r a i cac tarn giac : A S A B , ASAC l e n m a t p h a n g (a) = (SBC) thijf t u
dugc A S B B , = ASAB va ASCCi = ASAC thur t i f theo cac true t r a i SB
va SC.
Luc do : I = A B + B C + C A = B B , + B C + C C j » B j C ,
De y k h i ap d u n g d i n h l y h a m cosin t r o n g A B i S C i v(Ji
BjS?^ = 3 a
=i> BjC? = SB? - S C f - 2SBi.SCi.cos3a
= 1 + 1 - 2cos 3 a = 2 ( 1 - cos 3 a ) S
=> B j C , = 72(1 - cos 3a) 3a
=> S = A B + B C + C A > 72(1-005 30) (dpcm) B, C,
Bai 91
Cho ba t i a p h a n b i e t Ox; O y ; Oz doi m o t vuong goc va ba d i e m A , B , C thijf t u t r e n ba t i a
Ox; Oy; Oz sao cho : O A = O B + OC = 1 ( * )
1 / ChiJng m i n h d i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n cua tijf dien O A B C k h o n g doi k h i B va C t h a y doi m a v a n
thoa dieu k i e n (*)
2/ T i n h ; I j = (5Afi - 6AC * B A C ; = <3BA * A B C + 6ch.
Giai
1/ T r o n g m p ( a ) = ( O B C ) t r a i tiJ d i e n A O B C xuong no b a n g phuong phap t r a i dac biet : difng
h i n h vuong O M D N c6 c a n h O M = 1 v a O M chufa canh O B cua tijf d i e n , con canh O N chila
canh OC ciia tuT d i e n . Theo each dUng n a y k h i dSt OC = x, t a c6 : O B = 1 - x
AOAB = ANDC
:\OAC = A M D B
^ ^AABC = ADBC
;OA = O B + OC = 1
Stp = S/^OAB + SAOAC + S^OBC + SAABC
=> Stp = S A N D C + SAMDI! + S^OBC + SADBC
=> S,p = SMDNO = 1 = const (dpcm)
2/ Theo t r e n t a c6 :
I i = 6AB - ( 5 A C + B A G
=> I i = ?fl)C + 5lDB . C D B = M D M = 9 0 " (ycbt)
Taang t i r : I 2 = (5BX ^ A B C + OcB
I 2 = JfCt) - rJcB + OCB = OCJJ = 1 8 0 ° (ycbt)
i n . GlAl TOAN THI
B a i 92 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - D O T 2 - 1 9 9 8 )
Cho tiif d i e n A B C D c6 cac c a n h A D = B C = a; A C = B D = b ; A B = C D = c.
1/ Chiifng m i n h rSng doan n o i t r u n g d i 6 m ciia cac cap canh d o i d i e n l a doan vuong goc chung
ciia cac cftp canh do.
2/ T i n h t h e t i c h tuf d i e n theo a, b , c.
48
Giai
AC = BD = b
1/ Ta CO : AACD = ABDC
AD = B C = a
AJ = BJ
AAJB can
JUAB
TueJng t i f : ADIC can IJIDC
^ IJ la doan vu6ng goc chung cua hai canh AB \k DC.
Mpt each tuang t u => (dpcm).
2/ Suf dung phUcfng phap trai nhU sau, dung APQR c6 cac canh di qua cdc dinh cua ABCD va
song song v<Ji cac canh ABCD. Ta c6 :

SBCD - — S PQR V APQR


4 ABCD
-^^^ 4
Trong AAPQ c6 : DA = DP = DQ = a => AAPQ vuong tai A
Tuang tu : AAQR; AARP cQng vuong tai A.
AP2 + A Q 2 = P Q 2 = 4a2 AP2 = 2 ( a 2 + b 2 - c 2 )

Ta CO : AQ2 + A R 2 = R Q 2 = 4b2 AQ2 =2(8^4- c^-b^)


AR2 =2(b2+c2-a2)

"^ABCD = -vAPQR 24
AP.AQ.AR

V2
V ABCD - VCa^ + b^ - c^Xa^ + - b^Xb^ + - a^) (dvtt).
12

Chuyen de 6 : X A C DINH VA TINH C A C LOAI G O C


TRONG KH6NG GIAN

Loai 1 : GOC CUA HAI DUdSG T H A N G THONG KHONG GIAN

L PHirONG P H A P
Co SOT cua phuang phap t i m goc cua hai dUcfng t h i n g (a), (b) can
thuc hien 2 budc ca ban :
• B i : Xac dinh : " = cp la goc dUng tCr diem O tuy y c6 the d
tren (a) hoSc (b) (dat tinh Uu viet cho bai toan k h i dUng va t i m
do Idn g6c) hai tia Oa', Ob' thU tU song song vdi hai ducfng
t h i n g (a), (b) c6 yeu cau t i m goc".
• B2 : Tinh do Icrn goc cp bkng cac dinh ly va tinh chat cua hinh hoc phing hay dinh ly ham

O Ghi chii : 0 < (p <90°, neu (p > 90° thi ycbt se chi ro tim goc tu.

49
IL C A C BAI T O A N C O B A N
Bai 93
Cho m o t tuT d i e n A B C D . Ggi I , J , K I a n l u g t l a t r u n g d i e m BC, A C va B D .
1/ H a y d i n h ro goc cua A B va C D .
2/ Suy r a dieu k i e n giuTa A B va C D de t a m giac U K :
a/ Vuong t a i I b/ C a n t a i I c/ Vuong c&n t a i I .
Giai
1/ De y : I J // A B ; I K // C D => (p = J l k = cSSTclT)
2 a / A U K d - 90") <=> cp = 90" <^ A B _L C D
2b/AJIK ( U = IK) « AB = CD
jAB 1 CD
2c/ A J I K ( i = (p = 90°) va I J = I K <=>
Bai 94
ChiJng m i n h r&ng cac canh doi ciia m o t tiit d i e n deu t h i vuong goc n h a u .
Giai
X e t tur d i e n deu A B C D canh a c6 M , N , P thuT t u l a t r u n g d i g m B C , A C va B D .
, , - , - , :MN//AB
Theo t i n h c h a t d u a n g t r u n g b i n h : =
IMP//CD ^
(cac goc cua cac cSp canh doi n h a u con l a i cung l a cp, v i t i i d i e n deu)
De y A B N D can t a i N v i N B = N D =
N P l a dUcfng cao A B N D can t a i N . D i n h l y Pythagre cho t a
^V^f (a) 2a^
NP^ = B N ^ - BP^ = •'•
L2y 4
2 , A/rD2
D i n h l y h a m cosin cho t a : NP^ = MN-* + MP^ - 2MN.MPcoscp
2a^
MN^_+_MP^_NP^
C0S(p = = 0
2MN.MP
2 2
(p = 90" (cac canh doi tiir d i e n deu vuong g6c nhau) (ycbt).
N2 / _ \2
2a'
MN^ + MP^ =
l2j
O G h i c h u 1 : c6 the tinh •
' 2a2
Np2 = BN^ - BP^ =
~[2
O G h i c h i i 2 : den day ta nhdc lai ket luan de sS dung rdt tien Igi sau nay ma khong can
chiing minh lai : "Hai canh doi tuy y cua mqt tit di^n deu thi vuong goc nhau".
Bai 95
Cho m o t h i n h t h o i A B C D canh a va mot d i e m S d ngoai m a t phftng chiJa h i n h t h o i sao cho
SA = a va trUc giao (vuong goc) v o i B C .
a/ Xac d i n h goc cua SA va B C . Suy r a h i n h t i n h cua ASAD.
50
hi Xac djnh va tinh goc cua SD va BC.
d Gpi I va J Ian Itfat la trung diem cua SA va SC. Hay dinh ro goc cua IJ BD.
Giai
SA 1 B C
a/ Da CO : => ip = (SSTBO = SAD = 90° (ycbt).
ADZ/BC

ma SA = AD = a > ASAD vuong can tai A (ycbt).


hi Tuang t i f : AD // BC
=> P = ( S B T B O = S D X = 45" (ycbt).
fIJ// AC
d Tuang tu : IJIBD
[BD 1 AC
=> Y = CETTBIT) = fioC = 9 0 ° (tinh chat diTcrng cheo hinh thoi).
Bai 96
Cho tiJ di6n ABCD. Goi M , N , I Ian lutrt Ik trung diem BC, AD vk AC. Cho AB = 2a, CD = 2 a , ^
vk MN = aVs . Tinh : (p = CSSTctJ).

Giai
Theo tinh chat dtfdng trung binh trong tam gidc

' l N / / - C D = aV2
2
IM // = - A B = a
2

Xac dinh dtfoc : (p = = (S^"SlJ)


Ap dung dinh ly ham cosin :
IM^+IN^-MN^ 2a2+a2-5a2
<=> <p = 135° (g6c til)
=> cosip = = -= <=> cosrn =
2IM.IN 2.aV2.a
Goc nhon tao bdi AB CD 1^ 45° (ycbt).
Bai 97
Cho I , J, K, L la trung diem cac canh AB, CA, DA vk DB cua tif di?n ABCD. Chilng minh rkng
a/ Neu AB 1 CD t h i I J K L la hinh chuf mhat. b/ Neu AB = CD t h i I K 1 IJ.
Htfdng d i n
Ti/ang t u ckc bai tren, doc gia tif giai.
Lcyii Z : TlM G O C C U A D U ^ N G T H A N G IfA MAT PflASG

LPHUONGPHAP

Co so ciia phuang phap t i m g6c cua dudng thSng (d) va mat


phang (a) ta can thiTc hien hai biTcJc ca ban :
• B i : Xac dinh hinh chieu dudng t h i n g (d) can t i m goc v6i mkt
phang xuong mSt p h i n g (a) la (d').
• B2 : Goc cua dudng t h i n g (d) dudng hinh chieu (d') cua no
xuong mat phang la goc can t i m (p = (ST^^ = (^iTo^).
O Ghi chu: Noi mot each thuc hanh thi goc ip = f3^7aT) la goc ciia
duang xien ud hinh chiiu trong dinh ly ba dudng vuong goc.

51
n. c A c B A I T O A M oa BAM
Bai 98
Cho hinh chop S.ABC c6 SA l(ABC), SA = a va tarn giac ABC deu canh a.
a/ Tinh [SB; (ABC)] b/ Tinh tan[SC; (SAB)].
Giai
SB : la dtffjng xien
a/ De y : SA _L (ABC)
AB : la hinh chieu
=> ip = = [SB; (ABC)]
=> (p = 45° (ycbt) (vi ASAB vuong can tai B).
b/ Goi I la trung diem AB va de y thay hai mat
phang : (ABC) 1 (SAB) theo giao tuyen AB.
^ CI 1 AB (vi AABC deu)
SC : la ducjng xien
CI 1 (SAB)
S I : la hinh chieu
p = d§i ="Tscr(SAB)]
CI aV3 aV3 iS 2
Ta CO : tan(3 = J - (ycbt).
SI 1^
Bai 99
Trong mat phing (a) cho hai diem phan biet B va C. Xet diem A cr ngoai (a) sao cho
X B C = ;CCB. Chilng minh rang : [AB, (a)] = [AC, (a)].
Giai
De y : ^CBC = iCcB => A A B C can tai A (1)
Difng A H la difcrng vuong goc ha tiT A xuong (a).
JAB ; A C : la cac diiting xien
[HB ; H C : la cac hinh chieu theo thij tu do.
(1)
Tif =^ A B = A C
=> H B = H C (hinh chieu tuang ufng cua cac dudng xien c6 do dai bkng nhau)
=> A A H B (fi = 90°) = A A H C (fi = 90°) (canh huyen - canh goc vuong)
ABII = Xcfi (tuang Ufng) 5 l A B r ( A B C ) ) T ( A C r ( A B C ) ) (dpcm).
Lo*i 3 : X A C Dm COC m DitN G O C CUA HAI f d ^ T PflASG
1. PHirONG P B A P
Co sd cua phtfong phap dUcfc thuc hi^n qua hai kha nSng :
d
0° < (p < 90'
0° < (p « 180"
52
• Phrfdng p h a p 1
Xac d i n h (p bSng cdch diftig theo d i n h nghia.
• Phtfcfng p h a p 2
Xac d i n h gian t i e p cp bSng d i n h l y di§n t i c h va h i n h chieu.
n PhUctag p h a p 3
Trong thUc te, ngiTcri t a diftig va t i n h goc cua 2 m a t phSng
bang d i n h l y ba dUcfng vuong g6c :
Goc cua dUcfng xien va h i n h chieu la goc cua mfit p h i n g
chieu (a) va m a t p h a n g h i chieu (P) tao bdi dudng t h ^ n g ®
va dudng t h i n g ® : cp = I^Atl = [tSlilpn
0 Ghi c h u : 0 < cp ^ 18<f =>(p= (h = K^JfT^ la goc nhi dien (d).
0 < (p <9(f => (pla goc cua hai mat phang (a) va. (fi).

n. CAC BAI TOAN C O BAN


Bai 100
Cho tijT dien deu A B C D canh a. T i n h goc p h i n g cua nhi dien (A; B C ; D).
Giai
1/ Goi M la trung diem C B va G la trong tam ABCD, ta c6 :
• A M : l a difdng xien
AG 1 (BCD)
[ D M : la hinh chieu

Ma C B 1 D M => B C 1 A M (dinh ly ba dudng vuong goc)


=> (p = (MA =7X^85115)

Taco : 2 3 2 6

AM

aVa aV3 1
coscp = (p = arccos (ycbt).
3.
Bai 101
Cho hinh chop S . A B C D c6 day la hinh vuong A B C D canh a; S A 1 ( A B C D ) va S A = a.
Tinh cac goc phang cua nhi dien sau :
a/ (SBC; A B C D ) hi ( S B C ; S D C ) .
H U d n g d&n
S B : l a dtfdng xien
a/ T a CO : SA 1 ( A B C D )
A B : l a hinh chieu

=> (p = S B A = ( S B C ; A B C D ) l a goc n h i dien t r o n g ycbt.

A S A B vuong can t a i A => (p = — (ycbt).


4
hi Hai t a m giac vuong S B C va S C D bang nhau t r o n g k h o n g g i a n n e n c6 c h u n g chan dUcfng
cao M cua h a i difcfng cao B M va D M theo thiJ tu do ;
=> P = BSit) = ( S B C ; S D C ) la goc n h i dien t r o n g ycbt.

53
Tac6 :
BM^ SB^ BC^ 2a'
Wf
D i n h ly hkm cosin t r o n g A B M D , t a c6 :
2a'
BM-' + D M ' - BP' _ _3_
cosP =
2BM.DM 4a'
2.
•if
27t
G6c t u cua n h i d i e n l a : p = — (ycbt).
3
B a i 102
Cho ba t i a Ox; Oy; Oz t r o n g k h o n g gian sao cho xOy = 1 2 0 " ; yOz = 9 0 ° ; = 6 0 ° . Tr§n ba
t i a ay I a n lucft l a y cac d i e m A; B ; C sao cho OA = OB = OC = a.
1/ Xac d i n h h i n h d a n g cua A A B C va v i t r i cua chan ducfng vuong g6c ha ti^ O xuong (ABC).
2/ T i n h cac goc do m a (OBC) va (OCA) tao vdi (ABC).
Giai
,\AOC deu => A C = O A = a
1/ A B O C vuong can d O BC = a-j2
A A O B can d O c6 XOfe = 1 2 0 °
0AV3
A B = 2- = aVa
^ AB^* = AC=* + CB^
=> AABC vuong d C.
Be y : OA = OB = OC nen chan dUcmg vuong goc H
ha tis O xuong (ABC) c h i n h la t a m d u t o g t r o n ngoai
tiep AABC hay H l a t r u n g d i e m cua A B (ycbt).
2/ Goi I ; J I a n l u g t l a t r u n g d i e m cua BC va CA.
Ta CO : H I _ L BC va H J 1 AC
Do d i n h l y ba dadng t h S n g vuong goc t a c6 : 0 1 1 BC va O J _L AC
fg6c ciia (OBC) vdi (ABC) la : CJifl = a
=> <
g6c cua (OAC) vdi (ABC) la : O j t l = p
A O H I vuong d H cho : t a n a = — = ^^ = 1 a = 45'0
HI a
a
OH 2
A O H J vuong a H cho : t a n p =
B a i 103
Cho h i n h vuong A B C D canh a. A x va Cy l a cac nila dudng t h ^ n g cijng vuong goc v d i m&i
p h a n g h i n h vuong va cung d ve m o t p h i a doi v d i m a t p h a n g h i n h vuong. Goi M va N I a n lugt
l a h a i d i e m t r e n h a i nijfa dUcfng t h i n g ay. D a t A M = x; C N = y.
1/ Goc p h i n g cua n h i d i e n ( M , B D , N ) l a goc nao ?
2/ T i m he thijfc gifla x va y de ( M B D ) ± ( N B D ) .
54
Giai
fBOlOA (O la tarn h i n h vuong)
1/ Ta CO :
BOX AM (gt)

Cho nen : B O _L (AMO) => B O 1 0M_^


TiTong t i f t a cung c6 : BO 1 ON (M, B D , N ) = MoN
2/ (MBD) 1 (NBD) » Mo!^ = 90"
icfoA-?rot; = 90° (1)
f ,,f^ AM 2x
tan M O A
AO ~
Nhitag :
L n l ^ =^ =^ ^ cotNOC = ^
OC 2y

Do do (1) tirang ducfng vdri : t a n SfoA = c o t K o C <=> — ^ = <=> x y = — (ycbt).


a42 2y 2

m. GlAl TOAN THI


Bai 104 ( D A I H O C K H O I B - 1975)
Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD, day A B C D l a m o t h i n h cha n h a t , m a t ben SCD vuong goc v d i mSt
phSng day va l a m o t t a m giac vuong t a i S, SCt) = a. M a t ben S A B tao v d i m a t phftng day
mot goc p = 90^* ~ tt. Goi S H , SE theo thiif t i i la difdng cao cua cac t a m giac S C D , S A B . B i e t
SH + SE = m , t i n h :
a/ The t i c h ciia h i n h chop S.ABCD
b/ Tong dien t i c h ciia h a i m a t ben S A D , SBC.

Giai
a/ Ha SH 1 CD. V i m a t ben (SCD) 1 (ABCD) => S H 1 (ABCD).
Ha H E 1 A B ; k h i do theo d i n h l y ba diTdng vuong goc t a c6
SE chinh la difcrng cao cua t a m giac SAB.
Trong t a m giac vuong H S E
=> S H = SEsinP = SEsin(90'' - a )
= SEcosa

Do : S H + SE = m SH 1 +
cos a ;

SH = mcosa (a day a * 90°, v i ASCD vuong t a i S)


1 + cos a
Lai CO : A D = H E = SH.cotp = S H . t a n u
T r o n g t a m giac vuong HSC t a c6 : H C = SHcota
T r o n g t a m giac vuong H S D , t a c6 : H D = SHcot(90*' ~ a)
HD = SHtanu ( v i ASDC vuong t a i S).
DC = H D + H C = S H ( t a n a + cota)
Luc do dien t i c h h i n h chO n h a t day l a :

SH^
7J = D C . D A = SH^tana ( t a n u + cota) = S H ^ d + tan^a) =
cos^a

55
Do do t h e t i c h h i n h chop S . A B C D l a :
m cosa
V=isH.« = - S H ^ ^ (ycbt).
3 3 cos^a 3(1 + cosa)^
b/ T a CO SD ± A D (theo d i n h l y ba dudng vuong g6c) => ASDA vuong t a i D
SH SH
va SD = ( v i A S D H vuong t a i H )
sinSDfi cosa
SH
Tifang t u t a cung c6 A S H C v u o n g t a i H va SC = — :
sin a
N h i r v a y t a c6 :
SH
dt(ASAD) = - A D . S D = -SHtana. = i s H ^ - ^
cosa 2 cos^ a
SH 1
dt(ASBC)= - B C . S C = -SHtana. = ±SH2.
sin a 2 cosa
sina 1
d t ( A S A D ) + dt(ASBC) = - S H ^ — +
2 cos a cosay
s m a + cosa
dt(ASAD) + dt(ASBC) = -1 <S H ^
2 cos a J
m ( s i n a + cosa)
dt(ASAD) + dt(ASBC) = (ycbt).
2(1 + c o s a ) ^
B a i 105 ( D A I H O C Y - DLfCJC - N H A - 1977)
Cho h i n h chop V . A B C c6 day A B C l a m o t tarn giac deu canh bSng a. G i a sil m a t ben
(VBC) v u o n g goc vdti m a t day (ABC), con cac m a t ben ( V A C ) , ( V A B ) I a n lugt hop v d i m a t day
( A B C ) t h a n h h a i goc n h i d i e n b a n g nhau c6 so do b a n g n/3. G o i D l a t r u n g d i e m cua BC t r o n g
m a t p h a n g ( A B C ) , ke D E v u o n g goc vdi A C .
1/ ChuTng m i n h r a n g A D v u o n g goc vdri V D .
2/ Chijfng m i n h r a n g V E = 2 D E .
3/ T i n h d i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n ciia h i n h chop V . A B C
Giai
1/ T a CO : ( V B C ) ± ( A B C ) theo giao t u y e n BC n e n , t a c6 :
A D 1 BC => A D 1 ( V B C ) => A D 1 V D (dpcm).
2/ Theo d i n h l y 3 dudng v u o n g goc => A C J_ V E
^ ip= \ = [ ( V A C ) ; (ABC)] = - ; m a D E 1 V D
3
=> A V D E l a nijfa t a m giac deu V E = 2 D E (dpcm).
3/ D i $ n t i c h t o a n p h a n ciia h i n h chop.
Stp = SvBc + 2SvAC + SABC ( v i A V A B = A V A C )
S,o = - B C . V D + 2. - . A C . V E +
56
VEVS 2DEV3 3a
Ta CO : VD =

Vi VE = 2DE =

3a aVs
Stp= - a . + a.
2 4
2
S ,•tp
p =- ^
— (V3- J +
T 6V3) = ^
^ ; _ (
- V X1 +
-r 2 V 3 ) (ycbt).
8 8
B a i 106 ( D A I H O C SLf P H A M T P . H C M - K H O I B - 1977)

Cho t a r n g i a c c a n O A B ( O A = O B = a ) , d f t t A O S = G. T i J O t a d i f t i g d i f d n g t h i n g vuong
goc v d i m a t p h a n g ( O A B ) , v a t r e n d o l a y d o a n O C b S n g a.
a/ ChtTng m i n h r k n g A C A B l a t a r n g i a c c a n . T i n h cac goc v a d i e n t i c h S c i i a A C A B t h e o a vk 0.
b/ T i f C t a d i f n g m o t ducfng t h i n g t h i n g goc vdri m a t p h a n g C A B v a t r e n d o t a l a y d o a n C D = C A .
T i n h cac goc v a d i e n t i c h S' c i i a A D A B t h e o a v a 0 . T i n h s i n G d e S l a t r u n g b i n h c o n g c i i a S'
va d i e n t i c h cua AOAB.
d Gpi I l a t r u n g d i e m A B . C h i l n g m i n h r k n g b o n d i e m I , O , C , D c i i n g n k m t r o n g m o t m a t phlng.

1 . 0
a/ C B X = ClAfe = a r c c o s — ; = s i n — ACAB can
V2 2

ABt! = — - arccos —;^sin—


2 V2 2
G
=> S = a ^ s i n - J l + c o s ^ - (ycbt)
2

1 . e
b/ I 5 B X = r5Afe = a r c c o s — s i n —
12 2,
1 .
ADS = — - arccos
—sm—
2
2 2

9 0 V?
S' = a s i n — 3 + c o s — ; sinG = (ycbt).
2 f 2 4
d Doc gia t i f g i a i .
B a i 107 ( D A I H O C K I E N T R U C T P . H C M - 1994)

C h o h i n h vuong A B C D canh a trong mat p h l n g ( P ) . H a i diem M ; N I a n l u a t d i dong tren


h a i canh C B v a C D . Dat : C M = x v a C N = y. Tren dUorng t h i n g A t vuong goc vdi ( P ) , l a y
diem S. T i m lien h e giuTa x v a y d e :
1/ Cac mat p h l n g ( S A M ) va (SAN) tao v d i nhau goc 45°.
2/ Cac mat p h l n g ( S A M ) va (SMN) vuong goc vdi nhau.

Giai
SAl AM
1/ T a CO : S A ± ( A B C D )
SAl AN

57
=> [(SAM); ( S A N ) ] T 1 ! A N = -
4
Dat : B A M = P ; rJAJj = a ; t a c 6 : a + p= -
4
tana + tanp
tan(a + p) = 1 = (1)
1 - tana.tanp
a -y
tana =
Ma : ; thay vao (1)
tanp = a - X
a
M X
a - X a-y (a - y)(a - x)
= 1
o a + a a
<=> a(2a - X - y) = a^ - (a - x)(a - y)
«=> x = 2a (ycbt).
2/ Ta CO : (SAM) 1 (SMN) => A M 1. M N
« AN^ = A M ' + M N '
<=> a' + (a - y)^ = a^ + (a - x)^ + x^ + y^
<=> x^ = a(x - y) (ycbt).
B a i 108 (DAI HOC GIAO THCDNG VAN T A I - 1998)
Cho hinh chop tOf giac deu. Thiet dien qua mot dinh cua day va vuong goc vdi canh ben doi
dien vdi dinh do c6 dien tich bang nijfa dien tich day. Tinh goc giOa canh ben va mat phang day.
Giai
Dat: AB = a => AC = aV2
Thiet dien ciia hinh chop qua A va vuong goc vdi canh ben doi dien SC tai K, cat SD; SB
tai M ; N .
MNISC
Trong mat ph^ng (SBD), ta c6 :
1BD1(SAC)=>BD1SC
MN//BD
Ma: BD 1 (SAC)
^ BD 1 AK => M N 1 A K
Suy ra : S^MKN = - A K . M N (1)
De y thay hinh chieu cua SC len (ABCD) la OC
goc giaa canh ben va mat day la : [SC; (ABC)] = X C S = a ; 0<a<-
2j
AK
A K = aVSsina
sina =
Vdi : AC
MN SO' ^ 00'
MN//BD
BD SO SO
58
Mat khac : A O ^ = iCCS = a
1 ^ (2) J^JvJ
=> 00' = —aV2 cota = 1 - cot^o

2 BD

=> MN = ( l - c o t ^ a ) . a V 2

1 r n
Ta CO : S^MKN = g ^ A B C D ; ^ " < 2
o AK. M N = a^; 0 < a < -
2;
o ( a - ^ s i n a ) ( l - cot^ a ) A ^ = a ^ ; ' o < a < ^ '
2)

o 2(2sin^a - 1) = sin a <=> 4.sin^a - sina - 2 = 0;

I + V33
sma = t h i thoa : 0<a<^
8 2
1 +V33
Vay : a = arcsin (ycbt).
8

Bai 109 ( D A I H O C SJJ P H A M V I N H - K I I O I G - 1999)


Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D , c6 d a y A B C D l a h i n h vuong, canh b e n S A v u o n g goc v d i mat
phftng day, S A = A B = a.
1/ Tinh dien t i c h tarn giac S B D theo a.
21 Chijtng m i n h r i n g cac difcfng t h a n g B D v a SC vuong goc v d i n h a u .
3/ Tinh goc giOa dUcfng t h a n g SC va m a t p h a n g (SBD).
Giai
1/ Goi O l a giao d i 6 m cua A C va B D , t a c6 ;
BD i C A ^ B D X (SAC) => B D 1 SO.

K h i do : S^snu = - SO.BD
2
BD = aV^
Vdi :
SO = VSA^ + A O ^ =
2
1
(ycbt).
= — .av2 . a=
2 2
2/ Ta c6 : B D _L (SAC) B D 1 SC.(dpcm)
3/ Difng : C H 1 SO
Vi : B D 1 (SAC) => B D 1 C H ; n e n : C H 1 (SBD).
Hay goc tao bdri SC v a mat p h i n g (SBD) l a C S b .
Ta CO : ASAO to A C H O
aVe
SA SO
= S =^ CH =
CH CO aV2

59
Khi d o : s i n C ^ = — = i => = arcsin - (ycbt).
SC 3 3
B a i 1 1 0 (BAI HOC Y KHOA H A N Q I - 1 9 9 9 )
Hinh chop S.ABC c6 SA la dudng cao va day la tam giac ABC vuong t a i B. Cho fiSt)
45". Goi XS5 = a t i m a de goc n h i dien (SC) b^ng 60°.
Giai
Ditog BJ 1 SC (1)
SAl(ABC): SAIBI
BI 1 AC
BUAC
=> BI J _ (SAC) => B I _L SC (2)
Tir(l)&(2)^ SC±(BIJ) => IJISC.
Khi do, g6c ph^ng nhi dien canh SC l i k :
(p = =
Do A B U vuong t a i I .
Nen : 6 j l = 60° » A B U la nuTa tam gidc deu.
V3 1 4 1
BI = BJ « o • o (3)
2 BI^ 3 BJ2
ASBC vuong tai B
Mat khac :
ASBC vuong can t a i B => SB = BC
AB AB
sina = AB = BC.sina
SB BC
Trong AABC vuong tai B c6 :
1 1 1
+ + 1 (4)
AB^ BC^ BC^ sin^ a
Trong ASJB vuong t a i J c6 : JSfe = —
4
=> ASJB vuong can tai J => SB = V2 .BJ
BJ^ BC^
(3)&(4)
Khido : +1
Bc^ ,sin a 3BC2
1 .1 = « 1 5
3 sin^a 3
sm a
>/l5
(do 0 < a < 7t)
sina = 5
. Vis (ycbt).
a = arcsin-
60
DE Tl/dNG Tlf
Bai 111 (DAI HOC TONG H d P TP.HCM - K H O I C, D - 1994)
Tiif dien OPQR c6 cac mat d dinh O bang I v . Goi A, B, C theo thuf tU la trung diem cac
canh PQ, QR, RP. ChuTng minh :
a/ Cac mat tiif dien OABC la nhCtng tam giac b^ng nhau.
b/ AABC nhon.
d tanA.tanB = 2 biet nhi dien canh OA cua tuf dien OABC la nhi di^n vuong.
HitGfng dan

a/ OA = |PQ va BC = | p Q ^ OA = BC

OB = AC; OC = AB => dpcm.


b/ AABC w APQR => dpcm.
CH^
d Tif tanBtanC = (1)
HA.HO
Ta CO : HC^ = 2HA.H0 thay vao (1) => dpcm.

Chuyen de 7: CAC L O A I THIET DIEN TAO THANH


V d l VAT THE HINH HOC

cAc D E V H L Y G I A O TUYfeN S O N G S O N G
• DLi : Mot mat ph&ng tiiy y (y) song song vdi giao tuyen (d) cua hai mat p h i n g phan biet
(a) va (P) t h i (y) cat t r d lai (a) va (P) Ian lUcft theo cac giao tuyen a, b va : a // b // d.

• DL2 : Mot mat phang tuy y (y) cat Ian luot


hai mat p h i n g song song (a) // (P) theo hai
giao tuyen song song a // b.

L PEnrONG P H A P
Ca sd cua phifcfng phap la sCt dung dinh ly giao tuyen song song va so diem chung cua hai
mat phing trong vat the bang each thuc hien hai budc cO ban :
O B i : Tim tat ca cac giao tuyen ma mot mat p h i n g cat tuy y (a) trong gia thie't c6 the cat
duac tat ca cdc mat (mat ben, mat day) cua mot vat the hinh hoc.
• B2 : Noi lien tie'p va khep k i n cac doan giao tuyen do tren vat the hinh hoc ta difac hinh
da giac p h i n g goi la thiet dien.

61
i
O G h i c h u : de tien Igi cd the phdn chia thiet dien ra lam sdu dang nho :
• D a n g 1 : M a t p h S n g c^t se quay quanh m o t canh v a t t h e tao r a t h i e t diSn.
• D a n g 2 : M a t p h a n g c^t se song song v d i m o t canh hoac h a i canh cua v a t t h e tao r a
thiet dien.
• D a n g 3 : M a t p h a n g cat se song song v d i m o t m a t p h ^ n g cua v a t t h e .
• D a n g 4 : M a t p h a n g cdt se c h ^ n h a i m a t p h i n g cua v a t t h e .
• D a n g 5 : M a t p h i n g cat se t h i n g goc vdi m o t dudng t h i n g ciia v a t t h i .
• D a n g 6 : M a t p h a n g cat se vuong goc v d i m a t p h i n g cua co t h e .
O G h i c h i i : Khi khdo sat thiet dien md dd biet cd sU song song vd sU vuong goc thi cdc loai
thiet dien se diigc phdn logi day du. Diiu do ly gidi cho viec sdp xep chuyen de 7 dvCng a
vi tri nay trong sdch. Du dieu do Id muon nhitng Igi dgt tinh day du cao !
n. C A C B A I T O A N O C B A N
D^ng 1 : M A T P H A N G CAT SE QUAY Q U A N H M O T C A N H VAT THE
TAO RA THIET DIEN
Bai 112
Goi I , J I a n l u g t l a t r u n g d i e m cua h a i canh B C v a C D t r o n g t i l d i e n A B C D . M o t m a t a
qua I J cat cac c a n h A D v a A B I a n \\sgt t a i M va N .
a/ H i n h t i l giac I J M N ?
hi M v a N p h a i d v i t r i nao de t i l giac I J M N la h i n h b i n h h a n h ?
Giai
a/ De y (a) quay q u a n h I J n e n (a) // B D ; v i B D / / I J
=> (a) n ( A B D ) = M N // B D N
T h i e t d i e n n h a n dugc l a h i n h t h a n g I J M N (hai ddy I J va M N ) (ycbt).
b/ K h i h i n h t h a n g I J M N l a h i n h b i n h h a n h ckn p h a i c6 : B
IJ = M N <=> M N l a difdng t r u n g b i n h A A B D
<^ M , N t h i l t i f l a t r u n g d i e m A D va A B theo thuT t i f d6 (ycbt).
Bai 113
Cho m o t d i e m S d ngoai m a t p h i n g chila h i n h t h a n g A B C D ( A B / / C D ) . M o t m a t p h i n g qua
A B cat cac c a n h SC v a S D I a n l u g t t a i C v a D'. H a y n o i r o h i n h t i n h t h i e t d i e n m a t p h i n g
(a) cat h i n h chop S . A B C D tao r a .
HuTorng d a n
Doc gia t i f g i a i v a dUgc t h i e t d i e n l a h i n h t h a n g A B C D ' (ddy A B ; C D ' ) .
Bai 114
Cho nufa h i n h luc giac deu A B C D n g i t i e p t r o n g v o n g t r o n O dUcrng k i n h A D , S l a mot
d i e m d ngoai m a t p h a n g ( A B C D ) . Qua B C ve m o t m a t p h i n g liAi dong (Q) c i t cac doan SA v a
SD t a i M v a N . H i n h t i n h cua t h i e t dien ? T h i e t d i e n nay c6 the l a h i n h b i n h h a n h k h o n g ?
Xac d i n h v i t r i cua t h i e t d i e n l a h i n h b i n h h a n h liic d6 ?
62
Uvldng din
Thiet dien t i j y y t h o n g thUcfng l a h i n h
thang A D M N ( A D // M N ) .
Thiet dien do l a h i n h b i n h h a n h k h i va c h i k h i :
fM = MQ : trung diem S A
(ycbt).
[N = Ng : trung diem SD

Bai 115
Cho m o t h i n h vuong A B C D , S l a m o t d i e m d ngoai mSt A B C D . G o i A ' , B ' 1^ t r u n g d i e m
SA va SB. M o t m d t p h a n g (y) lifu dpng qua A ' B ' cat SC v a SD t a i C v a D".
a/ Hinh t i n h t h i e t d i e n m a (y) cat h i n h chop S.ABCD tao t h a n h ?
hi Goi I l a giao d i e m cua A ' D ' v a B ' C . T i m quy t i c h I k h i C vach doan SC.
d Goi J l a giao d i e m cua A ' C v a B'D'. T i m quy t i c h J k h i C vach doan SC.

HU'drng d f i n
aJ Thiet dien l a h i n h t h a n g A ' B C ' D ' m a h a i day A ' B '
C D ' (ycbt).
hi Quy t i c h I l a h a i t i a n a m t r e n dudng t h i n g xSy bo
di nhOfng d i e m t r e n do n a m t r o n g doan S S Q , v d i
So = C B ' o xSy
va Sx c xSy = (SAD) n (SBC) (ycbt).
c/ Quy t i c h J l a doan : ^
SOi c SO = (SAC) o (SBD), '
trong do O i = D B ' ^ SO (ycbt). D'
D
Dang 2 : MAT PHANG CAT SE SONG SONG Vdl MOT HOAC HAI CANH CUA VAT THE TAO RA THIET DIEN
Bai 116
Cho tuT d i e n A B C D v a m o t d i e m M b a t k y t r e n canh A C . M o t m a t p h i n g (P) qua M cMt cdc
canh BC, B D v a A D t a i N , R v a S. H a y n o i ro h i n h t i n h t h i e t d i e n t r o n g mSi trtfcfng hcfp sau :
a/ (P) song song v d i C D . b / (P) song song v d i A B v a C D .

Giai
(P)n(ACD) = MS//CD
a/ K h i (P) // C D = ( A C D ) n ( B C D )
(P)o(BCD) = N R / / C D

keo dai M N : M N n A B = E
Difng h i n h b a n g each :
noi E R : E R n AD = S

T h i e t d i e n n h a n difoc l a h i n h t h a n g M N R S ( M S // N R ) ( x e m h . l ) .

~ - < § > ^ (h.2)


(h.l)

63
(P) n ( A C D ) = M S // C D
(P) // C D => ( A C D ) o ( B C D ) :
" (P) n ( B C D ) = N R // C D
b/ Khi :
(P) n ( C A B ) = M N // A B
(P) // A B => ( C A B ) o ( D A B ) :
(P) n ( D A B ) = S R // A B
Thiet dien nhan ducfc la hinh binh h^nh MNRS (h.2).
B a i 117
Cho tuf dien ABCD c6 AB trUc giao (vuong g6c) vdi CD.Biet AB = CD = AC = a. Tren canh
AC lay diem M dinh bdi A M = x. Qua M ke m&i p h i n g (P) song song vdi AB va CD, c^t c^c
canh BC, BD va AD tai N , R, va T.
a/ Tim hinh t i n h thiet dien vk cSt tuf dien ABCD ?
b/ Tinh dien tich S cua thiet dien do theo a va x.
d Dinh x de S dat gia t r i Idn nhat. Tinh t r i so liJn nhat nay ?
d/ Tinh x de S = m^ (m^ : so duang cho sSn). Bi^n luan.
Htfdrng dSn
a/ De y k h i (a) qua M , ta c6 :
(P) ( C A B ) = M N // A B
(P) // A B = ( C A B ) o ( D A B ) =
(P) n ( D A B ) = R T // A B
(P) ( A C D ) = M T // C D
(P)// C D = (ACD) (BCD) :
(P) o ( B C D ) = M R // C D
ABICD
Han nOTa : MNINR B
MN//AB;NR//CD
N ^
Do do thiet dien nhan duac 1^ hinh cha nhat MNRT (ycbt).
MT AM AM X
M T // C D = « MT = CD. a.— = X
CD AC AC a
b/ Theo dinh ly Thales ta c6 :
MN CM CM a - X
M N // A B : <=> M N = A B .
AB CA • C A =" a.
a
Luc d6 : di$n tich S cua thiet dien cha nhat MNRT tinh theo a va x lik:
S = S(x) = M T . M N = x(a - x) (1) (ycbt).
0 < X < a
d Nhan thay k h i A M = x, trong (1) c6 :
0 < a - X < a
Ap dung BDT Cauchy cho hai so' khong am x va a - x.
(1) f X + (a - x)
S(x) = x(a - x) < <=> S(x) < — (2)
4
Trong (2), dau d i n g thiifc xay ra <t;> x =a - x <=> x = — e [0; a]
2
Vay max S(x) = S =^ (xay ra k h i ^ = ~ hay M la trung diem AC) (ycbt).
0<x<a
d/ Cho x(a - x) = m^ Doc gia t u giai.
B a i 118
Cho tuf dien ABCD c6 AB = a, CD = b va AC = c.Goi M la diem bat ky tren canh AC.
a/ Qua M ve mat p h i n g (a) song song vdi cdc canh AB va CD. Mat n^y cat cac canh BC, BD,
AD ciia tuT dien tai N , R, S theo thuT ta do. Tim hinh tinh thiet dien; k h i nko thiet dien trd
thanh hinh chfl nhat ?
b/ Khi nao t h i dien tich thiet dien tren Idn nhat ? Xac dinh gia t r i Idn nhat do va vi t r i thiet
dien vdi gia t r i Idn nhat do ?
64
Giai
a/ Tifang tif b a i 117 d t r e n t h i e t d i e n n h a n duac l a h a n h b i n h h a n h M N R S .
Thiet dien do l a h i n h chfl n h a t <=> A B ± C D (ycbt).
SM AM b
^ SM = - x
CD AC c
MN CM
^>MN = -(c-x)
AB CA c
De y A B ; C D co d i n h k h o n g g i a n v i tuT dien l a c6' the.
r:> (p = S I N U = rZOTcTr) = (const)

Goi S l a dien t i c h t h i e t dien b i n h h a n h M N R S , t a c6 :

S = S(x) = SM.MN.sincp = ^^^^.x.(c - x)

cj, ab.sin(f> f x * c - x ^ a b s i n (?
BDT Cauchy S(x)< (1)
b(x) < 2 — ' 5 i

Dau dang thiJc t r o n g (1) xay ra<=>x = c - x < = > x = —


2

=> max S = x a y r a « • x = — due do M t r u n g d i e m A C )


Osxsc 4 2

Vay max S = tiTong uTng (a) qua 4 t r u n g d i e m 4 canh A C , B C , B D , A D theo thOt tU


n«xsc 4
do; tiJotng ijfng M N R S l a h i n h t h o i (ycbt).
Bai119
Cho ttif dien deu S A B C canh a va m o t mSt p h i n g lOU dong (TI) qua S song song v d i B C , Cat
AB a M va A C 0 N .
a/ H i n h t i n h t h i e t d i e n ciia (TI) vcJi tiif dien?
b/ ChiJng to (TT) chufa m o t difdng t h S n g co d i n h .
c/ D a t A M = X . T i n h t o n g y cac b i n h phifcfng cac canh tarn giac S M N , ve do t h i y = y(x).
Giai
a/ T h i e t dien n h a n diioc l a t a m giac S M N can t a i S (ycbt).
b/ De y tif S diTng (d) // BC
(d) CO dinh
^ \(d) - (SMN) o (SBC)

Do do (TT) chiifa (d) co d i n h (dpcm).


c/ Ta C O tir d i n h l y Thales, k h i M N // B C .
MN AM r , . ^ AM X
=> = <=> M N = BC. = a.- = X
BC AB AB a
Xet A S A M = A S A N (vdi chu y S X ^ = SA?? = 60" )
y
SN = S M = VSA^ ^ AM^ - 2SA.AMcos60°
2a^ B

4 -2ax.-
2
2
a^
2
A /

SN = V a ^ - x^ - a x

Do do : y = M N ^ + SM^ + SN^ = x^ + 2a^ + 2x^ - 2ax ro


a X
=> y = 3x^ - 2ax + 2a^ co do t h i l a cung Parabola ASB (ycbt).

65
^aiJ20
Cho AABO vuong tai O, C la trung diem cua OB va mot diem D d ngoai mat phing ch\ia
tarn giac sao cho OD true giao vdi AC. Mot mat phang (a) luu dong song song vdri AC va OD
cat OA, AD, BD, OB Ian luat tai M , N , R, S.
a/ Hay noi ro hinh tinh tuf giac MNRS ?
b/ Cho biet them OA = OC = OD = a va dat OM = x. Tinh dien tich y cua tut giac tren theo a
va X va gid t r i Idn nhat ciia y ?
UUdng din
a/ MNRS la hinh thang vuong tai M va S (ycbt).
b/ Goi y la dien tich MNRS.
Khi dat : OM = X
JMS = xV2
a - X
MN + RS
a -- X => y = .MS
X
=> i MN = 2a
;RS
t
^ ( 4 a - 3 x „ 3 x , . ^ f i l : : ^ ^ f
12 12 V 2 ;
V2 _ 2 u_.. J V2 _ 2 2a
y < — a^ hay max y = — a^ <=> 4 a - 3x = 3x <=> x = — (ycbt).
3 Os(Ka 3 3
Bai121
Cho hinh thang ABCD (AB la day Idn) lay mot diem S d ngoai mat phang ABCD. Mat
phang (i quay quanh AD cat SB, SC tai P, Q. T i m thiet dien tao dugc va quy tich giao diem
J = AQ o DP.
HUcTng dan
Theo each dUng thi thiet dien la tijf giac loi APQD (ycbt).
Goi O = AC o BD => SO = (SAC) n (SBD)
fAQ c (SAC)
Dey : AQ n DP = J e SO
DP c: (SBD)
i Q ^ P s S ^ J ^ S
Khi :
Doc gia tif lam phan dao, ta dugc quy tich J la
doan SO (ycbt).
B a i 122
Cho hinh ch6p S.ABCD c6 day ABCD la hinh binh hanh. Goi M , N , P l ^ n lugt la trung
diem cua SA, BC va CD. Hay dUng thiet dien cua hinh chop khi cat mp(MNP).
Hvtdng dan
DUcfng t h i n g NP // BD, nen cit cac dudng t h i n g
AB, AD Ian lugt tai I va J; tuang tu I M va SB cung
thugc mat p h l n g (SAB) va chung khong song song
nen cat nhau tai E.
[EeSB
Ta CO : <
;E e (MNP)
E = SB n mp(MNP).
66
Tiicfng t i f n h u v a y t a c u n g x a c d i n h d i i a c g i a o d i e m : F = S D o mp(MNP).

Vay t h i e t d i e n c u a h i n h c h o p S . A B C D v d i m p ( M N P ) \k n g f l g i i c M E N P F (ycbt).

D^ng 3 : M A T P H A N G C A T S E S O N G S O N G MQ\T M A T P H A N G C U A V A T T H E

B a i 123

Cho h i n h t h a n g A B C D c6 h a i d d y A D v a B C . G o i S l a d i e m b a t k y n S m n g o a i m a t phing
(ABCD). T r e n doan AB lay diem M . Qua M diTng m a t p h ^ n g a song song vdi mat phIng
(SBC). Xac d i n h t i n h c h a t t h i e t d i e n M N P Q m a a c a t h i n h c h o p S . A B C D t a o t h a n h .

Giai
De y k h i ( a ) q u a M v a d o n g t h c f i ( a ) // ( S B C )
!(a)//SB (a) n (SAB) = MN//SB

, x,,o^ f(a) n ( A B C D ) = M Q / / B C
=> <(a)//BC•!
1(a) n (SAD) = NP//BC
(a) // SC => (a) r^ (SCD) = PQ// SC

N o i l i e n t i e p cac c a n h g i a o t u y e n t a o t h a n h d i / d n g
khep k i n t r e n h i n h c h o p S . A B C D . B

Ta d u o c t h i e t d i e n l a h i n h t h a n g M N P Q ( 2 d a y M Q // N P ) (ycbt)

B a i 124

Cho h i n h v u o n g A B C D v a t a m g i a c d e u S A B n a m trong hai m a t p h a n g khac nhau. Goi M


la mot d i e m l i f t i d o n g t r e n d o a n A B . Q u a M k e m a t p h l n g a s o n g s o n g v6i m a t (SBC),
a/ Churng m i n h t h i e t d i e n v d i h i n h c h 6 p S . A B C D n h a n d a o c lei h i n h t h a n g .
b/ T i m q u y t i c h g i a o d i e m I c i i a h a i c a n h b e n h i n h t h a n g n o i d t r e n .

Hvldng din I S

a/ Doc g i a ta giai va chufng m i n h duac \

thiet d i e n l a h i n h t h a n g M N P Q ( d a y Idn
/.-.• \
la M N ) ( d p c m ) . p '/ ^
\
\
b/ Quy t i c h I l a d o a n SIQ song song \6i
AB va D C , t r o n g d o D N I I Q l a h i n h b i n h
/ A /
hanh ( y c b t ) .
f

B a i 125

Cho t i i d i e n S A B C m a d d y A B C l a m o t t a m g i a c v u o n g goc t a i B . C h o S A = 3a, A B = 4a,


BC = 3 a . T i r m o t d i e m A ' t r e n c a n h S A sao c h o S A ' = x , v e m o t m a t p h i n g ( P ) song song vdi
mat p h I n g A A B C . M a t p h i n g n a y c a t S B v a S C I a n l i f a t t a i B ' v a C . T i n h c h u v i v a d i e n t i c h
thiet d i e n c6 d a o c t h e o x .

Thiet dien la AA'B'C (6 = 90°)


T h e o d i n h l y T h a l e s t a c6 :
SA'
lA-B' = A B . - - 4a.— = —X
SA 3a 3

{B'C = B C — - 3 a . — = X
SA 3a
5
A ' C = A C — = V(3a2) + (4a2).- = 5a.- = — X
SA I 3a 3

67
Chu v i : ^ ^ T i c ' = — x + x + — x = 4x (ycbt)
Dien tich : S^T,C' = - A ' B ' . B ' C = - . - . x . x = - x ^ (ycbt).
2 2 3 3
B a i 126
Cho tiir dien deu S A B C canh a. Goi I l a trung diem AB. M l a mot diem luu dgng trong
doan AI. Qua M ve mot mat p h i n g (P) // (SIC).
aJ Mat (P) c i t tuT dien theo h i n h gi ? hi T i n h chu vi y cua thiet dien theo x = A M a.
a/ Thiet dien l a A P M N can tai M (ycbt).
hi T a c6 theo dinh ly T h a l e s n h u sau :
M P = SI.
AM ^ . J i = V3.x M N = M P = V3x .
AI 2 a
Tifong tu : P N = S C . — = a . — = 2x
^ • AI a
Do do chu vi y cua thiet dien la :
y = 2( 1/3 .x) + 2x = 2( Va + l)x; Va (ycbt).
Dang 4 : MAT PHANG CAT SE CHAN HAI MAT PHANG SONG SONG LIEN Odl
DEN VAT THi
B a i 127
Cho mot h i n h thang A B C D c6 hai day l a A B v a C D . Goi Ax, By, C z v a D t \k cdc nijfa
dudng thSng song song cung chieu va khong nam trong mat p h i n g chijfa h i n h thang. Mot mat
p h i n g (P) bat ky cat 4 nOfa dudng t h i n g tren Ian li/gt tai A', B', C , D'.
a/ Hay dinh ro h i n h tinh cua thiet dien.
hi Goi O va O' Ian lifot la giao diem cua cac difdng cheo hinh thang A B C D va A'B'C'D'. Chilng
to OO' // Ax // B y // C z // Dt.
Giai
a/ D6 y (Ax; By)//(Cz; Dt) (1)
j(P) n (Ax; By) = A-B'
^ |(P) n (Cz; Dt) = C D '
% A'B' // C D '
=> T h i e t dien l a h i n h thang A'B'C'D' (hai day l a
A'B' va C D ' ) (ycbt).
hi Xet hai mat phang (Ax; Cz) v a (Cy; Dt) c6 giao
tuyen OO'.
Nhifng trong m6i mat p h i n g c6 chufa C z , By, song
song nhau theo thuT tif do.
=> OO' // C z ; B y => OO' // Ax; Dt (theo tinh cha't bac cau)
Vay OO' // Ax // By // C z // Dt (dpcm).
68
Bai 128
Cho hinh b i n h h a n h A B C D . T i f nhOfng d i n h cua h i n h b i n h h a n h n a y t a ke nhiJng niia
dudng thang A x , B y , Cz, D t song song cung chieu k h o n g n k m t r o n g m a t p h ^ n g A B C D . M p t
mat phang (P) cat 4 di/cfng t h ^ n g t r e n t a i A , B', C , D'.
a/ Chutng m i n h ( A B A ' B ) // (CDC'D'); (BCC'B') // ( A D D ' A ' )
b/ Tut giac A'B'C'D' l a h i n h g i ?

Giai
fAB// CD
a/ De y : ( A B A ' B ) // ( C D D ' C ) (dpcm).
A'A'// C ' C

TircJng t i f : (BCC'B') // ( A D D ' A ) (dpcm).


,, ^ , !(P)n(ABA'B') = A'B' ..r.. „ r^.j^.

l(P)n (CDC'D'). C D ' ^^BZ/CD

va { < P ) - ( C B C ' B ' ) - B ' C ' ^ g.^.g'D'


[(P) n (ADD'A') . A - D '

=> A B C D ' l a h i n h b i n h h a n h (ycbt).


Bai129
Cho hai h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D va A ' B ' C ' D ' k h o n g nkm cung t r o n g m a t p h 4 n g .
a/ ChiJng m i n h (AA'B) // (DD'C).
hi Mot mat p h ^ n g bat k y (P) c^t A B , B ' A , C D ' va C D t a i M , N , R, S. H a y n 6 i ro h i n h t i n h
thiet dien n h a n dUcfc ?

Hvldng dltn
DQC gia t i f g i a i .
Bai 130

Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD c6 day l a h i n h b i n h h a n h . Goi I l a t r u n g d i e m SA v a M l a d i e m


lifu dpng t r e n canh A D . X e t N l a d i e m thupc S M thoa I N // ( A B C D ) .
a/ T i m quy t i c h cAc d i e m N .
b/ Trong cau nay gia suf M chay t r e n ca chu v i h i n h b i n h h a n h A B C D . Tim quy t i c h cua N .

Giai
I N // (ABCD)
a/ Ta CO : IN //AD
I N e (SAD)

N e I J : la dudng t r u n g b i n h cua ASAD.


fM s A N s I
Khi :
1M = D = > N = J

Dao l a i l a y d i e m t u y y N Q e I J .
=> I N o / / ( A B C D )
Vay quy t i c h N l a doan I J (ycbt).
b/ Goi E, F thuf tU l a t r u n g d i e m SC va SB.
TifOng t i f t a c6 quy t i c h cua N la chu v i cua t h i e t d i ^ n h i n h b i n h h a n h I J E F (ycbt).

69
Dang 5 : M A T P H A N G C A T S E T H A N G G 6 C \lQl M O T OJCING T H A N G C U A V A T T H ^
B a i 131
Cho hinh ch6p S.ABCD c6 SA _L AB; BC 1 AB. T i m thife't dien mat a 1 AB tai M e AB
cat hinh chop tao thanh ?
Giai
(a)//BC
De y (a) qua M , (a) 1 (AB)
"(a)//SA
(a)o(ABCD)=^MN//BC
(a)o(SBC) = PQ//BC
Do do :
Icajr^CSAB) = PM//SA
(a) o (SCD) = QN (khong can ghi ring bupc)
D^:-
Noi lien tig'p cac giao tuyen M N , NQ, QP va PM thay k V
chiing khep kin.
Vay thiet dien nhan dUdc la hinh thang MNQP (vdi
hai day : M N > QP), difac to dam nha trong hinh ben.
Bai132
Cho hinh ch6p S.ABCD c6 SA 1 AB; tarn giac ABC can vuong tai C. Goi M la mot diem
Itru dong trong doan AB. Tim thiet dien ma mat a 1 AB tai M dong thdi (a) ± BC cat hinh
chop tao thanh ?
Giai
Ta CO : ( a ) qua M va :
f(a) 1 AB => (a)// SA e (SAB)
1(a) 1 BC (a)// AC c (ABC)
(a)n(SAB) = MQ//SA
( « ) n ( A B C ) - MP//AC
Thiet dien nhan dirac la APMQ.
B a i 133
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD c6 day ABCD la hinh thang day ItJn CD va SA 1 CD; BD 1 CD.
Goi M la mot diem lou dong tren AB.Tim thiet dien ma mat a qua M vuong goc vdi CD va cat
hinh chop S.ABCD tao thanh ?
Giai
CD X BD, (a) 1 CD :=> (a)// BD
De y (a) qua M va <
:CD 1 SA, (a) i CD => (a)// SA
f(a)n(SAD) = NP//SA
(a)//SA = (SAD) o (SAB) <
(a)n(SAB) = MQ//SA
(a)o(SBD) = PQ//BD
|(a)//BD-(SBD)o(ABD)
( a ) o ( A B D ) = MN//BD
Thiet dien nhan dugc ma (a) tao vdfi hinh chop S.ABCD la
hinh binh hanh MNPQ.
B a i 134
Cho hai tia Ax va By khong dong phing, sao cho AB 1 Ax va By. Goi M , N la hai diem luu
dong tren Ax va By theo t h i l tU do con I la mot diem tuy y tren AB. Difng thiet dien m^ mat
phang (5 qua I vuong goc vdri AB cat tur dien ABMN tao thanh.
70
Giai M

Mat p h i n g ((5) 1 A B t a i I do do :
'(P)^(BAM) = I L / / A x
:(P)//Ax = ( B A M ) o ( A M N ) : iK
'((3) o ( A M N ) = J K // A x

'(P) ^ ( A B N ) = I J // B y
:((!)// A y = ( A B N ) o ( B M N ) r::>
1 (P) o (BMi\ L K // B y

Thiet dien n h a n diTcrc k h i ((5) X (AB) tao t h a n h vcri tijf


dien A B M N la h i n h b i n h h a n h I J K L (ycbt). N

Dang 6 : MAT PHANG CAT S E VUONG GOC Vdl MAT PHANG LIEN Odl CUA VAT TH^

L PHirONG P H A P

Ca sa cua phaang phap l a quy doi b a i t o a n d i m g thiet di^n vuong gdc v&i mat phang
(a) thanh b a i toan dying thiet di^n song song v&i mqt dU&ng thang, ma dU&ng thang
do vuong gdc san v&i mdt phdng (a) da cho trong gid thiet tim thiet di^n : sau do ap
dung d i n h l y giao tuyen song song va phuong phap difng t h i e t d i e n (ycbt).

n. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A M

Bai 135

Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 SA 1 ( A B C D ) ; SA = a va A B C D l a h i n h vuong c a n h a, t a m O.


DiTng va t i n h d i e n t i c h t h i e t d i e n qua SO va vuong goc v d i (SDC).

Giai
Qua O ditog E F // A B i . (SAD) v d i E e A D ; F e B C
^ E F 1 (SAD)
Do do t h i e t d i e n n h a n duac l a ASEF {t = 90") ycbt.
Goi S la d i e n t i c h t h i e t d i e n do :

1
=> S = -EFSE -= - a (ycbt).
2 2 l l2

Bai 136

Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 A B C D l a h i n h vuong t a m O, canh a. D u d n g cao h i n h chop la


SO. Goi I la t r u n g d i e m C D va (p = [ S I ; (BCD)] ((p > 45°). X e t m a t phSng a qua A B va vuong
goc (SCD). Xdc d i n h t h i e t d i e n ciia a va h i n h chop va t i n h dien t i c h t h i e t d i e n theo a v ^ (p.

Giai
Goi J la t r u n g d i e m A B =?. C D 1 (SIJ)
Ma CD c (SCD) => (SIJ) J_ (SCD)
Ha J H 1 (SCD); H e S I
D i i n g E F qua H va E F // A B
=> E F 1 (SIJ) v d i E G SD; F e SC
T h i e t dien n h a n difoc l a h i n h t h a n g can ABEF
(day \dn A B ; dUcfng cao J H )

T r o n g A I H J ( f i = 90")

71
S I - - — ^
2cos(p
•iHJ --- Usincp = asino
JHI = IJcos<i) = acoscp
D i n h l y Thales t r o n g ASCD
EF SH
CD ~ SI

•A
A'
a
2

r
0 a
2
a
a cos (?
« E F ^ C D SI a. 2 cos,.
SI
2 cos (p E / H\
<=> E F = a ( l - 2cos^(p) = -acos2<p
<=> E F = - acos2ip (2(p g6c t u ) r
a [ a
D i e n t i c h S c u a thie't d i e n l a : 2 2
1 1 a^
S= —HJ(EF + AB) = — asinip (a - acos2(p) = — ( 1 - cos2<p)sin(p (ycbt).
2 2 2
m. GiAi T O A N T H I
B a i 137 ( D A I H O C K H O I B M I E N B A C - 1973)
A B C D l a m o t tiir d i e n tCiy y. Chufng m i n h rSng luon luon t o n t a i m o t mSt p h i n g (P) dt tuf
dien ay theo m o t h i n h t h o i . H a y c h i ro m o t each dUng mil phSng P.
Giai
Gia sijf t o n t a i m a t p h A n g (P) cSt tuf diSn t u y y A B C D theo
hinh thoi MNPQ.
MN // QP
Ta CO ; MM c (ABC)
OPc(DBC)
=> ( A B C ) n ( D B C ) = BC // M N , QP.
^ BC//(P) (1)
MQ//NP
Tuong t i f : • M Q c ( B A D )
NP c (CAD)
( B A D ) n ( C A D ) = A D // M Q , M P => A D // (P) (2)
M N P Q l a h i n h t h o i => M N = N P (3)
MN AN
T r o n g AABC t a c6 : M N // BC
BC AC
<s. B C . A N = A C . M N (4)
NP CN
T r o n g A C A D t a c6 : N P // A D
AD AC
<=> A D . C N = A C . N P (5)
AN AD
T i i (3), (4) va (5) cho t a : B C . A N = A D . C N <=> (6)
CN BC
D a n g thuTc (6) chuTng to r a n g m a t phAng (P) chia doan A C t h a n h h a i doan t h a n h p h a n theo
AN AD
t y so :
CN BC
72
Nhif vay mSt phSng (P) c6 tinh chat tren la ton tai va ta c6 each difng mat phang (P) nhu sau:
AN AD
Chia AC thanh hai doan theo ty so : (7)
CN BC
Prong maet phaung (ABC) kcu MN // BC
Trong macl phaung (CAD) kcu NP // AD
Difng mat phang chuTa M N v a NP cat BD tai Q, do chinh l a mat p h i n g (P) phai difng v ^
MNPQ la hinh thoi.
MN AN
MN // BC <=> AC.MN = AN.BC (8)
That vay : Vi : BC AC
NP CN
NP//AD : <=> AC.NP = AD.CN (9)
AD AC
Tif (7) va (9) = AC.NP = AN.BC (10)
Tif(7) va (10) >MN = NP.
, P ) n (DBC) = PQ / / MN ^^^^
Dong thcri :
(P)o(BAD)=MO//NP
Bai 138 (DAI HOC SLf PHAM - 1976)
Day cua hinh chop S.ABCD la hinh chuT nhat ABCD c6 AD = BC = 2a va AB = DC = 5a.
Goi H la hinh chieu vuong goc cua dinh S tren day ABCD. Bie't rang diem H nam tren doan
thing IJ, trong d6 I la trung diem cua AD va J la trung diem cua BC. Cho SH = 2a; I H = a.
1/ Chijfng minh r ^ n g tam giac ISJ vuong. Tinh gia t r i g6c nhi di?n tao bdi hai mat ph^ng
(SAD) va (SBC).
21 Tinh dien tich xung quanh va the tich hinh chop.
3/ cat hinh ch6p bdi mot mat p h i n g vuong goc vdi I J tai diem K. H6i thiet dien la hinh gi ?
4/ Gia sijf I K = x. Goi y la di§n tich cua thiet dien MNPQ (M, N , P, Q la bon d i l m cua mat
phing thiet di$n 1 (ABCD) vuong goc cat bon canh cua hinh ch6p). Tinh y theo a va x (x6t
trudng hgp K nkm giaa I va H hoac K nam giffa H va J).
Giai
1/ Xet AISJ ta c6 SH la difcrng cao :
J H I . H J = HI.(AB - H I ) = a(5a - a)
JSH^ = 4a2
SH^ = H I . H J
=> AISJ vuong goc tai S (dpcm).
Ta c6 :(SBC) n (SAD) = x'Sx
S J 1 B C ^ S J 1 x'Sx
^ | S I 1 A D => S I 1 x ' S x

=> = a = [(SBC); (SAD)] = x S ^

=> = a = 90" (dpcm).


2/ Dien tich xung quanh S^, cua hinh ch6p S.ABCD :
S,, = 2dt(ASAB) + dt(ASBC) + dt(ASAD)

73
dt(ASAB) = dt(ASCD) = i X C D X SR
2
T r o n g do R la h i n h chieu cua S t r e n CD. T a c6 :
SR^ = HR^ + S I I ^ = a^ + 4a2 = 5a^
=> SR= aS
dt(ASAB) = dt(ASCD) = - X 5 a X aVs = ^
2 2
dt(ASBC) = - B C X S J = - X 2 a X 2ayfE = 2a^j5
2 2
dt(ASAD) = - X A D X S I = ^ X 2a X aVs = a^ Vs
2 2
=> = 5a^ VS + 2a^ Vs + a'"* Vs = 8a^ Vs (ycbt)
The t i c h V ciia h i n h ch6p S.ABCD :
V= ^dt(ABCI))xSll= ^x2ax5ax2a= (ycbt).
3/ Dc y tijy v i t r i ciia M , N t r e n A B va CD t a c6 hai trUcfng hap t h i e t dien duac viet gop nhif sau:
Thiet dien (MNPQ) ± I J => ( M N P Q ) // BC // A D .
M a t p h a n g ( M N P Q ) cSt A B , C D , SD, SA (hoac SC,
SB) theo thtif t i f M , N , P, Q. PQ cat S I (hoSc SJ) t a i
K', t a CO :
M N // PQ // BC// A D
Vay M N P Q l a m o t h i n h t h a n g h a i ddy l a M N va
PQ. De y t h a y h i n h chop n h a n m a t p h a n g (SIJ) l a m
m a t p h a n g doi xufng => M Q = NP.
T h i e t d i e n M N P Q la m o t h i n h t h a n g can (ycbt).
4/ • T H i : K d t r e n H I . T a c6 M N = 2a
IK. KK' „„, SHxIK 2axx
-« K K ' = 2x
III SII III
QP SK' UK a-x
2 a x ^ ^ 2 ( a - x )
AD SI 111 a a
Tri/dng hgp nay d i e n t i c h y cua h i n h t h a n g M N P Q la :
QP+MN 2 a - 2 x + 2a „
y = -^^ X KK = X 2x
^ 2 2
=> y = 2x(2a - x) = -2x^ + 4ax (0 < x < a) (ycbt).
n T H 2 : K d t r e Jn Kdoan
^ ^ ^ ,H^ JS H
(ax <J Kx < 5a). Ta c6 :
KK' _
SII ~ J l l jn
2ax(5a-x) _ 5a-x
KK' =
4a ~ 2
Q P ^ SK' IIK x-a 2a(x-a)
BC SJ IIJ 4a
0P = 4a
QP = ^—^ (a < x < 5a)
74
Trirdng hop nay dien t i c h y ciia h i n h t h a n g M N P Q la :
x-a
+ 2a
5a- X
y = ^ ^ . K K - = - l -
2
rx + 3a^ 5a
y = ' = - ( - x ' ^ + 2ax + 15a^).
4 8
Bai 139 ( B A I H O C S i / P H A M - K I N H T E - T A I C H I N H - 1977)
Trong mat phftng (P) cho h i n h chCf nhat A B C D c6 cac canh A B = 2a; A D = a. TiT A ke di/dng
vuong goc v d i m a t p h a n g (P) va t r e n do lay doan AS = 3a.
1/ T i n h cac doan SB, SC, SD theo a.
2/ Chijfng m i n h r k n g cac tarn giac SDC va SBC la cac t a m giac vuong.
3/ Mat phang chijfa DC cat SA t a i M va SB t a i N . I lay xac d i n h t i n h chat cua tOf giac
CDMN. Dat A M = x. T i n h dien t i c h cua tuf giac C D M N theo a va x.

Giai
1/ Ta CO :
. SB' = S A ' + A B ' = 9 a ' + 4 a ' = 13a' 3a - X
^ SB = asf\3 (ycbt)
. SC' = A C ' + S A ' = A B ' + B C ' + S A '
=> SC' = 4 a ' + a' + 9a'= 14a'
=> SC = as/u (ycbt)
. SD' = A D ' + SA' = a' + 9a' = 10a'
=> SD = aVio (ycbt).
2/ Theo d i n h ly 3 difdng vuong goc, ta c6 :
SA1(1')1
. SD 1 DC => ASDC vuong t a i D (dpcm)
AD I D C I

SAl(P)
=> SB 1 BC => ASBC vuong t a i B (dpcm).
AB 1 BC

3/ Tinh chat cua tiJ giac D C N M .


Goi (a) la m a t p h a n g qua D C ; (a) cSt SA t a i M va cat SB t a i N .
DC // A B ^ M N // DC // A B
DC 1 (SAD) =i. M N 1 (SAD) =:> M N 1 M D
Vay D C N M la m o t h i n h t h a n g vuong (hai day DC // M N chieu cao l a D M ) (ycbt).
Dien t i c h cua tuf gidc D C N M la :

dt(DCNM) = ' ^ " ^ " " ^ ^ X DM

D M = N / A D ' + A M " = sfa" + X '


Ta CO : MN SM 2a(3a-x) 2(3a-x)
MN =
AB SA 3a

2a + (3a-x)
dt(DCNM) =

6a - x
dt(DCNM) = Va" + X" (ycbt).

75
Chuyen de 8: C A C DANG KHOANG C A C H VA
DirdNG VUONG G O C CHUNG
to^l 1: Tina t A X A C Dpjfl C A C D A « G K H O A N G C A C H T R O N G KfldNG G I M
Dang 1 : T I N H K H O A N G C A C H TQ MOT D I E M D E N MOT MAT PHANG
L PHirOMG PHflP
Ccr sa ciia phifang phap can thifc hien 2 budc ccr ban nhif sau :
• B i : Xac dinh doan vuong goc M H vori (a), bang each diftig mot mSt p h ^ g (P) qua M va (P) J. (a)
theo giao tuy§'n (d), ha M H 1 (d) => M H = d[M; (a)] ^
• B2 : d[M; (a)] = M H difac tinh bSng phep cac dinh ly hinh hoc sa cap.
O G h i chii 1 : Khodng each d[M; (a)] con goi la do ddi doan
vuong goc trong dinh ly 3 diiimg vuong goc.
O G h i chii 2 : Sau nay ta con t'lm MH b&ng cong thiic hay the
tich (hay dien tich) vat the (xem phUctng phap di$n tich
va phUctng phap the tich).
ILBAITAPCOBAM
B a i 140
Cho hinh chop S.ABC day la tam giac vuong tai B va AB = 2BC = 2a. Biet them SA 1
(ABC). Tinh d[B; (SAC)].
Giai
Do SA ± (ABC); SA c: (SAC)
(ABC) 1 (SAC) theo giao tuyen BC.
Ha B H 1 AC tai H
=> BH = d[B; (SAC)].
He thure luang trong AABC (fi = 90°):
1 1 1 1 1 5 43" 2a
• + • HB^ = « HB =
HB^ AB^ BC^ 4a^ 4a^ 4^
2a
Vay : d[B; (SAC) = (ycbt).
Bai141
Cho hinh ch6p S.ABC c6 SA = h va SA 1 (ABC). Lay d i l m M E SB sao cho MS : MB = 1
2 va goi I \k trung diem CM. Tinh d[I; (ABC)].
Giai
Dung M N // SA; N e AB M N ± (ABC); m^ M N c (CMN)
=> ( CM I)± ( AB CD )
De y thay I e (CMN), do d6 ha I H 1 (ABCD); H e (ABC) t h i
I H la dudng trung hinh cua ACMN : I H = ^ M N (1)
=> d[I; (ABC)] = I H
76
M N B M 2
Theo dinh ly Thales
SA ' BS ~ 3

MN= - S A = - h (2)

Thay (2) vac (1) => I H = - . - h = - h


2 3 3

Vay d[I; (ABC)] = ~ (ycbt).


O

Bai 142
Cho tuf dien A B C D c6 A B = C D ; B C = B D con A C = A D . Dang A H ± ( B C D ) ,
a/ Chiifng minh H nam tren trung tuyen B I ciia A B C D . b/ Xac dinh d[A; (BCD)].

Giai
a/ Theo tinh chat dudng trung tuyen cung la dudng cao ha til
dinh cua tarn giac can, ta c6 :

j™ ^ ^ => C D 1 ( A B I ) ; ma C D c ( B C D )
[CD X BI

=> (ABI) 1 ( B C D )
Ha dudng cao A H cua tuf di^n A B C D
=^ A H 1 C D => A H c ( A B I ) hay H e B I (ycbt)
b/ Theo cau tren => A H = dlA; (BCD)] (ycbt).
Bai 143

Cho hinh chop S . A B C c6 S A 1 ( A B C ) va A A B C deu canh a.


a/ Tinh dlB; (SAC)]. b/ G i a sOf S A = h. T i n h dlA; ( S B C ) ] .
Giai
a/ Nhan xet thay ( A B C ) 1 ( S A C ) theo giao tuyen A C .
Ha B H 1 A C tai H .

d[B; (SAC)] = B H = (dtfdng cao A deu)

b/ Goi M la trung diem B C , ta c6 :

Mk B C c ( S B C ) => (SAM) 1 ( S B C ) theo giao tuyen S M .


Dirng A K 1 S M => A K 1 ( S B C )
d[A; ( S B C ) ] = A K
1 1 1 1 1 J_ 4
Trong do :
AK^ SA'^ AM^ h^ h^^Sa^

AK^ 3aV 4h'

Vay d[A; ( S B C ) ] = , (ycbt).


4h^

77
B a i 144
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 S A = S B = S D = 3a v a X B C X B C ^ 90"; fiSD = 60°.
T i n h d [ S ; ( A B C D ) ] k h i b i e t B D = 2a.
Giai
De y : X B C - KDC. = 9 0 " => B , D a t r e n ducfng t r o n dudng k i n h A C .
Gpi H la t r u n g d i e m A C . S
=> H A = H B = H D
Gia t h i e t l a i c6 SA = SB = SD. 3a
Do do S n la true di/dng t r o n ngoai t i e p .\ABD. /
S H 1 ( A B D ) EE ( A B C D ) /
=> dIS; ( A B C D ) l = S H D^^^^^^.^^^
Trong ASHA (fi 9 0 " )
=> S H = VsA'-^ HA''' ^|9a'^ ^ a'^ - -/to^ , 2^[2.a C
Vay dIS; ( A B C D ) l = 2 V2 .a (ycbt).
Dang 2 : TIKI KHOANG CACH TLT MOT Dl/CJNG T H A N G (HAY M A T P H A N G )
SONG SONG Vdl MOT M A T P H A N G
L PHirONG P H A P
Co so ciia phiftrng phap t i m k h o a n g each t£f ducrng t h S n g (A) // ( « ) h a y m a t phSng (P) // (a)
den ( u ) t a l a m h a i biTdc :
• Bi: L a y m o t d i e m M t i j y y (nhiftig p h a i thoa t i n h UU vifit cua b l i i t o d n de d6 d ^ n g t r o n g
qua t r i n h t i n h t o a n sau nay) t r e n (A) // (a) hay t r e n ((5) // ( « ) .
• B2 : H a M H J_ (a) => M H l a k h o a n g each can t i m t r o n g ycbt {vdi each diing M N da
biet).
O G h i c h i i : Sau nay ta con tinh MH bdng cong thi'tc tinh the tick vgtt the.
n. c A c B A I T OA N C O B A N
B a i 145
Cho AABC 9 0 " ) va 2 A C = A B = 2a.Goi A x va B y l a h a i t i a ciing vuong goc v d i ( A B C )
ve m o t phia. T i n h d [ B y ; (CAx)] va d [ A x ; (CBy)].
Giai
T a CO : B y // ( a ) = (CAx).
N e n ehpn B e B y va t h a y ( A x ; B y ) 1 ( C A x )
78
=* d[By; (CAx)] = BA = 2a (ycbt)
Tuang tu ha AH 1 BC tai H
d[Ax; (CBy)] = AH = 2a (ycbt).
Bai 146
Cho Ax, By la hai tia vuong goc vdi mat phang hinh thoi ABCD d cung mot phia. Tinh
d[(DAx); (CBy)l biet hinh thoi canh a c6 dien tich bSng a^Vs
Giai
D6 y thay hai mat phftng (DAx) // (CBy) va chung ciing vuong g6c v(Ji mp(ABCD) theo cac
giao tuyen AD va BC theo thil tu do. y
Chon A e AD va ha AH 1 BC; tai H
AH = d[(DAx); (CBy)] D
Lai CO vdi S la dien tich hinh thoi ABCD canh a.
S=i.AH.BC
2
« ^ 4 = l.AH.a
2
<^ AH = ^2 a
Vay : dl(DAx); (CBy)] = (ycbt).

Dang 3 : T I N H KHOANG C A C H TLT MOT D I E M D E N MOT DUCING T H A N G

LPHU'ONGPHAP

* PPi : Co so cua phaong phap thuf nhat de tim khoang each tiS
diem M den mot dudng th^ng (A) trong khong gian ta can thiTc M
liien hai bUdrc :
• Bi : TiJ di6m M can tim khoang each trong khong gian ha (\
dadng vuong goc M H vdi dudng thang (A). \

• B2: Do dki M H = dlM; (A)] la khoang each can tim. (Xem h.l) (h.l)
0 Ghi chii : Thuc te ngitai ta con thuc hien tinh khoang each til diim den mot diiang
thang nhu sau, theo 2 phuang phdp nUa :

• PP2 : Tim mat phang,(a) qua M va vuong goc vdri (A) tai H => JMH = d[M; (A)]| (xem h.2)
• PP3 : Tim each ghep (A) la di/orng thuf (3) nfim trong (a) va |d[M; (A)] = M H | la do dai
difcfng xien (T)' (xem h.3)
•k PP4 : Thinh thoang ngUcfi ta con tim d[M; (A)] bSng cong thuTc tinh dien tich hinh ph^ng
(phuang phap dien tich).

79
IL CAC BAI TOAN CO BAN
B a i 147
Cho <dy = 90" v a d i e m A a n g o a i m a t p h S n g O x y . C h o b i e t d [ A ; O x ] = d [ A ; O y ] = a v a
A 0 = ^ . T i n h d [ A ; (Oxy)].
Giai
I AE : la Aiibng xien
'AH : (Oxy) \<^„ , , , ....
H a ^HE ^ Ox •' ; HE : la hinh chieu
'AF : la di/crng xien
[HF ^ Oy
^ HF : la hinh chieu
'd[A ; (Oxy)] = A H
( i [ A ; O x ] = a = AE
^ d l A i O y ] = a = AF
OEIHF la hinh vuong (dinh ly 3 dufcrng vuong goc)
D i n h l y Pythagore ^ O E = VoA^ - AE^ = - a' = ^ = ^
=^ All = VAE^ - HE^ = a' - ^ = J " = ^ (Do O E = H E )
4 V4 2
Vay d(A; (Oxy)] = ^ (ycbt).
Bai148
C h o h i n h c h o p A . B C D c6 A B C D v u o n g c a n ( D B = D C = a ) , A B ± ( B C D ) v a A B = a. G o i M
la d i e m thoa : - 2MD = M B . T i n h d [ M ; (AC)].
Giai
De y d e n ( D B C ) ± ( A B C ) theo giao t u y e n B C .
' M K : la ducrng xien
Ha M H 1 BC ^ IVIH 1 ( A B C ) v a h a H K 1 A C ^ |HK : la hinh chieu
=> M K 1 A C ( d i n h l y 3 d U d n g v u o n g g o c ) => d [ M ; A C ] = lVIK ( 1 )
R A
A
V2 23-72 a^/2
M H = BM.
T a CO tCr t a r n g i a c v u o n g c a n B D C 2 3 2
BH = M H = aV2
HK CH „ „ A D CH
aV2- 3 _ 2a>/2 2V2
ACHK ^ ACAB « H K = A B . - r — = a. - a.
AB CA CA S.aVs 3V3
2a ^
80
Dinh ly Pythagore t r o n g t a m giac M H K ( f i = 90°)

14a^ aVl4 aV42


K M = A/MH2 ^ HK^ = . —
9 27 27

Vay d(M; A C ] = (ycbt).

Bai 149
Cho /\ABC (6 = 90", A B = a, BC = 2a). A x va By cung vuong goc vdi (ABC) va 0 cung ve mot
phia. Lay M va N t r e n A x v a B y sao cho A M = a; B N = 2aV2 .
a/ Chufng m i n h A B 1 (C; B y ) hi T i n h d [ M ; C N ] .

Giai
fAB 1 BC (AABC vuong tai B)
dJ Ta CO : < A B 1 (C; B y ) (dpcm).
1 AB 1 BN (each dung)

hi Ha M P ± B y = (Ax; B y ) o (C; B y ) m a (Ax; By) 1 (C; By) ^ M P 1 (C; B y )

HaPQlNC^ j^'^^"''^"^'"'"
[PQ : la hinh chieu

=> MQ 1 N C ( d i n h l y 3 dUdng vuong goc)


=> d[M; (CN)] = M Q

ANPQ CO A N C B
CB NC NC
a(2V2 - 1) a(2v'2 - 1)
o PQ = 2a.
(23)-=
4^

Dinh l y Pythagore t r o n g A M P Q cho :

MQ=^Mp-^^PQ^=ja^^''2V^"^'' 2(3-V^)

Vay : d [ [ M ; C N ] = ^ ^ ^ ^ "'^ (ycbt).

m. GiAi TO AN THI
Bai 150 (DE A 1 - 1981)
Trong m a t p h a n g (P), cho h a i dUdng t h a n g d i , d 2 cSt n h a u t a i d i e m A va tao v d i n h a u m o t
goc a (0 < a < 90°). T r e n dudng t h a n g A x vuong goc v d i m a t phSng (P) t a i A , l a y d i e m B v6\
AB = h ; t r e n ducfng t h S n g d'2 d i qua B va song song v d i d 2 l a y d i e m C v d i B C = a. G p i D l a
hinh chieu vuong goc cua C l e n d i .
a/ T i n h do d a i A D v j l k h o a n g each tiJ C den m S t p h i n g (ABD). TiT do suy r a t h e t i c h cua tiJ
dien ABCD.
hi Xac d i n h t a m m a t cau d i qua 4 d i e m A , B , C, D .
d T i n h k h o a n g each t i f D den dUdng t h i n g d 2 .
Giai
a/ Goi C l a h i n h chieu vuong goc cua C l e n
(P), hay len d j .
Theo d i n h l y dao ve ba difdng vuong goc

81
=> C D 1 di
=> AD = AC'.cosa = acosa.
Vi CC // AB, nen CC song song vdi mSt
p h i n g (ABD).
=> d[C; (ABD)] = d[C-, (ABD)]
Ta CO : C D 1 (ABD) bai vi C D 1 AD va C D 1 AB.
=> d[C'; (ABD)] = C D = C A s i n a = a.sina
madt(AABD) = - A B . A D = - ha. cos a
2 2
Nen the tich V cua tur di^n ABCD la :
V = - d t ( A A B D ) . d [ C , (ABD)] = - asina. - ha.cosa = — a^h.sin2a
3 3 2 12
b/ Cac diem B, D nhin AC dudri goc vuong n6n mat cau di qua A, B, C, D c6 tfim la trung
diem cua AC va nhan AC lam dirdng kinh.
c/ Doc gia t u giai.
B a i 151 (CAC TRLfdNG CAO D A N G - 1984)
Cho mot goc tam dien OABC ma ca ba m&t AOB, BOC, COA deu bang 60°. Cho OA = a,
dat OB = x; OC = y; a, x, y la nhCtog so thiTc difcfng. Goi H 1^ hinh chieu vuong goc cua A
xuong mp(BOC).
1/ Hay xdc dinh ro vi t r i cua diem H va tinh dp d^i cua OH vk A H .
2/ Chilng minh i^ng neu B A C = 90° thi C6 he thtfc : xy - a(x + y) + 2a^ = 0 (1)
HvCdng d a n
1/ OH la phan gidc cua B O C ,
O H = ^ = ^
AH= VOA^-OH^ = ^
3
2/ Ke't hop : BC^ = AB^ + A C '
va OB' + OC' - 20B.0C cos 60° =
= 0 A ' + OB' - 2OA.OBcos60° + OA' + OC' - 20A.OC cos60°
<=> x^ + y ' - xy = a' + x ' - ax + a' + y ' - ay
<=> xy - a(x + y) + 2a' = 0 (ycbt).
B a i 152 (DAI HOC PHAP LY TP.HCM - 1991)
Cho AABC deu canh a. Tren dtfdng t h i n g Ax vuong goc vdi mat p h i n g (ABC) tai A, lay
diem S vdi AS = h.
1/ Tinh khoang each ti^ diem A den mat p h i n g (SBC).
2/ Hy la dtfdng t h i n g di qua triTc tam H cua tam giac SBC, va vuong g6c vdi mat phing (SBC).
Chijfng to rkng k h i S di dong tren Ax, difcfng t h i n g Hy luon luon di qua mot diem co dinh.
3/ Hy cat Ax t a i S'. Xac dinh h theo a de doan SS' n g i n nha't.
82
Giai
1/ Tinh khoang each tis A den mp(SBC) :
Difng SM 1 BC. Ta c6 :
SAl(ABC)'
SMIBC J

=> BC 1 (SAM)
=> mp(SBC) 1 mp(SAM)
theo giao tuyen S M .
Tif A, dung A N _L S M => A N = d[A; (SBC)]

1 1 1
Trong ASAM
AN^ AS^ AM'

=> A N ^ = (ycbt).

2/ Dung BB' 1 SC va B D 1 A C . Goi H = S M n B B ' va O = A M n B D H , O I a n lifgt ]k trifc


tam ciia cac t a m giac SBC va A B C .
SA 1 (ABC) => (SAC) _L (ABC) theo giao tuyen A C .
Ma: BDIAC => B D 1 (SAC) => B D 1 SC.
Do B B ' 1SC=> SCI ( B D B ) => (SBC) 1 (BDB').
De y h a i m p ( S A M ) va mp(BDB') cung t h i n g goc v d i (SBC) n e n giao t u y e n O H cua c h i i n g
phai t h i n g goc v d i (SBC).
Lai thay H y va H O cijng t h i n g g6c v d i m a t p h i n g (SBC).
=> Hy va H O t r i i n g nhau. N 6 i khac d i , H y qua O l a true t a m (co d i n h ) cua A A B C (dpcm).
3/ Trong m p ( M , A x ) , O H 1 S M n e n O H p h a i c i t A x t a i S' va O cung la trUc t a m cua AMSS'.
Theo t i n h chat true t a m , t a c6 :

2 .
AS.AS' = A O . A M = - A M ^ = — ( k h o n g doi)

X e t : SS' = A S + AS' > 2VAS.AS' = a\ (*)

Dau d i n g thuTc trong (*) xay r a » A S = AS'.

=> minSS' = a V 2 tUOng ilng A S = AS'.


„2
AS^ = h^ = h = (ycbt).
2 2
Bai 153 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - K H O I A vA D H L U A T - 1997)
Cho h i n h chop S A B C c6 day la t a m gidc deu c a n h a va SA 1 (ABC). DSt SA = h .
1/ T i n h khoang each til A den mSt p h I n g (SBC) theo a va h .
2/ Goi O 1^ t a m dudng t r o n ngoai t i e p t a m giac A B C va H \k trUc t a m cua t a m giac SBC.
Churng m i n h O H 1 (SBC).

Giai
1/ Goi M la t r u n g d i e m cua BC A M 1 BC

83
Ma : SA 1 (ABC) ^ SA ± BC => B C l (SAM) (1)
Trong ASAM vuong tai A, dOng A K 1 SM.
(1)
Ta CO : =:> BC ± AK
^ AK _L (SBC) tai K.
^ AK = d[A; (SBC)]
ASAM vuong tai A
1 1 1 4 1
AK^ AM^ AS^ 3a'
2u2
3a^h
« AK^ =
4h2 + Ba^
^ AK = (ycbt).
2/ Ta CO : O la tam dUcrng tron ngoai tiep AABC deu => BO 1 AC => S C I BO
De y den H la trifc tam ASBC => BH 1 SC => SC 1 (BHO) => SC X HO
(1)
=^ OH ± BC. Vay : OH 1 (SBC) (dpcm).
B a i 154 (DAI HOC GIAO THONG V A N T A I CO SCJ I - 1999)
Cho hinh chop tam giac S.ABC c6 SA vuong g6c vcSi mat phang (ABC). BAy ABC la tam
gidc vuong tai C. Cho AC = a, goc giifa mSt ben (SBC) va day (ABC) la (p.
1/ Trong mat ben (SAC), tif A ha AF vuong goc vdi SC. Chtftig minh AF 1 (SBC).
2/ Goi O la trung diem cua AB. Tinh khoang each tif O den mat ph4ng (SBC) theo a va (p.
Giai
1/ Ta CO : BC ± AC; BC 1 SA
^ B C l (SAC) BCIAF
Ma : AF 1 SC
Vay : AF 1 (SBC) (dpcm).
2/ Goi M ; N la trung diem cua BC; SB.
Khi do :
0 M / / A C = > 0 M 1 B C _ frTMt) = (p
M N / / S C => N M ± B C BC 1 ( O M N )
Ha OH 1 M N OH 1 (SBC) tai H .
OH
Ta CO : siiKp = O H = — A C s i n c p = —a.sincp .
OM 2 ^ 2
B a i 155 (DAI HOC HUE - KHOI A - CPB - 2000)
Cho SABC la mot tuT di$n c6 ABC la mot tam giac vuong can dinh B v^ AC = 2a; canh SA
vuong goc vdi mSt p h i n g (ABC) va SA = a.
1/ Tinh khoang cAch tU A den mat p h i n g (SBC).
2/ Goi O la trung diem AC. Tinh khoang each tii O den mat phSng (SBC).
84
Giai
1/ Ha A H 1 SB t a i H (1)
De y t h a y :
B C I A B (AABC vuong can t a i B)
[ B C J_ S B ( d i n h l y b a d u d n g v u o n g goc)
=> B C K S A B )
Ma : A H c (SAB) => BC 1 A H (2)
TO (1) va (2) => A H _L (SBC)
=> A H = d [ A ; (SBC)]
1 1 1
Ta c6:
AB-^ • + SA^
• (aV2)2
,2
^ « A H ^ = ^ c . A H = ^
AH^ 2a'

Vay : d[A; (SBC)] = (ycbt).

21 TO A H 1 (SBC) => ( A H C ) 1 (SBC) theo giao t u y e n H C


A H
Goi K l a t r u n g d i e m C H OK = ma O K 1 (SBC)

Vay : d [ 0 ; (SBC)] = O K = (ycbt).

DE Tl/dNG T i ;
Bai 156 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A H A N O I - K H O I G - 1 9 9 7 )
Trong m a t phftng (P) cho d i e m O va m o t ducfng t h S n g d each O m o t k h o a n g O H = h . L a y
tren d h a i d i e m khac n h a u B , C sao cho g o H - COfi = 30°. T r e n ducfng t h i n g vuong goc v d i P
tai 0 lay d i e m A sao cho OA = O B .
a/ T i n h the t i c h tuT dien O A B C . b/ T i n h k h o a n g each tir O den m p ( A B C ) theo h .
HvCdng d&n

a/ VoABc = b/ 0 1 = 2^
9 Vv •
Bai 157 ( C A O D A N G S i / P H A M H A N O I - K H O I d - 1997)
Cho m a t phSng (P) va h a i d i e m A , B doi x i i n g n h a u qua (P). I l a giao d i e m cua A B v d i (P),
0 la mot d i e m ngoai (P), c6 h i n h ehieu vuong goc xuong (P) l a H . M l a m o t d i e m t u y y t r e n
di/dng t r o n dUdng k i n h H I t r o n g (P). Ch\Jng m i n h :
a/ M I la k h o a n g each vuong goc ehung cua B A va M O .
b/ Khoang each tiT O va H den mSt p h l n g ( B A M ) bSng nhau. T i n h t h e t i c h tuT d i e n B O M A
biet BA = 2a; H M = b; M I = e.
Htfdng dan
[HM 1 M I M i l MO
a/ M I l a dudng vuong goe ehung A B va M O .
I la trung diem A B AB 1 MI

b/ V = -HM.-AB.MI = -abc.

85
Loal Z : D O A N WdNG G 6 C C H U N G C C A HAI DUCJNG T H A N G CfltO N H A U
L PHUONG PHAP,
Ca sa cua phuang phap de tim doan vuong goc chung cua
hai dudng thing cheo nhau (a), (b) la : sijf dung dinh nghia
doan vuong g6c chung qua 2 budc ca ban nhif sau :
• B i : Chon A e (a), B e (b); (a) va (b) cheo nhau. Sau d6 ta doan 1 chung
chufng minh :<=> AB 1 (a) va AB 1 (b).
• B2 : Ket luan AB la difcing vuong goc chung cua 2 dUcfng
cheo nhau (a) v^ (b).
O Ghi chii : Do ddi doan (duang) vuong goc chung cua hai
duang cheo nhau la khodng each ngdn nhdt giOa hai dUang thdng do.
n. PHiroNG P H A P ,
Co sd ciia phiJang phap la silf dung each diftig thuf I. Do dai
dtfcfng vuong goc chung la khoang each tif mot diem tren
dacfng thang thil 1 den mot mat phing chufa dUcfng thing thil
II va song song w6\g thing thuf I, qua 3 bifofc cO ban sau:
• B|: Trong mat (a) da chufa b difng a' // a va B = a' b.
• B2: Do (a; a') xdc dinh mp(p), nen dUng trong mp((3) doan
BA 1 (a) va A 6 (a).
• B3: Ket luan doan vuong goc chung la AB = d[(a); (b)] (ycbt).
O Ghi chii : AB = AB' ... Id cdc do ddi doan vuong goc chung.
m. PHtfONG PHAP3
Co so cua phuang phap la suf dung each diTng thuf II
(a), (b) cheo nhau va (a) J. (b) (a), (b) cheo nhau (trUdng hop tong quat ehi suf dung
(trifdng hop dac biet) khi chifa tim difoc phifong an xuf ly cac trudng hop
khae da biet tii trUdrc)
doan 1 chung
doan -1 chung
Chung ta can thuc hien c^c bifdc :
• Dirng (a) 1 (a) tai A va (a) 3 (b) Chung ta can thifc hien cac bUcJc :
. Dung AB 1 (b) (B e (b)) • Difng (a) J. (a) tai A' va chieu (b) xuong (a) la (b').
=> AB la doan vuong goc chung cua • Dung A'B' 1 (b') (B' e (b'))
(a) va (b). • Dung B'B // (a) (B e (b))
O Ghi chill : Khi dang ndy khong • Dung BA // B'A' (A G (a))
khd thi thi ta mai sii dung cdc => AB la doan vuong g6c chung cua 2 dUcfng thing
dang khdc. cheo nhau (a), (b).
86
0 Ghi chu2 : U day hinh chieu trong O G h i chii : Do AB = A'B' (nen trong thUc hanh ta
tricang hap dinh ly 3 duang vuong hay tinh do dai A'B' cho dan gidn phep tinh)
goc la doan vuong goc chung.
IV. cAc B A I T O A M C O B A M

Bai 158

Cho tijf dien deu A B C D canh a. Xac d i n h va t i n h do dai doan vuong goc chung cua A B va CD.

Giai
Goi I , J l a t r u n g d i e m A B v a C D theo thuf t u do, va theo t i n h
chat cua tiJ dien deu t h i cac m a t ben ciia no se l a c i c tarn gi&c deu.

^ { => C D 1 ( A B J ) 3 IJ
; CDJ_AJ

=> CD 1 I J b a n nOa A B 1 I J ( A A J B can t a i J )


^ I J 1 A B va CD
Vay I J la doan vuong goc c h u n g ciia A B va C D (dpcm)

2
' ra> 2a^ aV2
Taco : I J = -/
i 2 >
4 2
(yebt).

Bai 159

Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD c6 SA 1 ( A B C D ) l a h i n h c h i i n h a t . D a n g doan vuong goc chung cua


SA va CD.

Giai
'CD c (ABCD)
De y : <
SAl(ABCD)

A D la doan v u o n g goc chung cua SA va C D (ycbt).

Bai 160

Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD day A B C D l a h i n h t h a n g vuong t a i A va B. A B = a; B C = a; A D =


3a; CD = aVv va SA = aV2 . K h i SA 1 ( A B C D ) , hay difng va t i n h do d a i dacfng v u o n g goc
chung ciia cac cap dacfng t h i n g :

a/ SA va CD. b/ A B va SD. c/ A D va SC.

Gi&i
a/ De y t h a y t r o n g A A C D :

iAC^ . CD^ . tV^f . ^V7f = 9a^ ^ ^ ^C^ + CD^ « A A C D (C = 90«)


; A D ^ = (3a)''^ - 9a^

Luc do A C = aV2 l a dadng v u o n g goc chung cua SA va C D (ycbt).

b/ Ta CO : A B 1 (SAD) 3 SD => A B 1 SD

Dong A H 1 SD t a i D ( t h i A H l a h i n h chieu)

A H la doan v u o n g goc chung cua A B va SD.

87
AH^ SA" AD' 2a ^ 9a' 18a'
18a^
AH = ^ (ycbt).
11 11
c/ De y t h a y A D 1 (SBC) 3 SB ma SB la h i n h chieu
cua SC xuong (SAB) ( v i C B 1 (SAB))
iter A doan A K J SB ; K e SB
Dirng : \tiiK doan KE // BC ;E e SC
tii E doan EF // KA ; F e AD
Theo each difng t h i l I I => E F la doan vuong goc chung ciia A D va SC, ve dp dai E F = A K ,
2
1 1 1
ta c6: - « AK^ = ^
AK' SA^ AB'' 2a' 2a a 3
Vay E F = A K = a j | (ycbt).
O C a c h 2 : De y t h a y : f va (SCB) 1 (SAB) theo giao t u y e n SB.
[(SBC) // AD
Difng A K 1 SB => A K la dp d a i doan vuong goc chung cua A D va SC.
'KE//BC
' ^ EF// A K : E c SC ; F e AD
EF la doan vuong goc chung ciia A D va SC va EF = A K
O G h i c h u : Neu gid thiet chi yeu cdu tinh
-4
do ddi doan vuong goc chung cua AD vd SC thi
Cdch 2 to ra tien Igi han Cdch 1.
Bai161
Cho h i n h iSng t r u A B C . A ' B ' C cac m a t ben deu la cac h i n h vuong canh a.
1/ H i n h Iftng t r u ay c6 dAc d i e m gi ?
2/ Xac d i n h va t i n h do d a i doan vuong goc chung ciia A ' B va B ' C .
Giai
1/ Do t a t ca cac m a t ben cua h i n h ISng t r u deu la cac h i n h vuong
bSng nhau nen h a i day cua h i n h l a n g t r u la hai t a m giac deu.
lAA'^ AB
M a t khac AA' 1 (ABC)
[AA'^AC
V a y l a n g t r u d gia t h i e t la m o t Iftng t r u t a m giac deu, canh
day bang a va chieu cao cung bang a.
2/ Gpi I va r I a n luot la t r u n g d i e m ciia BC va B ' C . De y t h a y
B ' C 1 ( A T I ) chijfa A ' l la h i n h chieu ciia A'B xuong mat phang do.
• Dang I ' H ± l A ' ( H c l A )
• Dung H E // BC (E G A ' B )
• Dung E F // I H ' (F e B'C)
E F c h i n h la doan v u o n g goc chung cua A'B va B ' C
• De t h a y l a : B C l ( A A T I ) => B ' C 1 ( A A T I ) => B ' C ± I H B C 1 E F ( t a i F)
• Goc A E F CO EF // ( A A T I ) , c6 h i n h chieu xuong mat phang ( A A T I ) la goc vuong A ' H I '
nen c h i n h goc A ' E F la goc vuong.
88
= 9 0 " => A ' B 1 E F ( t a i E)
Qua each diTng t a t h a y E H I T l a h i n h chO n h a t => E F = I ' H
1 1 1
Tarn giac I l ' A ' vuong d I ' :
I'H'' IT I'A'

aj3 1 1_ 4 7
Trong do : IT = a va I'A' =
I'H 2 ' ^ 3a2 ^ 3a2

E F = d[(A'B); ( B ' C ) ] = (ycbt).

Bai 162

Goi d, va d2 la h a i dUdng t h S n g cheo n h a u va vuong goc n h a u n h a n A B = a l a m doan


vuong goc chung (A e d , ; B s d2). Goi O l a t r u n g d i e m cua A B , (r) l a difdng t r o n t a m O ban
kinh R n&m t r o n g m a t t r u n g trUc (P) cua A B , M l a m o t d i e m thuoc (r).
1/ Chufng m i n h t o n t a i duy n h a t m o t doan t h i n g d qua M c&t ca h a i dUdng t h i n g d i va d2.
21 Goi E; F Ian lugt la giao d i e m cua d v d i d i va d2. Dat A E = x; B F = y. C h i i n g m i n h r i n g :
+ la mot dai li/cfng k h o n g t h a y doi k h i M d i dong t r e n (r).

Giai
1/ (P) la mat p h i n g t r u n g trUc cua A B cho n e n ; d] // (P) va d2 // (P)
Chieu vuong goc d] va d2 xuong (P) t h a n h d'l va d'2. T a c6 : d'l // d i va d'2 // d 2 v i d j 1 d2
nen d'l 1 d'2

Khi M cho s i n , t a t i m difcrc duy n h a t d i e m I e d'l va J e d'2 sao cho M l a t r u n g d i e m cua


D a n g O ' d o i xiifng v6i O qua M
IJ. Luc do t a d u n g h a i d i e m I , J nhif sau : -!
D g n g O ' l X d'l v a O ' J 1

d'2
O'

d':
O

Do tiir g i a c O I O ' J l a h i n h chif n h a t nen I J d a difcfc x a c d i n h v a n h a n M l a m t r u n g d i e m . Tii


I dung difdng t h i n g s o n g s o n g v d i A B , no c i t dj or E. H i e n n h i e n O A E I l a h i n h chOT n h a t nen
IE = OA.

TO J diing dacrng t h i n g s o n g s o n g \6i A B . D u d n g t h i n g n a y c I t d2 d F.

Ta c u n g c6 E F = OB. V i t h e n e n : I E = J F

TO g i a c E I F J la h i n h b i n h h a n h n e n E, M , F t h i n g h a n g va M l a t r u n g d i e m c u a E F .

Tom l a i : q u a M t o n t a i duy n h a t m o t d u d n g t h i n g d c I t dj d E va c I t d 2 d F ( y c b t ) .

21 Ta CO ; x^ + y"* = 0 1 ^ + OJ^ = I J ^ = 4 0 M ^ = = const (dpcm).

89
V.GIAITOANTHI
B a i 163 ( D A I H O C Y - N H A - DLfOC - 1976)
Cho m o t tuT d i $ n deu S A B C c6 canh l a a.
1/ H a y t i n h chi4u cao SO p h a t x u a t tCf d i n h S va t h e t i c h V cua tiir d i e n SABC.
2/ Goi M v ^ N I a n l u a t la t r u n g d i e m cua SA va BC. C h i l n g m i n h M N l a doan vuong g6c
chung cua SA vk B C . T i n h do d a i cua M N theo a.
Giai
1/ O l a t r o n g t a r n cua t a m gidc deu A B C .
Doc gia t u g i a i .
3
V = 1 dt( AABC) X SO = i X ^ X^ =
3 3 4 3
2ay De d a n g t h a y cac t a m giac S A N va B M C I a n lifat
can a d i n h N , M
=> M N ± S A va M N 1 B C
=> M N l a doan vuong goc c h u n g ciia S A va B C
(dpcm).
2b/ T a c6: M N " ' ' = S N ' ' ' - S M ^
2 2
3a' a' 2a'
MN^ =
y2j 4 4 4
a^f2
MN = (ycbt).
B a i 164 ( D A I H O C T O N G H O P T P . I I C M - 1991)
Cho h i n h v u o n g A B C D c6 canh b a n g 2a ve Bx va D y l a h a i nijfa dUcfng t h a n g vuong g6c vdi
m a t p h a n g ( A B C D ) va a cung m o t p h i a v d i ( A B C D ) . Gia suf B' chay t r e n B x va D ' chay t r e n
D y sao cho n h i d i e n ( B ' , A C , D ) luon luon vuong. D a t B B ' = u va D D ' = v.
aJ T i m m o t he thiifc l i e n lac giiJa a, u va v.
b/ Goi O la t a m h i n h v u o n g A B C D . H a 0 1 vuong g6c v d i B'D' C h i l n g m i n h 0 1 l a doan vuong
goc c h u n g cua A C va B'D'.
c/ Chufng to O I = aV2 . Suy r a n h i d i e n (A, B'D', C) cung vuong.
Giai
B'B ± (ABCD)
a/ De y >AC 1 ( B B ' D ) = ( B B ' ; D D ' )
BD 1 AC
=> B'Otr = (B'.AC, D ) = 90°
T r o n g m a t p h a n g ( B B ' ; D D ) dUng D'E // D B t h i B D D ' E l a
h i n h chiJ n h a t , n e n :
D'E = D B = 2 aV2 ; B' E = I u - v I
90
Ta CO :

fAED'B'=>B'D'2 =(2aV2)2+(lu-vl)2
= 8a^ + + - 2uv

ABOB' OB'^ = u'^ + ( a V 2 = 2a^ +

ADOD' => OD'^ = + ( a V 2 f = 2a^ +


AODB' ^ B ' = OB'' + OD''
o 8 a ' + u ' + v ' - 2uv = 4 a ' + u ' + v '
o uv = 2 a ' (*) (ycbt).
b/ Theo each d i m g : O I 1 B ' D ' (1)

Theo cau a: A C 1 (OB'D') => AC ± 0 1 (2)


(1) va (2) c h i l n g to l a doan vuong goc chung cua A C vk B ' D ' .
A C 1 (OB'D') AC 1 B'D'
d Da c6: B'D' 1 ( l A C )
Theo gia t h i e t 0 1 1 B'D'

Xlt! = (A, B'D', C).


Xet A O B D ' O I . B ' D ' = OD'.OB'

V2a^ V2a^ +
01 =
Vsa^ + -2uv

01'=
+ - 2 u v + 8a^

2 a 2 ( u 2 + v 2 ) + 8a^ 2 a ' ' (u-^ + v ^ ) + 4a^


= 2a^
u2+v2+4a2 + + 4a^

0 I = aV2

Ta CO : OI = OA = OC = => Alt: = 90°

=> N h i dien : ( A , B ' D ' , C ) l a n h i d i e n vuong (dpcm).


Bai 1 6 5 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A H A N O I - K H O I A - 1997)

Cho A B la dUcrng vuong goc chung cua h a i dUcrng thSng cheo nhau x; y. L a y A e x; B e y, A B
CO dinh va A B = d. M e x; N G y; M ; N t h a y d6i va A M = m ; B N = n ( m ; n ^ 0), dg t a luon luon
c6 m ' + n ' = k > 0, k k h o n g d o i .
a/ Xac d i n h m ; n de do d a i doan t h i n g M N d a t gia t r i nho n h a t , I d n n h a t .
hi Trong t r i f d n g hop x 1 y va m n * 0 h a y xac d i n h m ; n theo k va d de t h e t i c h tuT d i e n
ABMN dat gia t r i \dn n h a t v a t i n h g i a t r i do.

Giai

a/ Goi a = (^cfy^ v d i 0 < a < —


2
• Neu m = 0 : M s A v a k = n'
=> MN' = AN' = AB'+ BN'
(1)
=> M N ' = d' + n ' = d' + k
• Neu n = 0 : N = B v a k = m '
(2)
^ M N ' = d' + k

91
n*0
2
MN = MA + AB +BN - A M + AB + BN
V >
M N 2 = + + d^- AM.AB - 2AM.BN + 2AB.BN
=> M N ^ = k + d^ - 2mncos( A M ; B N ) (3)
T L / (1) (2) va (3) t a CO t h e v i e t t o n g quat :
fd^ + k : neu m n = 0
+k-2nmcosa : neu m n ^ 0 va \AM; BN = a (4)
d^+k + 2mncosa : neu m n 0 va \AM; B N = 7 i - a
(5)
Gia t r i l(Jn n h a t , nho nha't cua M N :
• N e u a = — t h i cosu = 0 va M N ^ = d^ + k ; V m ; n thoa m a n + n^ = k
2
max M N = m i n M N = V d ^ + k
• N e u 0 < a < — t h i cosa > 0 va 2 m n < + n^ = k
2
(dang thijfc xay r a k h i : m = n = ) (6)
=> d^ + k - c o s a < d^ + k^ - 2mncosa
min
(v(Si d k ( 4 ) , ( 6 ) )
< d^ + k^ + k + 2mncosa < d^ + k + c o s a
max
(vdidk(5),(6))
m i n M N = d ^ + k - k cos a
m e i x M N = d^ + k ^ + k c o s a
b/ Do X 1 y va A B l a dudng vuong goc chung cua x va y n e n A M 1 ( B A N ) va A B A N vuong d B
=j> V = - d t ( A B A N ) . M A = - . - B A . B N . M A
3 3 2
l . m ^ + n ^ 1
=> V = — m n d $ — d. kd (7)
6 6 2 12
Dau d a n g thuTc t r o n g (7) xay r a <=> m = n =
Vay ; m a x V = — k d (vdi m = n = — ) (ycbt).
12 V
92
Bai 166 ( D A I H O C Y D t f O C T P . H C M - 1999)
Trong mat phang (P) cho h i n h vuong A B C D canh a. Goi O l a giao di§m cua h a i difcfng cheo
cua hinh vuong A B C D . T r e n difdng thftng Ox vuong goc (P) l a y diem S. G o i a l a goc nhon tao
bdi mat ben va day ciia h i n h chop SABCD.
1/ Tinh the t i c h v a d i e n t i c h t o ^ n p h a n ciia h i n h chop S A B C D theo a v a a.
2/ Xac d i n h dudng vuong g6c chung cua SA va CD. T i n h dp d a i difdng vuong g6c c h u n g d6
theo a va a.

Giai
1/ Goi M l a t r u n g d i e m D C => S M 1 D C => D C 1 O M

=> gMO = a ; 0 < a < -


2

SO
tana = SO = — a . t a n a
OM 2
Taco:
SM = VSO^TOM^" = Jia^tan^a+i
V4 4

1 1 1
Vay: VSABCD = - -SO.SABCD = - a " " . t a n a (ycbt)
o 6

va Stp = 4.S.SDC + SABCI) = 2 . S M . D C + SABCD


„2 / 1

+ a^ = a^ 1+ (ycbt)
cos a cosa J
2/ Goi : N = M O o A B
MHlSN(cach ditog)
Taco:
ABKSMN)!^ A B I M H
=> M H l ( S A B ) r ^ M H l S A
Tir H difng H I // A B ;
(I 6 SA) => H I // D C
Tif I dirng I J // M H .
Khi do, I J l a dtfdng vuong goc chung ciia SA v a DC.
a
Vdi: • SM = SN =
2.cosa
. MN = a

• SO = — .a.tana
2

T h i : SsMN = - .SO.MN = - . M H . S N

SO.MN
M H = I J = —^^^^— = a.sina. (ycbt)

93
Chuyen de 9: M A T C A U NGOAI TIEP - MAT C A U NQI TIEP
1 : X A C DlSIfl M A T cAu NGOAI T T £ P HiNfl CHOP B A N G G ^ C W O N G
L PHirOMG P H A P ,
C a sd cua phuang phap 1 can thifc h i ^ n 2 btfdc ca ban:
B i : Quan ly gia thiet de tim duac (n - 2) dinh c6 s i n
nhin hai dinh co dinh con l a i cua hinh chop n dinh dudi
mot goc vuong (xin hieu n dinh gom 1 dinh h i n h ch6p va
(n - 1) dinh cua da giac day).
B 2 : Suy ra h i n h chop noi tiep trong mat cau c6 difcfng
kinh la khoang each giuTa hai dinh co dinh do.
Luc do tarn mat cau la trung d i l m doan noi hai diem co
dinh a tren ban kinh la ntta d6 dai doan noi hai diem co
dinh (va l A = I B = I M j = IM2....= R la bdn kinh mat cau
ngoai tiep h i n h chop).
n. c A c B A I T O A N C O B A N
Bai 167
Cho hinh chop S . A B C co S A 1 ( A B C ) ; A C = a; X B C = 9 0 ° va S A = 2a. D i n h t&m va tinh
ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep h i n h chop d6.
Giai
fSB : la dudng xien
T a c6: S A J_ ( A B C )
| A B : la hinh chieu
Do A A B C (fi = 9 0 ° ) => B C ± A B
=> B C 1 S B (dinh ly 3 di/dng vuong g6c)
'^SAC = 9 0 °
Trong khong gian n h a n xet : I
[ S B C = 90°
=> A ; B thuoc mat c l u difdng k i n h S C .
Mat cau tarn I trung diem S C co Mn k i n h R = i S C ngoai tiep h i n h ch6p S . A B C .
Trong do : R = i s C = -^ISPJTAC^ = -^[{2^^ =:?^a (ycbt).
2 2 2
Bai 168
Cho h i n h ch6p S . A B C D co A B C D la hinh cha nhat va S A J. ( A B C D ) . D i n h tfim va tinh
ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep h i n h chop d6 biet : S A = A B = 2 A D = 3a.
Giai
B a n g dinh ly ba di^dng vuong goc va tinh chat cua dudng t h i n g
vuong goc v(Ji mat phang, ta co: SXt = S D C = S B C = 9 0 °
=> A ; D ; B thuoc mat cau (S) difdng kinh S C .
• T a m cua (S) la trung diem I cua S C .
• B a n k i n h R cua (S) la R = - S C
2
3a
T a co: A C ^ = AD^ + A B ^ = + (3a)2 = 9a ^ + 9a^ = 45a''
12 j
94
81a ^
=^ = SA^ + AC^ = (3a)^ ^ ^ = 9aU ^

^ R= isC= i . ^ a = - a
2 2 2 4

Vay h i n h ch6p S . A B C D n p i t i e p t r o n g m&t cau (S) t f i m I va c6 b d n k i n h R = - a (ycbt).


4

t«ii a : XAC DINH M A T c A u NGOAI T l £ p fllNfl CHOP


B A N G T R y C DUdNG T R 6 N Y A M A T T R U N G T R l J C

LPHITONGPHAP^
Co so cua phuang p h a p can thiic h i e n bon budc ccf b a n :
n Bi : Dung true difcfng t r 6 n d ngoai t i e p da giac day,
thong thifdng (d) d i qua d i n h hinh chop (neu (d)
khong qua d i n h , ngoai cAc b i e n the ciia d a n g t o a n c6
the xem t h e m phUang phap d a n g h a i true dudng t r o n
d ngay dang t o a n sau)
• B 2 : Dung m a t phSng t r u n g triTc (a) cua m o t canh ben
tiiy y eo t i n h OU v i e t eho gia t h i e t ( t h u d n g chon canh
ben vuong goc v d i day la t o t n h a t ) .
• B3: T i m : (d) o (a) = I => I l a t a r n m a t cau.
• B 4 : Khoang each t i f tarn den m o t d i n h t u y y ciia h i n h
chop la ban k i n h mSt cau: (IS = l A = I B = I C = R).

n. cAc BAI TOAM C O BAN


Bai 169
Tim tarn G v a b i n t i n h k i n h m o t m a t cau ngoai t i e p tuf giac deu.
Giai
Goi G la t r o n g t a r n A B C D deu canh a va M l a t r u n g d i e m A B , ta c6
|GB = GC = GD
[AB = AC = AD

=> AG la true d u d n g t r 6 n ngoai t i e p A B C D


Dung m a t t r u n g trifc (a) qua t r u n g d i e m M cua c a n h A B , luc do
(I 6 AG => IB = IC = I D
AG n (a) = I , t a c6 :
| l € (a) l A = IB

=> l A = I B = I C = I D
_^ 11 la tarn mat cau ngoai tiep tuT cii?n ABCD
• ban k i n h mat cau la R = l A

lA AM
Ta CO : A A M I t/J A A G B
AB AG

IA= A B . ^ = a. V6.
AG

. 3 .
Vay ban k i n h m a t cau ngoai t i e p tuf d i e n deu 1^ R = — . a (ycbt).
4

95
Bai 170
C h o tijf d i e n A B C D c6 A A B C d e u c a n h a ; D A = 2a v a D A ± ( A B C ) . D i n h t a m v a t i n h ban
k i n h m a t cau ngoai tiep til dien.
Giai
G o i G l a t r o n g t a m c u n g l a t a m difdng t r o n n g o a i t i e p t a m
g i a c d e u A B C v a de y d e n : A D 1 ( A B C ) .
=> T r u e d c i i a ducfng t r o n ( A B C ) q u a G v a s o n g s o n g A D .
D u n g m a t t r u n g trUc ( a ) c u s A D q u a t r u n g d i e m J c u a A D .
=> d o ( a ) = I
fled = . I B . I C . I D ^ IA = IB = IC = ID
II 6 (a) lA = ID B
=> I l a t a m m S t c a u n g o a i t i e p tiJ d i e n A B C D ( y c b t ) .
B a n kinh cua m a t cau l a :
aV3 3a ^ 12a ^ 2V3
R = l A = VJA^ + AG^ = 8^ + a (ycbt).
Bai 171
C h o h i n h v u o n g A B C D , t a m O c a n h aV2 . D i e m H e A C s a o c h o A H = aV2 . L a y d i 6 m S
t r ei n H x ( H x ±
I ( A B C D ) ) . B i e t A S t = - . D i n h t a m v a t i n h b a n k i n h mat c a u n g o a i t i e p h i n h
4
chop S . A B C D .
Htfdrng dSn
DiTng O y // H x t h i O y l a t r u e dUdng t r o n n g o a i
t i e p h i n h v u o n g A B C D . D i f n g m a t t r u n g trUc d o a n
S C l a (a).
=> ( a ) n O y s I
=> I l a t a m m a t e a u n g o a i tiep hinh chop
S . A B C D vdi I C = R l a b a n kinh.
.r-:>D
D o c g i a tif t i n h R t h e o y c b t .
W i 3 : XAC Dm MAT cAu NGOAI Ttt? HlNfl CHOP
B A N G HAI TRgC DUCJNG TRON PHAN B i t T
L PHirONG P H A P ,
C o s a c u a p h u a n g p h a p 3 de x a c d i n h m a t c a u n g o a i t i e p
c a n thifc h i e n 4 budc ccf b a n :
n B i : D u n g ( d j ) l a true dUcfng t r o n n g o a i t i e p d a giac dAy
(thong thUdng di khong qua dinh hinh chop).
• B 2 : D u n g (d2) l a t r u e dUcJng t r o n n g o a i t i e p v<Ji t a m g i a c l a \
m o t m a t b e n (c6 tinh vtix vi$t cho gia thie't thong
i c\..XI
tht^dng chon mat ben vuong goc vdi mat day).
• B3 : T i m g i a o d i e m c i i a h a i t r u e dUcrng t r o n dj n d2 = I o?
(thudng ton tai I ) .
=> I l a t a m m a t e a u n g o a i t i e p h i n h c h o p c a n t i m .
96
• B 4 : K h o a n g each tii t a m I den m o t d i n h t u y y cua h i n h chop l a b a n k i n h m a t cau :

(IS = l A = IC = R).

0 Ghi c h i i : Mot mdt cdu khi biet tam I vd ban kinh ditac xem la. da. xdc dinh.

a CAC BAI TOAN C O BAM

Bai 172

Cho AABC vuong can tai B vdi A B = 2a. Tii trung diem M cua AB ta dUng dudng thSng

vuong g o c vdri (ABC) v a c h o n t r e n do d i e m S de ASAB deu. Xac dinh tam va tinh ban kinh

hinh c a u n g o a i t i e p tiif d i e n S.ABC.

Giai
Goi O, M , G t h i l tif l a t r u n g d i e m A C , A B va t r o n g t a m ASAB.
De y den (SAB) J_ ( A B C ) , dUng :

d, qua O va dj (ABC) i(di) la true di/cfng tron (ABC),


dj qua G va d2 - (SAB) ^ | ( d 2 ) la true ducrng iron (SAB).

Trong m a t phSng (SMO) (d,) o (da) = I ,

^ , ' I e ( d 2 ) r * I A - I B = IS
Ta co:

; I e ( d i ) = > I A - I B = IC

^ IC = I B = I C = IS = R

=> I l a t a m h i n h cau ngoai t i e p h i n h chop S.ABC. aV5

ASAB deu c a n h 2a r=> S M = a V s => C M = - . S M =


a^/3
De y den l O = G M =

3a ^ 12a 2Sa
R = I C = VlO^ + OC^ = (ycbt).
1 3 j

Bai 173

Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD v d i A B C D l a h i n h vuong canh 2a. Goi H 1^ t r u n g d i e m A B va


SH = a V s l a do d a i dudng cao h i n h chop. D i n h t a m va ban k i n h m a t cau ngoai t i e p h i n h
chop S.ABCD.

HUdng dan
fd, la true dudng tron (ABCD) (di)
Dung : <
^2 la true diicrng tron (SAB)

Trong ( S H K ) : (d,) o (d^) = I

=> I la t a m m a t cau ngoai t i e p h i n h chop S.ABCD. GjA


Ban k i n h m a t cau: (d2)

K/l. -V (
f2aV2' d
R= >/iOI-'+OB^ = -.aV3 R = (ycbt).
V3

97
txHii 4 : DitN TiCfl t A HlNfl CHliU
L PHirONG P H A P
T r o n g m o t so t r i f d n g hap viec ti'nh dien t i c h m o t da
giac la kho k h d n . Ta dp dung d i n h l y dien t i c h va
h i n h chieu de t i n h no. Viec chon di§n t i c h can t i m la S
hay S' can te' n h i va nen d U a vao goc chieu ip n h u sau :
S = S' cos (p
K h i t i n h g i a n t i e p goc cua n h i dien hay goc cua h a i
m a t phSng t a suf d u n g cong thijfc :
S
cos 0 =
S'
O G h i c h i i : Mot goc vuong khi chieu dilgc bdo loan thi
it nhdt mot canh goc bi chieu phdi song song vai mot
cqnh tuang ling cua goc chieu.
Xem hinh thdy : \
fA2A3 K A2A3
Ti/ang tu A ^ A ^ = 90".
! A ^ A ? ^ * 90°
n. c A c B A I T O A N C O B A N
B a i 174
Cho tiJ dien deu canh a. T i n h goc p h i n g cua n h i dien bat k y tao bai cac m a t cua n h i dien do.
Giai A
Goi G la t r o n g t a m AI3CD deu va A I l a t r u n g t u y e n AACD.
Ta C O : <p = CJL^ =
Dong thcfi A A C D c6 h i n h chieu xuong (BCD) l a AGCD, con
dien t i c h h a i t a m giac c6 t y le l a :
BI 1
3 =
GI cos (,">
Do do goc ciia n h i d i e n (CD) l a : cp = (t5l5) = arccos- (ycbt).
3
Bai175
Cho tuf dien S A B C c6 SA 1 (ABC) va AABC deu canh a; BsC = - ; SB = SC = . Tinh
2 2
g6c cp giOfa h a i m a t phAng (SBC) va (ABC).
Giai
De" y ASAB c6 h i n h chieu xuong (ABC) la AABC. Goi S,,
S 2 l a d i e n t i c h h a i t a m giac theo thuT tiT do va (p la goc tao
bai h a i mSt p h a n g (SBC) va ( A B C ) , t a c6:
coscp = ~ <=> cos<p = ^ ^ ^ ^
S2 1 aVs
— .a.
2 2
Vay : cp = - (ycbt).
6
98
Bai 176
Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD.AiBiCiDj canh a. Goi M, N, P thuT tu 1^ trung diem cac canh
AB, EC va DDi theo thijf tu do.
1/ Xac dinh thiet dien ma mSt phSng (MNP) cSt hinh lap phuang.
2/ Tinh dien tich thiet dien d6.
3/ Chiifng minh rSng trong thiet dien do khong c6 2 dacrng cheo nao vuong goc nhau.
Giai
1/ Doc gia tiT giai va thiet dien nhan duoc la ngu giac MNEPF (ycbt).
JMN^DB tai K
2/ Goi K la trung diem MN MN_PK taiK
<p = I*Kt) = [(MNEPF); (ABCD)]
KD
=> coscp = PK
1.BD
4 l.aV2

I 1.BD 3
^2
Dinh ly dien tich va hinh chieu cho :
S' = Scos<p => S = — « SMNEPK = - ^ " i ^
cos (.1 COS (p

3/ De y den mot doi dudng cheo cua thiet dien la FE va doan PK tao thanh c6 hinh
chieu xuong (ABCD) la itoC.
'0,E//OC
NhOng : < L_ „ => FCS;^ = 90° PK = AC => PM, FE khong vuong goc.
Doc gia tif chilng minh c^c doi dudng cheo con lai doi mot khong vuong goc nhau => dpcm.
Bai 177
Cho hinh hop chfl nhat ABCD.ABC'D' vdi cac canh la : AB = a; AD = b; AA' = c. Goi I, J,
K la trung diem ciia AB, AD, DD'.
1/ Dung thiet dien cua mp(IJK) vdri hinh hop. 21 Tinh dien tich thiet dien d6.
Giai
[Dudng thing IJ cSt BC; CD tai E va F
1/ Difng : •^.Dirdng thang FK cat D'C'va CC tai L va S
Noi SE cat B'C taiM va BB'tai N
Noi lien tiep cac giao tuyen thi thiet dien la luc
giac IJKLMN (ycbt).
2/ Chieu thiet dien xuong mSt day ABCD ta duoc luc
giac IJDL'M'B, trong do L', M' la trung diem cua CD
va CB. Dien tich ciia hinh chieu :
S'= dt (ABCD) - 2 dt AAIJ = ab - 2 . i . ^ = ^
2 4 4
99
D i r n g B H 1 I E => N H _L I E ( d i n h l y b a dtfdng v u o n g goc)
=> goc c i i a m a t p h S n g t h i e t d i e n v a m a t d a y l a :
(p = N K B (hoac S F t )
NB
D o A N B H v u o n g d B => tancp = (1)
HB
TiT e a c h diTng t a s u y r a N l a t r u n g d i e m c u a B B ' NB = —
ab
Va :
HB^ BI ' BE^ 2Va2 . b^
(1) cVa^ ~ b 1 ^ ^ ^ c 2 ( a 2 + b 2 )
=> tantp = 2
ab COS (p a^b^
ab
COS(p =
V a V + b V + c V
D i n h l y c h i e u h i n h cho t a : S ' = S.cosip (vi S l a d i e n tich t h i e t d i e n )
S'
^ S = =-VIv7bV7^ (ycbt).
cosip 4
Uoai S : M A T PflA« G I A C C U A NflJ D i t N
I. PHUONG PHAP
C o so c u a p h i f a n g p h a p di/ng m a t p h a n g i a c t h e o d i n h
n g h i a c a n p h a i thifc h i e n b a hxidc ca b a n :
• B i : D i f n g goc n h i d i e n a ^ c u a n h i d i e n ( a ; d; (5).
• B 2 : D i r n g t i a p h a n g i a c M c c i i a aMfe
• B 3 : D u n g m a t y = ( d ; M c ) v d i d = a r> (5. T h i y l a mat
p h a n giac ciia ( a ; P ) .
O Ghi c h i i : Mot diem tren mat phan giac c6 khodng each
den hai mat nhi dien bdng nhau.
VL C A C BAI T O A N C O BAN
B a i 178
C h o h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 l a t a m giac S A B deu v a A B C D l a h i n h vuong. G i a sif ( S A B ) 1 ( A B C D ) .
X a c d i n h m a t p h a n giac ciia cac n h i dien ( B ; A D ; S ) .
Giai
G o i G l a t r o n g t a m A A B C deu.
Ke A G n SB = M (AMN) o S C = N
Theo t i n h chat giac tuyen song song t a c6 M N // C D .
De y A D ± (SAB)
!AD 1 SA
[AD 1 SB
D o n g thcfi A M l a p h a n g i a c S A B .
D o do m p ( A M N D ) l a m o t p h a n g i a c goc n h i d i ^ n ( S ; A D ; B ) ( y c b t ) .
100
Biti 179
Cho hinh chop tuf giac deu S.ABCD. ChiJng minh rkng SO la giao tuyen cua cac mat phan
giac tucfng ufng vdi cac cap nhi dien (SA), (SB) va (SB), (SC) va (SC), (SD) va (SD), (SA).
Giai
Do tinh chat doi xtifng ta chi can xet mot cSp nhi dien (SA), (SB) la

De y den nhi dien (SA), dUng BM 1 SA OM i SA


=> O M la tia phan giac cua I5MB =
=> (SOA) la mat phan giac nhi dien ( S A ) .
Taong tif do tinh doi xuTng :
i(SOB) la mat phan giac nhi dien ( S B )
(SOC) la mat phan giac nhi dien (SC)
(SOD) la mat phan giac nhi dien (SD)
Do do S O la giao tuyen tifong ufng trong ycbt (dpcm).

tail G: XAC Dpjfl MAT CAU tiQl Tli? HlNfl CHOP DA GlAC Dtu
LPHirONGPHAP
Co so cua phuang phap thuomg sijf dung cho hinh chop
tam giac deu qua ba budc :
0 B i : Xac dinh true difdng tron d cija da gidc day (thong
thifdng d qua dinh S).
• B 2 : Xac dinh mat phan giac (y) cua mot mat ben tiiy y va day.
• B3: (d) n (y) = W la tam mat cau can t i m va khoang each
tCr W den cac mat ben hay day cua hinh chop la ban kinh
r cua mat cau.
0 Ghi chii : Sau nay ta c6 the tinh ban kinh in ft cdu ngi
tiep hinh chop bdng the tich V va di&n tich todn phdn Stp
3V
nhiC sau: r =•

n. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A N
Bai 180
Xac dinh tam va ban kinh mat cau noi tiep tiir dien deu canh a.
Giai
Goi G la trong tam AABC deu. => GB = GD = GC (1)
Tuf dien deu ABCD canh a. => AB = AD = AC (2)
Tir ( 1 ) va ( 2 ) cho ta AG la true dudng tron ngoai tiep ABCD.
Diftig mat phan giac (y) cua goc nhi dien canh CD la
^ ynAG = W
W e AG ^ d[W; (ABC)] = d[W; (ACD)] = d[W; (ADB)]
Taco:
We y ^ d[W; (ACD)] = d[W; (BCD)]
i W la tam mat cau npi tiep tuf di§n deu A B C D (ycbt)
[WH = W G - r la ban k i n h mat cau noi tiep tijf di?n

101
2AI.IGcos(\^)
D i n h l y difdng p h a n giac \k d i e n t i c h cho: I W =
AI + IG
= W G= V W ^ ~ G F = J^^'-^^' .cos^(^)^GI^
K(AI^^GI)^
Doc gia t i f g i a i => r = (ycbt)
3V
O C a c h k h a c : T a c6 : V = - S , „
tp-. r => r = (1)
1 aV3
= V3a2
.2 2 ;
T r o n g d6 :
(aV3 Y f1 aV3 Y -Jla^
V = i B h = l —.a.
3 3 ,2 2 j K 2 J 12
,3 2 j
(1) 12 ^ aV6
Do do : r = (ycbt).
VSa^ " 12
Bai181
T r e n dudng v u o n g goc v d i t a m giac deu A B C canh a t a i triTc t a m l a y m o t d i e m S sao cho
S H = 2a. Xac d i n h t a m v a b a n k i n h m a t cau n o i t i e p tuf d i e n SABC.
Hi^dfng d i n
Tifang t i f b a i t r e n : W l a t a m va r = W H l a b a n k i n h m a t cau n o i t i e p
tuf d i e n S A B C . V(Ji S,p = 3 i . B C . S l V - . B C . A I
U j 2
Va V = - B h = - :.2a =
3 3 2 2
Do do : r = | ^ = - a (ycbt).
Stp ^
Bai 182
xac dinh t a m va ban k i n h mat cau noi tiep tijf dien A B C c6 AABC deu canh a cho SA = SB = SC
va goc n h i d i e n (BC) la a.
UiXdng din
Doc gia t i f g i a i , t u o n g t u b a i t r e n .
Bai 183
T i m b a n k i n h m a t cau n p i t i e p h i n h ch6p tuf giac deu c6 canh ben b a n g c a n h day l a a.
Giai
fl aV3l
T a CO : S,p = a^ + 4 = (V3+l)a^
2 2
2
SO =
I 2 > ,2. 4 2
Goi V l a t h e t i c h h i n h chop tuf giac deu.
102
V=lBh=l.a^-^^=^a^
3 3 2 6

3V
Do do : r = (ycbt).
S,p (V3 - l ) a ^ 2(V3 4-1)

nLGlAlTOANTHI
Bai 184 ( D A I H O C C O N G A N T R U N G LfONG - 1970)
1/ Ngifcfi ta xem 6 mat trung triJc ciia 6 canh cua mot tuf dien. C h i i n g to rkng 6 mSt ay giao
nhau tai mot diem.
2/ Goi r va R Ian lifot la ban k i n h ciia dUdng tron npi tiep va cua du&ng tron ngoai t i e p ciia
mot mat tam giac tuy y ciia tijf dien tren.

ChiJng m i n h r k n g : ~ ^ — .
R 2
Giai
1/ Cho til dien A B C D . G o i I la giao d i e m cua ba di/dng t r u n g
true ciia t a m giac B C D .
=> I la t a m difdng t r o n ngoai t i e p (BCD).
Hai mat t r u n g trUc cua h a i canh BC va C D c6 diem
chung I , nen p h a i cftt nhau theo giao tuyen d.
^ d 1 (BCD).
Hai mat t r u n g trUc ciia canh B D va C D cung
CO diem chung I , nen p h a i cftt nhau theo giao tuyen (d') qua I va d' 1 (BCD).
^ (d') ^ (d) ^
Vay ba m a t phSng t r u n g trUc cua ba canh cua t a m giac (BCD) c&t n h a u theo dUcrng t h i n g
d vuong goc v6i m a t p h d n g (BCD) t a i I .
Canh A B x i e n goc so vdi m a t p h a n g (BCD), nen m a t p h a n g t r u n g triTc ciia canh A B cSt
difcfng t h i n g d t a i m o t d i e m O.
=> 0 la diem chung ciia bon m a t t r u n g trUc cua bon canh BC, C D , D B va A B .
OB = OC = O D = OA. Cac d a n g thiic OC = OA va O D = O A c h i i n g to O cung dong thcfi
thuoc cac mat t r u n g trifc A C va A D .
Vay O la giao d i e m cua sau mat t r u n g triic cua sau canh cua t i i dien da cho (dpcm).
• C a c h k h a c ta c6 the l|Lp l u ^ n dcfn g i a n nhii s a u :
Ro rang mot d i e m tuy y thuoc dong t h d i ca sau m a t p h a n g t r u n g trifc ciia sau canh ciia t i i
dien k h i va chi k h i d i e m do each deu b o n d i n h ciia t i i d i e n .
Chi CO m o t d i e m duy nha't c6 t i n h c h a t n a y , do la t a m cua h i n h cau n g o a i t i e p t i i d i e n
=5 (dpcm).
2/ Gia sii goi AABC la t a m giac can xet t r o n g gia t h i e t va goi : Diicfng t r o n noi t i e p AABC c6
tam Oi va ban k i n h r ; con d u d n g t r o n ngoai tiep AABC c6 t a m O2 va ban k i n h R.
• Diing t a m giac A i B i C i c6 cac canh d i qua cac d i n h ciia AABC va song song v d i cac canh
cua .\ABC.
• Diing cac tiep tuyen cua dadng t r o n t a m O2 (ban k i n h R) t a i cac t i e p d i e m T j , T2, T 3 va
song song v d i cac canh ciia t a m giac A i B j C i sao cho tiep tuyen A2 B2 song song vdfi A i B j va
tiep diem T2 nhm t r e n cung A B (chiia d i e m C), ta difcfc t a m giac A2B2C2.

103
Theo each dUng t r e n day, m i e n t r o n g t a m giac A i B j C i
nkm han a t r o n g cua mien t r o n g t a m giac A 2 B 2 C 2 va
AAIB,CI 00 A A 2 B 2 C 2
Goi t h e m R, la ban ki'nh dUcfng t r o n n o i t i e p t a m giac
A,B,C,.
=j> R, < R.
M a t khac, t y so dong d a n g cua ban k i n h cua diTdng t r o n
noi tiep h a i t a m giac dong d a n g A i B j C i va A B C bSng t y so
cac canh ciia h a i t a m giac do, tilc l a :
Ri ^ = 2 « R i = 2r<=> 2r<R » — ^ - (ycbt).
r AB R 2
• Cach khac :
D a t ( ) , ( ) 2 = /, tii cong thiJc Euler : P = - 2Rr.
[ R > 0 (hien nhien)
« = - 2Rr ^ 0 <K> <=> — ^ — (dpcm).
R - 2r > 0 R 2
B a i 185 ( D A I H O C K H O I A - M I E N B A C - 1972)
Cho mot k h o i tuf d i e n deu SABC. Goi S H l a dudng cao ciia k h o i tuf d i e n d6 va I la t r u n g
d i e m cua S H .
a/ ChuTng m i n h r k n g d i e m I , t r p n g t a m T ciia t a m giac A B C va t a m h i n h cau ngoai tiep k h o i
tuf dien l A B C t h a n g h a n g .
b/ T i n h ban k i n h ciia h i n h cau n o i t i e p k h o i tuf d i e n l A B C theo canh a cua tuf d i e n deu SABC.
c/ Chufng m i n h r k n g ba dudng t h a n g A I , B I va C I tiTng doi mot vuong goc v d i nhau.
Giai
a/ De y do t i n h chat deu ciia tuf d i e n S A B C nen S H chufa I la true dadng t r o n ngoai tiep
AABC va T = H
Goi r l a t a m m a t cau ngoai t i e p h i n h chop.
=> 1<E I H = IS
=> r, I , I I t h a n g h a n g (dpcm).
b/ Goi O l a t a m h i n h cau n o i t i e p tuf dien l A B C , t h i O
n a m t r e n I H , dong thcfi O n k m t r e n m a t p h a n g p h a n giac
ciia goc n h i dien canh A B , tufc l a O la giao d i e m cua I H
va dirdng p h a n giac goc I M H , va r = O H la ban k i n h h i n h
cau noi t i e p k h o i tuf d i e n l A B C .
(2 aS_
Ta CO : S H = A/SA^~MF = a^-
3" 2
^ I H = ^ = ^
2 6
Xet t a m giac vuong I M H ta eo :
tan I H ^ fi (1) O
-- r
M H aV3 A/3
M H
104
2

i
Mat khac : IM= VMH^ + I H ^ = a
4"
6 2
6 , V /

(i> 2tanM
Theo cong thilc nhan : r ^ = V^
1 - tan^^Mj

tanMi = J-LJE. > 0


o V2 tan^ M j + 2 t a n M i - =0 «
-1-V3
tanMj = = — < 0 (loai)

<=> t a n M j = t a n
2 " V2
Xet tam giac vuong OMH, ta c6 :

r = OH = M H t a n O M H = ^ .^zA = ^^^^^^
6 V2 6V2
- , V
pO Ghi chu : Doc gld c6 the tinli r = ——, bcti loan se dan gian hem nhieu!

3. 3. £L
Nhif ta da tinh difcfc trong cau b) : I M = — tuang t u ta c6 : I N = —, IP = —.
2 2 2
^ IM = ^ A B , I N = - B C , I P = - A C
2 2 2
=> Cac tam giac AIB, BIC va CID deu vuong tai I , trung tuyen c6 dp dai bang nCfei canh do.
=> A I , BI va CI doi mot vuong goc nhau (dpcm).
iBai 186 (DAI HOC KHOI B - M I E N B A C - 1972)
|_ .

I Cho hinh thang ABCD, vuong o A va D, AB = AD = a, DC = 2a. Tren du&ng t h i n g vuong goc
pp6i mat phing ABCD tai D lay mot diem S sao cho SD = a.
a/ Cac mat ben cua hinh chop SABD la nhufng tam giac nhu the nao ?
b/ Xac dinh tam va ban kinh hinh cau di qua cac diem S, B, C, D.
[d Goi M la diem giiira SA. Mat phang DMC cat hinh chop SABCD theo thiet dien gi ? Hay
tinh dien tich cua thiet dien do.
Giai
1/ Mot each dan gian chung ta se chuTng minh duac cdc mat ben cua hinh chop la bon tam
jp^c vuong.

Doc gia tu giai. Chang ban ta tinh duac :

SC = VSD^TCD^ = Va^ + (2a)2 = aVs


• SB = V S A ^ T A B ^ = V(aV2)2 + a^ = aVs ^ SC^ = SB^ + BC^ = Sa^

BC = aV2

=i> ASBC vuong 0 B (dpcm)

105
hi Goi O la t r u n g d i e m cua SC. De y t h a y h a i t a m
giac SDC vuong va SBC vuong theo thuf t u t a i D va
B nen t a c6 :
SC
OS = OD = OB = OC =
2 2
Vay S, B, C, D n a m t r e n mat cau t a m O, ban k i n h :
„ SC aVs
K = = .
2 2
c/ Hai mat p h i n g (DMC) va (SAB) c6 diem M chung nen
chung cfit nhau theo mot giao tuyen M N (N n k m t r e n SB) va
vi A B // CD nen M N // CD (va M N // AB).
=> C D M N l a h i n h t h a n g , do la t h i e t dien cua h i n h chop vdi mSt phAng D M C . M a CD J. CM
=> T h i e t d i e n C D M N l a h i n h t h a n g vuong t a i D va t a i M . (ycbt)
Do M l a t r u n g d i e m SA n e n t a c6 : D M = i SA = ; M N = - AB = -
2 2 2 2
Vay d i e n t i c h t h i e t d i e n C D M N bSng :
2a+ - /r
CD + M N 2 aV2
S = .DM = (ycbt).
2 2 2 8
Bai 187 ( D A I H O C KHOI A - M I E N BAC - 1973)
Cho h i n h chop tuT giac deu S.ABCD d i n h S, day l a mot h i n h vuong A B C D canh bang a, cac
m a t ben l a m v d i m a t p h a n g day v d i mot goc (p. T a dUng m a t phSng p h a n giac cua goc nhi
dien canh BC t r o n g h i n h chop (tilc l a goc n h i d i e n cua h i n h chop xac d i n h b a i m a t BCS va
m a t B C A D ) ; m a t p h a n g p h a n giac nay cMt SD d M va SA d N . T i n h t h e t i c h cua h i n h chop
S . B C M N theo a va ip.
Giai
Goi I , L theo thuf tiT l a t r u n g d i e m cua BC, A D . Va do h i n h chop S.ABCD la h i n h chop tiif
giac deu => ASIL l a t a m giac can ma goc a day S i t = SL)I = cp va S H l a dudng cao cua h i n h
chop. H = AC o B D
M a t p h a n g p h a n giac (a) cua n h i dien canh
BC c h i n h la m a t p h a n g d i qua BC va difdng p h a n
giac I K ciia Silt va K l a t r u n g d i e m cua M N . Tif
do de dang t h a y r a n g t h i e t d i e n B C M N l a m o t
h i n h t h a n g can.
D i e n t i c h h i n h t h a n g B C M N duoc t i n h theo
cong thufc :
SBCMN = - ( B C + MN).IK
IL
Theo d i n h l y h a m s i n t r o n g A L K I t a c6 :
sin
106
Theo dinh l y h a m sin t r o n g A S K I , ta c6 :
- 9
SK SI SK ^^^^2
singlk singKl SI g.^3(p

• 9
MN SK SK ^^^^ SK ^'"2
Nhifng : = = M N = AD. = a
AD SL SI SI . 3(0
sin—

• 9
sin—
2 sincp
=> SBCMN = —a 1 + .a
. 3(p Sep
sin— sin-

2 - 2 9
sincp a s m (pcos—
s i n — + sin—
2 2; • 2 3q)
sin sin
2 2
Do (SKI) 1 ( B C M N ) nen difcfng vuong goc SJ ha t i f S xuong I K cung c h i n h \k dUdng cao
cua hinh chop S B C M N . T r o n g t a m giac vuong S J I ta c6 :
• 9
asm—
SJ = S l s i n ^ = ^
2 2cos(p
9 . 0 (p . (I)
a s i n (pcos— a s m —
a^sin^cp
Vs.BCMN= - S ( B C M N ) . S J = 2 2 (ycbt).
o 3 ^.^23<p 2C0SCP ^2sin^^
coscp

Bai 188 ( D A I H O C K H O I B - 1974 - M I E N BAC)


2a
Trong mat p h a n g P cho h i n h t h o i A B C D v d i A B = a va B D = -—j= . T r e n difdng vuong goc
V3
vdi mat phang P va d i qua giao d i e m h a i dUdng cheo cua h i n h t h o i t r e n , ngUcri ta lay d i e m S
sac cho SB = a.
a/ Chiifng m i n h r a n g t a m giac ASC la vuong.
b/ Tinh the t i c h va dien t i c h toan p h a n ciia h i n h chop S.ABCD.
Chutng m i n h r a n g goc n h i dien tao nen bdi cac mat SAB va SAD la vuong.
Giai
a/ Goi O = AC ^ B D : t r o n g t a m giac vuong O A B ta c6:

2a ^
OA'' = AB^ - OB^ = a' -
IV3J

107
T r o n g t a m giac vuong OBS t a c6 :
2a'
OS^ = S B ' - OB^ = a ' -
[43
a42
N h U vay : OC = OA = OS =
Noi each khac t a m giac ASC c6 dudng t r u n g tuyen SO
bkng niia canh day A C , ASC 1^ t a m giac vuong tai S (dpcm).
b/ T a CO : VKABCU = ~ S O . d t ( A B C D )
3
aV2 2a^ _ 2^f2a^
T r o n g do : d t ( A B C D ) = O A . B D => d t ( A B C D ) =
^/3 • V3 " 3
1 a>/2 2y[2a^ 4a^ ^ ,
V = = — ^ (ycbt).
3 V3 • 9V3
Trade h e t t a n h ^ n x e t r k n g cde m a t ben (SAB), (SBC), (SDC), (SAD) l a bon t a m giac bkng
nhau.
T h a t v a y , v d i SA = SC, SB = SD v a tCr gia t h i e t : A B = BC = C D = A D t h i 4 t a m gi^c d6 c6
c^c canh t a o n g ilng bSng nhau.
H a B H 1 SA, ABSA la t a m giac can ( B A = BS) n e n B H cung l a t r u n g t u y e n cua t a m gidc
AS
BSA, turc l a H A = H S =
T r o n g t a m giac v u o n g O S A t a eo :
4a' 2a
SA'-* = OS^ + OA'^ = SA =
SA a
AH =
2 a
BH AB' - HA^ = Ja
3 V3
a aV2 a^yf2
dt(SAB) = - SA.BH = H A . B H = ^ . ^
2 V3 V3 3
Cuoi cung t a ducte :
2a^42 4a^yf2
Sip = d t ( A B C D ) + 4 d t ( S A B ) =
3 3
=> S,p = 2a^V2 (ycbt).
e/ N o i D v(Ji H => D H l a dadng cao ciia t a m giac can D S A .
Do vay i J H f i = ( ^ = [(SABiTisAD)]
2a^
Ta CO : D H ^ = BH^* =
108
4a'
DII^ + B H ' = = BD'^
3 3
=> ABHD vuong tai dinh H .
=> Goc nhi dien canh (SA) la nhi dien vuong (ycbt).
Bai 189 (DAI HOC K I I O I B, N - 1975)
Cho mot tarn giac vuong can ABC, AB = AC = a. BB' va CC cung vuong goc vcJi (ABC), d
cung mot phi'a doi vdi mat phang do va BB' = CC = a.
a/ ChiTng minh rSng tarn giac AB'C la tarn giac deu.
hi Tinh the tich cua hinh chop c6 dinh la A va day la tuf giac BCC'B'.
d Chufng minh rang nam diem A, B, C, C , B' ciing nSm tren mot mat cau. T i m the tich ciia
hinh cau tifang ijfng.
Giai
a/ Cac tam giac ziABC, ABAB', ACAC vuong can.
=> BC = AB' = A C = a>/2
=> B'C = A C = AB' = a
=> AAB'C la tam giac deu (dpcm).
hi Ha AH 1 BC. Va thay BB' 1 (ABC) => BB' ± A H
A H _L BC
Lai CO : A H 1 (BCC'B)
A H 1 BB'J

Dieu do chufng to A H la difcfng cao ciia hinh chop


A.BCC'B'.
aV2
Trong A vuong can ABC : => A H =

Vay VAHCCIV = ^ A H .dt (BCCB') = \ .(a.aV2)


^ = (ycbt).
o 3 2
c/ Goi O la tam hinh chuT nhat BCC'B'. Ta c6 :

aVs
OB = OB' = OC = OC = (1)

1V2
Trong tam giac vuong HOA => A H =

Do OH la dtfdng trung binh cua tam giac BCC.

^ OH = - C C = -
2 2
1V3
^ OA = V A H 2 + O H ^ = (2)

iV3
Tif (1) va (2) OA = OB = OB' = OC = OC =

Do do O la tam hinh cau di qua nam diem A', B, B', C, C va the tich Vc ciia hinh cau do bkng:

V, = - 7 : R 3 = -n S1 (ycbt).
3 3

109
B a i 190 ( D A I H O C K H O A H O C K H O I A - 1977)
Cho AABC deu canh a, n o i t i e p t r o n g mot difdng t r o n t a m O chiifa t r o n g mpt mftt phSng
(P). Goi D la d i 6 m xuyen t a m do'i cua A t r e n dudng t r o n nay, con SD l a m g t doan t h i n g cd
chieu dai la a va vuong goc v(Ji (P).
1/ Chufng m i n h SAC va S A B la nhOTng t a m giac vuong.
2/ T i n h d i e n t i c h t o a n phSn cua h i n h chop SABC.
3/ D j n h t a m ciia h i n h cau d i qua 5 d i e m S, A , B , C, D.
Giai
1/ Ta CO : D l a xuyen t a m doi cija A
JAD 1 B C (tai H )
(theo d j n h l y 3 difdng vu6ng goc)
^ [ S D ± (P) va A B 1 BD
A B _L SB =i> ASAB vuong t a i B (dpcm).
L y luan t i / a n g t i i t a eung c6 ASAC vuong t a i C (dpcm).
2/ Goi S|p la d i e n t i c h toan p h a n cua h i n h chop SABC, t a c6
S,p = d t ( A A B C ) + dt(ASAB) + dt(SAC) + dt(ASBC)
dt(AABC) =
T r o n g ASDB
SB^ = BD2 SD2 = +a
3a^ 2 12a^ 2aS
SB^ = SB =
9 + a =
N e n : dt(ASAB) = ~ A B . S B = - a.SB.
2 2
a^Vs
dt(ASAB) = = dt(ASAC)
faV3 3a^ 2 39a''
Xot: S H ^ = H D ^ + SD^ - a^ =
+a =
36 36
1V39
. S H ^ = ^ ^ - SH =
36 6
= > d t ( A S B C ) = l B C . S H = i . a . ^ = ^
2 2 6 12
Luc do : S,p = — — + — + = (11 + Vl3) (ycbt).
3/ De y den ba t a m giac S A B , SAC, SAD chung canh SA va Ian luat vuong t a i B, C, D nen
n a m d i e m A , B, C, D , S n k m t r e n m a t c l u , b d n k i n h R = S A V(aV3)2 + a^ = a va t a m
cua h i n h cau l a t r u n g d i e m I ciia doan SA (ycbt).
110
Bai 191 ( D A I H O C K H O I A - 1976)
Cho mot tarn dien ba mSt vuong Oxyz. Ngifdi t a l a y I a n lugt t r e n Ox, O y , Oz c a c d i e m P,
'Q, R cung khac d i e m O. Goi A , B , C theo t h i i tiT l a d i e m giuTa ciia c a c doan P Q , QR, RP.
a/ Chifng m i n h r i n g c a c m a t cua k h o i tuT dien O A B C l a nhOfng t a r n giac b a n g nhau.
b/ Cho OP = a , OQ = b , OR = c. T i n h t h e t i c h k h o i tuT dien OABC.
c/ Tim tarn ciia m a t cau ngoai tie'p k h o i tiir dien OABC.
il Chijfng m i n h r a n g t o n t a i m o t m a t cau tie'p xiic v6i c a bon m a t cua k h o i tuf d i ^ n O A B C .
Tim tarn m a t cau do.

fi Chijfng m i n h r a n g neu c a c goc n h i dien O A cua k h o i tuf dien O A B C l a g6c n h i dien vuong

ihi hai goc B v i C cua t a m giac A B C thoa m a n h e thufc : t a n f i . t a n C = 2 v a nguac l a i .


Giai
a,' Tinh chat dudng t r u n g b i n h ciia t a m giac.
PR P Q Q R
AB = BC = AC =
2 ' 2 ' 2
Do cac l a m giac POQ; QOR; ROP l a v u o n g t a i O:

PQ QR P R
=> OA = ; OB = ; OC =
2 2
^ OA = B C ; O B = A C ; OC = A B .
=> Cac m a t cua t a m dien O A B C b a n g nhau (ycbt).
b' Goi H la chan dirdng cao cua tiif dien O A B C h a t i f
0 va h c h i n h l a daotng cao cua tiJ dien OPQR ha t i f O.
De y 4 t a m giac Q A B , B C R , C B A , A P C l a b a n g nhau.

dt(AABC)= -.dt(APQR)
4

Vo.ABC= | h . d t ( A A B C ) = ^ . h . ^ . d t ( A P Q R ) = ^ VQ.PQR

Mat khac t a c6 t h e t i n h t h e t i c h t\jf dien vuong OPQR l a :

Vo.i'QK= - P O . dt(QOR) = - a . - b e = - abc


3 3 2 6
1
^ V,o A u r =
4
-V,
OPQR
= —. — abc = 2 4 abc (ycbt).
4 g - -
4 6
c/ Goi O i l a t a m dUcfng t r o n n g o a i tie'p t a m g i a c A B C ; O2
la tam d u a n g t r o n n g o a i tie'p t a m g i a c O B C .
TCr O] t a k e dirdng t h a n g v u o n g g6c v d i m a t phlng
(ABC) v a til 0-2 t a k e dtfcfng t h i n g v u o n g goc v d i m a t
phang (OBC) : do l a h a i t r u e d u d n g t r o n ( A B C ) v a ( O B C ) .
H a i di/crng t h i n g n a y c S t n h a u t a i I ( v i c h u n g c i i n g n a m t r o n g m a t p h l n g t r u n g trifc c u a

I doan BC).
=> giao d i e m I c h i n h l a t a m m a t c a u n g o a i tie'p tuf d i e n O A B C , ( v i l A = I B = I C = l O = R).
d/ Tif I h a I O 3 , l O , I a n lUcrt v u o n g goc vdri m a t p h l n g ( A O B ) v a ( O A C ) .
=> 0:t; O 4 thuf tiT l a t a m v o n g t r o n n g o a i ti6'p t a m g i d c A O B v a AOAC.

V i bon t a m g i a c O A B , O B C , O A C , A B C b a n g n h a u n e n c a c diTcrng t r o n n g o a i tie'p c h u n g


cung b a n k i n h R j .

111
lA = 10 = R
Xet tam gi^c vuong lOjA va IO2O ta c6 : lOi = IO2
OiA = O2O = Rj
ChuTng minh hoan toan tuang t u ta c6 : IO3 = l O i ; IO4 = I O 2
=> lOi = I O 2 = I O : J = IO4 = r (tinh chat h&c cau)
=> I chfnh la tam mkt cau tiep xuc vdi bon mat ciia tijf dien OABC (tam mftt cau noi tiep) (dpcm).
e/ Vdi dieu kien ban dau goc nhi dien canh OA la vuong.
Ha tiJ C : CH 1 OA ^ CH _L (AOB).
Noi HB ta CO CH 1 I I B
=> AHBC vuong tai H .
Ha tir B : BH' 1 OA => BH' = CH, va OH = BH'.
Do AABC = ACOA =^ C = C A D ; 6 = C O A
=> tanfi.tanC = tanCOA.tanCAD
Lai xet cac tam giac vuong HCO va HCA ta c6 :
HC HC
tanCAt) tanCOA =
AH OH
HC HC HC^
tan 6. tan C = (1)
AH OH AH.OH
Xet den : O A ^ = ( O H + A H ) ' = O H ' * + A H ' ^ + 2AH.0H (2)
Trong tam giac vuong H B C ta c6 :
O A ' = B C ' = H C ' + H B ' = H C ' + H B ' + H H ' '
= 2HC' + (AH - O H ) '
= 2HC' + A H '+ OH' - 20H.AH (3)
Tir (2) va (3) ta c6 : H C '= 2AH.OH
Thay vao (1) ta duac : tanfi.tanC = 2
Ngugc lai, gia sijf da c6 tanfi.tanC = 2
Vdi chu y : A A B C = A C O A ^ = COA; C = CAD
^ tanCOA.tanCAO = 2.
Tif C ha A H 1 O A . Ta CO : tanCJOA = ; tanCXO =
OH AH
Tif B ha B H ' ± OA. Va A C O A = A B A O : C H = BH'; O H = AH'.
Ta c6: H B ' = B H ' ' + H H ' ' = BH'' + (AH - O H ) '
^ H B ' = C H ' + A H ' + O H ' - 2AH.0H = A H ' + O H '
=> C H ' + H B ' = C H ' + A H ' + O H '
Mat khac ta c6: B C ' = O A ' = ( O H + H A ) '
E C ' = A H ' + O H ' + 2AH.0H = A H ' + O H ' + C H '
Tom lai ta c6: B C ' = C H ' + H B '
A H B C vuong tai H <=> C H 1 B H .
Ta da c6 C H 1 O A => C H _L ( O A B ) => ( C O A ) 1 (AOB)
<=> nhi dien ( O A ) la nhi dien vuong (dpcm).
112
Bai 192 (DAI HOC Si/ P H A M T P . H C M H E 4 NAM - KHOI A - 1976)

Trong mot mat phang ( P ) ngifcri ta cho mot tam giac vuong can ABC v d r i AB = AC = a. Bu
va Cv la nhOfng niifa dUcrng th^ng goc v d r i ( P ) tai B va C va 0 cijng mot phia doi v d f i ( P ) . Tren Bu
Cv ngUcfi ta Ian lUcrt lay nhCfng diem M va N di dong sao cho tam giac A M N vuong goc tai M.
Dat: RM = X va CN = y.
1/ Hay tinh y khi x = a; tinh dien tich tam giac A M N , suy ra cosin ciia goc nhon hop b d i mat
phang (AMN) vdri ( P ) .

2/ 1 la trung diem cua BC. Chiifng minh rSng goc A M I la goc p h l n g cua nhi di$n c6 canh la
MN va CO cac mat p h i n g BMNC va A M N . Tinh gia t r i ciia goc nay k h i x = a.
3/ Chufng minh :
al Bon diem C, I , M , N cung nkm tren vong tron.
hi Nam diem A, C, I , M , N cung nkm tren mot mSt cau. Hay xac dinh tam cua hinh cau nay.
HUdng dSn
Doc gia ta giai va dap so nhtf sau :
4Q 1
21 = 30°.
1/ y = 2a; dt(AAMN) = 2
;' cosa = V e '

Bai 193 (DAI HOC KT - TC - KT - SP TP.HCM - KHOI A - 1979)

Cho hinh chop V.ABC c6 cac mat ben hop vdi mat p h i n g day ABC thanh nhifng goc nhi
dien bang nhau c6 goc p h i n g la (p.
1/ Chutng minh rang chan cua dii&ng cao hinh chop xua't phdt tif dinh V la tam cua dUdng
tron npi tiep trong tam giac ABC.
2/ Tim diem O each deu cdc mat ben va mat day hinh chop.
3/ Goi r la ban kinh difdng tron noi tiep trong tam giac ABC va R la bdn kinh hinh cau noi
tiep trong hinh chop V.ABC, tinh R theo r va ip.
Giai
I la h i n h chieu cua V xuong (ABC)
1/ Goi
J , K, M la h i n h chieu cua V len cac canh A B , BC, CA.

V I 1 (ABC)
Theo dinh ly 3 difcfng vuong goc, ta c6 : I J l AB
V J l AB

Ti/ong tif, I K ± BC va I M 1 AC =i. = V l ^ = VS^ = n?


Ba tam giac vuong VIJ, VIK, VIM bkng nhau (vi c6
chung canh goc vuong V I va c6 goc nhon (p bkng nhau)
IJ = I K = I M .
Vay I la tam ciia dacfng tron npi tiep cua tam giac
ABC (dpcm).
2/ Gia sijf da t i m difac diem O each deu 4 mat
cua hinh chop V.ABC. Goi Oj, O2, O3 Ian lugt la
hinh chieu ciia O tren cac mat (VAB), (VBC),
(VCA) theo thOf tif do.
Ta CO : 01 = OOj = OO2 = OO3.

01 = 0 0 ] => O d tren phan giac ciia

113
01 = OOz => O d tren phan giac cua .
OI = OO3 ^ O d tren phan giac cua \ .
Vay chi can O la chan dudng phan gidc ciia X'Jl la du (ycbt).
3 / Tinh R theo r va 9 .
Ta CO : R = O O 2 ; I J = I K = I M = r.
9
Trong A O O 2 K => O O 2 = OKsin- (3)
IK
Trong AOIK =^ OK = (4)
cos—
2
sin—
• 9
Thay (4) vao (3), ta c6 : O O 2 = I K — 2 = rtan^
(p 2
cos—
2
Vay : R = r t a n — (ycbt).
2
B a i 194 (DAI HOC Y - NHA - DtfCJC - QUAN Y TP.HCM - 1980)
Trong khong gian cho mot doan t h i n g I J . Tren mot dUdng t h i n g d vuong goc vdi I J va di
qua I ; lay ve hai phia cua I hai diem A, B vdi A I = IB = a; tren mot difcfng t h i n g (d') vuong
goc vdi I J va di qua J ; lay ve hai phia cua J hai diem C, D vdi CJ = JD = b. Cac dudng t h i n g
(d) va (d') khong n i m trong ciing mot mSt phlng.
1/ Chijfng minh r i n g : AC = BD va AD = BC.
2/ ChuTng minh r i n g tam cua hinh c l u ngoai tiep tiJ dien ABCD n i m tr&n diXdng t h i n g I J .
3/ Tinh ban kinh R cua hinh cau tren theo a, b va c = I J .
Giai
AI = I B
1/ Ta CO : A va B do'i xihig vcJi nhau qua dtfdng t h i n g I J .
AB I I J
JC = J D
• C va D doi xijtng vdi nhau qua di/dng t h i n g I J .
CDIIJ^
Do do doan t h i n g AC va BD doi xilng nhau qua I J , suy ra AC = BD (dpcm).
Lap luan tifcfng tif ta c6 : AD = BC (dpcm).
2/ Goi O la tam ciia hinh cau ngoai tiep tijf dien ABCD. V i I J Ilk mpt difdng trung trifc cua ca
AB va CD nen tam O phai d tren dudng t h i n g I J .
3/ Ta CO : = OA^ = 10^ + l A ^ = +OF (1)
R2 = O C ' - O j 2 + JC^ = + (IJ- Olf
R2 = + (c - 10)2 = + c % 0 1 ^ - 2C.0I (2)
TCr (1) va (2), suy ra : + O r = b^ + c^ + O r - 2c .OI
114
01 =
2c

Thay 01 = vao (1)


2c

b^+c^-a^^'
^ = a^ +
2c

Vay : R = — V a ^ + b " + c" + 2a2c2 + 2hh^ - 2a%^ (dpcm).


2c
Bai 195 (DAI HOC SLf PHAM - NONG NGHIEP - TONG HOP - K H O I B - 1981)

Cho goc tam di?n Oxyz vdi cdc goc p h i n g d dinh x 6 y = 60°; y 9 z = 90°; z 6 x = 120°.
Tren Ox, Oy, Oz lay cac diem A, B, C vdi OA = OB = OC = a.
a/ Chiing minh rSng tam gidc ABC vuong.
hi Chijfng minh rSng trung diem H cua doan AC la hinh chieu vuong goc cua O len mat
phang ABC. TO d6 suy ra the tich cua tiJ dien OABC.
d Xac dinh tam I va ban kinh hinh cau ngoai tiep til di?n OABC.
Giai
a/ Ta CO : T A A O B can => A A O B deu => A B = a

S A B O C vuong can BC = aV2

. A A O C => A C = a-s/3

AC^ = AB'^ + B C ^ = 3a^ => A A B C vuong tai B (dpcm).


OA a A C ^ aV3
b) De y : OH = BH =
2 2 ~ 2
OB^ = O H ' + H B ' OH 1 HB.
OH 1 H B
Tif: O H 1 (ABC)
OH 1 A C
=> H la hinh chieu cua O xuong mp(ABC).
Luc do the tich V cua hinh ch6p OABC la :

VQABC = ^ d t (AABC) X O H
o
= -ABxBCxOH
6
aS/2
=> V = (ycbt).
12

c) OH la true (d) cua AABC.


Tam I cua hinh cau ngoai ti6'p til dien OABC la giao dilm cua OH vdi mSt trung trUc (a)
cua OC.
Ta c6: 10 = l A = IC => AlOC c&n c6 Xdl = 60° => AIOA diu.
=> 10 = l A = IC = a = R (bdn kinh hinh cau) (ycbt).

115
Bai 196 ( D E A 2 - 1 9 8 1 )
T r o n g m a t p h a n g ( P ) c h o nOfa d u d n g t r o n d u d n g k i n h A B = 2 R . G i a suT M l a m p t d i e m t u y
y t r e n nufa difcrng t r o n , k h a c vdi A v a B . G o i H l a h i n h c h i e u v u o n g goc c i i a M l e n A B , d a t x =
AH. X e m nufa d u d n g t h a n g M u v u o n g g6c v d i ( P ) t a i M , g i a t h i e t M u l u o n l u o n d v e c u n g m p t
p h i a doi v d i (P) k h i M t h a y doi t r e n M u lay d i e m S v d i S M = M H .
a/ T i n h do d a i cac c a n h c u a tuT d i e n S A B M .
b/ C h u f n g t o r a n g goc n h i d i e n c a n h A B t a o b d i cdc m a t p h ^ n g ( P ) v a ( S A B ) c6 gia t r i k h o n g
doi k h i M t h a y doi.
d X a c d i n h v i t r i t a r n h i n h c a u n g o a i t i e p tiif d i e n S A B M T i n h b a n k i n h h i n h c a u a y t h e o R va
X . V d r i g i a t r i n a o c u a x t h i b a n k i n h a y c6 gia t r i I d n n h a t ?
Giai
(Xem D l D A I H O C SP - K T - K T - N N - K H O I A - 1982)
Bai 197 ( D A I H O C S P - K T - K T - N N - K H O I A - 1982)
T r o n g m a t p h l n g ( P ) c h o nufa dUcfng t r o n d U d n g k i n h A B = 2 R . G i a thCt M l a m p t d i e m t u y
y t r e n nufa t r o n , k h a c v d i A v a B , g p i H l a h i n h c h i e u v u o n g goc c i i a M t r e n A B , d a t A H = x.
X e m nufa dUcfng t h i n g M N v u o n g goc v d i (P) t a i M . G i a t h i e t M N l u o n l u o n d ve cijng mpt
p h i a doi v d i (P) k h i M t h a y doi, t r e n M N lay d i e m S v d i S M = M H .
a/ T i n h do d a i cac c a n h c i i a tuf d i e n SAMB.
b/ C h u f n g t o r a n g goc n h i d i e n c a n h A B t a o n e n b d i cac m a t p h i n g ( P ) v a ( S A B ) c6 gia t r i
k h o n g doi k h i M t h a y doi.
d X a c d i n h v i t r i t a m h i n h c a i i n g o a i t i e p tuf d i e n S A B M . T i n h ban k i n h h i n h c a u a y t h e o R \k
X . V d i g i a t r i n a o c u a x t h i b a n k i n h a y c6 gia t r i I d n n h a t ?
Giai
a/ H e t h d c l i i o n g t r o n g t a m giac cho :
A M ^ = A H X A B = 2 R x = > A M = V2Rx
B M ^ = B H X A B = 2R(2R - x)
B M = V2R(2R - x)
M H ^ = A H X B H = x(2R - x)
M H = Vx(2R - x)
M S = M H = Vx(2R - x)
SA^ = MS^ + M A ^
= x(2R - x) + 2Rx = x(4R - x)
=> S A = V x ( 4 R - x)
S B ^ = M B ' + M S ' = 2R(2R - x) + x(2R - x) = 4 R ' - X '
=^ S B = V 4 R 2 - X ^ ; A B = 2R (ycbt).
b/ Goc n h i d i e n t a o b d i (P) v a ( S A B ) k h o n g d o i .
S M 1 (P)
S H 1 AB ( d i n h l y 3 dUdng vuong gdc)
M H 1 A B
=> ip = [CT5r(S5B71 = = SHM ( A S M H vuong can)
116
=> (p = — = const (ycbt).
4
c/ True cua A A M B l a dudng t h S n g (d) J_ (P) t a i O ( t r u n g d i e m A B ) .
Luc do t a m I ciia h i n h cau ngoai tiep tijf dien S A M B la giao d i e m I
cua (d) va mat phang t r u n g triTc (a) cua S M .
Ban k i n h R, cua mSt cau l a : l A = I B = I M = I S = R i Si (d)

R,2 = I M ^ = lO^ + O M ^ = + R^ / ^

x(2R-x)^^. 1 rx + 2 R - x ^ '
+ R2
/MLJ I \
4 4

5R'
(1) B
o
Dau d i n g thuTc t r o n g (1) xay ra<=>x = 2 R - x < = > x = R

V5
Vay X = R t h i m a x R j = — R (ycbt).
2
Bai 198 ( D A I H O C K I E N T R U C - T O N G H O P - N O N G N G H I E P - 1984)
Cho ba nijfa difcfng t h a n g Ox, Oy, Oz k h o n g cung n k m t r o n g m o t m a t p h a n g va m o t d i e m A
nam tren Oz. H i n h chieu vuong goc cua A xuong m a t p h a n g (Oxy), Ox, Oy I a n lUcft l a A ' , B , C.

1/ Chufng m i n h rftng neu x O z = y O z = a, t h i OA' l a ducfng p h a n giac cua x6y \k B C l a

triTc giao v d i OA.

2/ Cho biet x O z = y5z = a (45° < a < 90") va x O y = 90°. Goi (5 l a goc hgp b d i difcfng t h i n g
Oz va m a t p h a n g (Oxy); y l a goc n h g n hgp bdi m a t phSng ( A B C ) va (Oxy). T i m he thiifc giCfa
tanP va tany; giOa cos^ va cosa. Suy r a bieu thiJc cua tany theo t a n a . T i n h P neu a = 60°.
3/ Cung gia t h i e t nhiT d p h a n 2, h a y xac d i n h t a m cua h i n h cau ngoai t i e p tijf d i e n O A B C va
xac dinh t i e p dien cua h i n h cau nay t a i A. Cho b i e t OA = a va a = 60°. H a y t i n h dien t i c h
thiet dien cua m a t phSng (ABC) v d i h i n h cau t r e n .

4/ Menh de "Neu BC trifc giao vdi OA t h i 5c9z = y9z" c6 dung khong ? T a i sao ?

Giai
A-B 1 Ox
1/ Theo d i n h l y ba dudng vuong goc
A'C 1 Oy

AAOB = AOAC
AB = A C va OB = OC
Hai dudng x i e n A B = A C c6 h a i h i n h chieu A ' B =
AC ti/cfng ling.

=> D i e m A' n S m each deu 2 canh cua x O y .

=> A' nftm t r e n dudng p h a n giac A t cua goc do.

=> OA' l a dudng p h a n giac ciia x6y (dpcm).

De y AOBC can, c6 OA' l a dUcfng p h a n giac => OA' 1 BC.

117
: AA' ± (OBC) => AA' J_ BC.
BC 1 (OAA) v4 OBA'C la hinh vuong. BClOA
21 Ta CO :
A O X ' = p = [Oz; (xOy)]
AAOA' => A A ' = OA'.tanp (1)
Nen
AAHA' => A A ' = H A ' t a n y = - . O A ' . t a n y (2)
2
Tir (1) va (2) => - OA'tany = OA'tanp hay tany = 2tanp
2
AAOB => O B = OA.cosa (3)
AAOA' => O A ' = OA.cosp (4)
=> OA' = OB V2 (dudng ch6o cua hinh vuong OBA'C)
Ket hcfp vdi (3) vk (4) : OAcosP = V2 OA.cosa <=> cosP = V2 cosa
a, P la hai g6c nhon nen => tany = 2tanp
tan^y = 4tan^p = 4 -1 - 4 = 2(1 + tan^a) - 4
^cos^p 2cos^a
<=> t a n ^ = 2(tan^a - 1) vi 45° < a < 90°
tana > 1, vi y 1^ goc nhon => tany > 0
tany = V2(tan^ a - 1) (ycbt).
Neu a = 60',0 cosa = — =>cosP = V2 cosa = P = 45° (ycbt).
2 2
3/ X6t : ABt) = Act) = 90°, nen B, C n^m tren mSt cau difdng kinh OA. Vay tarn cua hinh
cau ngoai tiep tuT dien OABC la trung diem I cua OA.
Ta biet tiep dien ciia hinh cau t a i diem A la mat p h l n g (T) vuong goc \(s\g kinh OA
tai A. Do do thiet dien dUcfc xac dinh nhu sau :
Qua A ve mat ph^ng vuong g6c vdi Oz, cat Ox tai B', c^t Oy tai C.
Mat phang (T) = (AB'C) 1 OA tai A nen n6 \k tiep dien phai x^c dinh (ycbt).
Mat p h i n g (ABC) cat hinh cau theo hinh tr6n (P) ngoai tiep AABC.
a
OB = OC =
Ng'u OA = a va a = 60°
BC = ^ , A B = AC = ^ ^
2 ' 2
Goi M 1^ trung diem AB. Ke difdng trung trifc cua canh AB trong tam giac can ABC n6 cat
difcfng cao HA tai J t h i JA la ban kinh hinh tron ngoai ti§'p tam gidc ABC.
AJ AM AB^
AAJM CO AABH AJ = (3)
AB ~ A H 2AH
118
aV3 lOa^ iVio
AH^ = AB^ - B H ^ = AH =
16

3a^
3a
Thay vao (3) => A J =
2a->/l0

Dien tfch thiet dien : S = TI.AJ^ = (ycbt).


40

4/ O B X ' = C J C ^ = 9 0 " nen ttJ gidc OBA'C noi tiep trong h i n h tr6n dudng k i n h OA'. Neu
BC i OA va theo tren BC ± AA' t h i BC 1 (OAA') tiirc la BC ± OA'. Trong hinh tr6n dUdng
kinh OA' c6 day BC 1 OA' nen OA' cSt BC tai trung diem H cua BC. Ro r^ng OA' la dUcfng
trung true cua BC nen OB = OC. Hai tam gidc vuong OAB va OAC c6 OA chung. OB = OC
nen ehiing bang nhau.

Suy ra : AOB = AOC hay x9z = y9z.

Vay menh de : "BC trUc giao vcJi OA t h i xOz = la dung" (ycbt).

Bai 199 (DE BACH KHOA - K I E N TRUC - TONG HOP TP.HCM - 1 9 8 5 )


Cho hinh chop tuf giac deu S.ABCD c6 dinh la S; canh ben la b; mat ben hcfp vdri day g6c a.
1/ Tinh canh day, dien tich toan phan va the tich cua hinh chop.
2/ Trong trudng hop tam cua hinh cau noi tiep trung vdi tfim cua hinh cau ngoai tiep hinh
chop hay chufng minh : cos a = V2 - 1

3/ Cho biet cos a = 1 ; va goi (p la goc hap vdi canh ben va mat ddy.
a/ Tinh tancp.
b/ Trinh bay day du each difng thiet dien tao bdi mot mat phang (a) di qua dinh A, song
song vdi difcfng cheo BD va hgp vdi canh AB mot goc 3 0 " .
Giai

1/ Goi I la trung diem canh ddy BC => S l ^ = a.


Trong tam giac vuong SHI => H I = Sl.cosa.
Mat khac : SI -L BC va trong tam giac vuong SIC ta c6 :
IC2=SC2-SI^

119
Vi IC = I H , ket hop lai ta c6 :
HI^
HI^ = SC^ -
cos^a
cos^ a bcosa
HI =
' 1 + cos^ a V l + cos^a
2bcosa
Tif do : BC = . (ycbt)
1 + cos a
HI
Ta CO : SI =
cosa V l + cos^a
Ta goi dien tich toan phan ciia hinh chop la Stp thi :
S,p = 4dt(ASBC) + dt(ABCD) = 4. - . SI.BC + BC^
2
bcosa 2bcosa
^ Stp = 4.
V l + cos^a V l + cos^a V l + cos^ a
cosa(4 + 4cosa)b
^ S,p = (ycbt)
1 + cos a
bsina
Trong tam giac vuong SHI => SH = Sl.sina =
1 + cos a
Vay : V^,,,™ = 1 SHdt(ABCD) = A . ^^--cos^ (^.^t).
( l + cos^a)2
2/ Gia sijf O la tam hinh cau noi tiep va ngoai tiep hinh chop, va K i la chan diTdng cao ha
O tdi (SBC) ^ K i e SI.
fOH = O K , O S = O C
Theo gia thiet :
2
Xet tam giac vuong O H I => O H = H I . t a n — .
2
Xet tam giac vuong O H C OC = VOH^THC^
OC= jHinan"-+2Hr = H L 2 + t a n ^a - .
Tir do : S H = S O + O H = O C + O H = H I t a n — + ./:2 + t a n 2 - (1)
2 \
Lai xet tam giac vuong S H I va ( 1 ) .
SH ^
2 + tan2^
tana = = tan
HI
120
2tan-
2 = tan 2 + tan2^
l-tan^-

l + tan^^
2 C 2 + tan2^
1-tan^^
o tan —.
2)
o tan*—+ 2tan^ 1=0
2 2
tan^" = - l + V2
2 « tan2^ = > ^ - l
tan2- = - l - V 2 < 0 (loai) ^

l-tan^^
Mat khac => cosa = 2 . , 1 - ^ + 1 . V^_i(dpcm).

3a'Ta c6 ; SCfi = ip. Mat khac theo (1), thi :

SH= H I tan- l2 + t a n 2 - (2)

maHC = HI. V2 (3)


(2) SH V2
Lay
tancp = tan— + J;2 + tan2-^ (4)
(3) HC 2 \

Vdi gia thiet cosa = ^f2 - 1, da c6 duoc : t a n ^ — = V2 - 1


2
(3) VV2-1 + 772+11 (ycbt).
tancp =
b/ Gia sLf thiet dien ciia mp(a) va hinh chop S . A B C D da difng dugc.
Vi (a) // B D => (a) n ( S B D ) = MN // B D
Mat khac neu gpi K' la chan dUcrng vuong goc ha tif B xuong (a)
=> <^ ma B D // MN => BK 1 B D
1 MN
BK'
=> BK' nkm tren mat phang vuong goc vdri B D . Goi do la mat ph^ng (BB'y).
Gia siJ MN o B B ' = I; By n Ax = E ^ (a) n ( B B ' E ) = I E va K' e I E
Tarn giac vuong A K ' B c6 ICAB = 3 0 ° ^ K B = - A B
2

121
AByf2
Tarn gidc vuong AEB c6 BE =
AB
EB^ - BK'2 = = K'B
2
=> ABKE vuong can c6 B E l t ' = 45°
ABV2
AEBI vuong can c6 : BE = B I = — .
2
B^ng phan tich tren day ta suy ra cdch difng nhu sau :
• Trong mat p h i n g SBD difng BB' 1 BD, tren BB' lay diem I sao cho:
ABV2
BI = BE = — .
2
Tii I ke Iz // BD (trong mp(SBD), Iz c^t SB, SD tUang ufng t a i M , N v^ c^it SH d F. Noi A
vdi F (trong (SAC), AF cat SC tai Q. Tijf giAc AMQN la thiet dien can dUng.
• De y thay vdi gia thiet da cho, thiet dien luon luon difng duac. ThUc vay dieu do ti/ang
^ A B f V V 2 - 1 + VV2+1
duang vdi FSHH < SH. Nhifng ta da c6 :
2
F H < SH (ycbt).
ABV2
F H =BI
B a i 200 (DAI HOC BACH KHOA TP.HCM - 1988)
Cho mot hinh chop tam giac deu D.ABC c6 canh day a, cac mat ben nghieng vdi day m6t goc a.
a/ Tinh cac di§n tich s va S cua cac mat cau noi tiep, ngoai tiep vdi hinh chdp va di§n tich
toan phan S,p cua hinh chop theo a va a.
b/ Bieu dien Stp theo s va S.
Giki
aJ Goi E la trung diem cua BC. Goi H la trong tam AABC.
=> DH la difdng cao hinh chop va A E I ) = a.
Goi O, I , r, R Ian lifgt la tam va ban kinh cac mat
cau noi tiep va ngoai tiep hinh chop. Do tinh doi xilng
cua hinh chop deu nen de thay O va I e DH.
De y thay: i t E t ) = CJETD = - ; l A = ID = R
2
r = OH = HE.tan — = — ^ .tan —
2 2V3 2
9 a
Vay : s = ATIT^ = •tan^ — (2)
Ta c6: DH = HEtana = tana
2V3
AHIA => lA^ = AH^ + IH^ = AH^ + (DH - DI)^
122
a(tan^ a + 4)
hay: = tana - R R = (3)
4V3tana
Vay di$n t i c h SR cua m a t cAu ngoai t i e p .

a^(tan^a + 4)2 7ta^ (tan^ a + 4)^


Vay: S = 4itR^ = 471 (4)
48tan^a 12tan^a
HE a
Mat khac : D E =
cos a 2V3cosa

Stp = S „ + Sd = 3SnBC + SABC = 3. | a . D E + ^ a - " ^

a^Vsd + cos a)
(5)
4 cos a
3S
hi Tif(2) t a c o : = •. T h a y vko (5) t a duac :
Titan' a I

(5) sVSsd + cosa)cos^ " „ /^^ „„o^^2


2 oV3s (1 + cosa)
(6)
X • 2 2 47t cosa(l-cosa)
4 sin a cos a
TCf(l) den (4) suy r a :

(S
fS _ R _ 2a(tan2a + 4)V3 l + 3cos^a
\ s = rr = . /r^ ^ « 2cosa(l-cosa)
4V3tana.a.tan—
2
S _ 1 + 2 cos a + cos^ a - 2 cos a + 2 cos^ a

VSs 2cosa(l - cos a)


(1 + cos a)^ - 2 cos a(l - cos a) (1 + cosa)
-1
s 2cosa(l - cos a) 2cosa(l - cosa)
(1 + cosa)^
o 1 + (7)
2 cos a(l - cos a)
3V3s
Tir (6) va (7), t a c6 : Stp =
2n -if (ycbt).

Bai 201 ( D A I H O C N O N G L A M T P . H C M - 1991)


Cho h i n h chop deu S.ABC c6 canh day l a a, dUdng cao S H = h .
1/ Tinh a theo h va b a n k i n h r , R cua m a t cau n p i t i e p , ngoai t i e p cua h i n h ch6p.

2/ Khi a co d i n h va h t h a y d o i , xac d i n h h de t i so — d a t gia t r i \dn nha't.


R
Giai
1/ Goi H la trifc t a m (hoac t r o n g tarn) AABC
=> SH = h la dUcfng cao cua h i n h chop S.ABC.

123
Do hinh chop deu nen cac tam co va O Ian lifat cua cac
mat cau npi, ngoai tiep deu nSm tren SH.
SH ± (ABC)l
Ta CO : SM ± BC
A H 1 BC
BC _L SH va BC ± SM BC ± (SAM)
=> (SBC) _L (SAM) nen tiT w ha « J 1 SM
thi (oJ ± (SBC). A
Do (oH = (oJ = r nen co la giao diem ciia SH va diTdng
phan giac cua
o T «J Sco SH~(OH
ASwJ t/5 ASMH => = =
HM SM SM
(h-r) aVs h ~ r
=> r =
6 6
i^f3
12
ah
(ycbt).
Va2+12h2 +a
Trong tam giac SAM, trung triTc canh SA gap SH tai O :
SO SI SA
ASIO CO ASHA
SA SH 2SH
SA2 9h2+3a2 Sh^+a^ ^ 3hUa\^ ^
SO = 2SH = 18h = 6h <=> R = 6h (dpcm).
6ah^
2/ Xet : y = — =
R (a2+3h2)(a+ Va'+12h2)
<=> y =
1 2 I 1 2
(1 + 3 — ) ( 1 + J l + 1 2 — )
3 I 3.
Dat : 12 *V = ^ ^ ^ ^ t^^x = 2-73 — tanx > 0
2V3
2tan^ X
Luc do : y =
(4 + t a n ^ x ) ( l + V l + t a n ^ x )
,sin^ X
COS^ X 2sin^ x c o s x
•» y = • 2 ^
sm x (1 + 3cos x ) ( l + c o s x )
4 + 1 +-
cos^ x cosx
124
2cosx(l ~ cosx)
« y= 5 ; vx
1 + 3cos'' X
<=> g(x) =(3y + 2)cos^x - 2cosx + y = 0; Vx (5)
* Do y > 0 nen 3y + 2 > 0; Vy > 0
* PhUorng trinh (5) c6 nghiem can c6 Ag > 0

1 + y(3y + 2) = - 3 y ^ - 2y + 1 ^ 0 - 1< y < -


0<y<-
y >0
y > 0

Vay : max(y) = — xay ra k h i (5) c6 nghiem k6p.


3

o cosx = = - 6 (0; 1) (nhan)


3y + 2 ^1^ 3
3. + 2

Tir: 1 + tan^x = — ^ - — ; vdi cosx = — => tan^x = 9-1=8


cos X 3

Luc d6 : tanx = 2V2 ^ h = - ^ . 2 V 2 =


2V3

Vay chon : h = t h i max(y) = max = - (ycbt).


o
Bai 202 (DAI HOC TONG HCJP TP.HCM - KHOI D - 1991)
Cho ABCD la hinh thang can trong mat phang (P) vdi hai day AB va CD thoa AB = 4CD.
Hinh tron tam O b i n kinh a noi tiep trong hinh thang ABCD Ian lUdt tai M , N , P, Q.
1/ Tinh dp dai bon canh va dien tich cua hinh thang ABCD theo a.
2/ Lay diem S thoa SO 1 (P) va SO = 2a. Tinh dien tich toan phan va th§ tich hinh ch6p
S.ABCD theo a.
3/ Chilng minh O each deu bon mat ben cua hinh chop S.ABCD. Tif d6 xdc dinh tam va ban
kinh (theo a) cua mat cau npi tiep trong hinh chop
Giai
1/ Tinh dp dai cac canh va di^n tich hinh thang can ABCD :
Dat PC = X => MB = 4x
Difng CC J - AB t h i MPCC la hinh chiJ nhat nen :
MC = X => C B = 3x.
Theo tinh chat tiep tuyen d ngoai ducrng tron t h i :
CN = CP = x 1
} => BC = BN + NC = 5x
BN = B M = 4xJ A<r
AC'CB => BC^ = BC'2 + C'C^
<=> 25x^ = 9x2 _^ 4JJ2
„2
« x2 = a
<=> X = —
2

125
Day nho DC = 2x = a
Ddy I d n A B = 8x = 4a (ycbt).
5a
C a n h x i e n BC = D A = 5x =
dt(ABCD) = - ( A B + CD).MP = - ( 4 a + a).2a = Sa^
2 2 M * C 3x B
S0_L(ABCD)1
2/ Tac6 S P I D C
OPIDC
Lap lu4ln tuong tif =J. S Q i . DA; S M 1 AB; S N ± BC
Do O M = O N = OP = OQ =a => S M = S N = SP = SQ
S „ = - S M . A B + - SN.BC + - SP.CD + - SQ.DA
' 2 2 2 2
=> S^q = - S P (AB + BC + CD + DA)
2
5a 53^1
S„,= i V 4 a 2 +a2 4a + — + a + = - a V 5 . 1 0 a = 5V5a^
2)
Stp = S,, + Sd = 5 ^/5 a^ + Sa^ = 5a^ (Vs + 1) (ycbt)
V = - d t ( A B C D ) . S O = - .5a2.2a = ^ (ycbt).
3 a3 a3
BC 1 SQ
3/ Ta c6 : BC 1 (OSN)
BC 1 O N
=t> (SBC) J. (OSN) theo giao tuyen SN, nen ha tif O, OH 1 SN
=> OH ± (SBC) => OH = d[0; (SBC)].
Lap luan tifcfng tU, ha OK 1 SP; OI 1 SQ va OJ 1 SM
=> OK, 0 1 , OJ Ian lifcft la khoang cdch tir O den cac mat (SDC),
(SDA) va (SAB).
De y den bon tam gi^c SON, SOP, SOQ, SOM Ik 4 tam gidc
vuong bang nhau, n§n bon diidng cao tuong utng OH, OK, O I , OJ cung
bang nhau.
O cAch deu bon mat ben cua hinh ch6p S.ABCD (dpcm).
Goi CO e SO. Ditag coE 1 (SBC) => E e SN, va wE // OH.
Vi CO 1^ tam mdt c^u npi tiep coO = coE => co nMm tren dudng phan gi^c g6c S N C ) .
Vay ( 0 la giao diem cua difcfng cao SO v a mat phan giic cua g6c nhi di$n tao bdi mat ben
v^ day cua hinh ch6p S.ABCD. (ycbt)
1 1 1 1 1 K
AOSN
OH^ ON^ OS^ a^ 4a^ 4a=^
4a^ 2aV5
<=> 0 H =
126
caE Sco SO-coO SO-coE
ASwE 0 0 ASOH :
OH SO SO SO

=> 2a.(oE = (2a - (oE) (5 + V 5 ) ( o E = 2aV5


5

2aV5 a(V5 - 1 )
o r = (oE = (ycbt).
5 + V5 2
Bai 203 ( D A I H O C S U P H A M K Y T H U A T - PfflOI B - 1993)

Cho h i n h ch6p tuT gidc deu S . A B C D , c6 canh My hkng a XSfe = a.


1/ Xdc d i n h t&m -vk hAn k i n h m a t cau ngoai tiep h i n h ch6p.
21 Xac d i n h t f i m va ban k i n h m a t cAu noi tiep h i n h ch6p.
3/ Chthig m i n h r a n g h a i t a m m a t cau d6 t r u n g nhau k h i vk c h i k h i a = 45°.

Giai
1/ Trong m a t p h ^ n g (SAO) m a t t r u n g trifc (P) cua SA c^t true difdng t r 6 n ngoai ti§p ( A B C D )
la SO tai J .
=> J la t a m m a t cAu ngoai t i e p h i n h ch6p S.ABCD (ycbt).
Goi M la t r u n g d i e m SA t h i :

SM ^ SJ SA^
ASMJ w ASOA SJ.SO = SM.SA =
SO ~ SA 2

SA^
R = SJ = (ycbt).
2.S0 , . a I
4sin—Vcosa
2
21 Goi H la t r u n g d i e m cua c a n h day A B .
Trong (SHO), m a t p h a n g i i c cua n h i d i ^ n (AB)
chia doi g6c S f i t ) se cat SO t a i I
=> I la t a m h i n h cau n p i t i e p h i n h ch6p S.ABCD
(ycbt).
Theo d i n h l y dUdng p h a n giac t r o n g ; t a c6:
10 HO IS
r = 10 = H O
IS HS HS
AB a
Vdfi: O H =
2
a IS
=> r = 1 0 = 2—.- H S

IS IK 10
Dung I K 1 S H => A S K I <n A S O H (1)
HS OH OH
10 ^ p IS
Goi : S f i t ) = p = tan— = (do ( D )
OH 2 HS
a, P
=> r = — t a n — (2)
2 2

127
''SH = -cot-
2 2
Ta CO SO = V S H ^ - O H ^
2sin—
2
SO Vcosa
tanp =
OH . a
sm—
2
B 2t cosa
Dat: t = t a n — ; t > 0 tanp = t > 0
1-t^ . a
sin—
2
fit) = Vcosa.t^ + 2 s i n — .t - Vcosa = 0 ; t > 0
• 9 ct 2 a r— a ,
(c6 : A f = sin — + cosa = cos — => J A f = cos—)
. a a
-sm cos—
tl = 2 < 0 (loal)
cosa
. a a
- s i n — + cos—
2 2
t2 =
cosa
a J:
-sin— + cos- V2 cos
2 2 2^4)
Nhan thay : ta =
Vcosa cosa
M a : 0 < a < — => 0 < — < — => — < — + — < —
2 2 4 4 2 4 2
a 71
cos — + — > 0 => nhan gia t r i d (3).
2 4
. a a
r. -sin— + cos-
Luc do : tan-!^ = f ^
2 Vcosa
a . a
(2)
cos sin—
r = -J. ^ ^ (*) (ycbt).
2 Vcosa
3/ Gia : I s J . Ta CO : IM 1 (SAB) => I K ± KB
| l O = I K => AIOB = AIKB => OB = KB
Suy ra : hai dudng tron ngoai tiep ABCD va SAB b^ng nhau.
=> A S ^ = Act) (cung chan cung AB) <=> a = —
4
Kiem tra sir dung dSn cua (4) de dang nhd (*) (dpcm).
128
Bai 204 (DAI H O C T A I C H A N H K E T O A N - 1993)

Cho hinh ch6p S . A B C c6 day A B C la mot tam giac can c6 A B = A C = a, ( S B C ) ± ( A B C ) ;


SA = SB = a, S C = X .
1/ Chijfng to rang B C la ducrng kinh ciia difdng tron ngoai tiep tam giac S B C .
2/ Hay xac dinh tam va ban k i n h cua hinh cau ngoai tiep hinh chop tren.

Giai
1/ Goi I la trung diem B C => A I 1 B C
Ta CO : ( S B C ) 1 ( A B C ) AI 1 SI
Xet ASAI va AAIC c6 : A S = A C => A A I C = ASAI

=> SI = C I = I B A C S B vuong ^ C!S6 = -


2

Vay B C la diTcrng k i n h cua dudng tron ngoai tiep A S B C (dpcm).


21 Goi O la giao diem gifla difdng trung trifc cua A B vdi A I
Ta CO : OA = O B = O C
Mat khac : ASOI = ABOI (vi I B = S I )
=> S O = B O
=> O A = O B = O C = O S
=> 0 la tam hinh cau ngoai tiep S . A B C (ycbt).
Ta CO : AAMO oo A A I B
AO A M A B . A M
A O = R =
AB AI AI

R
2.AI

Ma; A I ' = AS'' - S i ' = A S ' - ( S B ' - B l ' ) = A S ' - ( S B '

2 S C ^ + S B ^
AI'= A S ' - S B

AI = -Va^ +
2

Vay R = (ycbt).
4:
Bai 205 (DAI H O C Y D l J O C T P . H C M - 1993)
Cho tuf dien A B C D .
1/ ChuTng to r i n g cac difdng t h i n g noi moi dinh vdi trong tam ciia mSt doi dien dong quy tai
diem G.
2/ Neu di6m G triing vdi tam hinh cau noi tiep, chuTng to r i n g cac mat cua til dien la bang
nhau.

Giai
1/ Goi M la trung diem D C ; A' va B' Ian lifcft la trong tam
ABCD va A A C D

129
T r o n g A A B M , t a goi G la giao d i ^ m cua A A ' vdri B B ' . Theo
t i n h chat ciia t r o n g t a m , t a c6 :
AM BM
= 3 ^ A B ' // A B
MB' MA'
AG BG AB AM
= 3
A'G B'G A-B' B'M
Vay : B B ' c&t A A ' t a i G co d i n h .
T u a n g t u , cac dirdng t h S n g noi C v6i t r o n g t a m C
cua A A B D noi D v d i t r o n g t a m D' cua AABC cung
di qua G. Til cac l a p l u a n do (dpcm).
2/ Gia sijf G cung la t a m h i n h cau noi t i e p tuf dien.
Dimg : C H 1 AB; D K 1 A B . X e t : SABC = SABD = > CH = DK
Goi M ; N ; O l a t r u n g d i e m cua K H ; C D ; H D t h i :
AMHC = AMDK M C = M D => M N 1 DC
M O / / D K => A B I M O
M a t khac :
NO//CH ABINO
AB 1 (MNO) M N 1 AB
Do do dudng vuong goc chung cua A B va C D d i qua
t r u n g d i e m N cua C D va cung d i qua t r u n g d i e m M
cua AB.
jMA = MB
AK = B H
^ [UK = MH
A C H B = A D K A BC = AD
Ly luan tifang t i i : A C = B D ; A B = C D
Vay cac m a t tuT dien la cAc t a m giac b k n g nhau (dpcm).
B a i 206 ( D A I H O C T O N G HOP Khoi A - B 1994)
i r m h ch6p S. A B C c6 day A B C la t a m giac can A B = AC = a; (ABC) 1 (SBC) va SA = SB = a.
1/ Chufng to r a n g SBC la m o t t a m giac vuong.
2/ Xac d i n h t a m va ban ki'nh h i n h cau ngoai t i e p h i n h chop, b i e t SC = x.
Giai
(Xem De D A I H O C T A I C H A N H K E T O A N - 1993)
B a i 207 ( D A I H O C Y DLfOC T P . H C M - 1994)
T r o n g m a t p h ^ n g (?) cho m o t di/crng t h a n g (d) va m o t d i e m A ngoai (d). M o t goc 5tAy di
dpng quay quanh A , cat (d) t a i B va C. T r e n diXctng t h a n g qua A va vuong g6c v d i (P) lay diem
S. Goi H va K la cac h i n h chieu vuong goc cua A t r e n SB va SC.
1/ C h i l n g m i n h A , B, C, H , K thupc ciing m o t mat cau.
2/ T i n h ban k i n h m a t cau t r e n biet A B = 2, AC = 3, B A C = 60".
3/ Gia SLt t a m giac A B C vuong t a i A. ChuTng m i n h r k n g m a t cau ngoai t i e p k h o i da dien
A B C H K luon d i qua m o t dudng t r o n co d i n h k h i S t h a y doi.
130
Giai
1/ Goi AA' la dtfcrng k i n h dudng t r o n ngoai t i e p
AABC, ta CO :
AB ± A B AB 1 (SAB)
=> A'Bi.AH
Ma: A H 1 B H
A H 1 (A'BH)
=> A H 1 AH
Tifong t u , t a c6 : A K 1 A' K
Vay A; B; C; H ; K ciing thuoc mSt c l u
tam W difdng k i n h AA' (dpcm).
21 Ap dung d i n h ly h a m cosin, ta c6 :

BC' = AC^ + AB^ - 2.AB.AC.C0S - => BC = V?


3
BC
Ap dung d i n h l y h a m s i n = 2 R => R = — (ycbt).
. 71
sm—
3

3/ Vdi B A C = - (d) chiira dirdng k i n h ciia dUcfng t r o n ngoai tiep AABC. K h i do, t a m m a t
2
cau ngoai t i e p k h o i da dien A B C H K d i dong t r e n (d) co d i n h .
Vay k h i S thay doi, mat cau chOfa di/dng t r o n qua A nhan (d) l a m true (dpcm).
Bai 208 ( D A I H O C Q U O C GIA H A NOI - 1995)

Cho h i n h tiir dien A B C D c6 canh A B = x. H a i m d t (ACD) va (BCD) 1^ n h f l n g t a m giac deu


canh a. Goi M la t r u n g d i e m cua canh A B .
a/ Xac d i n h x k h i D M la dircrng cao ciia h i n h tiit dien A B C D .
hi Gia sijf D M vuong goc v6i m a t p h a n g (ABC). T i n h ban k i n h m a t cau n o i t i e p h i n h tuf d i ^ n
^BCD.
Giai
a/ Do D M la diidng cao tijf dien A B C D (hay h i n h chop D.ABC)
=5. D M 1 (ARC) va D A = D B = DC = a nen h i n h chieu cua c h u n g t r e n m a t p h l n g (ABC)
bkng nhau <=> M A = M B = M C .
AB
=> ,\ABC vuong can t a i C (vi t r u n g t u y e n C M = )

Vay X = A B = a V 2 (ycbt).

hi Vdi gia t h i e t do tUcfng t u xet : A D A B

=> A D = B D = a va A B = a V 2

aV2
=> D M =

i^[2
Vay M A = M B = M C = M D =

131

1^
M a ta CO : = SACAB =
SADCA = SADBC =
v =
12
a^(2 + V 3 )
=> Stp = SDAB + SCAB + S^CA + SDBC = (ycbt)
Goi r la ban k i n h m&t cau n ^ i tifi'p, t a c6 :
3V a(2 V3)
B a i 209 ( D A I H O C N G O A I T H l / d N G - D E 3 - 1994)
Cho h i n h chop tut giac deu S . A B C D d i n h S, canh day bSng a; chieu cao bMng h .
1/ T i n h cac ban k i n h R va r cua cac h i n h cau ngoai tiep va noi tiep ttfong ilng cua h i n h chop do.
2/ Goi W l a t h e t i c h h i n h chop, V j , la t h e t i c h h i n h cau ngoai t i e p V j l a t h i t i c h h i n h cau
n o i tiep h i n h chop. Xac d i n h quan h§ giijfa a va h sao cho :
a/ dat gia t r i I d n nhS't. b/ dat gia t r i \dn n h a t .
W
Giai
1/ Goi O la t a m h i n h vuong d day va H K la doan t r u n g trUc cua SC trong ASOC, K e SO, ta c6:
KS = KC = K B = K A = K D
K h i do, ban k i n h h i n h cau ngoai t i e p la : R = S K
SK SH
T a CO : A S H K ^ ASOC
SC SO
SH.SC SC^
R = R = (1)
SO 2.S0
,2
AC^ = 2a^ 0C^ =
a
SC^ = SO^ + OC^ = h^ +
Suy r a tir (1) : R = ^ (ycbt).
4h
Goi M l a t r u n g d i e m cua EC v^ M N la p h a n gidc cua dSfe t r o n g AOMS. T h i khoang
cdch tiJ N den cac mat ben va m a t ddy cua h i n h chop deu bang n h a u , hay N la t a m h i n h cau
noi tiep h i n h chop va : N O = r.
Ta CO : t a n S ^ ^ S 0 _ ^ 2h
MO a
SMt> 2t
Dat: t = t a n N M D = tan thi : = ^ ; l . t > 0
1-t^
132
=> h(t) = h.t^ + a.t - h = 0 ; 1 ^ t > 0 (c6 : Ah = + > 0)

U = < 0 (loai)
2h
Va^ + 4h^ - a
t2 = >0
2h

(ycbt).
MO 2h 4h
2/ Ta c6 :

• The tich hinh ch6p : W= -h.a^


3

• The tich hinh clu ngoai tiep: V j =


3 48h3

47ir3 Ka3(V4h2+a2 - a)
• The tich hinh cAu npi tiep : =
48h^
Khido :
4h2
V2 _ 7ta(V4h2+a2 - a f 47i.a.h2
a/
W leh"
(V4h2+a2 +a)
+ 1 + 1

2h Tttan^a 7t(tan a + 1) - T C
Lai dat : tana =
a W
(Vtan^a + l + l ) (Vtan^a + l +1)
V2 _ TTXd - x)
Dat: cosa = x
W ~ (x + lf

Xet:f(x) = i ^ ^ ^ f ' ( x ) = J - ^ = 0
( X + if (x + I)-'
1
X = — ^ f X
3 V3)
n 1
f(x)
^ « -
Nen : max = — <=> X = — «x)
8 3 ^^^^^ 8
o tana = 2V2 =>h = a V 2 (ycbt).
n3
n3
4h2
4h2a
b/
( 2 h 2 + a 2 ) a + V4h2+a=
+ 1

133
Tuang tir: 3 max
JV2 + 2 (ycbt).
B a i 210 ( D A I H O C SLf P H A M T P . H C M - 1995)
Cho goc t a i n dien Sxyz d i n h S v6i 5cSy = 1 2 0 ° , zSy = 6 0 ° , 5c§z = 9 0 ° . T r e n cdc t i a Sx,
Sy, Sz theo thuT tif lay ciic d i e m A , B, C sao cho SA = SB = SC = a.
1/ Chufng to r a n g A B C la m p t tarn gidc vuong. Xac d i n h h i n h chieu vuong goc ciia S xuong
(ABC) va ban k i n h h i n h cau n o i t i e p t i l dien SABC theo a.
2/ T i n h goc p h i n g cua n h i dien canh A C .
Giai
AC = VSA^ SC^ = aV2
1/ Ta CO :
BC = Ja'^ - 2a^ cos - = a
3
2^
A B = Ja^ + a^ - 2a^ cos = aV3
=> AB^ = AC^ + BC^ = 3a^
=> A A B C vuong t a i C . (ycbt)
Goi H la t r u n g d i e m A B
=> S H I A B (1)
Dimg : M H // B C dt A C t a i M
H M1 AC
De y AC 1 SM
Nen AC 1 (SMH)
AC 1 SH (2)
Tir(l)va(2) =:> S H 1 ( A B C )
Vay H l a h i n h chieu ciia S xufi'ng m a t p h i n g ( A B C ) (ycbt).
1 aS ^ 'V2
3 2 2 12
Ta c6:
2 a^Va a^Va a2V2 a^(V3+V2 + l)
Stp = •+—
2 4 2
3 V ^ aV2
Suy ra : r = (ycbt).
~ 2(V3 + V2 + 1)
2/ Ta CO : = . M a : tancp = SH 2 1 n
= — = 1 => a = —
a MH 4
Vay goc p h ^ n g n h i dien canh A C bSng cp = — (ycbt).
4
134
Bai 211 ( D A I H O C B A C H K H O A H A N O I - 1 9 9 5 )

1/ ChuTng minh r^ng trong mot hinh t i i dien, 4 doan t h i n g noi dinh vdi trpng tam ciia mSt
doi dien dong quy tai 1 diem, diem nay chia moi doan thftng ay theo t i so 3 : 1 t i n h tiJ dinh.
21 Chijfng minh r i n g trong moi hinh tiJ dien neu R va r la bdn kinh ciia hinh cau ngoai tiep
va hinh cau noi tiep, ta deu c6 R > 3r.
Giai
1/ Goi A ; B'; C ; D ' theo thiit tif la trong tam cac mat tam giac A B C D , A C D A , A A B C , A A B D
vdi I la trung diem cua C D . Hai doan AA', B B ' cung nSm trong mat p h i n g (ABl).

AABI ^ — = — = - ^ A'B'//AB (1)


IB lA 3

<i' GA' GB' A'B' 1


Nhifng :
GA GB AB

GA GB
= 3
GA' GB

TifcJng t u hai doan CC, DD' cung dong quy d G


GC G D 3
= = — => (dpcm).
GC' GD' 1
21 Neu mot hinh cau c6 diem chung vdi ca bon mat cua hinh til dien t h i ban kinh t h i Ri > r
(2)

Dau d i n g thiifc a (2) xay ra k h i va chi khi hinh cau ay trung vdi hinh cau npi tiep.

Phep dong dang phoi canh (vi t i i trong khong gian) tfim (G; - — ) bi§'n hinh til di^n ABCD
o
thanh hinh t i l dien A'B'C'D'.
R
=> B i n kinh ciia hinh cau ngoai tiep hinh t i l dien A'B'C'D' bkng

Hinh cau ay c6 c^c diem chung A ' ; B'; C ; D ' vdi ca b6'n mSt hinh t i l di^n ABCD
R
=> — > r « R > 3 r (dpcm).
o
Bai 212 ( D A I H O C K I N H T E Q U O C D A N H A N O I - 1 9 9 7 )

Cho hinh ch6p tam giac deu S. A B C c6 dtf&ng cao S O = 1 va day A B C c6 canh 2-76. D i l m
M, N la trung diem cua canh A C , A B tUang ilng. Tinh the tich hinh chop S . A M N va ban kinh
mat cau noi tiep hinh chop d6.
Giai

Ta CO :SAMN = ~ AM.AN.
AM.-N, 2
sin A = -2 Vs .^6 —
2
= —2 (dvdt)

1
VsAMN = gSO.SAMN = ~ (dvtt)
Goi r la banI kinh mat cau noi tiS'p t i l di$n SSAAMMN! , ta c6
1 „ ^ ^ X ...
V s A M N = g ^ ( S A M N + S A S M + S A S N + S s M Nl ) (1)

135
Trong ACOM vuong tai M c6 :
TI OM f-
tan— = = > O M = V2
6 CM
^ SM = VOM^ + SO^ = Vs
Nhan thay, trong tiJ dien deu S A B C
« A S N A = A S M A
=> SsNA = S s M A =|SM.MA = ^
Trong A S M N can tai S, goi I la trung digm M N => M N 1 SI
2 ,2
6
SI' = S M ' - M I ' = S M ' - = S M ' -
[ 2 J 4
I 4 J
SI = . K h i do : SSMN -SI.MN = -
2 2
3V3 3V2 3V2 3I 41
Vay : <=> = —r r = (ycbt).
+ + + — V3 + 2V2 + 1
2 2 2 2
Bai 213 (DAI H O C Q U O C G I A H A NOI - K H O I D - 1998)
Cho dircfng tr6n tarn O ban k i n h R. Xet hinh ch6p SABCD c6 SA vuong g6c vdi mSt phing
day ( S va A co dinh), SA = h cho trUdc, day ABCD 111 tuf giac tuy y noi tiep rngt dUdng tr6n da
cho ma cac dudng cheo AC va BD vuong goo vdi nhau.
1/ Tinh b ^ kinh cua mSt cau ngoai tiep hinh ch6p (di qua 5 dinh cua hinh ch6p).
2/ Hoi day ABCD la hinh gi de the tich hinh chop dat gia t r i Idn nhat ?
Giai
1/ Difng Ox L (ABCD) => Ox 111 true dudng tr6n.
Trong A S A O , goi Ky Xh. tia trung trifc cua SA.
Goi : O' = Ky n Ox => O S = O A = O'B = OC = O'D
O' 111 tam mat cau ngoai tiep hinh ch6p.
Ta CO : O'O = - SA = -
2 2
AAO'O vuong tai O
=> AO' = R' =
V 4
R = ^ V h 2 + 4 R 2 (ycbt).
2/ Ta CO the tich hinh chop S.ABCD la :
^SABCD - ^ SA.SABCD
SABCD -h.AC.BD
Nen : 3 max(VsABCD ) <^ 3max(AC.BD)
AC va BD dong thcfi Idn nhat
136
o AC va B D dong thcfi la difdng k i n h dudng t r 6 n t a m O.
Ma : AC 1 B D . Do do k h i A B C D la h i n h vuong n o i t i e p dudng t r d n t S m O t h i t h i t i c h
hinh chop dat gia t r i I d n nhS't. (ycbt)
Bai 214 ( D A I H O C DLfOC H A N O I - 1999)
Hinh chop S.ABC c6 do dki cac canh ben bkng / cac mat ben lap vdi mat day goc a (0° < a < 90").
1/ Chilng m i n h h i n h chop la h i n h ch6p deu.
2/ Tinh theo I va a cac ban k i n h R, r cua cac mSt cau ngoai t i e p , n p i t i e p h i n h ch6p.

3/ ChuTng m i n h ^ < — vk dS'u dang thiifc x i y ra k h i va chi k h i h i n h ch6p Ik h i n h tiJf dien d4u.
R 3
Giii
1/ Goi H la h i n h chieu cua S xuong mat ph4ng (ABC), ta c6 : SA = SB = SC = /
H l a t a m ducfng t r o n n g o a i t i e p A A B C
HA = H B = H C
S H la true dirdng t r o n (ABC).
S
Mat khdc cac m a t ben deu l a p v d i day m p t g6c a (0 < a < — ) .
2
=> ASHA' = ASHB' = A S H C
^ HA' = H B ' = H C
=> H la t a m dirdng t r o n n o i t i e p A A B C .
AABC deu.
Vay S.ABCD la h i n h ch6p deu (dpcm).
2/ Trong ASAA', gpi O la giao diem ciia S H va d i t o g
trung tnfc K O cua SA.
=> O la t a m m a t cau ngoai t i e p h i n h ch6p.
Goi a la canh AABC deu. Ta c6 :

. A H = 1AA' = 1 . ^ = ^
3 3 2 6
A-H iV3_
cosa = S A ' SA' = -
6cosa

. SC^ = A'S^ + A'C^ « Z =


r aV3 ^
2
'a^
=> a =
6cosa .2.
V >

SH
• tana = SH = AH.tana = .tana
HA'
Vl + 3cos^ a
KS SO KS.SA SA^ Vl + 3cos2a
ASKO CO A S H A : SO =
SH ~ SA SH 2.SH Z.sina
T, /Vl + 3cos^a , , ^
Vay : R = — (ycbt).
2sina
Ta CO :

. D i ^ n t i c h AABC: S ^ e = l . a . ^ = ^ . ^ = sVs/^cos^a
2 2 4 4 l + Scos^a l + Scos^a
137
The' tich hinh chop S.ABC \k :
A/3Z^(cosa.sin2a)
^SABC - " S H . S ^ B c -
2(1 + 3cos^ a)Vl + 3 c o s ^ a
Di?n tich toAn phdn cua hinh chop S.ABC la :
373/^ c o s a ( l + cosa)
ABC
1 + 3cos^a
/ s i n 2a
(ycbt).
2V1 + 3cos^ a (1 + cosa)
/sin 2a 2sina
3/ Ta lai c6 :
^ 2Vl + 3 c o s 2 a ( l + cosa) l^|l + 3cos^a
2 c o s a ( l - cos a) 2cosa(l - cosa) -2cos a + 2cosa
(1)
R (1 + c o s a X l + 3cos^ a) 1 + 3cos^ a 1 + 3cos2 a
Dat : t = coscx ^> 0 < t < l ; 0 < a < —
2
(1) - 2t^ + 2t
Khi do : o f (t) = 0 < t < 1
3t2 + 1
t i = -1
^' (3t2 + 1)2
3
t X -1 0 3 +•»
f'(t) • t -
'^•1
fit)
X
0 0
Tir bang bien thien ta c6 : fit) < - ; 0 < t < 1 => — < - (dpcm).
3 R 3
B a i 215 ( D A I H O C M O B A N C O N G T P . H C M - K H O I A & B - 2000)
Cho hinh chop SABCD c6 day ABCD la hinh vuong va canh ben SA vuong goc v6i mat
phang (ABCD). Mat phang (a) di qua A va vuong goc vdi SC, cat cac canh SB; SC; SD Ian
luat tai M ; N ; P.
1/ Chiifng minh BD vuong goc vdi A N .
2/ Chilng minh nam diem S; A; M ; N ; P cung nkm tren mot mat cau.
Giai
BDIAC (vi A B C D 1^ hinh vuong)
1/ Ta CO :
BDISA (viSAi.(ABCD)3BD)
BD ± (SAC); ma: A N c (SAC)
138
BD 1 A N (dpcm).
2! Xet cac lap luan :
. SC 1 (a) ^ ( A P N M ) 3 A N

SCi. AN
2 (1)
• Ti/cfng tU, sijf dung cac k h a i n i e m
vuong goc ta suy r a :

A P S = PSK^ =- (2)
2
Tir (1) va (2) => ba d i e m P; M ; N nSm t r e n mSt
cau (S) dudng k i n h SA.
Vay S; A; M ; N ; P cung n k m tren mSt cau (S) (dpcm). ^
Bai 216 ( D A I H O C D l W C H A N O I - 2000)
Cho hai dUcfng t h ^ n g cheo nhau (d). (d') nhan doan AA' = a Ikra doan vuong goc chung (A
e (d), A' e ( d ) ) . Goi (P) mSt phAng qua A' va vuong goc vcJi ( d ) ; (Q) 1^ m a t p h i n g di dong
nhUng luon luon song song v(Ji (P) va cat (d); ( d ) Ian lifat d M , M ' . Con N la h i n h chieu vuong
goc cua M tren (P); x la k h o a n g each gifla (P) va (Q); a la goc giOa (d) va (P).
1/ Tinh the' t i c h hinh chop A . A ' M ' M N theo a, x, a.
2/ Xac d i n h t a m O cua h i n h cau ngoai tiep h i n h ch6p t r e n . ChiJng m i n h r S n g k h i (Q) d i dong
thi 0 luon thuoc mot du&ng t h a n g co d i n h va h i n h cau ngoai tiep h i n h ch6p A . A ' M ' M N cung
luon chiifa mot difcrng t r o n co d i n h .

1/ De y t h a y : (P) 1 (d'); A A ' 1 (d') AA' c (P)


fMNl(P)
Ma N la h i n h chieu cua M xuong (P) va M ' A 1 (P).
MAN = a

MNATVI' l a h i n h chOf n h a t
Do (Q) // (P) (Q) n (d; d') = M M ' // A ' N
MN = A-M' = X

139
M a t khac: (MNA'M') 1 ( A N A ' ) theo giao tuyen A'N.
Difng A H 1 A ' N tai H
=> A H = d [ A ; ( M N A ' M ) ] = h : d u d n g cao h i n h c h o p A . A ' M ' M N
M A : dudng xien
M N i . (A'AN) => \ (dinh ly 3 dudng vuong g6c)
NA : h i n h chieu
M ^ A A ' 1 M A => A A ' ± N A <=> A A ' A N c6 A = 90".
The tich V h i n h chop A . A ' M ' M N la :
V = -CB.h = - .(MN.A'N).AH = - MN(A'N.AH)
3 3 3
=> V = - x . ( A A ' . A N ) ; v i A A ' A N c6 A = 90"
1 ax (cota)
=> V = — x . x . ( c o t a ) a = (ycbt).
3 3
2/ A ^ f M = = AAM = 90°
G o i O l a t r u n g d i & m d o a n A M => O l a t S m h i n h cau n g o a i t i e p h i n h c h 6 p A . A ' M ' M N ( y c b t ) .
X 6 t m a t p h ^ n g co d i n h (S) = ( A ' ; d ) = (A'AM) t a c6 : O A = O A => O e (A) : t r u n g t r i f c c8'
d i n h cua A A ' c (S).
G o i (7t) 1^ m a t p h i n g q u a A ' A v a v u o n g g6c v d i (A) ( h a y in) 1 (S)) t h i ( T I ) C6' d i n h v ^ ( I ) Ik
m a t cau n g o a i t i e p h i n h c h 6 p A . A ' M ' M N . (jt) o ( I ) = (C).
L u c do ( C ) l a d u d n g t r o n co d i n h m a h i n h c l u n g o a i t i e p h i n h c h 6 p A . A ' M ' M N l u o n l u o n d i
q u a . T r o n g d 6 ( C ) c6 t d m J 1^ t r u n g d i e m A A ' c6 b d n k i n h r = — (dpcm).
2
B a i 217 ( D A I H O C B A C H K H O A H A N Q I - K H 6 I D - 2000)
Cho h i n h c h 6 p S . A B C co b a c a n h S A , S B , S C v u o n g g6c v d i n h a u t i f n g d o i m 0 t v ^ S A = a,
S B = b , S C = c.
1/ T i n h t h e t i c h k h o i S . A B C . ChuTng m i n h r a n g h i n h c h i e u v u o n g goc cua d i n h S tr§n mftt
p h i n g (ABC) la trifc tarn t a m giac ABC.
2/ X a c d i n h t ^ m v a hAn k i n h cua m a t cau n g o a i t i e p h i n h c h 6 p S A B C .
Giai
A A
140
ASXCS
1/ Ta CO : A S 1 ( B S C ) => A S \k dif&ng cao hinh chop A . S B C
AS I B S
be abc
The tich h i n h chop S . A B C l a : VS.ABC = VA.SBC = - a = (ycbt).
l2 j
3
Goi H la hinh chieu vuong goc cua S len (ABC). H a cac dudng cao S E v^ S F cua cac A B S C
va AASB, theo thuf tiT do.
AE 1 BC t a i E
Theo dinh ly ba difcrng vuong goc
[CF 1 AB t a i F
|(SAE) 1 BC => (SAE) 1 (ABC)
(SAE) o (SCF) = S H ' 1 (ABC).
^ [(SCF) 1 AB =^ (SCF) 1 (ABC)
Theo each dUng thi H ' \k triTc tarn A A B C va S H ' 1 ( A B C ) Nhtfng chi c6 mot hinh chieu
vuong goc duy nhat ha difoc tif S xuong ( A B C ) ; hay H = H ' .
Vay hinh chieu vuong goc cua S len ( A B C ) la trUc tam A A B C cua h i n h ch6p S . A B C (dpcm).
21 Goi M la trung die"m B C .
Qua M difng dUdng thSng (d) sao cho (d) // A S 1 ( S B C ) => (d) l a true difdng tron ngoai tiep
ASBC.
Difng mat phang trung trife (a) qua trung diem N cua doan A S .
=> (a) ^ (d) = I
f I e ( d ) ^ I B = IC = IS
• T I \C T A =>IA=IB = IC = IS = R
[I 6 ( a ) => IS = lA
-=> 1 la tam mat cau (X) ngoai tiep hinh ch6p S A B C (yebt).
Tinh R : Doe gia tif giai
Bai 218 (DAI H O C T H I J Y S A N N H A T R A N G - 2000)

Cho mot tam giae A B C vuong tai C . T r e n dUdng thang (d) vuong goc vdi mat phang ( A B C )
tai A ta lay mot diem S. Goi A D va A E la hai difdng cao cua hai tam giae S A B va S A C .
1/ Chutng minh rSng 5 diem A; B; C ; D; E cimg n l m trgn mot mat eau. Xac dinh tam va tinh
ban kinh cua mat cau do.
2/ Chufng minh rang D E 1 S B ; D E 1 A E va D E di qua mot diem eo dinh tren B C k h i S di
dpng tren (d).

Giai
S C \k ducrng xien
1/ Ta CO : SA 1 (ABC)
A C l a h i n h chieu

Ma B C 1 A C => B C ± S C (do dinh ly 3 difdng vuong g6c)


BC 1 (SAC) 3 A E BC 1 AE
Tom lai :
SC 1 A E (each dung) => AE 1 ( S B C ) 3 E B => A E ± E B

Den day ta c6 : Afife = X D B = X C f e = 90"


=> C ; D; E n&m tren mat cau difdng k i n h A B .
Vay nam diem : A; B; C ; D ; E nam tren mat cau tam I
trung diem A B , vdi ban k i n h l a :

141
R = — (ycbt).
A D la dircrng xien
2/ Xet : A E ± (SBC)
E D la h i n h chieu
Ma AD ± SB ^ DE i . SB (ycbt)
Dg y AE 1 (SBC) I D DE AE 1 DE (ycbt)
Trong mat phSng (SBC) cho : DE BC = J
SB 1 ( A D E ) 3 A J :ri> SB 1 A J
Xet:
SA 1 ( A B C ) 3 A J => SA 1 A J
=> AJ 1 ( S A B ) 3 A B
=> A J _L A B => J c6' dinh trong A A B C co dinh.
Vay k h i S \\iu dong tren (d) t h i difdng thang D E luon di qua diem J co dinh (dpcm).
B a i 219 (CAO D A N G K I N H T E D O I N G O A I T P . H C M 2000)
V3
Cho ABC la tam giac deu noi tiep trong difcfng tron ban kinh . Qua B va C dUng ve
3
cimg mot phia cAc nufa dUcrng t h i n g Bx; Cy vuong goc vdi mat ph^ng (ABC). Tren Bx lay diem
M sao cho : BM = ; tren Cy lay diem N sao cho : CN = \/2 .
1/ Chijfng minh tam giac AMN la tam giac vuong.
2/ Goi I la di4m gifla cua BC. Chufng minh nam diem A; I ; C; M ; N cung nkm tren mot mat
cau. Tinh ban kfnh mat cau nay.
Giai
1/ Ta CO : R = la ban kinh ducfng tron ngoai tiep AABC deu
3
3 3 ^3 Vs
Dudng cao AABC: h = -- .R = - . = ^
2 2 3 2
Luc d6 canh AABC deu la: a = ^ . h = ~ . — =l.
>/3' 2 S'
De y den H la trung diem CN
CH = N H = MB = —
2
BC = M H = 1
Ap dung dinh ly Pythagore trong cac ACAN;
AMHN; AABM :
A N 2 = A C ^ 4- C N 2 = I 2 + ( V ^ ) ' = 3
^V2^ 3
2 ' 2
3
AM^ = AB^ + BM^ = 1^ +
2
142
AN'' = A M ' + M N '
=> A A M N vuong t a i M (dpcm).

21 Dg y den : N C X = N M X = -
2
Han naa : N I 1 A I ( d i n h l y ba

di/dng vuong goc) => l^TX = —


2
=> C; M ; I nSm t r e n h i n h cSu di/cfng k i n h A N .
Vay nam d i e m : A; I ; C; M ; N cung nSm t r e n
mat cau dtfdng k i n h A N = Vs (dpcm) =o ban k i n h R' = = (ycbt).

Dfe T t f d N G n/
Bai 220 ( D A I H O C G l A O D U C K H O I A - 1976)

Mpt h i n h l a n g t r u dijtng A B C A ' B ' C c6 day la t a m giac vuong or A , C = a va A C = b. Dacrng


cheo B C cua m a t ben B C C tao v d i m a t ben A C C mot g6c p.
a/ ChOfng m i n h r k n g BCA = p. T i n h t h e t i c h ciia h i n h l a n g t r u n o i t r e n .
b/ Tim t a m m a t cau ngoai t i e p h i n h ISng t r u da cho va t i n h dien t i c h m a t cau ay.

Hi^ctng d S n

Tib'tan'a
a/ V(ABC.A'B'C) = -ytanaVtan^a tan^p- 1 b/ S,.
sin'p

Bai 221 ( D A I H O C G l A O D U C - K H O I B - 1977)

Cho mot h i n h cau ban k i n h R npi tiep t r o n g h i n h chop, d^y ciia h i n h chop l a mot h i n h thoi
CO goc nhon bkng a, con cac mat ben h i n h chop tao v d i day mot goc ip. T i n h the t i c h h i n h ch6p.

Hirdng dan: V = R'cof — t a i K p .


3sinix 2

Bai 222 ( D A I H O C T O N G H O P T P . H C M , H U E , D A L A T - 1978)

Trong m a t p h l n g F, cho t a m giac A B C vuong t a i d i n h C. T r e n dudng t h i n g d d i qua A vk


vuong goc vdi m a t p h a n g F, ngUcri ta lay mot d i e m S khac v d i A. Goi D , E la cac h i n h chieu
vuong goc cua A len cac diidng t h a n g SB va SC.
a/ Chijfng m i n h r k n g 5 d i e m A , B, C, D , E n a m len cung m p t m a t cau.
b/ ("hijfng m i n h r k n g SB vuong g6c v d i m a t p h i n g A D E .
c/ (Jhufng m i n h r a n g k h i S d i chuyen len difdng t h i n g d, dudng t h i n g D E luon luon d i qua
mot diem co d i n h

HtfoTng d S n : Doc gia tif g i a i .

143
Chuyen de 10 : D U N G HINH T R O N G K H O N G G I A N
L PHirONG P H A P
Ccr s d c u a p h u a n g p h a p d U n g h i n h t r o n g k h o n g g i a n dUgc dUa t r e n ccf s d vflfng c h ^ c cua
p h 6 p d u n g h i n h t r o n g m a t p h ^ n g . T u y n h i e n m o t so c o n g c u n h U c o m p a , t h u d c t h ^ n g doi luc
l a i k h o n g t h e sijf d u n g dugc.
N g h i a l a t a p h a i q u y d i n h m o t so' t i e n l e c a b a n n h a t c h o p h 6 p d U n g : d o l a e a c h d i X n g
m a t p h S n g v a g i a o t u y e n c u a h a i m&t ph&ng.
0 M p t m&t p h ^ n g g p i l a d a d i ^ n g dvldc, k h i ta c h i r a d i e u k i ^ n x a c d i n h no.
(S Hai mat ph^ng p h a n b i ^ t c 6 d i e m c h u n g , t h i g i a o t u y e n c u a c h i i n g dvCtfc g p i l a
d a d i j f n g dvC<fc.
® Trong moi m^t ph&ng biet tnfdc, v i ^ c diAig hinh trong do h&ng cac cong cu
thvCdc k e v a c o m p a nhvC t r o n g h i n h h o c p h S n g d\X(fc x e m l a l u d n l u o n d i A i g dvt<fc.
N h u v a y b a i t o a n d U n g h i n h v a n p h a i t u a n t h u 4 budc c d b a n :
n B , : P h a n tich
• B2 : C a c h dUng
• B 3 : ChUng minh
• B4 : B i e n l u a n
n. C A C B A I T OA N C O B A N
B a i 223
- > •
C h o tiir d i e n S A B C . L a y M l a d i e m t h u o c c a n h A S s a o c h o S A = 3 S M . G o i G 1^ t r o n g tarn
ASBC. Dung diem N = M G o (ABC).
Giai
• Phan tich
G i a siif d u n g dUgc N = G M n ( A B C ) , t r o n g m p ( S A G ) goi I = B C n ( S A G ) => N = M G n A I .
• Cdch dung
D u n g I l a t r u n g d i e m B C t h i t r o n g m p ( S A G ) d U n g dugc N = M G n A I
=> M G v a A I k h o n g s o n g s o n g
=> B a i t o d n l u o n c6 1 n g h i e m h i n h N = M G n A I ; t h o a y c b t .
144
Bai 224

Cho hinh chop SABCD c6 day la hinh binh hanh ABCD, Con M , N thiir tU la diem tren
SD, SB. Dung giao diem E cua M N va mat phSng (ABCD)

Giai
Gia sijf bai toAn dung duac, thi trong m p ( S B D ) :
MN n B D= E E = (ABCD) o M N

Luc do ta neu len each dUng diem E nhu sau :


Trong mp(SBD), dUng M N n B D= E => E = M N o (ABCD)

That vay, thUcfng thucfng M N va B D khong ciing phuang


=> M N o B D= E

Ma B D c (ABCD)

^ E = M No (ABCD)

Bai loan lu6n c6 1 nghiem hinh khi M N H B D .


Bai toan v6 nghiem khi M N // B D .

m. GlAl TOAN TED


Bai 225 ( D A I H O C K H O I A MIEN B A C- 1972)

Cho mot doan thSng a. Hay dung thudtc va compa de dung doan t h i n g : a ^2 + V2 .

Giai

Dfi y thay : a ^2 + ^2 = -JfV^fT^V^.


aV2\
17
• Dung tam giac vuong can OAB (0 = 9 0 ° ) c6 canh goc

vuong bang a de c6 canh huycn AB = a -J2 . [/ r


D aV2 0 a ^
• Tiep do dung dUcrng cao CO cua AACD (C = 9 0 ° ) c6 a
A42
hai hinh chieu cua hai canh goc vuong xuong canh huyen
bkg OA = a va OD = a V2 . B

• Dudng cao cQa tam giac vuong do chinh la doan a^f2 va canh goc vuong DCA c6 hinh chieu

xuong canh huyen bang a chinh la doan DC = la doan phai dUng.

Bai 226 (DE T H I DAI HOC Y DlTOC TP.HCM - 1991)

Cho hai dUcfng t h i n g cheo nhau (d) va (d).


1/ Hay dung mot dUotng t h i n g (A) vuong goc vdi (d) tai M va c l t ( d ) tai M ' sao cho MM' = /
(do dai cho sin).
2/ Cho diem A e (d) va diom A' G (d'). ChiJng to r i n g ton tai duy nhat mat cau (S) tiep xiic
vdi (d) va (d) Ian luot tai A va A' da cho.

145
Giai
1/ Doc gia tii p h a n t i c h . O day t a neu each difng dudng t h S n g (A) :
• D i / n g mp(P) vuong goc v d i (d) t a i H .
• D u n g h i n h chieu (8) cua (d') xuong (P).
• T r o n g mp(P) d u n g dudng t r o n t a m H bdn k i n h /, dUcfng t r o n nay c^t (8) d K .
• Qua K d u n g dudng t h ^ n g song song v d i (d). DUcrng t h i n g nay cdt (d') t a i M ' va difng (A)
qua M ' song song vdri H K .
T h a t v a y (A) song song v6i H K nen p h a i c^t (d) t a i M .
N g o ^ i r a : H K ± (d) => (A) 1 (d)
B i e n l u a n : goi a l a k h o a n g each giOTa (d) va (d') : a = H E
Co 3 t r U d n g hap :
a) Z > a : CO 2 n g h i e m h i n h
b) / = a : CO 1 n g h i e m h i n h
c) Z < a : k h o n g c6 n g h i e m h i n h .
2/ G i a sOf t o n t a i mat cau (S) t a r n O.
(S) t i e p xuc vdi (d) t a i A n e n O thupc mp(a) qua A
vuong goc vdi (d). O cung thugc mp(P) qua A' vuong
goc v(Ji (d').
• O A = OA' => O thuoc m a t t r u n g trUc (Q) cua doan
AA' ( M la t r u n g diem A A ) .
Do do c h i can chUng m i n h (a), (P) v a (Q) c6 chung m o t d i e m duy n h a ' t .
• Do (d) va ( d ) cheo n h a u nen (a) v a (P) k h o n g the song song hoac t r u n g n h a u dugc. Nhif
vay c h i i n g c a t n h a u theo giao t u y e n (A). N e u (A) // (Q) hoac (A) c (Q) t h i (A) _L A A ' do d6 (d) va
(d') p h a i Cling p h i n g : t r a i v d i gia t h i e t . V a y (A) p h a i c a t (Q) t a i m g t d i e m duy n h a t O.
D i e m O do c h i n h l a t a m m a t cau t i e p xuc v d i (d) t a i A va (d') t a i A'.
146
Chuyen de 11 : Q U Y T I C H MOT D I E M T R O N G K H O N G G I A N

Ual 1: Q U Y TlCfl TAP HAY C A C HOP GIAO Dliu C U A HAI D U O N G THANG

TRONG KflONG G I M

LPHirONGPHAp
Ca sot cua phUcfng phap t i m quy tich giao diem M
cua hai dudng t h i n g (a), (b) trong khong gian can thJc
Quy tich
hien 4 hudc ca ban :
• Bi : Tim 2 mat phSng co dinh (a), (P) khac nhau thiif
tif chufa moi ducrng t h i n g (a), (b).
• B2 : Tim giao tuyen (d) ciia 2 mSt p h i n g (a), (P) va
chijfng minh difoc diem M can t i m quy tich nSm tren
giao tuyen (d) do.
• B3 : Gidi han (neu thay c6 yeu cau cua khoang chay
trong gia thiet) va lam phan dao.
• B 4 : Ket luan quy tich hay tap hcfp cua nhting M la dadng t h i n g (d) hay mot phan ciia
difdng t h i n g (d) (neu c6 gidri han khoang chay).
0 Ghi c h i i : Klii gid thiet chl yeu cdu chiing minh diem M ndm tren duang thdng c6 dinh
(hay mot phdn ditang thdng c6 dinh) ta khong phdi Idm phdn ddo.

n. C A C BAI T O A N C O BAN

Bai 227
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD c6 day ABCD la hinh binh hanh. Xet mot mat p h i n g (a) quay
quanh EF la da&ng trung binh ciia tarn giac SAB. Cho biet a cat SC va SD tai G va H. Tim
IMIM = EG n FHl.

Giai
De y dang xSy // AD hoac BC t h i : xSy = (SAD) n (SBC)
Lay diem N e xSy (a) = (NEF)
jEN ^ SD = H : da AMC xac dinh.
>HG//EF
I F N n SC = G : da dUdc xac dinh.

'EG c; (SAC)
Lai thay : F H c: (SBD)

(SAC) n (SBD) = SO ; v<Ji O = AC r^ BD

Do do neu : EG n FH = M , t h i M e SO (1)
H s G ^ ^ S ^ M ^ S due do N ^ S)
Gidi han khoang chay :
H ^ D A G ^ C = > M ^ O , =ECoSO

=> SO] la doan gidi han chufa M (2)


Dao lai lay diem MQ tuy y trong doan SO, luon t i m dugc (k6o d^i) :
FMo n SD = H i va E M Q n SC = G J (3)
Vay tii (1), (2) va (3), ta c6 : SO, = {M I M = EG n P H } (hay quy tich cua M la doan SO,) (ycbt).

147
B a i 228
Cho hinh chop S . A B C D co A B C D la hinh thang day Idn A B . Goi M , N \k trung diem SA;
S B va P la diem tuy y tren canh S C .
aJ T i m giao tuyen cua ( S A D ) va ( S B C ) . b/ Dung {Q} = ( M N P ) o S D .
c/ Chufng minh r i n g : neu I = MQ n N P ; V P e S C thi I nkm tren mgt difdng co dinh.
K\i6ng d&n
a/ (SAD) o ( S B C ) = S E trong d6 E = A D o B C
b/ Dirng PQ // M N ; Q s S D
=> (MNP) = (MN; P Q )
S D n ( M N P ) = Q (ycbt)
j M Q c (SAD)
c/ De y :
[NP c (SBC)
=> MQ o N P = I G SE
=> I chay tren giao tuyen S E co dinh (ycbt)
(vi hai mat p h i n g ( S A D ) va (SBC)).
B a i 229
Cho hai dUcfng t h i n g co dinh Ox, Oy nkm trong mat p h i n g (P). Goi M , N la diem co dinh
d ngoai (P); con (Q) la mat p h i n g liAi dong chufa M va N. (Q) luon luon cat Ox, Oy tai E va F .
a/ Chufng to E F di qua mot diem co dinh. b/ E N cat F M tai D. T i m quy tich cua D.
HvCdng d&n
a/ De y M N co' dinh ngoai (P) va M N nkm trong (Q) nhimg :
M N n (P) = I : co dinh
. , |EFc:(Q)
Lai thay: <
^ [ M N c (Q)
Vay neu M N cat E F , thi giao diem ay phai la I .
=> E F qua I co dinh (ycbt).
b/ De y ( O N E ) n ( O M F ) = Oz
=> Quy tich cua D la tia Oz = (M; Oy) n (N; Ox) (ycbt).
B a i 230
Cho tuT dien A B C D . Goi I , J luon luon la trung diem cua B C , CD.Mot mat p h i n g (P) quay
quanh I J cat canh A D va A B tai K va L .
a/ ChiJng to I L va J K cat nhau tai M. Quy tich M ?
b/ T i m quy tich giao diem N cua I K va J L .
HvTdrng dfin
a/ Thong thifcfng k h i (a) quay quanh I J va no cat A D
tai K va A B tai L , thi I L va J K cat nhau tai M (day
chi C O mot trUcrng hgrp I L n J K = 0 la k h i L K la
dUcfng trung binh AABD) (ycbt).
=> Quy tich M la hai tia Ax va C y (nkm tren
difdng thang chiia canh A C (xem hinh)) (ycbt).
b/ Quy tich N la doan A O (ycbt).
148
m. GiAi T O A N T H I
Bai 2 3 1 (DE T H I D A I HOC Y DtfOC - 1 9 9 2 )
Trong mat phang (P) cho hai difdng t h i n g (D) va (D') cat nhau d O. Lay diem A, A' n l m
ngoai (P) sao cho dadng t h i n g AA' cat (P) tai d i e m O' khac O.
Goi (Q) la mot mat phang chiJa AA', mp(Q) cat (D) va (D') Ian lUdt tai B va B'. Cac difcfng
thing AB va A'B' cat nhau d M, cac dudng thang A'B va AB' cat nhau d N .
1/ Tim tap hap cac di6m M va N khi mp(Q) quay quanh AA'.
2/ Chilng minh rang dtfcfng t h i n g M N luon luon di qua mot diem co dinh.
3/ Xac dinh vi tri cua mp(Q) de cac tiJf dien MOAA' va NOAA' co the tich bang nhau.

Giai
M e A B nen M thuoc mat phang xac dinh bdi A va ( D ) : (A; (D))
1/ Ta CO :

M e A ' B ' nen M thuoc mat phang xac dinh bdi A ' va (D') : (A; (D))

Do do M thuoc giao tuyen (d) cua hai mat p h l n g co dinh noi tren.
Dao lai lay diem M e (d) = mp(A; (D)) n mp(A'; (D')); AM n (D) = B;
A'M ^ (D') = B'
=> B, O', B' thang hang v i chung thuoc giao tuyen A = mp(P) o mp(ABB').
Vay tap hop cac diem M la giao tuyen (d) = (A; (D)) n (A'; (D')).
• Taong ta tap hap cac diem N la giao tuyen (d') = (A'; (D)) n (A; (D')).
2/ De y thay M N luon luon nam trong mat
phang CO dinh xac dinh bdi hai dudng t h i n g
CO dinh ([5) = (d; d').
Mat phang nay c l t AA' co dinh. Do cung
la giao diem ciia M N va AA'. Vay k h i (Q)
lJu dong quanh AA' t h i M N luon luon di qua
diem co dinh I .
3/ Hai hinh chop M.OAA' va N.OAA' co
chung day la tam giac AOA' nen t h e tich
cua chung bang nhau neu va chi neu hai
diidng cao ciia chiing xuat phat tiJ M va N
bang nhau. Di4u nay diTOng tuang vdi:
IM = IN
Xac dinh dugc M va N tifc la xac dinh dUgrc (Q).

Tir diem I cho s i n dilng IE // d'; E e (d)


Tren (d) lay diem M doi xijfng v6i O qua E.
=> M I cat (d') d N , do la diem phai difng
MN qua I va nhan I lam trung diem : (dtfcfng trung hinh trong t a m giac OMN)
• Bai toan luon luon co mot nghiem hinh.

149
U a l t: Q U Y TtCH C U A DI£M Cflitu
L PHirONG PHAP
Co sd ciia phUOng phap t i m quy t i c h nhCfng d i e m chieu
M cua d i e m N xuong di/cjng t h i n g (d) quay q u a n h A co
d i n h dong t h d i (d) nSm t r o n g m a t p h i n g (a) co d i n h ta
thiTc cac bi/dc nhiT sau :
iNB 1 (a) tai B
• B , : T i m d i e m co d i n h B e (a) sao cho : -j
[AMB = go'*
=> M d t r e n ducfng t r o n t a m O , ducmg k i n h A B d
t r o n g m a t p h l n g (rx).
• B 2 : Quan l y p h a m v i lifu dong cua (d) de g i d i h a n
k h o a n g chay cho quy t i c h va l a m m e n h de dao.
=> Quy t i c h M la ca difcfng t r o n hay mot p h a n dUcfng
t r o n ( A B ) difcfng k i n h A B (tuy theo k h o a n g chay ciia M
k h o n g CO hoSc co gidri han).
n. C A C BAI TOAN C O BAN
B a i 232
Cho h i n h chop S.ABCD co SA J_ ( A B C D ) va A B C D la h i n h chO n h a t . M p t m a t p h l n g a
thay doi n h u n g luon luon qua BC \k cat SA t a i M .
a/ T i m t a p hop cac h i n h chieu E cua D xuong B E .
b/ T i m tap hcrp cac h i n h chieu N cua D xuong a.
Giai
! D E : 1^ di/dng x i e n
a/ Xet AD 1 (SAB)
A E : la hinh chieu
M a B M 1 D E (do phep chieu) => B M 1 A E
=> A E H - 90° (va de y A , E e ( S A B ) ; A , B co d i n h )
=> E thuoc di/dng t r o n (C) dudng k i n h A B .
' M s A => E s A
G i d i h a n k h o a n g chay :
[M ' S => E s En ( t r o n g do EQ l a c h a n difcfng c a o A E Q c u a . \ S A B )
S
Dao l a i chon Ej t u y y t r e n cung A E ^ c: (C), keo
dai B E , cftt S A t a i M , = (u) n S A va D E , 1 B M j (hay
E] la h i n h chieu cua D xuong B M j ) .
Vay quy t i c h cua E la cung A E Q C (C) (ycbt).
b/ D6' y : El- N , do do quy t i c h cua N l a
cung DN'd la h i n h t i n h t i e n ciia cung A E Q t r o n g
phep t i n h t i e n C ( A D ) (ycbt).
B a i 233
Cho h i n h vuong A B C D t a m O va t i a A x 1 (ABCD). Goi S l a d i e m liTu dong t r e n Ax va E
lou dong t r e n canh A D . X e t d i e m I l a t r u n g d i e m SB k h i S Itfu dong hay t i m quy t i c h cac
difim chieu cua I xuong CE.
150
Giai
Goi J la trung diem AB va M 1^ hinh chieu cua I xuong CE.

Dg y thay I J // SA ^ I J ^ (ABCD) =. f ^ •'^'^^"^


[JM ; la hinh chieu
Ma EC 1 I M (each dUng M) =* EC 1 J M
=> SSiiC = 90" (M; J ; C e (ABCD) co dinh va J , C co dinh)
=> M 6 (C) : difdng tron diicfng kinh JC.
, , , , , [ E ^ D = > M S N : trung diem C D
(ricfi han khoang chay : i
I E EE A M ^ F : trung diem AO
=> M 6 c(C)

Dao lai lay M j e FN => JST^ = 90"

Theo dinh ly 3 diicfng vuong goc


=> CE 1 I M (M la hinh chieu cua I xuong CE)
Vay quy tich cac diem M la cung FN c: (C) (ycbt).
Bai 234
Cho hinh lap phifong ABCD.A'B'C'D' canh a. Tren AB lay diem M . Mat p h i n g (A'MC) cat
CD' tai N.
1/ TO giac A'MCN la hinh gi ?
2/ Tim quy tich hinh chieu vuong goc cua C xuong M N k h i M liAi dong tren canh AB.
N C Hu&ng dan

1/ AMCN hinh hinh hanh (ban doc t u viet Idi giai).


2/ Goi H la hinh chieu ciia C xuong M N .
Trade het ta nhan thay M N luon luon di qua tam O ciia hinh lap phacfng.
Mat khae neu O' la tam ciia hinh vuong BCCB' thi CO' 1 (ABCD'). Dinh ly ba dudng
vuong goc cho : ^ (ABCD') ^ ^.^ j_ M N ( M T = 90"
[Cll ^ MN

Vay I I thuoc difcfng tron dudng kinh OO've trong mp(ABC'D').


Sau khi giofi han khoang chay t h i H chi lifu dong tren cung EOF.
Sau khi lam phan dao ta c6 quy tich cua diem H chi la cung EOF nkm tren diTdng tron
dUcfng kinh 0 0 ' v e trong mp(ABC'D') (ycbt).

151
m. GiAi T OA N TBH
B a i 2 3 5 ( D A I H O C K } l 6 l A - M I E N B A C - 1973)
T r o n g m o t m a t p h ^ n g (P) ngifdi t a cho m o t difcfng t h a n g d va m o t d i e m I d ngoai dudng
t h f i n g do. Goi K l a chan di/dng vuong goc ha tir I xuong d; d' 1^ duorng t h a n g d i qua I vuong
goc \6'\t phSng (P). L a y m o t d i e m M bat k y t r e n d, m o t d i e m N b a t k y t r e n d'.
a/ Chilng m i n h r k n g diem giCta (trung diem) L ciia M N each deu ca 4 diem M , N , I , K. T i m quy tich
cua L k h i M , N d i dong mot each hoan toan tuy y t r e n d, d'.
hi T i m quy t i c h cua L k h i M , N ehay t r e n d, d' sao cho doan t h ^ n g M N c6 do dai k h o n g doi.
Giai
NI 1 IK
a/ V i d' 1 (P)
NK 1 KM ( d i n h ly 3 diTdng v u o n g goc)
^ I , K d t r e n m a t eau difdng k i n h M N .
=> T r u n g d i e m L eiia doan M N each deu ca bon
d i e m M , N , I , K (yebt).
• De y I K co d i n h , L each deu I va K ( L I = L K
theo chijfng m i n h t r e n ) k h i M , N ehay mot each
hoan toan tijy y t r e n d, d' t h i L nam t r e n m a t p h a n g
t r u n g trifc cua doan I K .
• Dao l a i , lay d i e m L ' b a t k y t r e n m a t p h a n g t r u n g
trifc eiia doan I K . D u n g m a t p h a n g chiJa d va L ' cat
d' a N", n o i N ' L ' va keo d a i cat d d M".
T a chOfng m i n h L ' la t r u n g d i e m ciia M N ' <=> L ' N ' = L ' M . Goi L " l a t r u n g d i e m cua M N ' .
Theo ehufng m i n h t r e n t a co:
L " N ' = L "M' = L " I = L " K L " each deu I va K .
Tif do suy r a L ' t r i j n g v d i L " <=> L ' N ' = L ' M ' .
Vay quy t i c h t r u n g d i e m L l a m a t p h ^ n g t r u n g trUc cua doan I K (yebt).
hi Gia SLf doan t h a n g M N = a (do d a i k h o n g d6i). D a t I K = b.
• Neu a < b t h i b a i t o a n quy t i c h d a t ra l a v6 nghia.
• Neu a = b t h i c h i co m o t doan M N tifa t r e n d, d'; do l a doan I K , luc do b a i
toan t r o nen t a m t h u d n g .
• N e n chi xet b a i t o a n t r o n g t r i f d n g hop a > b.
Goi O l a t r u n g d i e m ciia I K => O L c (a)
a
OL -01^ = J -
2
=> L n a m t r e n d u d n g t r o n ( D t a m O,
b a n k i n h R = — Va^ - nSm t r o n g (ex).
2
Dao l a i , v(Ji m o i d i e m L' t r e n dudng t r o n ay, t a difng m a t phSng chijfa d va L' cat d' a N',
noi N'L' va keo d a i cat d d M ' .
Theo ehufng m i n h a eau a/
L'N' = L'M' = L'l + or
152

4
Vay quy tich cua trung diem L cua doan M N k h i M , L chay tren d, d' sao cho doan thSng
MN CO do dai khong doi a > b = I K la diTcfng tr6n tarn O ( O la trung diem I K ) , ban k i n h :

R = ~ Va^ - nkm trong mat p h i n g trung trUc cua doan I K (ycbt).


2
Bai 236 ( D A I H O C K H O I A - M I E N B A C - 1974)

Trong mat p h i n g F, cho mot dudng tron (C) co dinh tam O, ban k i n h R, va mot diem A co
djnh tren di/dng tron ay. Cho mot dUcfng kinh BC quay quanh tam O cua dUcfng tron do va goi

ABC bien thien la (x (0 ^ a < — ) . Tren dUcrng t h i n g di qua A va vuong goc vdi mat p h i n g P
2
ngJcri ta lay mot diem S co dinh sao cho AS = 2R.
a/ Chufng minh rkng tong binh phifang cac canh cua tOf dien SABC khong phu thuoc v^o a.
b/ Tim quy tich chan H cua diicfng cao SH trong tam giac SBC. Vdi gia t r i nao cua a t h i dien
tich tam giac SBC dat circ dai va ciTc dai do bang bao nhieu ?
c/ Tren cac doan thSng SA, SB, SC ngifdi ta lay Ian luat cac diem A', B", C sao cho SA.SA' =
SB.SB' = SC.SC = 3R^. Khi B, C thay doi thi B', C cung thay doi. Tuy nhien hay chufng minh
ring mat cau di qua S, A', B', C va mat phSng di qua A', B", C la co dinh, Con dudng tron di
qua S, B', C thi luon luon di qua mot diem co dinh thiif hai, khac vdi diem S.
Giai
a/ Gpi Z la tong binh phifcfng cac canh cua tuT dien S A B C
^ I = A B ^ + AC'^ + B C ^ + S A ^ + S B ^ + S C ^
A B = 2Rcosa
Trong tam giac vuong ABC ta co
AC = 2Rsina
Nhu vay AB^ = 4R^ cos^ a (1)
= 4 R 2 sin^ a (2)
BC2 = 4 R 2 (3)
SA2 = 4R2 (4)
S B 2 = S A ^ + A B ^ = 4R2 + 4 R 2 C O S ^ a (5)
s c 2 = S A ^ + A C ^ = 4 R ^ + 4 R ^ sin^ a (6)
Cong theo ve => X = 24R^ (dpcm).
b/ Ha SH 1 BC => A H 1 BC (dinh ly ba difcfng vuong goc)
• Mat khac H di dpng trong (P) va luon luon nhin doan co dinh AO difdi mot goc vuong. Do
do H nSm tren dUcfng tron cua mat phang (P) nhan AO lam dUcfng k i n h . g
• Dao lai : Lay mot diem H bat ky tren difcfng tron viTa t i m
dJOc. Noi H vdi O va keo dai no cat dudng tron tam O or B
vaC.
Sau donoi SB, SC, SH. Ta can chufng minh rang SH la
diTcfng cao cua tam giac SBC. 2R'
That vay: H thuoc difcfng tron dUcfng kinh OA nen A H 1 OH
o AH 1 BC
Ma SA 1 (P), BC 1 A H
^ SH 1 BC
(dinh ly ba dUcfng vuong goc).
Bieu do chuTng to SH la difcfng cao cua tam giac SBC.

153
V a y quy t i c h H l a difcfng t r 6 n (y) b a n k i n h R = — .AO ( n k m t r o n g m&t phAng (P) (ycbt).
Den day xet : S^SBC = dt(ASBC) = - B C . S H = R.SH < R.SO (1)
A
DS'u d i n g thuTc t r o n g (1) xay ra<=> H s O <=> a = —
4
maxS^Bsc = R-SO = R ^ / R ^ + (2R)^ = Vs.R^ (ycbt).
3R2 3R2 3R
c/ Tif SA. SA' = 3R^ « . SA' =
SA 2R 2
Dieu do chiifng to A' l a d i e m cd d i n h .
Bay g i d t a xet tur giac A A ' B ' B .
TO SA.SA' = SB.SB' Bon d i e m A , A', B', B cung nMm t r e n m o t dudng t r o n . TO giac
A A ' B ' B noi t i e p duac t r o n g difdng t r o n .
NhiTng t r o n g 1\i giac A A ' B ' B t h i % vuong nen goc ddi cua no B' cung vuong => A ' B ' 1 BE
« A ' B ' J. SB'.
M o t each t u a n g t u xet t i l giac AA'C'C => A ' C 1 S C
=> B' va C nSm t r e n m a t cau difdng k i n h SA' cd d i n h . M a t cau qua S, A', B', C cd d i n h .
• Keo d a i A O cftt dtfdng t r o n (C) t a m O t a i d i e m D , lay d i e m D' e SD sao cho: SD.SD' = 3R^
Chijfng m i n h tirong t i r nhif t r e n => A ' D ' ± SD
D o do : BD 1 AB]
BD 1 A'B'
B D _L S A > BDl(SAB)
D o n g thcfi : A ' B ' 1 S B
A ' B ' 1 (SBD) => A ' B ' 1 SD
A'B' ± BD
ChOrng m i n h t u a n g t i f t a c6 : A ' C X SD
TO (1) va (2) SD 1 ( A ' B ' C ) .
=> mp(A'B'C') luon l u o n d i qua d i e m A' cd d i n h va
vuong goc vdri dtfdng t h i n g cd d i n h SD.
=> mp{A'B'C') l a m a t p h i n g cd d i n h (ycbt).
• Dudng t r o n (y) d i qua S, B', C l a tiictng giao ciia
m a t cau cd d i n h (difdng k i n h SA') v d i mp(SBC).
• mp(SBC) t h a y ddi n h i f n g luon luon d i qua dUdng
t h i n g cd d i n h SO.
N h i i vay giao d i e m ciia m a t cau difdng k i n h SA' vdi SO la diem E cd d i n h . D i e m E do thuoc
difdng t r o n (y) d i qua ba d i e m S, B', C ; do la diem cd d i n h thijf h a i , khac vdi diem S (ycbt).
B a i 237 ( D A I H O C K H O I A - 1975)
Cho h a i difdng t h i n g cheo n h a u va vudng goc v d i nhau (D) va ( A ) . Goi A B l a difdng vuong
goc chung ciia c h u n g : A t r e n (D), B t r e n ( A ) . M l a m o t d i e m t r e n ( D ) , N l a m o t d i e m t r e n (A),
a/ C h d n g m i n h r i n g t a t ca cac m a t cua tuf dien A B M N deu l a nhtJng t a m giac vuong.
b/ Xac d i n h t a m ciia m a t cau ngoai tiep t d dien A B M N . T i m quy t i c h cua diem giOta (trung
diem) I ciia doan M N k h i M , N theo t h i l t i f chay t r e n (D) va ( A ) .
c/ G i a sif M , N theo thuT t i f chay t r e n (D) va (A) sao cho doan M N c6 do d a i k h d n g ddi la 21.
T i m quy t i c h ciia d i e m giCfa I ciia doan M N .
d/ P, Q la h a i d i d m cd d i n h t r e n (D); R, S l a h a i d i e m chay t r e n ( A ) sao cho doan RS c6 do
dai k h d n g ddi. T i m v i t r i cua R, S dd d i e n t i c h toan p h a n ciia tuT dien PQRS l a nho n h a t .
154
Giai
a/ Ta CO : A B l a dUdng vuong goc chung cua (D) v ^ (A)
A M A B vuong goc a A vk A N B A vuong goc d B (ycbt).
(D) ± ( A B )
Xet: => (D) vuong g6c \6i mSt phSng ( A B , A)
(D) 1 (A)

=> (D) 1 A N <=> A M 1 A N => A M A N vuong goc d A (ycbt)


MA 1 (ABN)
=> M B ± B N ( d i n h l y ba difdng vuong g6c)
AB I B N

Do do tarn giac N B M vuong goc d B (ycbt).


b/ De y A va B luon luon n h i n doan M N dudi m o t goc vuong.
A va B Cling nkm t r e n m a t cau d i i d n g k i n h M N .
(Xem De D A I H O C K H O I A - 1973 - M I E N BAG)
Vay quy t i c h d i e m giffa I cua doan M N l a m&t p h i n g
trung trUc cua doan A B (ycbt). / g

d Vay quy t i c h cua d i e m giCfa I ciia doan M N k h i M , N


thay ddi sao cho doan M N = 21 k h o n g doi, la giao t u y e n ciia
mat p h i n g t r u n g trUc ciia doan A B v d i mSt cau t a m A , ban
kinh;
De y quy t i c h can t i m cung c h i n h l a giao tuyen cua m&t phSng t r u n g trifc ciia doan A B v<Ji
mat ciu t a m B, b a n k i n h /. HoSc l a dUdng t r o n v d i t a m l a d i e m giifa O ciia doan A B , b a n k i n h

, n k m t r o n g mSt phSng t r u n g trUc cua doan A B (ycbt).


4

(A) 1 (D)
il Ta CO : (A) 1 ( A B , D ) (A) 1 P B va (A) 1 Q B .
(A) 1 (AB)

Vi P, Q, B CO d i n h nen PB va Q B k h o n g doi, hern niJa RS cijng k h o n g doi :

d t ( A P R S ) = - P B . R S = s, = c o n s t
(1)
dt(AQRS) - - QB.RS = S 2 = const
2
Tilong t a n h u t r e n t a c6 : RA 1 (D) va SA 1 (D), t a c6

dt(ARPQ) = - PQ.RA
(2)

dt(ASPQ) = ~ PQ.SA
2
Tir (1) va (2) t a c6 d i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n ciia tiif d i e n PQSR l a

S,p = s, + S2 + 2i PQ ( l i A + SA)

minS,p xay r a <=> m i n ( R A + SA) xay r a .


Xct bai toan phSng : Ke A I // (A) va A l = RS. Gpi J l a d i e m
doi xiJfng cua I doi v d i (A).
Noi JR RJ = R I = AS cs. RA + SA = RA + RJ

155
A va J la CO d i n h , R chay t r e n ( A ) , nen (RA + RJ) nho n h a t k h i va chi k h i R d v i t r i Rj
giac d i e m cua A J vdri (A). Tifong iifng vdi R i , k h i do vi : ARj = JR, = IR, = ASj.
AARiSi la can. Do do B la diem giOa cua RiS]. N h u vay dien tich t o ^ phan S cua tiif di?n
PQRS 1^ nho n h a t k h i doan RS n h a n B l a m d i e m gifla (ycbt).
B a i 238 ( D A I H O C K H O I A - 1975)
Cho t a m giac deu A B C c6 canh la a. M o t dudng t h i n g (d) vuong goc vdi m a t p h l n g cua
t a m giac A B C t a i A , M la mot d i e m t r e n dadng t h S n g (d). H la trUc t a m cua t a m giac ABC. 0
la trifc t a m cua t a m giac B C M .
a/ Chufng m i n h r k n g M C vuong goc v(Si m&t phftng ( B O H ) , va O H vuong goc v d i mSt phSng
(BCM).
b/ Diicfng t h d n g qua O va H cftt diTdng t h S n g (d) d N . Chijfng m i n h rSng tiif dien B C M N c6 cdc
canh doi d i e n vuong goc v d i nhau.
c/ Chijfng m i n h r k n g k h i M di chuyen t r e n (d) t h i t i c h A M . A N k h o n g doi. T i n h A M , A N , biet
3a
MN = — .
2
d/ T i m quy t i c h cua d i e m O k h i M d i chuyen t r e n (d).
Giai
H a i cau a) va b) doc gia xem p h a n cO ban.
c/ Ta CO A O H K oo A A H N .
M a t khac A O H K w AAMK
AN AH
^ A A H N <^ A A M K => =
AK AM
<=> A M . A N = A K . A H
X e t A K la dudng cao cua A deu A B C canh a.
Ai^ - ATT 2 .„
=> A K = va A H = — A K =
aVs; .
2 3 3
=> A M . A N = = ^ ( k h o n g doi) (dpcm)
3a
AM + AN = — (= MN)
2 AM = - AN = -
Xet he : 2 V 2 (ycbt).
AM.AN = AN = a AM = a
d/ Ta CO O H 1 M K ( K la t r u n g d i e m cua BC). T a m giac A B C co d i n h nen H K k h o n g doi.
D i e m O d i chuyen ( k h i M d i chuyen t r e n (d)) nhifng luon luon n h i n doan co d i n h H K diJdi
mot goc vuong; mSt khac v i M d i chuyen t r e n (d) va K co d i n h nen O luon nSm t r o n g mSt
phSng CO d i n h ( A K , (d)). N h U vay difim O nSm t r e n dUdng t r o n thuoc mSt phSng ( A K , (d))
diTdng k i n h H K k h o n g doi.
Doc gia t i f g i a i p h a n dao.
=> Quy t i c h cua d i e m O, trifc t a m ciia t a m giac M B C , k h i M d i chuyen t r e n (d) la dudng
t r o n t r o n g m a t phSng ( A K , (d)) dUdng k i n h H K k h o n g doi (ycbt).
156
A
Bai 239 (DAI HOC BACH KHOA - 1976)
Tren true X'AX song song va ciing chieu vdi true hoanh x'Ox trong mat phang (P) ta lay
mot diem M va tren true Y'BY song song va cung chieu vdi true tung y'Oy (trong mat phang
(P) ta lay mot diem N.
a/ Goi I la trung diem ciia M N . Chufng to rSng I d trong mSt phang (P).
b/ Chilng to rkng 2x = A M = 2y = B N va tii do suy ra quy tich cua I k h i M va N di dong
sao cho A M + B N = k , vdri k l a m o t h S n g so c h o t r a d e , l a m o t difcfng t h i n g . Chufng to r S n g
khi k t h a y d o i , l u o n l u o n s o n g s o n g v d i m o t di/crng t h f i n g co d i n h .

d CMng m i n h c a c h e t h i l c : MN'^ = AB^ + A M ^ + B N ^ = 4(a^ + 0 1 ^ ) .

TCr do s u y r a q u y t i c h ciia I k h i M v a N d i d o n g t h e n a o c h o M N co m o t do d a i k h o n g doi /

Hvtdng d i n
Doc g i a CO t h e x e m s a c h T U Y E N T A P 500 B A I T O A N H I N H GIAI TICH ciia c u n g
nhom tac gia.
Bai 240 (DAI HOC KHOI A TP.HCM - 1976)
Trong mat phang (P), cho mot diem O co dinh mot difdng t h i n g (d) co dinh khong di qua
0, cac canh Ox, Oy c a t (d) theo thijf t u d A va B. Tren dudng thang vuong goc vdi mat p h i n g
(P) va di qua O, lay mot diem S. Goi a la khoang each tif O den (d), C5Afe = a .

a/ Tinh goe a khi OS = — va SA = - OA.


3 3
hi Ha OE 1 SA, OF 1 SB. T i m quy tieh cua eac diem E, F k h i goc vuong xOy quay quanh O.
d Goi G la trong tam eua tam giac SAB, I la tam hinh cau ngoai tiep tuf dien SOAB, chufng
minh rkng O, G, I thang hang.
il Tim quy tich tam I khi goe vuong xOy quay quanh O. Chufng minh rkng mat cau ngoai tiep
hinh tuf dien SOAB luon luon di qua mot dudng tron co dinh.
Giai
a/ Goi K la chan ducfng vuong goc ha tii O xuong (d), thi:
OK
sina = OA =
OA sma
v2 _ er>2
. r,A2
ASOA vuong SA^ = SO' + OA' (1)

Vdi gia thiet : SO = — ;

5 5 a
SA = - OA =
3 3 sina
Luc do : <=>
T- 25a2 64a^ a
1 » 25 = 64sin'a + 9
9sin^ a sin^ a

sina = — (a > 180° v6 l y )


=> sin a = — a = 30° (ycbt).
4 1
sina = —
2
hi De y den doan S O co dinh va C 5 E S = ( 5 F S = 90"

157
=> E va F nkm tren mSt cau (S) dudng kinh SO. Mat khac, E va F di chuyen nhiftig luon
luon nam trong mat phang (S; d) co dinh. Vay E va F nam tren difdng tron iy) = (S) n (S; d).
Ha OH 1 SK, ta CO H e (S)
Mat p h i n g (SOK) la mat doi xufng cua hinh cau (S). Ta lai thay mat p h i n g (S; d) vuong
goc vdi mat phang (SOK).
=> Dudng tron (y) nam trong mat phIng (S; d) phai nhan SK lam true doi xijfng. Nhung H
cung thuoc (y) nen SH chinh la diJcfng kinh cua dudng tron do.
Dao lai : Lay mgt diem F tren (y), F # S va ^ H. Noi SF, vi SF thuoc mat phang (S; d),
do do SF keo dai cat (d) a B. Noi OB, dimg goc vuong BOA trong mat ph^ng (A tren d). Noi
SA, n6 cat difcrng tron (y) tai E. Vi E, F nam tren (y) nen E, F nkm tren mat cau difdng kinh
SO, do do : OE 1 SA; OF 1 SB
Vay quy tich cua E va F la dUcrng tron (y), giao ciia mat cau dudng kinh SO va mat phang
(S; d), trif hai diem S va H (ycbt).
d Goi M la diem giOfa cua AB. Vi AAOB vuong d O nen M chinh la tam diidng tron ngoai tiep
tam giac do. Tam I ciia hinh cau ngoai tiep t i l dien SOAB phai nkm tren giao cua mat ph^ng
(A) vuong goc vdi (P) t ai diem M .
Do do ta c6 M I // SO va SO = 2 M I .
• Noi 0 1 , cat trung tuyen SM ciia tam giac SAB tai G ' :
C M _ MI j , CM 1
G'S " SO ~ 2 SM ~ 3
Vay G' trung vdi trong tam G ciia tam giac SAB. N6i
each khac ba diim O, G, 1 t h i n g hang (dpcm).
d/ Khi goc vuong AOB quay quanh O, diem M chay tren (d).
Xet mat p h i n g (T) di qua (d) va vuong goc vdi (P), c6n mat p h i n g trung triic (R) cua doan
SO la CO dinh. Vay I n i m tren giao tuy§'n cua (R) va (T), do chinh la diicfng t h i n g (t) n i m
trong mat p h i n g (T), song song \di (d) va cAch (d) mot khoang bang — SO.
2
Dao lai : Gia sijf I la mot diem bat ky tren (t). I n i m trong mat p h i n g trung triTc R ciia SO
va 1 each deu S, O. Mat c i u tam I , ban kinh SI = OI c i t (d) or A va B. T i l I ke mot diicfng
t h i n g song song v6i SO, no gap (d) d M .
Do 10 = l A = IB va I M 1 (P) => MO = MA = M B , tiJc la M la tam v6ng tron ngoai tiep tam
giac AOB, suy ra l^B = 90°. Do do I la tam hinh cau ngoai tiep til dien SOAB vdi AOB = 90°.
Vay quy tich tam I cua hinh cAu ngoai tiep t i l dien SOAB la difdng t h i n g (t) la giao cua
mat p h i n g (R) va mat p h i n g (T) (ycbt).
Mat cau ngoai tiep t i l di$n SOAB luon luon di qua hai diem co dinh S va O.
Vi (d) la true doi xiJng ciia diidng tr6n qua A, O, B.
=> O' doi xilng vdi O qua (d) cung thuoc mat cau va O' cung co dinh.
Vay k h i goc vuong AOB quay quanh O t h i mat cau ngoai tiep t i l dign SOAB luon di qua
v6ng tron co dinh di qua ba diem S, O, O' (dpcm).
158
Bai 241 (DAI H O C B A C H K H O A T P . I I C M - D A N A N G - 1978)

Trong khong gian til mot diem A ngoai mSt phSng ( P ) , ngi/cfi ta ha dudng vuong goc A B v^
mot di/dng xien A C xuong mSt phang ( P ) (B va C nSm tren ( P ) . D i e m M di chuyen tren dudng
Iron dadng kinh B C trong mat p h i n g ( P ) .
a/ Chijrng minh r^ng : AB^ + BM^ + MC^ = AC^; AM^ + B C ^ = BM^ + A C ^
b/ Tim goc phftng ciia nhi dien canh A M tao nen bdi c^c mdt phSng (AMB) va (AMC).
d Goi D va E la cac h i n h chieu vuong goc cija B len cac dUdng t h i n g A M , v^ A C . Chilng
minh rkng B D vuong goc vdi A C va D E . T i m quy tich cua D khi M di chuyen.
il Chufng minh rang bon diem C , D, E , M nam tren ciing mot difdng tron.
Giai
AB 1 (P)
a/ Ta CO : A M -L M C (dinh ly 3 di/dng vuong g6c)
MB 1 M C
A
Cac tarn giac A B M , BMC, AMC, ABC deu
vuong goc theo thuf tiT tai B, M. Ap dung he thiifc
luong trong cac tam giac vuong A B M , A M C , ta c6 :
. AB^ + ( B M ^ + M C ^ ) = A B ^ + B C ^ (1)

A B ^ + B M ^ + M C ^ = A C ^ (dpcm)

. AM^ + B C ^ = ( A B ^ + B M ^ ) + B C ^

=> m'' + BC^ = M B ^ + ( A B ^ + B C ^ )

^ A M ^ + B C ^ = B M ^ + A C ^ (dpcm).
BD 1 AM]
hi T a i B D 1 (AMC) => (AMC) ± (AMB)
BD 1 M C

=^ (p = [(AMC); (AMB)] = = - (ycbt).


2

fB D 1 A C
d Da CO : D B 1 (AMC) => \)
D B ± D E

BD ± AC
Dey : AC 1 (BDE)
BE ± AC

=> D d trong mat phang co dinh (P) = ( B D E ) .


• ThuSn :
Trong khong gian D n h i n doan B C co dinh dUdi mot goc vuong nen D d tren mat cau (S)
difcing kinh B C , nhung trong (p), 6 D I J = 9 0 ° va B E co dinh nen D a tren diTdng trdn (y)
dudng kinh B E va (y) = (S) o (p).

• Dao : Chpn D tuy y, D e (y) => 3 M e ( B C ) : D = ^Yp^ B .

Lay 1 diem D bat ky tren (y), dUcmg t h i n g A D cat ( P ) tai M.


Ta CO : D e (y) => D B ± D E
Ta lai CO B D i . A C (vi A C 1 (P)), do do : D B ± (AMC)
=* D B _L M C va B D J . A M
Mat khac : M C 1 A B nen M C ± (ABM) =>MC 1 M B => M e (y)

159
Ro rang D ton tai khi va chi khi M ton tai.
Khi: J M ^B r=> AM = AB; D H B.
[ M =C AM ^ AC; D ^ E.
Do do khi M di dong tren dudng tron dadng kinh BC thi D di dong tren ca difdng tron (y)
dadng kinh B E dang trong (P).
Vay quy tich D la dadng tron (y) dadng kinh B E va (y) = (S) n ((3) (ycbt).
d/ De y D E 1 E C (dinh ly 3 dadng vuong goc)
A A
Tut giac MCED c6 2 goc doi M = E = 90°. Nen noi tiep trong mot dadng trdn dadng kinh DC.
B a i 242 (DAI HOC TONG HOP TP.HCM KHOI A, B - 1993)
Cho hai dadng thing d va d' ch6o nhau va vuong goc vdi nhau. Tren d' lay hai diem luu
dpng B, C sao cho cac mat phSng (d, B) va (d, C) vuong goc vdi nhau. A la mot diem lau dpng
tren d. Gpi A' la chan dadng vuong goc ha tit A xuong d'.
1/ Chufng minh ring tich A'B.A'C khong doi.
2/ Gpi H la triTc tam tam giac ABC. Gpi A la dadng thSng di qua H va vuong goc vdi mSt
phSng (ABC). Chufng minh rSng dadng thing A luon di qua mot diem c6' dinh.
3/ Tim quy tich ciia diem H.
Giai
1/ Dong (a) qua d' va vuong goc vdi d tai O.
AA'ld' d'/
Ta CO : \ A
[AO I d ' . _
=> d' 1 (AOA) /
=> d' 1 OA' tai A'. /
Ma d' CO dinh va 0 cd dinh. / /
=> A' CO dinh /ot \ /
<=> OA' = const
/ A
d
Khi do : BA'.CA' = A'O^ = const
=> (dpcm).
f AB 1 C H
2/ Ta c6: =j. AB ± (COH) => AB 1 OH (1)
[AB 1 OC
Nhang: BC 1 (AAO) => B C l OH (2)
T i f ( l ) v a (2) => OH 1 (ABC)
De y thay, A qua H va vuong goc vdi (ABC)=> A qua O co dinh (dpcm).
" 3/ Gpi (P) ^ (d; A ) =i. (P) cd dinh.
Ta c6: \
[ O H 1 ( A B C ) => O H 1 A A '
=> Quy tich H la dadng tron dadng kinh OA' trong mSt phing (P). (Doc gia tif gidi han
khoang chay va lam phan dao) (ycbt).
160
Bai 243 ( D A I H O C N G O A I T H L f O N G - 1993)
Trong m a t phflng (P) cho h i n h chflr n h a t A B C D . Goi (Q) l a mSt phSng vuong goc v d i (P) va
chufa AB.
1/ Chi ro each dOng quy tich ( K ) ciia diem M luon n h i n cac doan A B v^ A D diTdi mot goc vuong.
2/ Dirang t h i n g D M cat (Q) t a i M ' . T i m quy t i c h ciia M ' .
3/ Mat ph^ng chufa ( K ) cat C D t a i I , ducrng t h a n g I M cat K t a i d i e m thuf h a i N . D u d n g t h i n g
DN cat (Q) t a i N ' . Chufng to r S n g M ' N ' // A B .

Giai

1/ Ta CO : A M B = ^ => M thuoc m a t cau dacfng k i n h A B

AMt) = — => M thuoc m a t cau dUdng k i n h A D


2
=> Quy t i c h M la dtfcing t r o n ( K ) , l a giao ciia m a t cau difdng k i n h A B v d i m a t cau di/cfng
kinh AD.
• Cach d i ^ n g
• Goi I ' ; J I a n lugt l a t r u n g d i e m ciia A B ; A D .
• Qua A dung m a t p h i n g (a) vuong goc v d i J I ' t a i O.
• T r o n g m a t phang (a) dUng ( K ) l a dUcfng t r o n tarn
O ban k i n h OA (ycbt).

2/ Go! : H = B D o A O AM 1 MH (1)
(K) 1 I'J
Ta CO : ( K ) 1 B D => A M 1 B D (2)
BD// I'J

T U ( l ) va (2) ^ A M 1 ( B D M ) => A M 1 B M '


Mat khac : A D 1 ( Q ) => A D 1 B M '
Nen : B M ' 1 ( A D M ) => B M ' _L A M '
Vay M ' lUU dong t r e n dUcfng t r o n ducmg k i n h A B t r o n g mat phang (Q) (dpcm).

(IMD)n(Q) = M'N'
3/ Ta CO : M ' N ' // A B (dpcm).
DI//AB

161
Bai 244 (DAI HOC T 6 N G HOP H A NOI - 1994)
1/ Trong mat phang ( P ) cho AABC. Tim quy tich cac diem M trong ( P ) sao cho SAMAB = S^MAC-
2/ Mot thiet dien chia the tich hinh lap phuang thanh hai phan bang nhau. Chufng minh
rang thiet dien d6 di qua tam cua hinh lap phuong.
HUdng dan
1 / Ta viet : S^MAB = S VMAC khi mot trong hai
kha nSng sau xay ra :
• T H , : Difcrng cao ha tCr B, C den day MA
bang nhau
=> M 6 dii&ng thang (d) // BC di qua A (trif A).
• THa : M nam tren dudng thang D chila
trung tuyen AE.
.S,\ABE = S / ^ E c (2)
Hi^u dien tich (2) - ( 1 )
=> S VMAB = SAMAC
=> M 6 diicmg trung tuyen keo dai AE (trir A).
Doc gia tvt lam phan dao va ket luan cho quy tich (ycbt).
2/ (=>) Neu thiet dien di qua tam hinh lap phi/ang thi chia doi the tich (do tinh chat doi xiJng).
(<=) Neu thiet dien khong qua tam thi diTng mat p h i n g // thiet dien va qua tam => gap
mau t h u l n => (dpcm).
B a i 245 (DAI HOC K I N H TE TP.HCM - 1 9 9 4 )
Cho hai ducfng t h i n g ( A ) , ( A ) cheo nhau, nhan AA' lam dUcrng vuong goc chung. Goi (P) la
mat phang qua A va vuong goc vdi ( A ' ) , con (d) la hinh chieu ciia ( A ) len (P). Dat AA' = a, goc
nhon giora ( A ) va (d) la a. Mat ph^ng (Q) song song v(Ji (P) cat cat ( A ) va ( A ' ) theo thiif ttf tai M
va M'. Goi M l la hinh chieu cua M tren (P).
1/ Chijfng minh rang 5 diem A, A', M , M ' va M j cung nam tren mot mat cau (S). Xac dinh
tam O ciia (S) tinh b i n kinh cua (S) theo a va theo khoang each x giflfa cdc mat (P) va (Q).
2/ Khi X thay d6i, hay t i m quy tich tam O ciia mat cau (S). ChuTng minh rkng khi x thay doi,
mat cau (S) luon di qua mot difdng tron co dinh.
Giai
1/ Goi OH la dadng trung binh cua
AA'AM, ta CO : OH // (A)
M'0 = - A ' M
2
MiO = - A ' M
^ 2
AO = - A ' M
2
MO = M , 0 = AO = OA = OM
Vay 5 diem A; A'; M ; M' va M j cung
nkm tren mot mat cau (S) tam O (trung
diem cua A M ) (dpcm).
162
sin a
Tac6 :
A - M = VA'A^ + A M ^ =
sin^a

AM sin^a
Vay ban k i n h cua m a t cau (S) l a : R = (ycbt).
2 2
2/ Xet t r o n g m a t p h a n g co d i n h (A'; A). Gia suf goi (d) = O H \k
diTdng t r u n g trifc cua A A ' , t a c6 :
{d)//A
- , =>(d) CO d i n h
[A CO d i n h

Nhan t h a y , k h i x t h a y doi t h i M sg d i dpng t r e n A.


O = ATVI n ( d )
Ma:
A'O = -AM
2
Vay quy t i c h t a r n O cua m a t cau (S) l a (d) (ycbt).
Khi X t h a y d d i , m a t cau (S) l u o n chufa di/cfng t r o n ( C ) , dudng k i n h A A ' , \k giao tuyen cua
mat cau (S) va m a t p h a n g vuong g6c \di (d) t a i H (dpcm).
Bai 246 ( D A I H O C V A N L A N G - K H O I B, D - D O T 2 - 1997)

Cho h i n h vuong A B C D c6 canh bang a. T r e n nijfa dudng t h a n g A x v u o n g goc v d i m a t


phftng A B C D , lay d i e m S sao cho AS = h . M l a mot d i e m luu dong t r e n canh C D , ha S H
vuong goc vdi B M .
1/ Chufng m i n h r ^ n g A H 1 B M . Suy r a quy t i c h ciia Aiim H k h i M l o u dSng t r e n c a n h C D .
21 Xac d i n h v i t r i cua M t r e n C D sao cho t h e t i c h S B D H l<Jn n h a t .

Giai
1/ Ta CO : S A 1 (ABCD)

j S H : dUdng x i e n
A H : h i n h chieu

Ma : S H ± B M (each difng)
Theo d i n h l y ba dtfdng vuong goc
^ A H ± B M (dpcm).
H e dudng t r o n difdng k i n h A B t r o n g m a t p h i n g
(ABCD)

f M = C => H = B
Khi
[ M = D r> H = O ( t a m h i n h v u o n g A B C D )

Dao l a i , chon H Q e B O c ( A B )

^ A H ^ = 90°
=> SHO 1 B M ( d i n h l y 3 dUcrng vuong goc)

163
Vay quy tich H la mot phan tU cung tron BO tarn I , ban kinh R = — nkm trong m&t phlng
2
( A B C D ) (ycbt).
2/ Ta CO : V.s.Bun = — SBUD.SA => VS.BUD = ^ SBHD
o o
De y thay : 3max(Vs BUD) <=> 3max(SBiin) d)
Goi E] la trung diem day cung BO va E la chan
daang cao ABHD
J E i H i rdUcrngcaoABHiD
[EH idirdng cao A B H D
Vay ; max(Vs.HHD) = Vg BH,D
<=> niax(SBiii)) = SgHjQ
<=> max(EH) = E i H ,
De y : - ^ ' 2 BHilaphangiac O B C .
Gpi M l = B H , o DC
CM^ BC _a_ J_
DM, • BD " aV2 ~ V2
(tinh chat ty Id thuTc).
DMi+CMi I + V2
CMi
^ ^ 1 - ^ ^ CM, = a(V2 - 1).
Vay k h i M thoa C M , = a(V2 - l ) thi max(Vs BUD) xay ra (ycbt).
Bai 247 (DAI HOC V A N LANG - KHOI A - DOT 1 - 1997)
Cho mot difdng tron dudng kinh A B nSm trong mat phAng nam ngang (P); A 1 (P) tai A ,
dUcfng thang d cheo nhau vdri A cat (P) tai B .
1/ M la mot diem thuoc dUcrng tron (C), chiifng minh rang qua M c6 mot chi mQt dudng
thang K tiia dong thcri tren A va d.
2/ Chiifng minh rang, mot mat phang ( Q ) neu da vuong goc vdi mpt trong ba dudng t h i n g A,
d, k cung se cMt ba dudng thang do tai ba diem la dinh cua mpt tam giac vuong.
3/ Cho diem M lifti dgng tren dUcfng tron, tren A lay mot diem S sao cho
S A = 2R; A ' , M ' , B' Ian lugt duoc lay tren S A , S M , S B va thoa man dieu kien :
SA.SA' = SM.SM' = SB.SB' = 3R^
Chiifng minh rkng k h i M lOU dong, nhiJng diem A', M ' , B' luon nam tren mpt mat cau co
dinh ? Hay ti'nh the tich ciia hinh cau ay.
Giai
1/ Xet hai mat ph^ng phan biet ( M , A) va ( M , d) co chung digm M se cMt nhau theo mot giao
tuyen (k) tiTa dong thcfi tren (A) tai N va tren (d) tai T (ycbt).
164
2/ Goi As; Mi; Bi; i e 1,3 Ian luot la giao diem cua (A); (k); (d) vdi (Q) khi (Q) Ian luat vuong
g6c vdi ( k ) ; (A); (d). Ta c6 :
0 T H i : (Q) 1 (A) => (Q) // (ABM)

jAaMa = ( Q ) n ( M ; A ) > A 2 M 2 / / A M
Ma : [AM = ( A B M ) n ( M ; A )
B2M2 =(Q)n(M;d)
B2M2//BM
BM = ( A B M ) n ( M ; d )
^ A B M = A ^ B ^ = -
2
(1)

Tuong tu : ; ^ B = A ^ M ^ = —.
2
0 TH2 : ( Q ) 1 ( k ) , ta CO :

(A) 1 ( A B M ) ^ (A) 1 M B BM ± (M; A)


AM 1 M B

A ^ I M ^ = — (goc cua 2 nhi dien vuong g6c nhau)


(M, d) X (M, A) theo giao tuyen (k)
Vay : A ^ B ^ i = - (2)
2
• TH3 : (Q) 1 (d) (Q) 1 (M, d)
MA : (M; A) 1 (M; d) => (Q) o (M; A) = A3M3 i. (M, d)

165
=> A 3 M 3 1 M3B3 => A ^ B ^ M ^ = — (3) Tuang t i f : A ^ M ^ = —
2 2
Tir ( 1 ) ; (2); ( 3 ) =^ (dpcm).
3/ Tir S A . S A ' = S M . S M ' suy ra tuf giic AA'M'M npi tiep duac
AM^ = ^ (4)
2
Tuang tir => A ^ = - (5)
2
(4) & (5)
Tif M ' ; B' l u o n n k m t r e n m p t m S t ciu co d i n h c6 diTdng k i n h : SA'
SA.SA' = 3R2
2
The t i c h Vj c u a h i n h c l u t u a n g uTng t r o n g t r u d n g hgp n ^ y l a :
4 f3R^^ 97IR3
V, = - . 7 t
V4 16
Tir S A . S A ' = S M . S M ' = S B . S B ' = S R ^ cung suy ra duac la A ; M ' ; B' lu6n n&m trSn m^t
mat cau CO dinh co dudng kinh \k :
AB = ^^^%(2Rf =Ml;(viAA'=^)(dpcm).
V2j
fRViv 177iR^Vl7
Thi t i c h h i n h c i u V 2 t u a n g uTng la : V 2 = —n (ycbt).
3 48
B a i 248 ( D A I H O C V A N L A N G - K H 6 I A , B - 1998)
Cho hinh ch6p SABCD c6 dAy ABCD Ik hinh vuong canh a. Mat ben SAB la tam gi^c diu
va vuong goc vdi dAy. Goi H la trung diem cua AB va M la mot diem di dgng tren dUcrng
t h i n g BC.
1 / ChiJng minh r i n g SH 1 (ABCD). Tinh the tich hinh ch6p SABCD.
2/ Tim quy tich c^c hinh chieu vuong g6c cua S len D M .
3/ Dat CM = X . Tinh khoang cAch tif S den DM theo a va x.
Giai
( S A B ) 1 ( A B C D ) ( t h e o g i a o tuy§'n A B )
1/ Ta CO : SH ± (ABCD) (dpcm).
SH ± AB
SH = VlS B ^ - B H ^ = , a ' -
V<Ji :
SABCD = A D . A B = a '
V _ 1 «2 aV3 _ a
(ycbt).
166
2/ Gpi S' la hinh chieu vuong goc ciia S len DM.
Ta CO : DM 1 (SS'H)
=> DM _L HS'.
Hay S' luon nhin DH difdi mot goc vuong.
Vay quy tich S' la dudng tron diTcfng kinh DH
bo di diem A (Doc gia tU lam phan dao).
3/ Ta CO : A;

SS' = VSH^ + S ' H ^ = + S'H^

• T H , : M nkm giOa B; C (0 < x < a)

Taco : S ^ H M - - H S ' . D M 3— S'

2 B M C /

SABCD " (^DMi + S H B M + SQCM ) = — H S ' . D M

» a -

2ar - ax 4x^ - 4ax + 7a^


o HS' = ^ SS' = (ycbt).
x^+a^

• T H j : M nam ngoai B; C va ve phia C

Ta CO : S D „ M = ^ H S ' . D M S A B C D + ^mM - (SQAH + S H B M ) = - ^ H S ' - D M

<=> a
2 4 4 2

_2a_fax_ 4x^ + 4ax + 7a^


<=> H S ' = SS' = ^ (ycbt).
2^PT? 2V x^ + a 2

• T H 3 : M nkm ngoai B; C va ve phia B

Ta CO : S ^ H M = - H S ' . D M
2

S ^ B C D + S / j j M - (SDAH + S ^ H M + S D C M ) = — H S ' . D M

2 1 a a(x - a) ax
+ + —
<=> a + —a(x - a) - 4 4 2

2a^ - ax 4x^ - 4ax + 7a^


« HS' = SS (ycbt).
2Vx2 + a^

167
Bai 249 (HOC V I E N N G A N H A N G - P H A N V I E N T P . H C M K H O I A - 2000)
T r o n g m a t phSng (P), cho h l n h vuong A B C D canh 2a. T r e n dUcrng t h ^ n g d i qua t r u n g diem E
ciia canh AB va vuong goc vdri (P) lay diem S sao cho SE = a. T r e n dUdng t h S n g A B lay di&m M
di dong. H a S H 1 C M , d d t E ^ C M = a.
1/ T i m quy t i c h d i e m H k h i M d i dpng.
2/ Goi I ; J I a n luat l a t r u n g d i e m ciia EC; SC. T i n h t h e t i c h tiir d i e n J I E H theo a va a. Xac
d i n h a de t h e t i c h nay Idn n h a t .
Giai
1/ Theo d i n h l y ba difcfng vuong goc
^ E H 1 MC (tai H ) ;
=> iSiiC = 90" n h i n canh EC co d i n h .
=> H nSm t r e n dUcJng t r o n t a m I diicfng
k i n h EC.
G i d i h a n k h o a n g chay :
M > 00 ( t r e n canh A B )
=> H >N
Vdi N l a t r u n g d i 6 m canh C D (xem h i n h
phSng). Dao l a i , lay HQ thuoc di/dng t r o n dUc(ng
k i n h EC (bo d i d i e m N ) t h i :
E H C = 90"
^ EH 1 MC 00
=> SHo 1 C M ( d i n h l y ba difcfng vuong goc).
Vay quy t i c h H la difdng t r o n t a m I ban k i n h E C (bo d i
d i e m N ) (ycbt).
2/ Theo t i n h c h a t ducfng t r u n g b i n h :
fIJ//SE
IJ 1 (EIH)
IJ = - S E
2
Suy r a , dtfcrng cao tOf d i e n J I E H 1^ :
IJ = h = - .
2
D i e n t i c h day B cua tiif d i e n J I E H l a :
^ = SKIH = — SKCII = • EH.HC
E H = ECsina = ^ a ^ + ( 2 a f (sina) = aV5(sina)
T r o n g do :
HC = ECcosa = aA/5(cosa)
Khi do : « = aV5(sina) . a->/5(cosa) =—a^sin2a
4 J L J 8
168
5a^.sin2a 5a^ , ,

sin 2a = 1 n 7i
Dau dSng thiJc trong (1) xay r a o « 2 a = — •» a= —
0 < a < 7t 2 4

5a^ 7t
Vay max(VjiKii) = xay r a k h i va chi k h i a = — (ycbt).
48 4

D E Tl/dNG T i ;

Bai 250 ( D A I H O C M I E N B A C KHOI A - 1974)

Cho hinh vuong A B C D canh a va dircrng thfing (d) 1 ( A B C D ) tai A. L a y S e (d). Mp qua A
vuong goc S C tai C , cat S B , S D tai B', D'.
a/ Chiifng minh S B 1 AB'; S D 1 AD".
b/ Tim tap hap cac diem B', C , D' khi S chay tren (d).
c/ Tim vi tri cua S e (d) sao cho the tich hinh chop C ' A B C D Idn nhat va tinh no.

HvTdng d&n

a/ Doc gia tu giai.


b/ Tap hcfp C la difdng tron diTdng k i n h A B thuoc mp(B; d) co dinh, trCr diem B.
Tuong tu cho cac trudng hgp C ; D'.

c / V = ^ .
6

Bai 251 (DAI H O C K H O A H O C ( K H O I A) - 1 9 7 6 )

Cho tam giac deu A B C canh a. (D) la dUcing th^ng qua A va t h i n g g6c vdi mSt p h i n g cua
tarn gidc A B C . L a y mot diem M bat ky tren (D). Goi O l a XJkm cua v6ng tron ngoai tiep cua
tam giac A B C . Trong tam giac M B C , B E la difdng
cao phat xuat tif B, C F la ducfng cao phat xuat tir C ( E d tren C M , F d tren BM).
a/ Khi M di dong tren (D) thi quy tich cua E va F la nhuTng vong tr6n; hay xac dinh cac mat
phang chiifa cac vong tron nay, cac tam va ban kinh cua chiing.
b/ Goi H la trifc tam cua tam gidc B C M . Chiifng m i n h O H va (D) n^m trong cung mQt mat
phSng. Neu N la diem cat nhau cua hai difdng t h i n g O H va (D), hay chuTng minh tiJ di§n
BCMN CO cac canh doi doi mot trifc giao.

Bai 252 ( D A I H O C D A N L A P NGOAI NGO TIN H O C - C P - 1998)

Tren mat p h i n g ( P ) cho dUcfng tron (C) c6 dudng k i n h A B . Doan S A vuSng g6c vdi ( P ) v a
M la mot diem tren (C). Chiifng minh r i n g :
1/ Hai mat p h i n g ( S A M ) va ( S B M ) vuong goc vdi nhau.
2/ Khi M di dgng tren (C) thi h i n h chieu H cua A tr§n mat p h I n g ( S B M ) di dOng tr§n m^t
ducfng tron co dinh.

169
Chuyen de 12 : PHxroNG P H A P T H £ T I C H
L PHODNG PHAP
Co so cua p h u a n g phap l a dung cac cong thufc t i n h t h e t i c h cua m o t so v a t the h i n h hoc
hodc c^c cong thufc t h e t i c h t r e n cung m o t v a t the da duoc bao t o ^ n t h e t i c h k h i chia nho co
• Dang 1 : K H I B I E T T H ^ T I C H c6 T H E L A V, T I N H C A C T H 6 N G S6 C O N LAI
TRONG CONG THiJC CUA V
1/ H i n h chop : V = - 7 i H => 3/ H i n h iSng t r y : V = -Sh =>
3
h
2/ H i n h non : V = - nR^h
3
=> 4/ Hinh tru : V = TiR^h =>
hi
5/ Hinhcdu: V= -TIR^ R
3
6/ H i n h ch6p deu : V = l s , p r
3
; St_ : di^n tich t o i n phan hinh ch6p
T r o n g do : <
[r : ban kinh mkt cau npi tiep hinh ch6p
3V
Stp =
3V
(day ill cong thiic t i m r rS't phd bien)
7/ Goi I J la doan vuong g6c chung cua
hai canh A B va C D cua tijf d i e n ABCD
t h i t h i t i c h tiir d i e n 1^ :
V = iAB.CD.IJsinip;
6
vdi (p = CSSTCTJ)
8/ Tucfng t u doi v d i cdc k h o i cut... ^
O G h i chii : Mot so bdi tdp d dang 1, se duac trinh bay thii tu trong cac BAI TOAN THI;
vi so trang sdch ludn c6 han.
• D a n g 2 ; T Y S 6 T H E T I C H C U A 2 TLf D I E N ( H I N H C H O P T A M G I A C )
Cit h i n h ch6p t a m gidc S.ABC b k n g mOt m a t p h i n g (a) de
tao t h ^ n h m p t h i n h chop t a m gidc m d i S . A B C (xem h i n h )
SA' SB' SC
Luc d6 : - i l M S c : =
VsABc SA SB SC
(xem chiimg m i n h (*) d p h a n b a i t a p va doc gia c6 t h e suT
dung t r o n g c^c k y T S D H m ^ k h o n g p h a i chufng m i n h l a i ) .
N e u kh6o leo ap d u n g n6 t r o n g b a i t o a n h i n h chop, chung t a
se chufng m i n h va t i n h t o a n difgc m g t so ycbt k h d l y thu...
170
• Dang 3 : S l J D I / N G D I N H L Y C O N G T H ^ T I C H
Chia m o t v a t t h e t h a n h n h i e u v a t t h e t h a n h p h ^ n t h e ti'ch V j ;
V2; V;,; V„ t h i t h e t i c h co t h e l a : V = V , + V j + V3 +... + V„.
0 Ghi chii : Ngodi ra, ta hay sit dung phep cong dien tich de
phu trg cho phuong phdp the tich. Chdng han :

SMBC = Sj^BD + S.wcn


2bc A
=> Phdn gidc trong goc A : = cos —
6+c 2
n. cAc B A I T O A N C O B A N

Bai 253

Cho tur d i $ n A B C D c6 h^; hb; h e ; h d I a n l u o t 1^ cdc diTdng cao h a iii d i n h A ; B ; C; D xuong


cdc mat doi d i e n i l n g v d i cac d i n h do. Con O l a m o t d i e m t u y y t r o n g tur d i e n d6 v a c6 k h o a n g
dch den cac mSt d o i d i e n I a n lUcft d o i v d i d i n h A ; B ; C; D l a x ; y ; z; t.

ChtTng m i n h r i n g : +— +~ + — = 1.
h. hh hj

Giai
Khi n o i O v d i b o n d i n h tuf di§n A B C D , 1^ t a da chia tuT
di?n ABCD t h a n h 4 tijt di?n O A B C ; O D A B ; O C D A ; OBCD
sao cho :

V A B C D = VoABC + VoBCD + V Q C D A + VQDAB

'OABC 'OBCD 'OCDA 'ODAB _ ^

VABCD VABCD V^BCI) VABCD

1 1 1
dt(ABC)t dt(CDB)x dt(DAC)y

1 1 1
dt(ABC).hd dt(CDB).h„ dt(DAC).hb dt(DAB).h
3
X y + + = 1 (dpcm).
he h,.

Bai 254

Cho tijf d i e n A B C D c6 O A ; O B ; OC d o i m p t vuong g6c n h a u . G o i S, S i ; S2; S3 1^ d i $ n t i c h


dc mat (ABC); ( O A B ) ; (OBC); (OCA). Chufng m i n h r l l n g : S^ = S f + S i + S i .

! y t h a y k h i h a : O H ± ( A B C ) v ^ H e ( A B C ) , t a c6 :

1 1 1 1
+ r-+ ^ => ^ = ^+ ^+
OH^ 0A2 O B ^ OC^ OH^ OA2 O B ^

v6i V \k thi t i c h t i l di§n O A B C

r3v> 2 2 rav^ 2

I OH; I OA; I OB;


+ + ^ocj

(dt(ABC))2 = (dUOBC))^ + (dUOAC))^ + (dKOAB))^


S'= S i + S | + S f =^ S f + S i + S i (dpcm).

171
Bai 255
Cho ttf dien A B C D . Goi a; a,; P; [J,; y; Yi la cac goc n h i dien (AB); (CD); (AC); (BD); (AD); (BC). I
AB.CD AC.BD Afi.BC
Chiimg m i n h r k n g : —
s i n a. s i n a 1 s i n (5. s i n p , siny. s i n y i
Giai
A K : la dirdng xien
Goi A H , la dirdng cao tiir d i e n A B C D va dUng :
^ H . K : l a hinh chieu
=> KKTT; = YI =
T a CO : V = i S .AH„ « V = i .S„,BC A K sin y, (1)
Mat khac : S^ABC =
- BC.AK <:> A K = 2SAAHC. — (2)
2 BC
T h a y (2) vao (1) thi : « V = is,„H(:-2S,^,«v^siny,
« 3 B C . V = 2S,AHc.SM,„csinYi (3)
Tifong ta, ta tinh diroc : 3 A D . V = 2SAnAD-SACADsinY (4)
L a y (3) x (4) theo ve ta c6 : 9BC.AD.V^ = 4S,iABc-SADBcsinY,.SABAD-SACAD-sinY
BC.AD 4S,A A B C • ' ^ A D B C - S A B A D - S A C A D
siny siny,
^ AC.BD 4S AABC -S ,\DBC -S ABAD ACAD
L a p l a i m o t each t u a n g t u ta c6 : — —
sin a sin a, sin p sin P] 9V2
AB.CD AC.BD AD.BC
Vay : - (dpcm).
sina.sinaj sinpsinp, sinysiny.
Bai 256
Cho ta d i e n A B C D va M la m g t d i e m t u y y t r e n c a n h C D (v(Ji M khdc C vk D ) .
a/ ChiJng m i n h r i n g : ^^^MABC ^ M C
VMABD MD
b/ B i e t t h e m ( A M B ) la mSt p h ^ n g p h a n gi^c . Chilng m i n h r i n g : |MBC ^ M C
°.\ABn MD
Giai
aJ Ta c6 : 'MABC 'MABC *ABCD
VMABD VABCD V^ABD
De y den d i n h l y t y so t h e t i c h h i n h chop v d i (a) = ( A B M )
_^ VMABC ^ M C CD _ VMABC MC
(dpcm).
VMABD CD MD »MABD MD
b/ T i f he thufc da chiifng minh dUcfc d tren va ( A B M ) l a mdt
phan giac (^)
-MK.S,^BC
MC VMABC ^ _3
( v i M H = M K ; v i (a) = ( A B M ) )
MD VMABD 1
—MH-SADAB
MC 'AABC
(dpcm).
MD " S ADAS
172
Bai 257
Cho tuf dien O A B C c6 cac c a n h OA = 1; OB = 2; OC = 3 va the t i c h V = 1. Chutng m i n h
ring OA; OB; OC doi m o t v u o n g goc.

Giai
Goi A H la diT&ng cac O A B C ha tCr d i n h A. DSt a = fiOC, t h i the t i c h V ciia tuf d i e n 1^ :

V = -.S^„oo.AH - i ^ i o B . O C . s i n a l A H A
3 3v2 )
=> 6V = A H . O B . O C s i n a < A O . O B . O C (*)
Ma V = 1 ; AO.OB.OC = 1.2.3 = 6.
Do do (*) o 1 < 1

D o d 6 : ^ " " ; ^ « . « = 2

Vay tiJf d i e n O A B C c6 OA; O B ; OC doi m o t vuong goc n h a u (dpcm).


Bai 258
Cho h i n h hop chiJ n h a t A B C D . A ' B ' C D ' c6 cac canh : A B = a; BC = b; A A ' = c. T i n h k h o a n g
each tif dadng t h S n g A B t d i dacrng t h S n g A'C.

Gmi
Khoang each gida h a i di/dng t h S n g A B va A C goi la h c h i n h
la do dai doan vuong goc chung ciia hai canh A B va A C cua t i i
dien A'.ABC v d i (p = rSBTATn
Ta CO the t i c h V ciia tiJf d i e n do la :

V = -AB.A'B.h.sincp = i A B . A C . h . — = i A I i . A U h
6 6 A'C 6

=> V = i a V b ^ T ^ . h (1)
6

Mat khac : V = ~ abc (2)


6
So sanh (1) va (2), ta c6 :
be
a >/b2 + c'^ .h = abc <=> h = (ycbt).

Bai 259
Mot k h o i iSng t r u t a m giac deu A B C . A ' B ' C c6 A B = a va A A ' = h . T i n h k h o a n g each giiJa
dudng t h i n g A B ' va B C

Giai
Xet the t i c h V cua tijf d i e n B ' B A C .
1 aV3^ 1 V3 2 .
V= is,ABr.AA'= i h = ^ . ^ a ^ h (1)
o 6 —.a.
V2 2
Mat khac goi I = d ( A B ' , B C ] va cp = C S E T B C D , ta C6 :

V = -AB'.BC'/sin<p (2)
6
Trong do :

cosip =
2B'E.B'A

173
2(a^ ^ h^) 2(a2+h2)
sincp = 2h^ a^ ^ _ aVsa'^ + 12h^
1-
^ (2a^ ^ 2h2 2(a2+h2)
(2)
2(a'= +h'=)
So sanh (1) va (2), cho ta : — V s a ' * 12h' = ^ a ^ h => / = , (ycbt).
2 4 2V3ani2h2
B a i 260
Cho tam di^n Sxyz. Tren Sx lay hai diem A A', tren Sy lay hai diem B v£l B', tren Sz
lay hai diem C va C . Chilng minh rSng : ^^J^ . SA'.SB'.SC
^S.AIiC SA.SB.SC
Giai
Dung CH va C'H' vuong g6c vdi mp(Sx; Sy), ta c6 :
V s A i v r = V c s A - B ' = ^ S , s A - n - C H ' = isA'.SB'.siniS^.C'H'
o D
Vs.AHC = VeSAH ^ " S ^ s A B - C H
= —SA.SB.sinxSy.CH
6
Vdi chu y :
SIT S C Vs.Aur SA'.SB'.SC'
(*) (dpcm).
SH S C ^'S.AHC SA.SB.SC
n Ghi chu : Doc gld c6 the sii dung dinh ly ty so the tich (*), trong cac ky thi Dai hoc ma
khong can phdi chiing minh lai trit triiang hap de todn c6 yeu cdu.
B a i 261
Cho tuf dien OABC. Trong tam giac ABC ta lay mot diem M . Cac dudng t h i n g qua M song
song vdi OA, OB, OC Ian li/at cSt cac mdt (OBC), (OCA), (OAB) tai A', B', C .
^, . . , MA' MB' M C ,
ChOng minh : ^ + = 1.
OA OB OC
Giai
De y thay tuT dien OABC xem nhu hap thanh bdi 3 hinh
chop tam giac M.OBC, M.OCA va M.OAB :
Vo.Aiic = VM.OUC + VM.OCA + VM.OAB
VM.CX'A 'M.OAB
« 1 = (1)
'A.OHC ^B.(X:A
-.S^BO<-.MK
; ^M.OBC _ 3
Xet ty so
"A.OBC
VM.OBC M K MA-
(2) (vi AMKA' t/> AAHO)
VAOBC AH OA
174
*M.O<:A MB'
(3)
OB
Iloan loan tifang t u n h u vay t a cung c6 : \ ^BOCA
V, M C
MABC (4)
OC
^^C.OAB
MA' MB' M C
Thay (2); (3); (4) v^o (1) t a c6 : 1 = (dpcm).
OA ^ OB ^ OC

Bai 262

Chufng m i n h rSng : m o i m a t p h a n g d i qua difdng t h a n g n o i h a i t r u n g d i e m cua h a i c a n h doi


cua mot tuf dien chia tLf d i e n t h a n h h a i p h a n t h e t i c h b a n g n h a u .

Giai
Xet tiif dien A B C D va goi M , N I a n Itfot l a t r u n g d i e m cua h a i c a n h d o i A B va CD. M o t m a t
pbdng ((x) qua M N cat AC d E va B D d F. M a t p h a n g (a) nay c h i a tuf d i ? n t h a n h h a i p h a n :
• Phan I gom 2 h i n h chop D . M E N F va A . M E D .
. Phan I I gom 2 h i n h chop C . M E N F va B . M F C
De y thay N l a t r u n g d i e m C D => Vn.MKNF = V,; MENF
Do do ycbt c h i p h a i chufng m i n h : VA.MKD = VDM^C
That vay xet h a i h i n h chop A . M E D va A . B C D t a c6 :
^A.MKl) AM.AE.AD AM AE AE
(1)
VA.BCO AB.AC.AD AB AC AC

Tirang tif xet : B . M F C va B . A D C t a c6 :


VB.MKC „ BM.BF.BC BM BF BF
(2)
'H.ADC BA.BC.BD BA BD BD

T i r ( l ) v a ( 2 ) t a c 6 : l^Mmi = AE BD
J}EL,Eli (3)
V,,MF(' AC BF
• Dong t h d i de dang chufng m i n h duac rSng BC, M E vk F N dong qui t a i m p t d i e m I . A p
dung djnh ly Menelaus vao A A B C va ADBC cho :
EA IC MB ^ 'EA IC 'EA IB
=1 = 1
, EC • IB • MA " EC IB EC ' IC
FB ND IC J FB IC FB IB
=1
:FD X C ' I B " iFDIB FD IC
EA FB EA FB
(4)
EC ~ FD EA ^ EC FB * FD

Thay (4) vao (3) t a c6 : •AJ«K1) 1 <r> VA.MKI) = Vn MFC (dpcm).


''n.MFC
• Ghi c h u : Neu doc gid ghi nha dugc tinh chdt nay, tin c6 the gidi quy§'t dugc mot so bai
loan phuang phdp the tich khdc : khd doc ddo.
Bai 263

Cho trirdrc mot goc t a m d i e n , tuf d i e n Oxyz va m p t d i e m M co d i n h ben t r o n g goc tarn d i e n


do. Con (P) la m a t p h a n g luu dong qua M cat Ox t a i A, Oy t a i B va Oz t a i C. Xac d i n h v i t r i
cua (P) de tuf dien O A B C c6 t h e t i c h nho n h a t .

Giai
Noi dai A M cat BC a I ; B M cat AC d J va C M cat A B d K.
Qua M ve MAo // OA (vdi A,, e 01).

175
IM ' A M H C
OA lA S^„c
Tifang t u k h i dUng cac d i e m BQ va CQ :
MBo S \ M A C . MCo SA M A B
OB S \ A H C S A A B C
' oc
MAo
OA OB OC
A p dung bat d ^ n g thiitc Cauchy :
^^gjMAo MBo MCo
r^A r^« ^ OA.OB.OC > 27MAo.MBo.MCo
wA Wi5 (JO
^ VoABC > 27 VMA,I!OC„ = h a n g so (1)
Do do V()ABc nho n h a t k h i va c h i k h i dftng thiJc t r o n g (1) xay r a ,
'OA - 3MAo
« MAo..^MBj).^a « OB.3MB
°^ ' loc.sMc:
Vay vcri M cho sSn t h i AQ; BOI CO x e m n h a hoan t o a n duac xac d i n h t r o n g k h o n g gian va do
do (F) = (ABC) xem nhir da duac xac d i n h (ycbt).
Bai 264
Cho h i n h chop S . A B C D c6 day la m o t h i n h b i n h h a n h . M o t m a t p h a n g (P) cat SA, SB, SC,
SD theo thuf tU A', B', C , D'. Chufng m i n h he thufc : SA SC SB SD
SA' S C SB' SD'
Giai
Goi V la the t i c h h i n h chop S.ABCD. Ta de y t h a y :
dt(ABD) = dt(CBD) = dt(ABC) = dt(DBC)
Vi the nen : V.SABD = V.scmi = V S A H C = V S D B C = —
A p d u n g b6 de ve t y so the t i c h h a i tuf d i e n , ta c6 :
^ S A B I ) ' 2VsAivi)- SA'.SB'.SD'
(1)
VsAni) V SA.SB.SD
SC'.SB'.SD'
(2)
V SC.SBSD
2VsAHCl)- ^ SB'.SD'fSA' ^ S£_]
C o n g d ) va (2) : (3)
V SA.SC V SA ^ SC j
2VsAT)'CD' SA'.SC'rSB' SC'^
Tifang t u : (4)
SA.SC I SB " SC ;
SB'.SD'^SA' SC'^ SA'SC'l'SB' SD"|
So sanh h a i k e t qua t r e n ta dUcrc :
SB.SD V SA SC ) S A 5 C ^ SB SD j
SA.SC ' S A ' SC"l SB.SDrSB' SD'V
SA'.SC'i,SA SC; SB'.SD'vSB SD J
SC SA SD SB
- . Do la he thilc phai chuTng minh.
SC SA' SD' SB
176
J
Bai 265
Day h i n h chop S.ABC la AABC deu canh a. H a i m a t ben S A B va SAC vuong g6c vdfi day,
mat ben SBC tao v d i day goc a.
a/ Tinh khoang each iH A den mp(SBC).
7t ^ (a 71 ^
b/ ChiJtng m i n h dien t i c h x u n g quanh h i n h chop bftng :
• + — i cosl I.
[2 12) {2 12)
d Cat h i n h chop b a n g m o t m a t p h a n g song song v d i day va d i qua t r u n g d i e m dUdng cao
hinh chop. T i m the t i c h h i n h chop cut tao t h a n h .

Giai
Ta CO : (SAB) va (SAC) 1 (ABC) theo giao tuyen SA => SA 1 (ABC)
Ke SI 1 BC t h i I la t r u n g d i e m BC va A I ± BC => SDi = a g
a/ Do BC 1 (SAD => (SBC) 1 (SAI)
Trong m p ( S A I ) , ke A K 1 S I => A K 1 (SBC)
A K = d [ A ; (SBC)]

Trong t a m giac vuong K A I => A K = A l s i n a =

hi D6 thay ASAB = ASAC


1
S,„ = 2dt (ASAB) + d t (ASBC) = S A . A B + -BC.SI

O A A T . aV3 ^ AI av3
Tam giac vuong S A I
SA = A l t a n a = — ^ tgn ; SI = = — —
2 cos a 2 cos a
=> Oxn = (sina+—) (1)
2 cos a 2
Bien doi : s i n a + — = s i n a + s i n — = 2sin( — + — ) cos( — —)
2 6 12 2 2 12
Thay vao (1) difcrc => S,„ = l ^ s i n ( ^ ^ ^ ) c o s ( - - — ) (dpcm).
^ cosa 2 12 2 12
d Goi D la t r u n g d i e m SA t h i m a t p h a n g qua D song song v d i day, cat cac canh SB; SC t a i
trung diem E; F cua chiing.
V s D E F ^ SD.SE.SF ^ 1.
Ta CO : VsDKK = - VgABC
V s A B C ~ SA.SB.SC ~ 8

Ma : VsABC = ^dtAABC.SA = i a \ a n a
3 8

v„chop cui = VsABc - V.sDBK = V.sABC " \C = \C = -~ a'''tana (ycbt).


o o b4
Bai 266
Day h i n h chop S . A B C D la h i n h chO n h a t , c6 A B = a; A D = b; SA 1 A B C D va SA = 2a. L a y
M £ SA v d i A M = X (0 < X < 2a).
a/ T i m dien t i c h t h i e t d i c n ma M B C c^t h i n h chop.
hi Xac d i n h x de m p ( M B C ) chia h i n h chop ra t h a n h h a i p h a n c6 the t i c h b k n g nhau.

Giai
a/ Doc gia t u g i a i => M N 1 M B nen t h i § t d i e n la h i n h t h a n g vuong t a i M va B

177
Dien tich thig't dien : S = dt (MNCB) = - ( E C + MN).BM (1)
Do MN // AD ^ 1 ^ = ^ « ^ = ^ (dinh ly Thalfes) « MN = '"^a - x)
SA AD 2a b 2a
Tarn giac vuong BAM cho : BM^ = MA^ + BA^ = + a^
Thay v a o ( l ) c h o : S = b<4a ^ x) ^ ^2
4a
hi Goi : V = VsABCD
Ti/ang tu : VS.MNCIS = V.S.MBC + VS.MNC (2)
Tir SA la ducfng cao hinh chop S.ABCD
, SM.SB.SC ^ S M ^ 2 a ^ = t > 0 (0 < x < 2a)
VsAHC SA.SB.SC SA 2a
Vs.,MliC = SM . 1- V
SA 2
Vs.MNC _ SM.SN.SC ^ rSMV _ fSMV 1„
{Sh) ^''"''^ '2 (3)
r S M f SM^ 1 ,
Thay (3) vao (2) => VS.MNC = ISAJ ^ S A = 2 ^
t''+t-l>0 : Vt =
ISAJ = 1 <=> t >0
SA t>0
_ , - 7 5 - 1 _ 2a - X V5 - 1
<=> t = <=> -
B a i 267
2 2a 2
Day hinh chop S.ABCD
<=> X = (3la- hinh (thoa
Vs ) achff nhat,
mancanh x < 2a)
0 < b§n SA 1(ycbt).
(ABCD). Mpt mat phing qua A
vuong goc SC, cat SB, SC, CD tai B'; C ; D'.
a/ ChiJng minh id giac AB'C'D' c6 hai goc doi dien la g6c vuong.
hi Diem S lifu tren Ax 1 (ABCD). Chijfng minh mp(AB'C'D') luon luon di qua mot difcfng th^ng
CO dinh va bay diem A; B; B'; C; C ; D; D' cung thuoc mpt mat cau co dinh.
c/ Goi a < Iv la goc tao bdi SC va mp (SAB). Cho ABCD 1^ hinh vu6ng, hay tinh tJ so the
tich gii?a hai hinh chop SAB'C'D' va SABCD.
Giai
a/ Difcrng thang chiifa AB la hinh chieu cua SB tren
day ABCD ma AB 1 BC (gt)
=> SB 1 BC theo dinh ly ba di/cfng vuong goc. C
BC 1 mp (SAB) 3 AB' => BC 1 AB' (1)
Do SC 1 mp (AB'C'D') =^ SC 1 AB' (2)
Tif (1) v^ (2) => AB' 1 mp (SBC)
=^ AB' 1 B'C = D
2
Ttfcrng tif: =
Vay t\ gi^c AB'C'D' co hai goc doi vuong (dpcm).
178
hi Trong m p ( A B C D ) diTng t i f A : dudng t h a n g d 1 A C
=> d CO d i n h
Theo each d u n g => d 1 (SAC) SC => d c: ( A B ' C D ' )
Vay mp(AB'C'D') luon luon d i qua dudng t h i n g d co d i n h t r o n g m p ( A B C D ) .
, jAB' . (SBC) ^ AB' i . B'C
De y :
I A D ' 1 (SCD) -.^ A D ' 1 D'C
Va A C 1 SC (cdch dUng)
=> 7 diem A ; B; B'; C; C ; D ; D ' nSm t r e n mSt cau dUcfng k i n h A C co d i n h (dpcm).
d Vi BC ± m p ( S A B ) nen SB la h i n h chieu cua SC t r e n m p (SAB)
=> la goc tao bai SC va m p ( S A B ) : fiSC = a
Vi ABCD la h i n h vuong nen mp(SAC) la m a t phSng doi xufng cua h i n h chop S A B C D , suy ra:
' SABC = V,SAOC = 2 ^SABCD

Dodo • ^SABCi)' VsABC- SB' S C ^ SB'.SB S C S C SA^ SA'^


VsABci) ~ VsABc SBSC SB^ ' SC^ 'SB'^SC^

Gpi canh h i n h vuong la a, t a m giac vuong SBC cho :

SB = BCcota = acota; = SC =
sina sina
Ap dung d i n h l y Pitago vslo t a m giac vuong SAC cho :
2
S A ' = SC^ - A C ' = ^ -2a' = ^!_(i-2sin2a)= - 4 " •.cos2a
sin'a

"SABCD- cos' 2a
Thay vko (*) duac : (ycbt).
"SABCD COS a

ra. GiAi T OA N T H I
Bai 268 ( D A I H O C M I E N B A C - 1970)

Tren cac canh A B , BC vk C A cua m o t t a m giac A B C , ngUdi ta chon I a n l u g t cac d i e m M ,


AM BN CP
N, P thoa m a n dieu k i e n = k (vdi k la m g t so duong da cho trudc).
MB NC PA
a/ Hay t i n h d i e n t i c h cua t a m giac M N P theo k va S (vdi S la d i e n t i c h cua t a m giac A B C ) .
b/ Tam giac A B C la co d i n h . H a y chon so k sao cho t a m gi^c M N P co d i e n t i c h nho n h a t .

Giai
Goi S,, S2 va S3 theo thuf t u 1^ d i e n t i c h cac t a m giac B M N , C N P , va A M P .
Khi noi A v(Ji N , ta co :

SAABN _ B N BA BN
S /\ABC BC BA BC

BN k
SAAB.N' = -.S
BC AABC - k + 1

BN BN k BN^
vi = k =5
NC BN + N C k + 1 BC
MA MB MB
Mat khac = k MB + MA k + 1 AB
MB
179
s.= M . s A A B N S.
AB k +1 ™ ik + lf
De y thay S i , S2 va S 3 c6 vai tr6 ngang nhau nen
k
S] = S2 = S3 =
(k + 1)^ -s.
Vay dien tich (p(k) cQa tarn giac MNP b^ng :
3k „
(p(k) = S -(Si + S2 + S3) = s -(k + if
(P(k) = 3k .S (1) (ycbt).
(k + 1)^
3k
b/ Dat : flk) = 1
' (k + 1 ) '
^,^^^^3(k + l ) ( k - l ) ^ 3 ( k - l ) «
k =0
( k +1)^ (k-1)^
k ' +00
Ta c6 bang bie'n thien : TxkTH
1
TCf do =i> m i n f ( k ) = f(k)H
k>0 4
<^ min(p(k) = — S k h i k = 1 (ycbt).
k>0 4
B a i 269 ( D A I H O C K H O I B M I E N B A C - 1971)
Cho mot hinh chop t i l giac deu S.ABCD, trong d6 ABCD la mot hinh vuong c6 canh bang a
va SA = SB = SC = SD = a.
a/ Tinh difdng cao va the tich cua hinh chop theo a.
b/ Goi M , N , P theo thtjf txi la trung diem cua cac canh ddy AB, AD va canh ben SC. Mat
p h i n g (MNP) cat cac canh b§n SB va SD theo thuT tif d Q va R. So sAnh cAc doan t h i n g QB
va RD v(Ji SB ?
d Chijfng minh rang mat ph^ng MNP chia hinh ch6p da cho thanh hai phan tifang difang (c6
the tich bang nhau).
Ket qua do con diing nffa khSng k h i : SA = SB = SC = SD it a.
Giai
a/ Do SABCD la hinh chop tOf giac deu nen chan
dUcfng cao H cua hinh chop ha tif S xuong day
ABCD la giao diem cua hai dUcfng cheo hinh
vuong ABCD
Trong hinh vuong ABCD
=.AH=1AC = ^
2 2
Trong tam giac vuong SHA
=> SH = VSA^ - A H ^
180
SH = a2 _ US]
a
2
\

Vay the t i c h V h i n h chop tiT g i i c deu S A B C D l a :

b/ MN cat E C va C D theo thiir t i i d E va F .


Xet 3 t a m gidc v u o n g can bSng n h a u A B M E = AAMN = A D N F

(tuong iJng: B M = A M = A N = D N => B M £ = A M K = A S J M = rJSfP d v i t r i doi d i n h )

=>DF = B E = A M = - A B = -
2 2
Xet Q = P E n S B va R = P F n S D
Trong mat p h l n g ( S C B ) ve P T song song vdi C B .

^ APTQ = A E B Q (BE = PT = - , = va P T ^ = (d v i tri so le t r o n g )


2

QB = Q T = - B T = - S B = - (ycbt)
2 4 4
1 1 a
Chdng m i n h tUcrng t u t a c6 : R D = — S D = — S B = — (ycbt)
4 4 4
=i> QB = R D (ycbt).

c/ Dat S H = h t h i t h e t i c h cua h i n h chop S . A B C D la : V = - a^h (1)


3
Mat p h i n g ( M N P ) chia h i n h chop t h a n h h a i p h l n . Goi V j l a t h e t i c h cua p h a n chila d i n h S
va V2 la the t i c h cua p h a n ke vdi day A B C D . K h i do t a c6 :
V , = V - V2

Vi P la t r u n g d i e m cua SC; Q B = R D = - SB
4

d[P; (ABCD)I = -
2

(i[Q; ( A B C D ) l = i d [ P ; ( A B C D ) l = ^

^P.CEF = g S c E F • ^ " ^ • 2 ^^-^^ =

= A. , C D . D F ) . ( C B . BE) = J L . ^ . ^ = ^
3.4 3.4 2 2 16

*Q.BME + VR.DFN - TT'^BME• T o ° D F N • T


o 4 3 4
a^h
2.3 2.3 2 3.4 2 2 3.16

181
3a\h 8a^h 1 2u
16 = = —a h
3.16 3.16 6
3 6 6
De y suot t r o n g qud t r i n h c h i l n g m i n h V j = V j d t r e n t a da k h o n g sit d u n g gia t h i e t dudng
aV2
cao S H = ; d o n g thcri, cdc doan B E v£k D F cung k h o n g phu thuoc h .
Vay k e t qua v i n d u n g t r o n g t r u d n g hcfp : S A = S B = S C = S D a (dpcm).
B a i 270 ( D A I H O C K H O I A M I E N B A C - 1971)
N g a d i t a muon t i m m o t d i e m G t r o n g mSt p h i n g cua m p t tarn g i i c A B C sao cho moi
ducrng t h i n g d i qua G va n k m t r o n g m a t phSng A B C deu chia t a m giac A B C r a h a i p h i n c6
dien tich bang nhau.
Giai
Gia sijf t o n t a i m o t d i e m G t r o n g m a t p h I n g ciia (ABC) sao cho m o i difdng t h i n g d i qua G
n a m t r o n g m a t p h l n g ( A B C ) deu chia AABC r a h a i p h a n c6 d i e n t i c h bang nhau.
T a l i ? t ke 3 k h a nftng sau de g i a i t o a n .
• T H i : D i e m G c6 t i n h chat t r e n k h o n g the l a mot t r o n g ba d i n h cua AABC va c^c d i e m nkm
ngoai A A B C , v i t i f G t a ke difcfng t h i n g song song v d i mot t r o n g ba canh t h i dif&ng t h i n g do
k h o n g CO h a n m o t d i e m c h u n g vdi AABC.
• T H a : D i e m G t r e n c a n h ; c h i n g h a n BC va G # B va C cua AABC. N o i G v d i A. Do tinh
chat ciia d i e m G t a c6 A G chia doi dien t i c h AABC nen A G p h a i l a dUcfng t r u n g tuyen cua tam
giac A B C ; t h a t vay :
Neu : S ^ B o = ^ h , . B G = S,AGC = ^h-i.GC B G = GC.
L a y K la t r u n g d i e m cua A B , n o i G v d i K G K la t r u n g t u y e n ciia AGAB.
A A
=> SMK-.K = S\GKA = — S\GAB. dieu nay mSu t h u a n v d i t i n h chat cua d i e m G va K G khong
chia doi d i e n t i c h AABC.
=> D i e m G k h o n g t h e n l m t r e n ba canh cua t a m gidc A B C .
• TH3 : D i e m G n k m t r o n g AABC. N o i G v d i A , G v d i B (keo dai).
jAGnBC =K i
^ |BG n AC = K2
Do t i n h c h a t cua d i e m G n e n theo T H 2 A K i va B K 2 la h a i dudng t r u n g tuyen cua t a m giac
A B C , do do G l a t r o n g t a m cua t a m giac A B C . TCr G ke difdng song song v d i BC c l t A B t a i M
va A C t a i N .
182
Ta CO : S(AMN) = — MN.hi = MN.h2 (hjla dtfdng cao ciia tarn giac A M N , h 2 \k dUcfng cao
2
ciia hinh thang M B C N )

S(MBCN) = - ( M N + BO.ha = - ( M N + - M N ) . h 2 = - MN.hj


2 2 2 4
Thanh thCf S ( M B C N ) > S ( A M N ) . Bieu nay mau thuan vdi tinh chat cua diem G . Do d6
diem G khong nkm trong tam giac A B C .
Vay khong ton tai diem G c6 tinh chat noi tren (ycbt).
Bai 271 ( D A I H O C K H O I A - 1972 - MIEN BAC)

Cho mot khoi tiir dien deu ABCD c6 cac canh bang a. NgiTcri ta lay cAc trung diem(diem
giiJa) A' cua canh AB, B' ciia cac canh AC, C cua canh CD, D' cua canh BD.
a/ Chijfng minh rSng A'B'C'D' la hinh vuong.
hi Tinh the tich ciia khoi DAA'B'C'D' theo a. Neu thay doi dau bai bSng c^ch lay cAc diem A''
a
B', C, D' theo thur t u tren cac dean AB, AC, CD, BD sac cho AA' = AB' = D C = DD' =
2n

(n la mot so thiTc difang cho skn ^ — ) thi the tich cua khoi DAA'B'C'D' se bang bao nhieu ?
2
Giai
a
a/ Taco A B ' // B C va A B ' = 1 B C =
2 2
a
DC // B C va D C = 1 B C =
2 2
a
B C // A D va B C = 1 A D =
2 2
a
A'D' // A D va A ' D ' = i A D =
2 2
_J)ojd6_AB'CD' la hinh thoi; ma (AB'; A'D')
= (BC; AD) = 9 0 " (vi cac canh doi dien cua tiif
dien deu thi vuong goc nhau)
Vay thiet dien A'B'C'D' la mot hinh vuong (ycbt).
hi De y A', B', C va D' Ian lUcft 1^ trung diem cua AB, AC, CD va BD nen thiet dien A B C D '
chia khoi tiif dien ABCD thanh hai phan tUcfng duang trong do 1 phan la khoi da dien
DAA'B'C'D', (CO the tich bang nhau).
V
Gpi V la the tich ciia khoi tiJt dien ABCD thi the tich ciia khoi DAA'B'C'D' bang — , trong

do ; V = - dt(ABCD).AH (APi chieu cao cua t i i dien)


3

a^Va
dt(ABDC) = - B C . D M = - a . — (M la trung diem B C )
2 2 2
Ta CO :

AH = VAD^ - DH^ = a^-

183
Vay the tich VQ khfi'i da di^n D A A ' B ' C ' D ' la:
V
Khi AA' = AB' = D C = DD' =
2n
AA' AB' DC DD'
AB AC DC DB 2n
thi ( A B C D ) chia tuf dien ABCD ra \km 2 phan, ma 1 phan la khoi da dien DAA'B'C'D'.
AN
Dg y goi N e AD sao cho , t h i (A'B'N)//(D'C'D).
AD 2n
Dung AH la dUdng cao tuf dien ABCD t h i AH ^ (AB'C'D') = H'
AH' 1
=> AH' la dUcfng cao tuf dien AA'B'N va = .
AH 2n
Luc do : khoi da dien DAA'B'C'D've mat the tich ta dugc:
the tich VQ cua no bang t6ng the tich cQa the tich hinh chop
AA'B'N va the tich ISng tru D'C'D.A'B'N.
' A.AU'X 1 ^
'ABCD
Trong do :
dt(,AA'B'N)
dt(ABCD) v2n.
( 1
.V A B C D
2n
(2)
^2 - VD'CD.A-B'X ' .dt(ABCD).H'H
,2n
1 a'^Vs iVe 1 aVe) 3>^(2n l)a^
3 2n 3 96n''
3
^.a V2(3n -1)
Vay : VQ = Vj + V2 = ^ f l + 3(2n - 1)1 = .a"^ (ycbt).
96n^ 48n''
Bai 272 (DAI HOC Y - NHA - DLfdC - 1977)
Trong mat phang (P), xet mot dUdng tron (C) difdng kinh AB = 2R va mot day cung MN
vuong goc \di AB tai H. Dat B A M = a vdi 0 < U < — ; Ax la dUcfng t h i n g vuong goc vdfi (P)
2
tai A. Tren Ax lay mot diem S sao cho AS = R.
a/ Tinh the tich ciia hinh chop S.AMBN theo R va a.
hi Xac dinh a de the tich hinh chop S.BMN bang 3 Ian the tich hinh chop S.AMN.
184
Giai
a/ The t i c h V cua h i n h chop S . A M B N l a :

V= i d t ( A M B N ) X SA (1)
3
Trong do : d t ( A M B N ) = d t ( A B N ) + d t ( A B M )
dt(AMBN) = 2dt(ABM)
(vi M , N doi xufng qua A B )

dt(AMBN) = 2 X - AB X M H
2
=> d t ( A M B N ) = 2R X A M s i n a
=> d t ( A M B N ) = 2R X A B cosa.sina
=> d t ( A M B N ) = 2R^ ( 2 s i n a cosa) = 2R^sin2a

1 2R'^
V = - X 2R^sin2u x R = s i n 2 a (ycbt).
3 3
hi Xet : V ( S . B M N ) = - d t ( B M N ) x SA = - x i M N x B H x SA
3 3 2

=> V ( S A M N ) = - dt( A M N ) x SA = - x - M N x A H x S A
3 3 2
V(SBMN) = 3V(SAMN) » B H = 3AH

AH = ^
BH AH BH + AH AB R 2
3 ~ 1 ~ 3+ 1 ~ 4 ~ 2 ~ 3R
BH =

AH AH 1
Ma A M = A B cosa = « cos^ a =
= —
cosa AB 4
1 „ n ^ n ,
o cosa = — ( v i O < a < — ) = > a = — (ycbt).
2 2 3
Bai 273 ( D A I HOC B A C H K H O A - T O N G HCfP - K H O I A - 1977)
Cho mot h i n h chop tiif giac deu S.ABCD (S la d i n h ) . Cat h i n h chop ay b a n g m o t mSt
phSng k h o n g song song v d i m a t day. M a t p h l n g nay cat cac canh ben SA, SB, SC, C D Ian liXcrt
tai cac diem M , N , P, Q; M P va N Q cat nhau t a i L. D a t S M = a, S N = b, SP = c, SQ = d, SL = I,
^ = a (SH l a difdng cao ciia h i n h chop S.ABCD).
1/Tinh dien t i c h t a m giac S M P theo a, c, a.

21 Chufng m i n h he thijfc : — + — = .
a c /

3/ Chufng m i n h he thiJc : — + — = — + — .
a c b d
Giai
1/ Do h i n h chop SABC deu, n e n day A B C D la m o t h i n h v u o n g va dacfng cao S H l a true cua
dudng t r o n ngoai t i e p h i n h vuong A B C D . Do do H l a t a m ciia h i n h v u o n g A B C D .
Mat khac: S H = (SBD) ^ (SAC).

185
^> Q N r^ M P = L e SH.
dt(ASMP) = i SM.SP.sin KiSt'
2
= — SM.SP.sin2a = — acsin2a = acsina.cosa (ycbt).
2 2
21 X e t h e t h ^ c : l + i = ^ ^ (1)
a c I
a + c 2cosa a + c 2cosasina
o = <=> = (a 0)
ac / ac /sina
<t=> a/sina + d s i n a = 2acsinacosa = acsin2a
a/sina c/sina acsin2a
2 2 2
« d t ( A S M L ) + dt(ASLP) = dt(ASMP) (2) : (luon dung)
1 1 2cosa ,
=> — H — = (dpcm).
a c /
O G h i c h i i : Doc gid c6 the dung phuang phdp dien tich.
3/ Ly luan nhif cau 2/ vori cac t a m giac SQL, S L N va SQN, ta difcfc :
1 1 2cosa
(3)
b ^ d"^ }
Tif (2) va (3) suy r a : — + - = — + — (dpcm).
a c b d
Bai 274 (DAI HOC BACH KHOA - 1987)
Cho m o t h i n h sau canh l o i A B C D E F v d i cac d i n h n a m t r e n difdng t r o n co d i n h t a m O ban
k i n h R, ngoai r a A B = C D = E F ; BC = D E = FA. Dat A B = a, BC = b, i C O B = 2a, ^OC = 2p.
1/ T i m h§ thufc l i e n he giCa a, b, a, p, t i f do suy r a r a n g :
aV3 ^ „ bV3
tana = — ; tanp =
a + 2b b + 2a
2/ T i n h dien t i c h S ciia h i n h t r e n theo R va a. Cho biet giA t r i Idn n h a t co the co cua S va y
nghia h i n h hoc. V d i gia t r i nao ciia a t h i S = .
4
3/ T i n h chu v i P cua h i n h t r e n theo R va a. Cho biet gia t r j \dn n h a t co the co ciia P va y
nghia h i n h hoc.
4/ T i m he thufc giOfa a, b va dUa t r e n he thufc nay t i m l a i k e t qua d cau 3/.
Giai A F
1/ De y : 3(2a + 2p) = 2:1 => a + P = - (1)
3
— = Rsina
2
Ta CO : • => b s i n a = asinp
- = Rsinp
2
186
n
<=> bsina = a s i n a do(l)
u
V3 1 .
<=> bsina = a cos a sin a
2 2

o {2b + a)sina = a Vs cosa (yebt) <=> tana = (dpcm).


2b + a

Hoan toan tuang tif ta tinh difac : tanp = . (dpcm)


2a + b
f 1 1
2/ Ta CO ; S = 3(S,VVOB + SABOC) = 3 - sin 2a + - s i n 2(3
v2 2

3R^
=> S = ( s i n 2 a + s i n 2(3) = 3R^sin(a + (i)cos(a - p)

3V3 ^ 2
S=3R2.^COS 2a - (2)
3j

a = —
6
Uau dang thufc trong (2) xay ra <=> cos ^ 2 a - ^ ^ = 1 <=>
3j

Vay : S„«, = R^ , tUOng ufng a = (? = - (ycbt).


2, 6
Vay t r o n g c a c h i n h 6 c a n h n o i t i e p t r o n g di/dng t r o n t r e n t h i h i n h c6 d i e n t i c h Idn n h a t l a
hinh luc giac deu.

- , o sR^Ve 3V3 „ 2 sR^Ve


^2a-^^
Tong quat xet : S = <=> .R'^ cos

71
«> cos 2 a = <=> cos 2 a = COS —
3j 2 3j 4

2a = ^ ^ 2P = ^ •
<=> a = p = — (ycbt).
2 a = — => 2p = —
12 12
3/ P = 3(a + b) = 3(2Rsina + 2RsinP) = 6R(sina + sinp)
71
P= 6 R . 2 s i n ^ ^ c o s ^ ^ = 6Rcos a ;6R (3)
2 2 6
^ 7:^
Dau dang thufc trong (3) xay ra <=> COS a - = ! < = > « = —

Vay ?,„,, = 6R « a = p = -
b
Vay t r o n g c a c h i n h l u c g i ^ c n g i t i e p t r o n g dUdng tr6n t r e n t h i h i n h l u c gidc d e u la h i n h c6
chu vi l(Jn n h a t (ycbt).

187
T a CO : a'^ + + ab = (a + bf - ab = (a + b)^ [{a + b)^ - (a -b)^]
4
a^* + b^ + ab = -ia + hf +-(a-hf = SR^*
4 4
« -(a + hf =3R2 - i ( a - b ) 2 <3R^
4 4
=^ (a + b)^ ^ (4) (ycbt).
Dau d i n g thiJc t r o n g (4) xay r a <=> a - b = 0 hay a = b.
Vay max(a + b) = 2 R <=> m a x P = 6 R tUOng i l n g a = b.
Do do ta t h a y l a i k e t qua d cau c) (ycbt).
B a i 275 ( D A I H O C N O N G L A M - 1994)
Cho m o t d i e m M co d i n h ben t r o n g goc t a m d i e n vuong Oxyz. M o t mp(P) qua M cat cdc
canh cua t a m d i e n Ox; Oy; Oz, theo thuf tU t a i A ; B; C. K h o a n g each tii M t d i cac m i t Oyz;
Oxz; Oxy theo thuT tiS la a; b ; c.
a/ C h i i n g m i n h A A B C k h o n g p h a i la t a m giac vuong.
b/ T i n h O A ; O B ; OC theo a; b ; c de t h e t i c h tiJ dien O A B C nho n h a t .
c/ T i n h OA; O B ; OC theo a; b ; c de t o n g OA + OB + OC nho n h a t .
Giai
aJ SIJT d u n g phep chufng m i n h p h a n chutng.
Gia siJ AABC v u o n g t a i A => B A 1 C A (1)
M a CO ± m p ( B A O ) => CO 1 B A (2)
Tir (1) va ( 2 ) B A 1 m p (CAO) ( 3 )
Ma BO ± mp(CAO) (4)
Tii ( 3 ) va (4) cho t h a y : qua B co h a i difdng t h i n g
phan b i e t cung v u o n g goc vdi m p ( C A O ) t a i O (v6 l i ) .
Vay dieu gia suf A A B C vuong t a i A la sai (dpcm).
V d i cac goc k h a c cung chiifng m i n h t u o n g t i i .
N g h i a la A A B C k h o n g p h a i la t a m giac vuong (dpcm).
b/ VoAHC = - A O . d t (ABOC) = - A O . - BO.CO = - AO.BO.CO
3 3 2 6
'0A1«. = V.M.BAO + V .M.CAO + V M.Uf)€
» - O A . O B . O C = - c.dtA(BAO) + - b.dtA(CAO) + - a.dtA(BOC)
6 3 3 3
188
» -OA.BO.CO= ic.AO.BO+ -b.AO.CO+ -a.BO.CO
6 6 6 6
c b a
<=> 1 = + + (5)
CO BO AO

Dg y r a n g : VQABC = ^ A O . B O . C O = ^ abc. ^
6 6 a b c
OA OB OC

Ap dung B D T Cauchy cho ba so duang va sOf dung (5); t a c6 :


a
a bD c c
a b c OA ^ O B ^QC
OA OB O C 3

=> V o A B c ^ T ^ a b c - — = —abc.-— = —abc (6)


D ^3 6 J _ 2
a b c
• +O B +O C 27
OA

Dau bat d i n g thuTc t r o n g (6) xay r a k h i vsk c h i k h i :


f A 0 = 3a
B 0 = 3b
AO BO C O
C O = 3c

0 A = 3a
(6) 9
Do do m i n V = — abc ; taong iifng : O B = 3 b (ycbt).
2
O C = 3c

d Theo B D T Bunhiacovsky t a c6 :

a b c
(Va + Vb + Vc j < (OA + O B + OC) = O A + O B + OC
, 0 A • + O B +O-C J

Do do : m i n ( O A + O B + OC) = ( Va + Vb + Vc )^ xay r a k h i v ^ c h i k h i :

rz
VOA
( A
\ B O
rr
V C O

VoA VBO VCO

-y/b Vc Va+Vb+Vc Va+Vb+Vc

OA OB OC AO+BO + CO (V^ + V b + V c f Va+Vb+Vc

A O = A/a(Va + -y/b + Vc)

<=> • B O = Vb (Va + Vb + Vc) (ycbt).

C O = Vc(Va + Vb + Vc)
B a i 276 (DAI HOC Y DLfOC TP.HCM - PB - 1996)
Cho hinh chop S.ABCD day ABCD la hinh chCr nhat vdi AB = a, AD = b. Canh AS = 2a
cua hinh chop vuong goc vtJi day. Goi M la diem tren canh AS, vdi A M = x; (0 < x < 2a).
1/ Mat phang (MBC) cat hinh ch6p theo thiet dien gi ? Tinh dien tich thiet dien Hy.
21 Xac dinh x de mat phang (MBC) chia hinh chop ra hai phan vdi the tich b i n g nhau.
Giai
1/ Goi : N = (MBC) r> (SD)
JMN = (SAD)n(MBC)
^ [AD//EC
^ MN//AD//BC
=> MNCB la hinh thang.
Mat khac, ta c6 : AD 1 (SAB)
=> AD ± BM
r:> M N 1 BM; BC 1 BM;
BM?T = C B ^ = -
2
Vay mat ph^ng (MBC) cat hinh ch6p theo thiet dien la hinh thang MNCB vuong tai M va
B. (ycbt)
B M = V A M ^ + AB^ = Va^ + x^
Ta CO : {
M N SM SM.AD (2a - x)b
M N =
AD SA SA 2a
f(2a-x)b
+ b
2a
Va^ + x ^ ( 4 a - x)b
(ycbt).
MNCB 4a
2/ Trong mat phSng (SAB), ta ditog : SO 1 BM
Suy ra : SO 1 (MNCB) tai O.
SO SM
Ta CO : ASOM &o ABAM
AB BM
^_ AB.SM a(2a - x)
SO = SO =
BM , „2
/a + X
Khi do, the" tich hinh ch6p S.MNBC la :
V = A SO S - ^^^^ Va^ + x ^ ( 4 a - x)b
S.MNCB 3' • MNCB 4a
b(2a - x)(4a - x)
V
S.MNCB
12
The tich hinh chop S.ABCD la: V„ = - .SA. S = ,
S.ABCD 3 ABCD 3
190
Xet • V = V

b(2a - x)(4a - x) 2a^b


o = ; (0 < X ^ 2a)
12 6
o ,2 . ( 0 < x < 2 a )
( 4 a - x ) ( 2 a - x ) = 43^^;

o x ^ - 6 a x + 4 a ^ = 0 ; (0 < x ^ 2a) (c6 : A' = 5a^ > 0 )

X] = 3 a - aVs : thoa 0 < x < 2a

X2 = 3 a + aVs : k h o n g t h o a 0 < x < 2 a

Vay vori : x = a ( 3 - VS) t h i y c b t d u g c t h o a .

Bai 2 7 7 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - K I I O I A - 1 9 9 7 )

Cho h i n h c h o p S . A B C D c6 d a y A B C D l a h i n h v u o n g c a n h b a n g a, c a n h S A 1 ( A B C D ) v a c6
dp dai S A = a. M o t m a t p h a n g d i q u a C D c a t cac c a n h S A , S B I a n l i / a t a M , N . D a t A M = x .
l/TijT giac M N C D l a h i n h g i ? T i n h d i $ n t i c h tuf g i a c M N C D t h e o a, x .
2
2/ Xac d i n h gia t r i c u a x d e t h e t i c h c u a h i n h c h o p S . M N C D bang - I a n t h e t i c h h i n h ch6p

S.ABCD.

Hvtdng dan
Tirang t i f , k h i x e m D e D A I H O C Y D l / O C - P B - 1 9 9 6 .
Doc g i a CO t h e t h a y B bang D ; A D = a ; S A = a se d e d a n g c6
iMc :
1/ M N C D l a h i n h t h a n g v u o n g t a i M ; D ( y c b t ) .

SMNCD = ^ ( 2 a - x)Va^ + x^ (ycbt).

21 X e t : VgMNCD - g VgABCD

2
<=> X = — a (ycbt).
o
Bai 278 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - K H O I A - 1 9 9 7 )

Tren cac c a n h ciia goc t a m d i e n v u o n g O x y z l a y cac d i e m : A e O x v a O A = a > 0 ; B e O y v a


OB = b > 0 ; C e O z v a O C = c > 0. K e O H 1 m p ( A B C ) ,
a/ ChiJng m i n h A A B C c6 cac g 6 c d e u n h o n v a H l a t r U c t a m A A B C .
b/ Chijrng m i n h : ( d t A A B C ) ^ = ( d t ABAO)'"^ + ( d t A C A O ) ^ + ( d t A B O C ) ^

d Gpi M ; N ; P t h e o t h a tif l a t r u n g d i e m A B ; B C ; C A . C h u f n g m i n h b o n m a t c u a til d i e n


POMN la cac t a m g i a c b k n g n h a u . T i n h t h e t i c h cua n o t h e o a; b ; c.
il Cho A ; B ; C c h a y t r e n c a c c a n h c i i a g o c t a m d i e n n h i m g v S n t h o a m a n d i e u k i § n : a^ + b ^
+ = ( k > 0 c h o t r a d e ) . K h i n a o t h i A A B C c6 d i e n t i c h I d n n h S ' t ? C h i J n g m i n h r a n g k h i d o
thi dean O H c u n g d a i n h a t .

Giai
a/ Tuong t i f d e D H N O N G L A M - K H O I A - 1 9 9 4 . (dpcm)

191
dt(ABAO) = —ab => (dtABAO)^ = - a ^ b ^ (1)
2 4
1
b/ dt(ACAO) = —ab => (dtACAO)^ = -a^c^ (2)
2 4
dt(ABOC) = —ab => (dtAB0C)2 = Il bl ^ c ^ (3)
2 4
Cong (1) + (2) + (3) theo ve ta c6 :
(dtABAO)^ + (dtACAO)' + (dtABOC)^ = - ( a V + a^c^ + b V ) (4)
4
Mat khac : dt(AABC) = - BC.AI
2
=> (dtAABC)^ = - B C l A I ^ = - (b^ + c^XAO^ + OI^)
4 4
Trong tam giac vuong BOC cho :
2„2
b=^C
1 1 1
O I ^ " OB^ ^ OC^ b^ c2
2„2
2 b^c
Do do : (dtAABC)^ = -(b^+ c^) a + = - ( a V + a V + bV)
4 b^+c=^ 4
So sanh (4) va (5) (dpcm).
c/ Tam giac vuong BOA cho : MO = ^ AB = PN
N O = - BC = P M
2
Ttfang tu : (dpcm).
PO = - A C = M N
2
Ta CO : AMNP oo AABC => dtAMNP = - dtAABC
4
Tur dien OMNP va tuf dien OABC c6 cung ducrng cao OH nen :
'OMNP = - .OH.dt A M N P = - O H . - dtAABC = - V,OABC
VQABC
OABC = -g OA.dt ABOC = -a.~
3 2 BO.CO = -6 abc
=> V o M N P = — abc (yebt).
d/ Theo BDT Bunhiacovky : a^b^ + b^c^ + c^a^ < a^ + b " + c" (*)
Mat khac : ( a^ + b^ + c 2 )2 = a" + b ^ c" + 2{a^h^ + ah^ + b^c^)
« k^= a^b"+cn2(a2b2+b2c2+cV)
k^ ^ 3( a^b^ + b^c^ + c^a^) = 12 (dtAABC)^ [theo (5)]
<=> dt AABC <
192
Dau ddng thufc t r o n g (6) xay r a <=> a = b = c

dtAABC Idrn n h a t => max (dtAABC) = (ycbt).


2V3
Cac tarn giac vuong O A I va BOC cho :
1 1 1 1 1 1
OH^ OA^ OV Ol2
+ OC^

=> = ^ + 4r + -4- > 3.3/ „ \ ( B D T Cauchy)


OH^ a'
2„2

Ta cung c6 : a^ + b^ + > 3. > / a V c ^

1 1
^OHU -(a' + b ' + c') = ~ => O H ^ - k (7)
9 9 3

Dau dang thiifc t r o n g (7) xay r a k h i <=> a = b = c => k h i do O H dai n h a t t u o n g litng v d i d t


AABC Idn n h a t (dpcm).
Bai 279 (CAO D A N G K I N H T E D O I N G O A I CP - 1999)

Cho h i n h vuong A B C D canh bang a. I la t r u n g diem A B . Qua I dOng du&ng vuong goc v d i
mat phSng ( A B C D ) va t r e n do lay d i e m S sao cho 2IS = a V s .
1/ ChuTng m i n h r a n g tarn giac S A D la t a m giac vuong.
2/Tinh the" t i c h h i n h chop S.ACD r o i suy r a k h o a n g each tiT C den m a t p h l n g (SAD).

Giai
SI 1 (ABCD) ^ SI 1 AD
1/ Xet: AD 1 (SAB) ^ AD 1 SA
AB 1 AD

=> A S A D vuong t a i A (dpcm).

2/Ta CO : = \I = ^ . ^ . a ^ ^ = ^ (ycbt).

Goi h la k h o a n g each liT C den m a t phSng (SAD). K h i do :

(1)

Ma : SsAi) = - .SA.AD
2

QA 1^^ Sa^ T
Vdi : SA = J — + = a o 1 2

AD = a

Khid6:^ h = 3 . ^ . ^ = ^ ( y e b t ) .

193
B a i 280 (DAI HOC QUOC GIA TP.HCM - KHOI A - D d T 1 - 1999)
Cho hinh chop t a m giac S.AIBC c6 day ABC la t a m giac deu canh a, SA -L (ABC) va SA = a. M la
mot d i e m t h a y doi t r e n canh A B . D a t = a, ha S H vuong goc v d i dadng t h i n g C M .
1/ T i m quy t i c h d i e m H . Suy r a gia t r i I d n n h a t ciia the t i c h tuf d i ^ n S A H C .
2/ H a A I i SC, A K 1 S H . T i n h do dai SK, A K va the t i c h tuf d i e n S A K I .
Giai
1/ Goi N la chan difcrng cao ke t i f S t r o n g t a m giac SBC, ta c6 :
B C _L ( S A N ) => BC 1 A N (1)
Ta CO : SH i . M C => M C 1 (SAH) => A H 1 H C
(1), (2) ==> H luon n h i n AC dudri mot goc vuong.
M = A ^ H A
Nhan thay :
M HE B ^ H = N
Doc gia tiT l a m p h a n dao, t h i t a c6 :
Quy t i c h d i e m H l a cung A N thuQc ducfng
t r o n dacrng k i n h AC (ycbt).
The t i c h tuT d i e n S A H C l a :
'SAHC = - S A . A C . H H ' = - a ^ H H '
6 6
(vdi i r la chan dUcrng cao ha tir H t r o n g .AAHC)
Suy r a : maxCVg^Hc) maxCHH')
<=> H l a t r u n g d i e m AC
K h i d o : (VsAHc)n (ycbt).
12
AH
2/ T a c6 : • sina = A H = asina
AC
. S H - VSA^ + AH^ = aVl + sin^a
• SsAH = - S A . A H = 4 S H . A K
2
SA.AH a .sma a.sma
AK = (ycbt).
a V l + sin^a V l + sin^a
S K = VSA^ - A K ^ = (ycbt).
sin" a
T r o n g A S H C , dUng I J 1 S H I J // C H
ASAC cantai A
Ma SI = I C I J = - C H = ia.cosa
AIISC 2 2
M a t khac : C H 1 ( S A H ) => I J 1 (SAK).
194
Vay the tich hinh chop SAKI 1^ :
1 a.(sina)a
V<SAKI = - i ' J - ^ S A K = T 7 : ^ - C 0 S a . - —r—
i 12 1 + sin a
a^(sin2a)
^ VsAKi = — — i — (dvtt).
2 4 ( l + sin^a)
Bai 281 (DAI HOC MY THUAT CONG NGHE - 1999)
Cho tijf dien ABCD c6 canh AB = x, ode canh con lai bSng a.
1/ Tinh dien tich toan phan ciia t i l di$n theo a, x.
2/ Tinh the tich khoi tuf dien theo a, x. Vdi gia t r i nao cua x t h i the tich d6 dat gia t r i \dn nhS't.
Giai

1/Goi H la trung diem AB, theo t i n h chS't tarn giac can CHIAB
DHIAB
Ta CO : AB = x; DA = DB = DC = AC = BC = a
A A D C = A B C D (do hai tarn giac deu canh a)
Nen
ADAB = ACAB

S
J^ADC S
- &BCD - —;;— (1)
(i)

Ta CO : C H = VAC^ - AH^

= -V4a2-x2

= SCAB = ^ C H . A B = ~ x^Aa'^ - (2)

Tif(l)&(2)=>Stp= - a^ V3 + xV4a2 - x^ (ycbt).

21 Goi O la hinh chieu cua D xuong mSt ph^ng (ABC).


Do : AD = DB = DC = a => OA = OB = OC
=> DO la true ducrng tron ngoai tiep AABC.
DO hien nhien la dircfng cao ti3 dien DABC.
Goi I la trung diem DC. Ta c6 : DH = HC => ADHC can => H I l DC

Khi do : H I = VHC^ - IC^ = ^

Tif; Si„ic = - DO.HC = - HI.DC


2 2

3a^
HI.DC
D0 = DO = 4
HC a^-x^ 4a^ - x^

V- XT ^nnc 1 a.Vsa^ - x^ yi.^^aT^


Vay : VABCD = - D O . S A B C =
4a^ - x^

195
VABCD = -^axVsa^ - (ycbt); (0 < x < aVs )
A p dung B D T Cauchy, t a c6 :
l2
2 2 2
x^+Oa^-x^) a^ 9a^
^ABCD - (3)
144 144 144 4
(4)
8
aVe
Dau d i n g thijfc t r o n g (3) va (4) x a y r a <=> x^ = 3a^ - x^ <=> x =
a^ aVe
Vay : max(VABci)) = — tifcfng uTng x = — — - (ycbt).
8 2
B a i 282 ( D A I H O C H U E - 1999)
Cho tuf d i e n A B C D c6 ba c a n h A B , A C , A D vuong goc v d i n h a u t i l n g doi m o t va A B = a,
A C = 2a, A D = 3a. H a y t i n h d i e n ti'ch t a m giac B C D theo a.
Htfdtng d a n
G o i h l a dp d a i dirdng cao c u a t i l d i e n v u o n g of A v a k e tiJ A t h i d a c h i l n g m i n h difoc :
1 1 1 , 6
=> h = — a.
AB^ AC^ + 4a^ 9a^ 7
The t i c h h i n h tuT d i e n : V = - A B . A C . A D = a^
6
3V 7a^
Do d6: d i e n t i c h A B C D \k : S = (ycbt).
h 2
B a i 283 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - K H O I A - D O T 1 - 2000)
Cho h i n h chop t i l giac S.ABCD c6 day la h i n h t h a n g A B C D vuong t a i A va D; A B = A D = a;
CD = 2a. Canh ben SD vuong goc vdti mat phSng ( A B C D ) ; SD = a.
1/ C h i l n g m i n h rkng t a m giac SBC v u o n g . T i n h d i e n t i c h t a m giac SBC.
2/ T i n h k h o a n g each tii d i e m A den m a t p h i n g (SBC).
Giai
1/ Goi E l a t r u n g d i e m cua C D . Do t i n h chat h i n h
t h a n g vuong A B C D , suy r a :
BD = B C => E B 1 D C , E B = - DC = a
2
( t r u n g t u y e n b k n g nijfa canh huyen)
=> A D B C v u o n g t a i B .
Theo d i n h l y ba dUcfng vuong goc
=> S B J- B C (vi B C 1 S D , B C ± B D )
=> A S B C vuong t a i B (dpcm).
Luc do d i e n t i c h S ciia A S B C l a :
S = - S B . B C = - V S D ^ + DB^.(EB.V2) =-^la^ + (aSf (aV2) = ^ a ^ (ycbt).
196
2/ Ha A H 1 ( S B C ) t a i H => h = A H = d[A; (SBC)]

1 Ve a^h
The t i c h V cua h i n h chop A . S B C l a : V = - . S . h = —a'^.h = (1)
3 3 2
Mat khac t h e t i c h V cung l a t h e t i c h h i n h chop S . A B C

V = — . S A B C - S D = — .(SABCD - Si)Ac)a
o o

Sa' 2 1 a' a'


a a = —. — .a = — (2)
3 3 2 6

a^h a'
So sanh (1) va (2); t a c6 : h =

Vay : d[A; (SBC)l = ^ (ycbt).

Bai 284 (FDAI H O C S U P H A M H A N O ! - K H O I A - 2000)


Trong k h o n g gian cho cac diem A ; B; C theo thijf t u thuoc cac t i a Ox; Oy; Oz vuong goc v d i
nhau tirng doi m o t , sao cho OA = a (a > 0); OB = a V2 ; OC = c ( c > 0). Goi D l a d i n h doi dien
vdi 0 cua h i n h chCf n h a t A O B D va M la t r u n g difim cua doan BC. (P) l a m a t p h i n g d i qua A M
va cat m a t p h ^ n g (OCD) theo m o t dUdng t h a n g vuong goc v d i difctng t h S n g A M .
1/ Goi E la giao diem ciia (P) vdi ducmg t h ^ n g OC. T i n h do dai doan t h a n g OE.
21 Tinh t i so thfe t i c h cua h a i k h o i da d i e n duac tao t h a n h k h i cat k h o i h i n h chop C.AOBD b d i
mat phang (P).
3/ Tinh k h o a n g each tii d i e m C den m a t p h a n g (P).

Giai
1/ Goi N la t r u n g d i e m O B ; P la t a m h i n h chijf
nhat A B C D .

Xet he toa dp : • O A ; AD = (ADO)

f a^ ]
AN =
Ta c6:

D O = (-aV2; a)

(aS
AN.DO = {-ay/2) + a.a = 0

AN 1 DO tai R (1)
Ma : M N 1 D O
(vi M N / / C O 1 ( O B D A ) 3 OD) (2)
T i r ( l ) va (2) cho : D O J_ A M
Lai t h a y : EQ 1 A M v d i :
EQ = (P) n (OCD) ^ EQ // OD

197
Tinh chat dudng trung binh cho : MP = — AC.
Goi : F = (P) n CP ta c6 : AFCA t/J AFPM
FC
OE = - O C
FP MP OE 3
FC
m a ^ = ^ . Vay:OE=|(ycbt).
II Dat : Q = (P) ^^ CD. Thi§'t di$n ma (P) cat hinh ch6p C.AOBD se chia hinh ch6p C.AOBD
thsknh hai kho'i da dien.
VcAEQ CA C E CQ 2 2 4
Vc.AOD C A C O C D "as 9
Dey :
Vc.MEQ _ CM CE CQ 1 2 2 2
Vc.BOD CB •CO •CD 2 •3 •3 9
1
Vi : Vc.OAD = Vc.BOD = — Vc.OABD
A (goc)
'C.AEQ + V,C . M E Q • ~ - Vc.OABD
9^9
=> Vc.AEQ + VcMEQ = -r .Vc.OABD
o
Vay ty so the tich cua hai khoi da dien do mat phing ( P ) c^t hinh ch6p C.OABD tao
thanh la : - hoac 3 (ycbt).
3
O G h i chii : Bgc gid c6 the xem each gidi khdc d TUYEN TAP 500 BAI TOAN HINH HOC
GIAI TICH eua eung nhom tdc gid.
3/ Ha CK ± AM tai K => CK = d[C; (P)].
D6c gid tif chon phuong dn t i n h CK => (ycbt).
B a i 285 ( H O C V I E N N G A N H A N G - P H A N V I E N T P . HCM - Khoi B - 2000)
Cho hinh chop til giac deu S.ABCD c6 day la hinh vuong ABCD canh a, dudng cao SO = h.
1/ Tinh theo a va h ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh ch6p.
2/ Tinh theo a v a h dien tich toan phan cua hinh chop, tif d6 tinh ban kinh mat cau n6i tifi'p
hinh chop.
Giai
1/ Hinh ch6p S.ABCD deu SA = SB = SC = SD
S O la true dudng t r o n A B C D
^ |SOI(ABCD)
Ttf trung diem M cua canh SB dong mat phIng trung trUc (a) cua canh SB (a) n SO = I
Luc do I la tam mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop S.ABCD va c6 ban kinh R = SI.
SI _ SM SM.SB
ASOB <n ASMI => SI =
SB " SO SO
198
SB^ f , SB^
SI = VI: SM =
2.S0 2 J
SO^+OB^
SI =
2h

aV2

2h 4h

Vay : R = (ycbt).
4h
2/ Gpi J la t r u n g d i e m canh A D t h i t r u n g doan
SJ la : -7 I
A r
SJ =
4 2

p h a n Stp l a cu : S,p = + 4( -- .AD.SJ)


2

=> S,,p = a ' + 4, — . a - = a|a + V a ^ i - 4 h " j (ycbt)


V2 2
So sanh h a i the t i c h V ciia h i n h chop :

V = -Bh
ah
3 r- — - (ycbt).
V = A rS ^^"^ V a " + 4 h - ) a + Va^ + 4h^
3 •

DE Tl/dNG T I /
Bai 286 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - K H O I A , B - 1997)
Day h i n h chop S A B C D l a h i n h vuong, canh a, SA 1 ( A B C D ) va SA = a. M p qua C D cSt
SA, SB t a i M , N . D a t M A = x
a/ T i m dien t i c h t h i e t d i e n .

b/ T i m X de the t i c h h i n h chop S M N C D b a n g | the t i c h h i n h chop S A B C D .

Htfofng d a n : a/ S = - ( M N + C D ) M D = - (2a - x) V x ^ T a ^ hi x = - a.
2 2 3
Bai 287 ( D A I H O C D O N G D O H A N O I - K H O I A - 1998)
Canh day h i n h chop t a m giac deu bSng a, goc tao b d i mSt ben Va day b a n g 60°.
a/ T i m the t i c h va S,p h i n h chop.
b/ T i m t i so the t i c h h a i p h a n cua h i n h chop do m a t p h i n g p h a n giac ciia goc n h i dien 60°
d t hinh chop.

Hrfdrng d i n : a/ V = b/ ^ =i .
24 V, 3

199
Chuyen de 13 : KHOI DA DIEN
L G I A M u r g e M E N ratirc T 6 I T H I ^ U
• D N ]; MQt v^t the khong gian (7fj) g o m m Q t s o h f l u h a n c a c m i e n d a g i a c d\i(}c
g o i l a c a c m a t c u a k h o i d a d i ^ n (.7f>) v a c o c a c t i n h c h a t s a u :
• H a i m a t b a t k y c i i a ( ^ ) h o a c c6 c a n h c h u n g h o d c c6 m o t d i n h c h u n g h o a c k h o n g c6 diem
chung nao.
• M o i c a n h c i i a m o t m a t b a t k y t h u p c (TC) l a c a n h c h u n g c u a d u n g 2 m S t c i i a (Tfj), m o i dinh
c i i a m o t m S t b a t k y t h u o c (JfA l a d i n h c h u n g c i i a i t n h a t c i i a 3 m a t t h u o c (Tfi).
• (7f') n k m v e m o t p h i a d o i vdi m o t m a t p h f t n g chijfa m o t m a t b a t k y t h u o c {Jr>). T h i t a noi
C^i) l a h i n h d a d i e n l o i : l a t r o n g d i e m c i i a m o n H i n h K h o n g G i a n k h i n g h i e n ciiru cdc khoi
d a d i e n or t r i / d n g P T T H
C a n h c h u n g c u a h a i m a t dugc g o i l a c a n h ciia (Jfi), d i n h c h u n g c u a cac c a n h l a d i n h ciia {7f>).
Neu t o n t a i cac d o a n t h S n g k h o n g n S m t r o n g n h C f n g m a t c i i a ( ^ ) v a c6 cac d a u m i i t l a cac
d i n h t h u p c (7fi), t h i t a g o i c h u n g l a cac d i f d n g c h e o c i i a (Tfi).
H i n h {JfA c h i a k h o n g g i a n t h a n h 2 m i e n : m i e n t r o n g v a m i e n n g o a i . M i e n t r o n g c u a (7f>l
l a t a p h o p d i g m t r o n g , m i e n n g o a i c i i a (7f>) l a t a p h o p d i e m n g o a i .
D i e m A k h o n g t h u p c (Jfj) dUdc g o i l a d i e m t r o n g , n e u A t h u p c p h a n c h u n g g i a o c i i a cac niia
k h o n g g i a n c6 bcr l a cac m a t p h a n g c h i i a cac m a t c u a h i n h (7f>}.
D i e m A k h o n g t h u p c (Jf') v a m i e n t r o n g c i i a (JfA d u p c g o i l a d i e m n g o a i .
H i n h ( ^ ) c u n g v6i m i e n t r o n g c i i a n o diTpc g o i l a k h o i d a d i e n l o i (Jt>). T r o n g c h i / o n g t r i n h \
\>YVll t a c h i x e t c a c k h o i d a d i e n l o i . N h a n d a y t a x e t l a i m o t so k h a i n i e m .
• D N 2 : H i n h l a n g t r u l a m p t k h o i d a d i § n c 6 2 m a t d a g i a c s o n g s o n g g o i l a day,
cac m a t c o n l a i g o i l a m a t b e n ; l a nhCfng h i n h b i n h hanh.
• H i n h h o p l a m p t h i n h l a n g t r u c6 d a y h i n h b i n h h a n h .
• H i n h c h o p d a g i a c l a h i n h d a d i e n c6 m o t m S t l a d a g i a c g o i l a d a y , cac m a t c o n l a i g o i la
m a t b e n l a t a m g i a c c6 m p t d i n h c h u n g ( g o i l a d i n h c h o p ) .
• T a x e t m p t k h o i d a d i e n l o i . N e u c6 m p t q u i tSc d e iii k h o i (Jf>) t a n h a n d i f p c cac k h o i (TC^)
(.Vfi-i); {K;^) d o i m p t k h o n g c6 d i e m c h u n g t r o n g , k h i d o t a n o i {'J{>) d a dUpc p h a n c h i a ;
t h a n h n k h o i d a d i e n r d i n h a u m a t h 6 t i c h d i f p c b a o t o a n : V = V i + V 2 + ... + V „ j
C h f t n g h a n n e u t a n o i m p t d i e m n S m t r o n g h i n h tiif d i e n v d i cac d i n h c u a n o b a n g cac doan !
t h a n g , t h i t a d a p h a n c h i a n o t h a n h b o n h i n h c h o p m a d i n h c i i a c h i i n g l a d i e m c h u n g ciia
tut d i e n , d a y c i i a b o n h i n h c h o p l a b o n m a t b e n c u a h i n h tuT d i e n . !
Doi v d i k h o i d a d i e n l o i t a c6 m p t c o n g thOfc l i e n h e giiJa c a n h , d i n h v a m a t , n o g i u p ta j
k h a o s a t m p t so d a c t r U n g cO b a n c i i a m p t k h o i d a d i e n t i i y y . j
• DINH L Y E U L E R |
G i a siJf m p t k h o i d a d i e n l o i c6 m m a t , d d i n h , c c a n h , k h i d o : m + d - c = 2 . j
n. C A C B A I T O A N C O B A N
B a i 288
ChuTng m i n h r k n g k h o i d a d i e n l o i t a l u o n c 6 : m ^ ^ + 2 v a d ^ — + 2
3 3
Giai
K y h i e u d ; l a so d i n h m a t a i d o c6 i c a n h x u a t p h a t V i e 1; n t h i :
200
2c = 3d;j + 4d., + ... idj + ... + nd„ => 2c ^ 3d = 3(c + 2 - m ) => m > - + 2 (dpcm)
3
Hoan l o a n t i / a n g t u t a c6 : 2c > 3 m = 3(c + 2 - d) =>d > - + 2 (dpcm)
3
Bai 289
Co hay k h o n g mot k h o i da d i e n l o i ma c^c m a t l a h i n h luc giac ?
Giai
Gia suf t o n t a i k h o i n h u vay. V i m o i m a t cua k h o i l a m o t luc giac l o i .
=> Tong cac goc cua m6i m a t bang 4TI va t o n g cac g6c ciia m m a t b a n g 4mn
Mat khac t a i m o i d i n h cua k h o i t o n g cac goc p h i n g t a i do nho han 2n ( t i n h chat cua g6c
da dien loi).
=> Tong cac goc t a i d d i n h be hon 2d7r.
ycbt can Chiifng m i n h r a n g d < 2m. T h a t vay t a k y hieu d^ d.i; d^ l a so cac d i n h ciia k h o i
ma tai do c6 3; 4; k m a t xuat phat, t a c6 : 6m = 3d;) + 4d4 + ... kd^ + ... > 3d => 2 m > d
Vdi each t i n h do t o n g cac goc cua cac mat nho hern 4mjt. ( h a i each t i n h dan den h a i k e t
qua khac nhau nen eo mau thuSn)
Vay k h o n g ton t a i k h o i da dien thoa man yeu cau bai t o a n .
Bai 290
Chufng m i n h r a n g neu mot k h o i da dien l o i m a cac m a t la nhiJng da giac c6 so le canh, t h i
so mat cua no l a chan.
Giai
Do moi mat c6 2ki + 1 canh, i la chi so m a t thiJ i , nen :
2c = J:(2ki + 1) = 2 ( I k i ) + m m = 2c - 2(Ski) (ycbt)
Bai 291
Trong mot k h o i da dien l o i . Chiifng m i n h rftng t o n g so cac goc t a m dien va cac mat t a m
giac khong i t h a n 8.
Giai
Ta ky hieu m^ va d^ la so m a t va d i n h c6 k canh va k canh xuat p h a t , ro r a n g :
m = m;j + m i + ... mi; + ...
d = dg + d.i + ... dk + ...
=> 4 m = 4m;, + 4m4 + ... 4mi; + ...
=> 4d = 4d,-j + 4d,, + ... 4dk + ...
Mat khac t a c6 : 4c = 2c + 2c = 3m3 + 4m4 + ... k m ^ + ... + 3d;i + 4d4 + ... k d ^ + ...
4 ( m + d - 2) = 3m3 + 4m4 + ... k m ^ + ... + 3d3 + 4d4 + ... k d ^ + ...
=> 4m:i + 4 m i + ... 4mi; + ... + 4d,'j + 4d.i + ... 4dii + ... - 8
= 3m3 + 4m4 + ... k m ^ + ... + 3d3 + 4d4 + ... k d ^ + ...
=> ma + dy > 8 (dpcm)
Bai 292
Trong mot k h o i da dien l o i . Chufng m i n h rSng bao gicr cung c6 m o t goc t a m d i e n hoae m o t
goc tam giac.
Giai
Gia sijf t a i m o i d i n h xuat p h a t i t n h a t bon canh va m 6 i m a t eo i t n h a t bon canh.
=> 2 c > 4 m va 2 c > 4d => 4 c > 4(m + d) = 4(c - 2).
Bat d^ng thilc nay k h o n g the xay r a . M a u t h u a n n h a n duac chijfng m i n h b a i t o a n .

201
B a i 293
Cho k h o i da d i e n l o i d d i n h . t i n h t o n g cua cac goc cua cac mSt k h o i da dien.
Giii
Ta k y hieu k j l a so' canh cua m a t thiir i , v i c i c m a t cua k h o i l a cdc da giac l o i nen tong cac
goc ciia m a t thiJ i l a (kj - 2)7i.
Neu m la so m a t ciia k h o i , t h i t o n g cac goc cua m m a t do la :
I ( k i - 2)71 = (Iki)7: - 2m7t = (2c - 2m)7t = 2(d - 2)n.
T r o n g do c va d k y hieu la so canh va so d i n h cua k h o i .
m . GiAi T O A N T H I
B a i 294 ( D A I H O C M I E N B A C - 1970)
Chijrng m i n h r k n g t r o n g k h o n g g i a n , k h o n g t o n t a i da dien c6 m o t so le cac m a t ma dong
thcfi m o i m a t l a m o t da giac c6 m o t so le cac canh.
Giai
C h u n g t a suf d u n g phep chuTng m i n h p h a n chOfng de chiJng m i n h ycbt.
G i a siJf da t o n t a i m o t k h o i da d i e n c6 m o t so le cdc m a t , dong t h d i m 6 i m a t l a i la mpt da
giac C O mot so le cac c a n h .
T r o n g da d i e n do goi :
SO l e cac m a t k = 2n + 1 ( n e )
so' l e cac c a n h c u a m 6 i m a t do l a : 2n^ + 1; i e 1; k
C l a so' c a n h c u a k h o i d a d i e n do.
De y t h a y cijf h a i m a t ke nhau c6 m o t canh chung n e n :
( 2 n , + 1) + (2n2 + 1) + ... + (2nu + 1) = 2 ( n i + nz + ... + n^) + k = 2C
<=> 2 ( n i + n2 + ... H k ) + (2n + 1) = 2C (1) (v6 l y )
V d i n i , n2, ... n^ ( v i ve t r a i la so le con ve p h a i la so c h i n ) .
Vay k h o n g t o n t a i k h o i k h o i da dien c6 m o t so le cac m a t , dong thcfi moi m a t la mot i
giac C O mot so le cac c a n h . (dpcm)
Bai 295 (DAI HOC N G A N H A N G TP.HCM - 1991)
Cho h i n h chop tijt giac deu S . A B C D , d i n h S, canh day b a n g a, dudng cao S H ; M la diem
bat k y thuoc A H . M a t p h a n g ( P ) qua M song song v d i A D va S H cat A B , C D , SD, SA Ian lucft!
tai I , J , K, L.
1/ Cho S H = aV2 , xac d i n h v i t r i cua M t r e n A H d l t h i e t dien I J K L la mot tijf gi^c ngoai tiep.
2/ Xac d i n h v i t r i cua M t r e n A H de the t i c h cua k h o i da d i e n D I J K L H dat gia t r i Idn nhat.
Giai
1/ Ta C O : ( P ) // A D = ( A B C D ) ry (SAD)
(P)n(ABCD) = IJ//AD
^ |(P) n ( S C D ) = LK//AD
^ IJ//LK//AD (1)
• S H // ( P ) va (SAC) ZD SH
=> ( P ) ^ (SAC) = M L // S H .
• Tucfng t u : m p ( S B D ) r ^ ( P ) = N K // S H
=> M L // N K // S H .
202
Tinh chat h i n h vuong I M = N J => I L = J K (2)
TO (1) va (2) => I J K L l a h i n h t h a n g can.
De h i n h t h a n g can I J K L l a t i l giac ngoai tie'p, dieu k i e n can va du l a :
IJ + L K = IJ + I L = 2IL (3)

aV2l
Dat: A M = X 0 < X < ; v(Ji a l a canh h i n h vuong A B C D .
2

xV2
• AIAM vuong can => I M =

ML AM 9v r—
M L // S H « M L = -=^.aV2 = 2x
SH AH

2 3xV2
AILM IL = VlM^ + = — + 4x =

LK SL
L K // A D =
AD SA LK H M
Dinh l y Thales
HM SL AD HA
L M // S H =
HA SA

aV2 - 2 x
LK = .a = a - xV2
iV2
Luc do (3) cho I J K L ngoai tie'p duac <=> a + a - x -72 = 3x -^2

aV2
<=> X = <=> M l a t r u n g d i e m cua A H (ycbt)

2/ Xet: V , n i j K L H ) = V,HIJKL) + V(nijKL) (4)

[LMl(ABCD)
Do : D J ± ( I J K L ) va ( I J K L ) 1 ( A B C D ) theo giao tuyen I J ha H H ' 1 I J
IJ 1 CD
=> HH' 1 ( I J K L ) va theo t i n h chat h i n h vuong t h i :

DJ = A I = I M = ^ ^ H H = i - i ^
2 2 2

TO (4) =^ V(x) = V„„jKLH) = ^ d t ( I J K L ) . ( H H ' + D J )

a + a -xV2
• V(x) = - a . d t ( I J K L ) = - 2x= —(2a-xV2)
6 6 6

aV2 2 a^ ^ aV2,
. V(x) = X + — x(0 < X < )

aV2 a^ „ a
Ta c6: V'(x) = - x + — = 0<=> x =
3 3 aV2
^ 0
Bang b i e n t h i e n :

Vay k h i M t r i i n g H t h i t h e t i c h d a t g i d
VXx)H||_
3 ^

tri Wn n h a t : m a x V = ——— (ycbt)


V(XTH
12 12

203
Chuyen de 14 : TUT D I E N C A C L O M TXJT D I E N D A C BIET
L pmroNG P H A P
Co sd ciia phirong phap la suf dung cAc k h a i n i e m (md rpng) cho mot tOf di?n nhif sau :
• Tuf d i ^ n l a mOt vgit t h e c 6 4 d i n h k h o n g n l i m t r o n g 1 m§t p h d n g .
K i h i p u : Tuf d i e n A B G D
n Tuf di§n A B C D con gpi l a h i n h chop tarn gi&c c h ^ n g h a n A . B C D c6 d i n h
la A va day la ABCD.
• Tuf dien A B C D c6 :
• Bon d i n h A; B; C; D, m 6 i d i n h la 1 g6c t a m dien.
. Sau canh A B ; AC; A D ; BC; CD; D B .
• Bon m a t l a bon t a m giac A B C ; A C D ; A D B va B C D .
• H a i canh k h o n g cung d i qua 1 d i n h gpi la h a i canh doi n h a u : tiir dien A B C D c6 3 c i p canh|
doi l a : A B v a C D , A C v a B D , B C v a A D .
• Ti^ A ve A H 1 (BCD) va H e (BCD) t h i A H gpi la ducfng cao ciia tiif d i e n p h a t xuat tif dinh
A k y hieu la h„ => A H = h , = d[A; (BCD)]
=^ Tuf dien c6 4 di/ong cao p h a n biet p h a t xuat tCf 4 d i n h la : h^; hi,; h^; h j .
• Tuf d i $ n d e u l a tuf d i ^ n c 6 6 c a n h b ^ n g n h a u h a y 4 m a t l a 4 t a m g i a c d e u b&ng n h a a
H i n h chop t a m giac S.ABC c6 SA = SB = SC = b va AABC
deu canh a gpi l a h i n h c h o p t a m g i a c d e u S . A B C .
n Tii" d i $ n v u o n g : l a tuT d i ^ n c 6 1 goc t a m di§n b a mfit
v u o n g . Cac m a t vuong la cac t a m giac vuong c6 chung mot
d i n h gpi l a d i n h ciia goc t a m dien vuong. M a t con l a i thi/dng
gpi la m a t huyen ciia tiJ dien vuong (ba canh ben doi m o t
vuong goc vdri nhau).
• Tu" di§n g S n d e u : l a tu" d i ^ n c 6 4 m a t l a 4 t a m g i a c b a n g n h a u . T r o n g m o t t i l dien
gan deu cac cSp canh doi b a n g n h a u ; va cdc g6c t a m dien bSng n h a u .
n Tuf d i ^ n trtfc t a m : l a tiif d i p n m a c a c c a p c a n h doi v u o n g goc v d i n h a u tiftig doi mpt
T r o n g mot id dien triTc t a m t h i h i n h chieu vuong goc ciia m o t d i n h xuong m a t doi la trUc
t a m ciia m a t do.
• D i ^ n t i c h c i i a ti? d i ^ n l a t o n g di§n t i c h c i i a 4 m a t .
V Neu t a xet h i n h chop S.ABC d i n h S, day ABAC t h i
dien t i c h x u n g q u a n h :
S^q = d t (ASAB) + d t (ASAC) + d t (ASBC)
V D i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n (con goi l a dien t i c h tuf dien)
S,p = S,q + d t (AABC)
• T h e t i c h tu: d i ^ n :
[0 : di?n tich day
V=A.^.h; vdri
h : dp dai chieu cao
V Neu gpi I J l a doan vuong goc chung cua h a i canh doi
SA va BC l a goc ciia h a i canh doi SA va BC t h i :
VsABC = ^SA.BC.IJ.sincp
6
V Neu SABC l a m o t tiif dien vuong t a i d i n h S t h i :
VsABC = --SA.SB.SC
b
204
V Neu S, va S2 la dien tich hai mat cua mot hinh tuf dien, a la do dai canh chung ciia chung
so' do goc nhi dien tai canh chung nay t h i the tich hinh tuf dien la :
2
V = — Si .So sirap
3a ' ^

iLcAc BAI TOAN C O BAN


D^ng 1 : TUf DIEN
Bai 296
Cho tuf dien OABC vuong tai O. Goi S, S,, S^, S 3 Ian Itfcft la dien tich AABC; AOBC; AOCA
va AOAB. Chufng minh : = Sf + Si + S;^ .

Giai A
Xet: S? ^Si^Si = i o B ^ O C ^ + - O C 2 . 0 A 2 + i 0 A ^ 0 B 2
4 4

= i o C ^ ( O A ' ^ + OB2).ioA^OB2
4 4

4 4

0 - si - S | = i - A B ^ W C ^ B

= I A B ^ . C C ' ^ = I^IAB.CC'1 = (dpcm).


4
Bai 297
Cho tuf dien OABC vuong d O. Ve OH 1 (ABC). Goi a; (5; y Ian luat la goc ma OH tao vdi
OA; O B ; OC. Chufng minh : cos^a + cos^p + cos^ =1.
HvCdng d&n
1 1 1
Ta chufng minh duoc : (1)
OH^ OA'^ O B ^ O C2

AOAH vuong d H => cosa =


OH 2 OH^
OA cos a = 5
OA^
OH OH''
Tifcfng tif nhtf vay ta cung c6 : cos^P = O B ^ ; cos^y = oc^

Do do : cos^a + cos^p + cos^y = OH^ r 1 1 1 ^


(2)
OA^ ^ OB^ ^ OC^ J
2 1 cos'^a + cos^P + cos^y = 1 (dpcm).
Tiiil) va (2) => cos'^a + cos'^p + cos'^y = 0U\
OH^

Bai 298
Cho tut dien OABC vuong d O. DSt OA = a; OB = b; OC = c.
1/ Goi A; B; C la ba goc trong tam giac ABC. Chufng minh : a^tanA = b^tanB = c^tanC.

21 Neu CO a + b = c t h i hay chufng minh : dcA + (5cB + AcB = .

Giai
1/ Ve CH 1 AB. Dinh ly ba dudng vuong goc cho : OH 1 AB

205
T a c6: SABC = - A B . C H = - A B . A H . t a n A = i o A ^ t a n A = - a ^ t a n A
2 2 2 2
Tifcfng tU nhxi tren ta cung c6 : SABC = —b^tanB = i c ^ t a n C
Vay : a^tanA = b^tanB = c^tanC (dpcm).
2/ T r e n tia O A lay diem E , tren tia O B lay diem F
sao cho: OE = OF = a + b
^ , jOA BF a
Ta CO : ^ . „ ,
OB = A E = b
Difng h i n h vuong O E I F theo phiTcmg phap trai.
C a n h h i n h vuong nay dai la : a + b = O C .
AOAC = A F B I , A O B C = A E A I .
=> A C A B = A I A B
6CA - CJCS + A c s = I , + I2 + I 3 = -It (ycbt).
2
B a i 299
Trong tiJ dien chi c6 mot canh c6 dp dai I6n han 1 (con cac canh khac c6 do dai nho hon
hoSc bang 1). Chijfng minh rang the tich tiif dien ay khong vifgt qua i .
8
Giai
Xet tijf dien A B C D vori gia thiet A B > 1, con cac canh con lai cua tiJ dien nho hem hoac bang 1.
C a n phai chiirng minh V < ^ . A
8
T h a t vay ve dudng cao A E ciia A A C D va dudng cao B F cua
A B C D . Goi A H la diTcrng cao cua til dien phat xuat til A.
Dat : C D = a (a < 1). V a xet 2 k h a nang xay ra :
• ED « ^ AE'^ = A C ^ - E C ^ ^ 1 - — (vi EC> -)
2 4 2
• ED ^ - => AF/ = AD^ _ ED= ^ 1 - — (vi ED> ~)
2 4 2
Trong ca hai trudng hop ta deu c6 : A E ^ < 1 - ^ <=> A E < J l -
4 V 4
Ttfcfng tU : B F < .^1 ^ ^
The tich til dien A B C D : V = i s . B C D - A H = ^ C D . B F . A H < ^ C D . B F . A E
3 6 6
= —a(4-a^)
6^- 4^ 24
Xet h a m so dac trung ; fla) = a(4 - a^) vdi 0 < a < 1
f (a) = - 3 a ^ + 4 > 0 fla)^fi;i) = 3=> V< ^.3= ^
24 8
ABCD deu canh a = 1
Chon mot til dien A B C D n h u sau : <! AACD deu canh a = 1
(BCD) 1 (ACD)
206
3' 4 • 2 8

AB^ = A H ^ + HB^ = 2 A H ^ = 2 AB> 1


12

Vay the t i c h cua tuf dien A B C D k h o n g t h ^ vUcrt qud - (ycbt).


8
Bai 300

Hai h i n h ch6p tarn giac deu c6 chung chieu cao; d i n h ciia h i n h chop nay trCing v d i i&m cua
day hinh chop k i a , moi canh ben cua h i n h chop nay cat m o t canh cua h i n h chop k i a . C a n h
ben bang 1 ciia h i n h chop t h i l n h a t tao v6i dudng cao goc a. C a n h ben cua h i n h chop thuf h a i
tao vdi dUcfng cao goc [i. T i m the t i c h p h a n chung ciia h a i h i n h ch6p.

Giai
Xet OABC va O ' A ' B ' C la h a i h i n h chop t a m gi&c deu, c6
chung dadng cao OO', t r o n g do O va O' Ian lugt la t a m cua cac
tam giac deu A B ' C va A B C .

!(ABC)//(A'B'C')
Luc do : ^OA = O B - O C 1

Vi OA' o O A = M ^ OA // O'A'.
Tifong tif ^ OB // O'B' va OC // O ' C . Do d6 cac canh cua h a i
tam giac A B C va A B C song song v d i nhau tiTng doi mot.
Go! N = OB' o O B , P = O C n OC.
.MA O'A
MO OA'
MA \
<XB O'B M N // A B
MO ~ NO
NO OB'
l O A : O ' B v a O A ' : OB'

Tucfng tir => N P // BC va P M // CA.


AMNP cung la t a m giac deu. Goi H = OO' ^ ( M N P ) . N h a n t h a y H la t a m cua t a m giac
deu MNP.
De y AAOO' vu6ng d O => OO' = h = Zcosa
Dat X = H M . H a i A M H O va A M H O ' vuong d H :
'HO = x.cota
OO' = x.(cota + cotP)
^HO' = x.cotp

/cos a /sin2a.sinp
Tif do : /cosa = x(cota + cotp) => x =
cota * cotp 2sin(a + P)

Do AMNP deu c6 canh M N = xVs

„ MN^.VS 3x^V3 / ^ s i n 2 2a.sin^p 3-^3/^sin^2a.sin^P


=> J'vMNT = Z — : — = ——• 5 = 5
4 4 4 4sin''(a + P) 16sin^(a + p)

Phan chung ciia hai h i n h chop O.ABC va O'.A'B'C gom h a i h i n h ch6p d i n h O va O', day
chung la A M N P . N e n the t i c h cua no la :

207
V = i d t M N P . ( H O + HO') = - dtMNP.OO'
3 3
y _ J_ 3V3i^.sin^2a.sin'^P ^ V3./''.sin^2a.cosa.sin^P ,
16sin''(a f |3) cosa = (ycbt).
16.sin''(a + p)
Dang 2 : TUf DIEN TRJC TAM
B a i 301
Churng m i n h m o t tijf d i e n trUc t a m k h i va c h i k h i h i n h chieu ciia m o i d i n h l e n m a t doi la
trUc t a m cua m a t do.
Giai
• (=>) G i a suf t i i d i e n A B C D \k tuf d i e n trifc t a m . D u n g A H vuong goc vdti m a t B C D .
C D l AH
CD 1 (ABH) ^ C D _L B H
CD . AB
Tifong t i f nhir t r e n t a cung se c6 : B D ± C H v a B C 1 D H
Vay, H l a true t a m A B C D (ycbt) (1)
• (<=) G g i H l a trifc t a m cua t a m giac B C D t r o n g tuT d i e n t r i i c t a m A B C D . T a c i n chuTng
'CD ^ A B
m i n h : A H 1 (BCD). T h a t vay : CD 1 (ABH)
[CD i BH
Ti/ang t i f t a cung c6 : B D 1 A H
TCf h a i k e t qua do t a suy r a : A H 1 (BCD)
Cung nhif vay t a se c6 : B K 1 ( A C D ) , ... ycbt (2)
Vay (1) va (2) cho y c b t difac c h i i n g m i n h .
B a i 302
ChOfng m i n h m o t tuf d i e n triic t a m k h i v a c h i k h i t o n g b i n h phifang cac cap canh doi bang
nhau tCmg doi m o t .
Giai
• (=>) Cho tuf d i e n A B C D c6 cac cap canh doi vuong goc nhau. Ve difdng cac B I cua ABCD.
jCD i AB
CD 1 (ABI) CD 1 A I
^ CD . B I
Goi M l a t r u n g d i e m cua C D .
•AC^ - AD^ = 2 C D . M I
iBC^ - B D ^ = 2CD.\1I
=> AC^ - AD^ = B C ' - BD^
=> AC^ + B D ' = B C ' + A D ' (1)
Ne'u t a SIJT d u n g t h e m dieu k i g n B C ± A D , t a c6 :
AB' + CD' = AC' + BD' (2)
(1) v a (2) : A C ' + B D ' = B C ' + A D ' = A B ' + C D ' (3)
• (<=) Cho tur d i e n A B C D c6 cac c a n h t h o a (3). T a c a n chufng m i n h tuf d i e n A B C D l a mot tiJ
d i e n trifc t a m .
T h a y v a y ve dudng cao B I cua A A C D ; M l a t r u n g d i e m cua C D .
;BC' B D ' = 2CD.MI (4)
A C ' - A D ' =2CD.MJ (5)
208
Tif (3) => B C ^ - BD^ = A C ^ - A D ^
Do do (4) va (5) cho : I = J
Vay : C D 1 (ABI) => C D ± A B
Tuong ta nhif vay neu ta suf dung them cho het gid thig't (3) ta se difcrc :

1 ^ ^ ^ ^ (ycbt).
AC±BD ^

Vay ycbt da dugc chiJng minh xong (dpcm).


Bai 303

ChuTng minh mot tiif dien la til dien trUc tam neu va chi neu c^c dudng cao cua no dong
quy. (Giao diem goi la trUc tam cua tuf dien).

Giai
• (=>) Cho tuf dien trUc tam A B C D . Goi AA'; B B ' ; C C va D D ' la cac dudng cao cua tuf dien. T a
can chijfng minh chiing c&t nhau tiftig doi mot, c h i n g han ta chiifng minh A A ' va B B ' cat nhau.
, [CD 1 A B
Ta CO :
[CD 1 AA'

=> C D 1 (ABA') = ( A B I ) (trong do I = B A n C D )


(ABI) 1 ( A C D )
Nhimg B B ' 1 ( A C D ) c6 B e ( A B I ) =>B' e Al.
Do do AA' va B B ' la hai difcfng cao tam giAc A B I .
^ H = AA' n B B '
Suy ra, cac dadng cao cua tuf dien doi mpt c^t nhau nen dong
quy. Giao diem H goi la trifc tam cua tuf di§n.
• (<=) Cho tuf dien A B C D c6 4 difcrng cao AA'; B B ' ; C C va D D ' dong qui tai mot diem H . T a
can chiJfng minh tuf dien ay la tii dien trUc tam.
That vay xet hai di/dng cao A A ' va B B ' . T a c6 :
jAA' 1 (BCD) ^ AA' . CD ^ CD 1 AB
BB' I (ACD) => BB' X CD

Suf dung mot cSp di/cmg cao khac v<Ji tren niJa ta se difgc mot cSp canh do'i khac cua tuf
dien vuong goc nhau => (dpcm).
Bai 304
Chufng minh rSng trong tut dien trUc tam trung diem cua cac canh va chan cac doan vuong
goc chung cua cac cSp canh doi nSm tren ciing mot mat cau.

Giai
Goi M; N;P; Q; R; S Ian lifcrt la trung diem ciia A B ; B C ; C D ; A D ; A C va B D . T a chufng
minh de dang ba doan M P ; N Q va R S cat nhau tai trung diem O cua moi doan. Giao diem O
do goi la trong tam cua tuf di^n A B C D .
Hon nCfa do : A C 1 B D => M N J_ MQ va tUcfng ti/ => MNPQ; MRPS;... la nhutng hinh chuf n h a t :
^ MP = N Q = R S
MO = O N = O P = OQ = O R = O S
Vay 6 diem M ; N ; P; Q; R; S ciing d tren mat cau tam O (dpcm).

209
I J l a doan vuong goc chung cua A B va C D
Goi : K L l a doan vuong goc chung ciia BC va A D
EF l a doan vuong g6c chung cua A C va B D
T a can p h a i chumg m i n h 6 d i e m I ; J ; K ; L ; E; F cung
thuoc m 3 t cau n o i t r e n
G D I AB
T h a t vay : C D J . ( A B J ) => C D ± B J
CDIIJ
Tifong tir => C F _L B D va D K 1 B C
Goi G ; H ; O \An lifcft Ik t r o n g t a m , trtfc t a m vk t a m dUdng t r d n ngoai t i e p ABCD.
Goi O, la h i n h chieu cua O l e n ( B C D )
B i e t r a n g : A H 1 ( B C D ) va O e A G => O, E G H .
GOi GO 1 .J. J,, ^ GQ GP 1
Luc do ; — - = — (do t i n h chat t r o n g t a m t i l di§n) =
OiH OA
OA 33 ~ " '° ' GH GB 2
Do do : 0 , H = 0,Q
Vay O i la t a m dUdng t r o n Euler cua ABCD va difdng t r o n nay d i qua K ; N ; J ; P; S; F
^ 0 , K = O i N = 0 , J = OiP = 0,S = OiF => O N = O K = O J = OP = OS = OF
=> J ; K; F thuoc m a t cau (O).
Chijfng m i n h t\iang t u L ; E; I cung thuoc m a t cau d6 => (dpcm).
Bai 305
1/ Chifng to r a n g tiif d i e n deu l a m o t tijf dien trUc t a m .
2/ T i n h chieu cao cua tiif d i e n deu canh a.
Giai
1/ Goi I la t r u n g d i e m cua C D . Ta c6 : " ^ => C D 1 ( A B I ) CD 1 A B
[CD j_BI
Tifong t i r : BC 1 A D va A C 1 B D => (dpcm).
2/ Ve A H vuong g6c v d i (BCD).Do A B C D l a tiif dien deu
nen H la t a m cua t a m giac deu B C D . T a c6 :
2 aV^^I 2a ^
A H ^ = A B ^ - B H ^ = a^ -
3 2
Vay : A H = (ycbt).
D^ng 3 : TUf DIEN GAN DEU
Bai 306
Cho tuf d i e n A B C D c6 A B = C D = 2x va bon canh con l a i c6 do d a i b a n g 1.
1/ T i n h d i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n cua tut d i e n .
2/ Xac d i n h x de d i e n t i c h t o a n p h a n d a t gia t r i I d n n h a t .
Giai
1/ N h a n t h a y bon m a t cua tuf d i e n l a bon t a m giac b a n g n h a u
=> STI. = 4SACD = 2 . A I . I D ; v d i I la t r u n g d i e m cua D .
210
A I ^ = AD^ - I D ^ = 1 -
rj. ID = X =
AI (do 0 < X < 1)

Vay : S T P = 2x. V l - x ^ (ycbt).

2/ Vi S T F > 0 n e n S T P d a t gid t r i Idn n h a t k h i v a c h i k h i S V dat


gia tri Idn n h a t , mA S\i> = 4x^(1 - x^)

'x^ > 0
NhUng 0 < X < 1 •!
i l - x ' ' >0

2\
Bat d a n g t h i l c C a u c h y => x ^ ( l - x^) < = — <^ S^xp ^ 1

Dang thuTc x a y t r o n g (1) <=> x* = 1 - x^ <:> x = ^ {vi x > 0 )

1
Vay : max S^p = S = 1 (ycbt).
0<x< 1

Bai 307

Cho tijT d i e n g a n d e u A B C D v d i A B = C D = a ; A C = B D = b; A D = B C = c.

1/ Chuftig m i n h t a m m a t cau ngoai tiep cua ttt d i e n cung c h i n h l a t a m m a t c a u noi tig'p cua ttf dien.

21 Tinh b a n k i n h c u a h a i m a t c a u a y t h e o a , b, c.

Giai
1/ De y c a c t a m giAc t a o n e n b o n m S t c u a tiJt d i e n gan deu t h i
bSng nhau.

=> C a c difdng t r 6 n n g o a i t i e p c h u n g c6 c u n g b a n k i n h .

=> K h o a n g e a c h tiT t a m O c u a h i n h c a u n g o a i t i e p tuf d i e n


den 4 m a t n a y b S n g n h a u h a y c d c h k h d c O c u n g c h i n h l a t a m
hinh cau n o i t i e p td d i e n (dpcm). (h.l)
2/ Ky h i e u R ; r I a n luctt Ik b a n k i n h c a c m d t c a u n g o a i v a n p i
tiep tif d i e n .

Goi 1, J I a n l u a t l a t r u n g d i e m c u a A B v a C D . t h i I J l a d o a n v u o n g g6c c h u n g c u a A B va
CD. Goi O l a t r u n g d i e m c i i a I J . O c h i n h l a t a m cdc m S t c a u d a n o i d t r e n .
OA = OB
That v a y , I J l a t r u n g trUc c u a A B v a CD
O C = OD

Ma cac d o a n n o i t r u n g d i e m ciia c a c c a n h doi t r o n g tuT


dien dong qui t a i O n e n , c h l n g h a n x e t cap A C v a BD.
OA = O C
=> i
:0B = OD
Vay ; OA = O B = O C = OD

Dinh l y d u a n g t r u n g t u y e n t r o n g A A B C .
(h.2)
,2 2CA^ ^ 2 C B ^ - A B ^ 2b^ - 2 c 2 -
CI^ =

b^^c^-a^
AUG vuong d I n e n : I J ^= CI^ - C J ^ =

211
AB^ IJ2 b^+c^-a^ a^+b^+c^
AAIO vuong d I nen : = OA^ = AI^ + 01^ =
a^+b^+c^
3V
B i n kinh mat cau noi tiep tinh bdi : r =
Trong d6 : V = ^ V c b ^ + - a^Ka^ + - b^Xa^ + b^ - c^)
12
STP = 4 ^p(p - a)(p - b)(p - c) V(Ji p = ^"^^"^^
^ V(b^ ^ - a^Xa'' + - b'^Xa^ + , .
Vay: r = ——^ . (ycbt).
16 7p(p-aXp-bXp-c)
Dang 4 : l\i DIEN VUONG
B a i 308
Cho tijf dien SABC c6 cac goc p h i n g d dinh S vuong.
1/ ChuTng minh : Vs .SABC > SSAB + SSBC + SSCA
21 Biet SA = a, SB + SC = k. Dat SB = x. Tinh the tich tuT dien SABC theo a, k, x. Xac dinh
SB, SC de the tich ay dat gid t r i Idrn nhat.
Gmi
1/ TriTtJc het ta chufng minh he thufc Pythagore: S^ABC = S^SAB + S^SBC + S^SCA (1)
Ve SH 1 BC => A H ± BC.
A
Ta CO : S^SAB + + S'SCA = - S A I S B ^ + i s B l S C ' + -SC^.SA^
4 4 4
= i s A W + SC^)+ isBlSC^
4 4
= ISAIBC^ + i s H l B C ^ = iBCl(SA=^ + SH^)
4 4 4
= ^BC^.AH^ - S^ABC
4
=> (1) da dtfgc chuCng minh xong.
Ap dung bat dSng thufc Schwart :
(l.SsAB + l.SsBC + 1-SSCA)' < + 1 ' + I ' X S ' s A B + S^sBC + S^SCA)
0)
=> SsAB + SSBC + SSCA < v3 .SABC (dpcm).
21 Xet V = VASABC = - SA.SB.SC Trong d6 : SA = a; SB = x; SC = k - x
^ V = |x(k-x)< I (2)
24
D i n g thiJc xay ra trong (2) k h i va chi k h i : x = k - x <:>x= —
2
ak^
Vay max V = V - 1 (ycbt).
' 0<x<k 24
• G h i chu : Bay la de thi vao DHQG.TpHCM - 1996.
212
m. GiAi T OA N T H I
Bai 309 (DAI HOC KHOI A - 1971 - M I E N B A C )
Tren cac canh cua mot tam di^n ba goc vuong dinh O, ta lay cac do dai OA = 4a, OB =
3aV2 , OC = 33-72 , trong d6 a la do dai cho s&n. NhiT vay ta dugc mpt t i i di$n OABC.
a/ Tinh khoang c^ch tCr dinh O tdi mSt phAng ABC.
hi ChuTng minh rSng bat ciif hai canh doi di^n nao cua tuT di^n OABC cung trUc giao (vuong
goc vdi nhau). Xac dinh dudng trifc giao chung cua moi c&p canh doi dien.
d Mot mat p h i n g bien thien song song \6i mat p h i n g (OBC) cat tCif dien OABC theo mot
tam giac PQR. Xac dinh vi t r i tam vong tron ngoai tiep v(Ji tam giac do. Tim quy tich hinh
chieu tam do len tren mat p h i n g (OBC).
Giai
BC = VoFToC^ = V2(3aV2)2 = 6a
a/ Ta CO : •

AB = AC = VOA^TOB^ = V(4a)^T(3aV27 = aV34


Goi I la trung diem cua BC; thi 01 va A I theo thur tif la
dirdng cao va la difdng phan giac cua cdc tam giac can BOC
va ABC.
Goi H la chan dUofng cao ha tii O xuong mdt phSng (ABC).
=> OH = d[0; (ABC)]
Thuf tii ke dudng cao OK va OM cua AAOB va AAOC
xuong AB va AC, ta c6 :
AAOB = AAOC => OK = OM
Dinh ly ba ducrng vuong goc cho :
HK 1 AB AOKH = AOMH
H M l AC H e AI

Trong tam giac vuong can BOC, ta c6 : B l = IC = 10 = = 3a


2 2
Xet tam giac vuong A B I , ta c6 :
A I = V A B ^ - B I ^ = V(aV34)2 - ( 3 a ) ^ = V 2 5 a ^ = 5a

Co t h ^ Viet: A I = ^j{4af +{3af = VoA^Toi^,


OA 4a 4
AAOI vuong tai O va ta c6 : sin CJlX =
AI ~ 5a 5
12a
OH = Ol.sin (5lX = 3 a . - = (ycbt).
5 5
hi Ta CO : OC 1 OA, O C l OB => OC 1 (AOB) ^ OC 1 AB, OC 1 OK; mat khdc OK 1 AB
=> OK la difdng vuong goc chung cua OC va AB.
Tuang tir : OB 1 OA; OB 1 OC ^ OB 1 (AOC) => OB _L AC, OB 1 OM; mat khdc OM 1 AC
=> OM la diTcrng vuong goc chung ciia OB va AC.
Tuang t i f : OA 1 (BOC) => OI la ducfng vuong goc chung cua OA va BC.
Ta da c6 : 01 = 3a va xet tam giac vuong AOB.

213
OB ZaS 3
sin
AB aV34 Vl7 '
OM = O K = OA sin S A D = 4 a - | = r = (ycbt).
d H a i m a t p h ^ n g (PQR) // (OBC), n e n ; PQ //OB, PR // OC (v^ QR // B C ) m a O B 1 OC, do d6
PQ 1 PR. G o i J \k t r u n g d i e m cua Q R => J e A I (do A I l a p h a n gidc cua t a m gidc cfin BAG).
^ JQ = JR = JP
=> J l a tarn difcfng t r o n ngoai t i e p APQR. Do d6 m a t p h i n g (PQR) b i e n t h i f i n // (OBC) thi
t a m ciia cdc t a m giac P Q R chay t r e n A I . (ycbt)
V i A O 1 (OBC) => O I l a h i n h chi§'u cua A I t r e n (OBC).
=> Quy t i c h h i n h chieu cua t a m dudng t r o n ngoai t i e p APQR l e n t r e n (OBC) l a 0 1 .
Dao l a i , lay tuy y I ' e 0 1 . T r o n g ( A O I ) ke qua I ' diTcfng t h i n g song song vdi OA cftt A I tai J'.
Goi (P'Q'R) l a m a t phang d i qua J ' song song vdi (OBC).
T a CO OA L (OBC) => J T 1 (OBC), (do I ' l a h i n h chieu cua J ) .
V i (P'Q'R) // ( O B C ) n e n theo chufng m i n h t r e n t a c6 AP'Q'R' vuong t a i P' va A I l a dUcfng
phan giac ciia t a m giac can B A G => J ' Q ' = J R ' = J'P' <=> J ' l a t a m dUdng t r o n ngoai tiep
AP'Q'R'. V a y quy t i c h l a doan 0 1 (ycbt).
B a i 310 ( D A I H O C K H O I A M I E N B A C - 1973)
a/ Chufng m i n h d i n h l y sau day :
T r o n g m o t t a m gidc deu t h i t o n g cac k h o a n g cdch x, y , z t i f t S m difdng t r o n ngoai tiep den
3R
ba canh bang (R l a ban k i n h vong t r o n ngoai tiep).
2
hi M d r o n g d i n h l y t r e n cho m o t tuf dien deu t r o n g k h o n g g i a n .
c/ X e t x e m d i n h l y dao ciia d i n h l y n o i d p h a n a) c6 dung k h o n g ?
Giai
a/ T r o n g t a m giac deu A B C , t a m ciia dacfng t r o n ngoai
t i e p dong thcri cung l a t r o n g t a m .
R
=> x = y = z = -
3R
De y t h a y : x + y + z = — (dpcm).
b/ De y k h i tOf d i e n A B C D deu n e n t a m O cua mat cau
ngoai t i e p cung l a t r o n g t a m tiJ di§n.
V i vay neu t a keo d a i A O va B O theo thuf C
tu cat cac mat day B D C v a A D C t a i G va H t h i G va H l a t r o n g t a m cua h a i t a m giac do.
=> = = - =j> H G // A B va H G = - A B
MB MA 3 3
OG = - O A = -
OG OH 1 3 3
Thanh thuf:
OA " O l i ~ 3
OH = - O B = —
3 3
Vay t a m mat cau each cac m a t mot khoang each bang ; tong cac khoang each do bkng: ^
214
A
d D l x6t d i n h l y ddo c6 t o n t a i hay k h o n g ? T a g i a siif t a c6 m g t tarn gidc thoa:
3R
x +y + z= ^

Ta xet ba k h a nSng xay r a sau dfiy :


0 T H , : Tarn giac A B C n h o n

Ta CO : X = Rcos BOfi = RcosA


Tucmg t u t a CO : y = RcosB; z = RcosC
=> X + y + z = R(cosA + cosB + cosC)
3R
Theo gia thie't : x + y + z = nen

cosA + cosB + cosC = — (1)


2

Xet h a m ddc triTng fix) = cosx; Vx e (0; — )


2
=> f (x) = - s i n x ; f "(x) = -cosx < 0
I^A + B + C^
BDT Jensen cho; 31 > R A ) + ITB) + fl(C)

3cos ^ cosA + cosB + cosC

cosA + cosB + cosC < — (2)


2
Da CO (1) nghia la 3ABC sao cho dau dang thijfc trong (2) xay r a « ' A = B = C < ^ A A B C deu.
Vay : ton t a i m o t tarn giac duy n h a t t r o n g cac AABC t u y y t h o a m a n dieu k i e n da cho, do
la lam giac deu.
• T H 2 : T a m giac A B C vuong t a i A.
De y t a m O ciia difcfng t r o n ngoai t i e p t a m giac vuong A B C
la trung diem ciia canh huyen BC :

n ^
=> x = 0 ; y = — ; z = —

b + c 3R , ^ ^. .
=> X + y + z = = (theo gia t h i e t )
2 2
<=> b + c = 3R hay b'^ + c^ + 2bc = 9R^ (1)
Mat khac d i n h l y Pythagore cho : b^ + c^ = 4R^ (2)
Trir (1) va (2) t a CO : 2bc = 5R^ (3)
Tri/ (2) cho (3) t a c6 : -R'' = b^ + c^ - 2bc = (b - c)^ (v6 l y )
- •
=> khong t o n t a i t a m giac vuong nao thoa x + y + z =
• T H 3 : T a m giac A B C c6 goc A t u .
NhiTng cac goc C va B deu n h o n
=> z = RcosC; y = RcosB

215
V d i A tu => X = Rcos BOJl
= Rcos(7i - A )
= Rcos(C + B )
-> - C + B ,
= R 2cos 1
Luc do :
C+B
X + y + z = R(cosC + cosB + 2cos^ 2
^ C+ B C-B ^ , B + C'|
=> x + y + z = R 2cos cos + 2cos"
2 2 ;
C+ B C-B C+B
=> X + y + z = 2Rcos cos + COS
-R (4)
2 )
3R
Tir gia t h i e t : x +y + z = — (5)
C+B C-B C + B^
(4) s (5) => COS (6)
cos + COS
2
5
Neu cho C = B t h i (1) : cos^C + cosC - - = 0 (7)
4
<=> u = cosC =
De d a n g so sanh daac : cos — = — < ~—!^ < 1 = cosO
• 4 2 2
v/6-1
=> Tarn giac can c6 cac goc d day b a n g arccos la m o t t a m giac c6 goc t u thoa man
3R
dieu k i e n : x + y + z =
V a y d i n h l y dao c h i t o n t a i k h i t a m giac k h o n g vuong (ycbt).
B a i 311 ( D A I H O C K H O I B M I E N B A G - 1973)
Cho tijf dien A B C D . G o i A ' , B ' , C , D ' I a n lifcrt l a t r o n g t a m cua cac t a m giac ABCD, AACD,
A A B D va A A B C . Chiifng m i n h r a n g cac ducrng t h i n g A A ' , B B ' , C C , D D ' cung d i qua m 6 t diem
^ , A A ' BIV C C DD' ,
G va = = = = 4.
GA' GB' GC GD'
Giai
Goi M l a t r u n g d i e m cua C D t h i A M va B M theo thiif t i f l a t r u n g t u y e n cua cAc t a m gidc :
A A C D va ABCD.
=> A' n a m t r e n B M va B ' n a m t r e n A M .
=> A A ' va B B ' ciing n a m t r o n g m o t m a t p h i n g d i qua A M va B M va chiing cat nhau t a i G.
V i A ' , B' theo thur t u l a t r o n g t a m cua ABCD va AACD.
B'A'V/AB
BM A.M
= 3 => •! A B
A'.•VI B'M :=3
B'A'
216
AG BG AB
AGAB CO AGA'B' = 3
OA' GB' A'B'
=^ AG = 3GA' va B G = 3GB'
AA' = AG + GA' = 3GA' + GA' = 4GA' AA' BB'
BB' = BG + GB' = 3GB' + GB' = 4GB' GA' GB'
Tircfng t a xet A A ' va C C .
Lap l a i phep chufng m i n h t r e n , ta t h a y rSng :
A A ' n C C ' = G|
AA' CC
= 4
G,A' G,C'
AA' AA'
De y = 4 va G, G i nkm giuTa khoang hai diem A , A' nen G i = G. LSp lai phep
G,A' GA'
chitag minh tifcrng t u cho AA' va D D ' , cuoi cimg ta d i den k e t qua :
Cac ducfng t h ^ n g A A ' , B B ' , C C , D D ' cung d i qua m o t d i e m G v a :
AA' BB' CC DD'
= = = = 4 (dpcm).
GA' GB' GC GD'
Bai 312 ( D A I H O C K H O I B - 1976)
Cho tiif dien A B C D , t r o n g do A D vuong goc vdri m a t phang A B C , A D = 4a, A B = 3a, A C = 4a,
BC = 5a, a la m o t so difang cho trUdc.
a/ ChiJtng m i n h r k n g t a m giac A B C l a t a m giac vuong. T i n h dien t i c h t o a n p h a n va t h I t i c h
cua va dien do.
hi Goi h la chieu cao cua tuT dien xuat p h a t tii A .

Chufng m i n h r f t n g : ™ = + + —^— .
h- AB- AC' AD'
d Goi M la mot d i e m t r e n canh A B va M A = x. Ngudi ta c^t tut d i e n bdi m o t mat phang (a)
di qua M , song song vdri A D va BC. T i n h dien t i c h cua t i e t d i e n tao t h a n h theo a va x. Xac
dinh x de dien t i c h do \6n n h a t . Chufng m i n h r a n g k h i dien t i c h do Idn n h a t t h i t h e t i c h cua
hai phan cua tuf dien b i chia bdi t i e t dien nay la bang nhau.
Giai
Ta CO : BC^ = 25a.^ = IGa^ + g a ' = A C ' + AB^
AABC la tam giac vuong tai A (dpcm).
Goi A E la dUcfng cao cua A A B C . Theo dinh ly ba dudng vuong goc
=> DE la dUcrng cao cua tam giac D B C .
AB.AC 12a
AABC vuong AE.BC = AB.AC AE =
BC
4a
ADAE vuong D E = N/AD-+AH' = —^4
5

SAAHC = -AB.AC =
2

S,\ABD = - A B . A D = 6a^
2

SAACD = ^AC.AD = 8a'

217
Vay dien tich toan phan cua tuT di§n Ik :
Stp = 2a''(10 + 734 ) (ycbt)
C6n the tich cua til diSn 1^: V = j S A B C - A D = i . 6 a l 4 a = 8a^ (ycbt).
b/ Ke A H J_ D E . ViJi chu y : B C ± A E B C1 AD
=> B C 1 A H => A H vuong g6c vdi mat phUng D B C .
=> A H chinh la dudng cao h a tH A cua tii dien A B C D .
A D A E vuong => — = + —
AII- AK' AD-
Trong tam gidc vuong B A C , ta c6 :
1 1 1
A B A C vuong =>
Ai;- AB' AC^
1 1 1
Cong theo ve': - (dpcm).
h- AH- AB^
— + -A C ' AD'
c/ Gpi MN, PQ la nhurng giao tuyen cua mat phang (a) cat vdi mat phAng (ABC), (DBC).
Theo tinh chat cua mat phang (a) M N // PQ // B C .
Tuong tif ta CO : MQ // N P // AD.
Do : A D 1 ( A B C ) nen MQ 1 M N <=> M N P Q la h i n h chcr nhat.
MX AM BC.AM 5a . X _ 5x
Ma: > MN =
BC ~ AB AB 3a ~T
QM BM AD.BM 4a(3a-x)
QM = = -(3a-x)
AO AB AB 3a
20
Vay : SMNPQ = M N . Q M = ^ .x(3a - x) (0 < x < 3a)
3 a - x + x^
B D T Cauchy => SMX,.Q < y = 5a'
3a
maxS.MNi'cj = 5a^ xay ra khi :x = 3a-x<=> x =
K h i dien tich thiet dien la Idn nhat thi M chinh l a trung diem ciia doan A B , va k h i do N,
P , Q , R theo thuf iii la trung diem cua : A C , D C , D B , D A .
Goi V , la the tich cua khoi D R P Q M N A . The tich nay hkng the tich hinh lang try dilng
A M N R P Q cong vdi the tich hinh chop D R P Q :
V , = MQ.SAMN + I DRSAMN (vi S^MN = SK,>Q)
j. 3a 4a
= SAMN MQ + - D R ^ 2a + - .2a = 4a='= - V
3 2' 2 • 2 3
Vay trong trildng hap nay thiet dien chia doi khoi tuf dien A B C D (ycbt).
218
Bai 313 (DAI HOC Y - DtfdC - NHA - 1978)
Tif trong tarn G cua tain gidc deu ABC canh a, ta ke ducrng vuong goc vdi mat phing

(ABC). Tren dudng thing do, ta lay mot diem S vdi SG = .


3
a/ Chijtog minh cac canh doi cua ttf dien SABC vuong goc vdi nhau timg doi m^t.
b/ Chilng minh tuT dien SABC deu.
d Tim ban kinh R cua hinh cau ngoai tiep tuT dien SABC.

a/ Ta CO : SG 1 (ABC) nen SG la true cua AABC.


SG 1 (ABC)l
BC 1 (SAG) BCISA
AGIBC
Ly luan tuang tiT ta c6 :
AB 1 SC va AC 1 SB => (dpcm).
hi SG la true dadng tron nen : SA = SB = SC

Ta c6: SA' = SG^ + GA^ =


9 9
=> SA = a
Do tinh doi xufng => SA = SB = SC = AB = AC = BC = a
=> TuT dien SABC deu (dpcm).
c/ Doc gia tU giai :
SI SH SAxSH „ aVe ^
= => S I = R = SI = — ^ ycbt .
SA SG SG 4 ^
Bai 314 (DAI HOC K I E N TRUC - SU PHAM TP.HCM, H U E 1978)
Cho tii dien A B C D , canh AB vuong goc vdi canh CD.
a/ Goi AA', BB', C C , DD' la cac dudng cao ciia tuT di$n. Chutng minh rkng : AA'. BB' c dt nhau
tai H, C C , DD' cSt tai K va HK nkm tren dudng vuong goc chung ciia A B va CD.
hi Chijfng minh rSng : AC'^ + B D ' = AD^ + B C l
d Nguoc lai, gia sijf trong tuT dien A B C D , ta c6 : A C ' + B D ' + C B ' .
Churng minh : A B 1 C D .
Giai
a/ Do A B 1 CD nen n tai duy nhat mot mat phSng (a) qua AB va vuong goc vdi CD tai I.
Ta CO :
'AA'ICD A A ' C (ABI) = ^ ) va A A ' ± B I
A
^ B B ' J_ CD => B B ' c ( A B I ) S (a) va B B ' 1 A I
Vay A A ' , B B ' la hai duofng cao ciia A A B I nen chiing cSt
nhau tai trifc tarn H cua A A B I .
Tirang tU ta c6 C C , DD' nkm trong mat phIng ((3) qua
CD va vuong goc vdi A B tai J ; C C va DD' la 2 difdng cao
cua ACDJ nen dong quy tai triTc tam K ciia tam giac do.
Ta CO : fCD 1 ( A B I ) s (a) => CD 1 IJ
A B J_ (CDJ) EE ( p ) => A B 1 I J
=> IJ la dudng vuong goc chung cua A B va CD

219
Do do I J la mot difcfng cao cua AABI => H e I J
Ly luan tifang tiT I J la mot dudng cao ACDJ K e I J (dpcm).
b/ va c/ Doc gia xem dieu kien Dai so de hai canh doi cua t i l dien vuong g6c nhau.
B a i 315 ( D A I H O C N G O A I T H U O N G T P . H C M - 1 9 9 1 )
Cho mot tam dien vuong dinh O. Tren 3 canh ciia tam dien lay ba diem A, B, C sao cho
AC = 20B va BC = 20A.
1/ M va N la chan cac dirdng vuong goc ke tiT O ttfcmg iJng xuong AC va BC. Chtlng minh
rSng M N vuong goc vdi OC.
2/ Tinh cosin cua MOfJ .
3/ Cho D la diem gifla (trung diem) cua AB.
. , - tan^(5ct)) M N ,
Chung minh rSng : —— + = 1.
tan^C5cX AB
Giai
1/ Dat : OA = a; OB = b; OC = c >
Ta CO : JAC = 20B = 2b nen AOAC 4h^ = c^ + a^ (1)
| B C = 20A = 2a nen AOBC => 4a^ = + b^ (2)
Lay ( 1 ) trii (2) => Sa^ = Sb^ c:> a = b
A C = B C = 2a
Vay :
A B = aV2
(2) OC = c = a V s
A O A C = A O B C => O M = O N va C A = C B
M N // AB (3)
A O M C = A O N C => C M = C N
Ma OC _L (OAB) => OC 1 AB (4)
(3) va (4) => OC 1 M N (dpcm).
a.aVs
2/ AOAC ^ OM.CA = OA.OC => OM =
2a
3a^ 3a
AOAC CM.CA = CO^ CM =
2a ~ 2
M N C M
M N // AB = - ^ M N = -a^f2
AB CA 4 4
Ap dung dinh ly ham so cosin vao tam giac can OlIfN
MN^ = 20M2 - 20M2cosKfON .N
MN^ , 3 1
cosMON = 1 = 1 - — = — (ycbt).
20M 4 4
tanC5cA = ^ = : ^ 6
OC 3
3/ Ta CO :
OP
D
t a n dct) =
OC
220
3a V2
tan^CJCt) MN 36 1 3
Vay : • + • = - + - = 1 (ycbt).
tan^CJcX AB 1 4 4
9
Bai 316 ( D A I H O C N O N G L A M T P . H C M - 1993)
Cho tuf dien A B C D v<Ji A B J_ C D , c6 I , J Ian Itfot l a t r u n g d i l m A B , C D va I J la dudng
vuong goc chung cua A B va C D .
1/ Chiing m i n h A C = A D = BC = B D .
2/ V(Ji O la d i e m t r e n doan I J . Chufng m i n h O each deu h a i m a t p h i n g (ABC); ( A B D ) va O
each deu h a i m a t p h a n g ( A C D ) ; (BCD).
3/ Mot diem M t r e n doan AC, mSt p h i n g ( I M J ) c&t B D t a i N . Chufng m i n h M N ± I J va I J
qua trung d i l m ciia M N .
Giai
AB 1 I J
1/ Ta CO AB 1 (CID)
ABICD^
JAB 1 I C A A B C c a n t a i C; C I l a d u d n g cao |AC = C B
[AB 1 D I => AABD c d n t a i D; DI l a d u d n g cao [AD = DB
Tif AICD can t a i I => IC = I D
=> AC = A D ( t i n h chat difdng xien) => A C = A D = BC = B D
2/ De y t h a y : (ABJ) la m a t p h a n giac cua n h i d i e n (C; A B ; D).
Tutfng tir (ICD) la m a t p h a n giac cua n h i dien (A; C D ; B).
Ta CO : O e I J , m a ( A B J ) n ( I C D ) = I J (nSm t r o n g h a i mat p h a n giac cua cdc n h i d i ? n
(C; AB; D) va (A; C D ; B)).
Vay O each deu bon mat (ABC), ( A B D ) , (ACD),
(BCD) (dpcm).
3/ Thirc h i e n phep doi xufng f = D X ( I J ) vdi true doi
xiJng la true I J , t a co :
fnDXdJ) : >

Ah
Vdi : T~^^ ^ AC I — ^ B D
Cy-

Ml
Do do : I J 1 M N t a i t r u n g d i e m cua M N (dpcm).
Bai 317 ( D A I HOC BACH KHOA TP.HCM - 1993)

Cho goe nhon x O y vdi I la mot d i e m nSm t r o n g x O y va thuoc dtfcfng p h a n giac ciia goc
nay. Tren dUcrng t h ^ n g vuong g6c v d i m a t phang (xOy) t a i O lay m o t d i e m S co d i n h (S # O), (P)
la mat phang qua S I va cat Ox t a i B, Oy t a i C. Goi H la h i n h chieu vuong goc cua O xuong S I .
1/ Vdi v i t r i nao cua BC t h i O H vuong goc v d i m a t p h i n g (SBC) ?
2/ Goi E la h i n h chieu vuong goc ciia O xuong (SBC). Ydi v i t r i nao cua BC t h i E thuoc m a t
phang (SOB) ?

3/ Trifdng hop x O y = - ; 0 1 = — ; OS = 1; OB = - , hay t i n h SC.


3 3 2

221
Giai
1/ Gia sil da c6: O H 1 (SBC)
=> O H 1 BC
M a : SO 1 BC BC 1 (SOI)
=> BC 1 O I (1)
M a t khac : fidi = ddl (2)
Tii (1) va (2) => ABOC can t a i O
=> OC = OB.
Vay v d i B e Ox; C e Oy sao cho :
OC = OB t h i O H 1 (SBC) (ycbt).
2/ Gia sijf da c6 : OE _L (SBC) => OE 1 BC
N h i f n g : SO 1 BC => BC 1 (SOB) BCl Ox va E e (SOB). H a y v d i B C l Ox t h i E thupc
m a t phftng (SOB), v d i E la h i n h chieu vuong g6c cua O xuong (SBC) (ycbt).
3/ Xet : S^|jo(, = S^JJQI + S^^^oi
« ioB.OCsin- = -^OB.OIsin- + OC.OIsin-
2 3 2 6 6)
« OB.OCVS = OB.OI + OC.OI « - .OCVs = - — + O C — « O C = 1
2 2 3 3
Luc do tarn gidc S O C vuong t a i O , cho t a : SC = VSO^ + OC^ = 42 (ycbt).
Bai 318 ( D A I H O C B A C H K H O A - T O N G H O P - Y - DLfOC - K I E N T R U C T P . H C M - 1984)
Cho tarn giac A B C vuong goc d A , c6 A C = b , A B = c v ^ BC = a. Goi H la h i n h chig'u vuong
goc cua A xuong BC. T r e n nCfa di/dng t h S n g H x vuong gdc v d i m a t p h i n g (ABC) t a i H ta lay
m o t d i e m S v ^ dat H S = h > 0.
1/ T i n h cdc c a n h SA, SB, SC cua tiir d i e n SABC theo b , c, h .
SB + SC
2/ Chufng m i n h r a n g v d i m o i d i e m S t r e n H x t a luon l u o n c6 SA <
3/ Gia sijf c > b , ta muon t i m cac gia t r i cua h de c6 SB = SA + SC. C h i l n g m i n h r a n g bai to^n
nay dan ve vi$c g i a i h$ sau day :
3x^ + 2(m^ + m + l ) x - (m^ + m + l ) { m ^ - 3 m + 1) = 0.
0 < x < m ^ - m - l
^2 „2i 2
N e n dat : — = m va —— = x .
4/ ChlJng m i n h r a n g c h i v d i dieu k i e n — > ^ ^ t a m d i c6 m p t tuT d i ^ n duy nha't S.ABC
b 2
thoa m a n SB = SA + SC.
222
Giai
2_2
SA^ = SH^ + A H ^ = h2 +

SB^ = S H 2 +HB2 = h 2 +.
b^+c^
b^
SC^ = S H ^ + H C ^ = +
b^+c^

2 be
SA = (ycbt)

(,4 ,4
SB = +— (ycbt) => SC = J h ^ + (ycbt).
2 , „2
b^ + C b^+C^
SB + SC
2/ Ta chufng minh : SA <

o 2SA^ < ( S B + SCf « S B ^ + S C ^ - 2SA^ + 2SB.SC > 0

b^ + c" - 2hh^
+ 2SB.SC > 0

2SB.SC > 0 (BDT luon dung vdi moi S tren Hx)


b^+c^

Nghia la => SA < + SC ^^^j^^^


V2
3/ SB = SA + SC SB^ = SA^ + SC^ + 2SA.SC

bUc^ ' b^ + c2

2 hh' V 2 ^
+ 2. (*)
b^+C^
A
Thay : b^ + c^ = vac (*); va rut gon :
(•) ^
2 b^C^ b^
o 2 (**)
b^+c^ a^
A

Nhan hai ve cua (**) cho — , ta dtfgtc :


b
2u2
a^h^ c" ,
o 2 + 1 +— ^- 1
b^ ' b^ b^

a^h^
Dat: — = m > 1, v i c > b; ^ =x>0;vih>0
b
Ta thay rang viec xac dinh h de cho SB = SA + SC

223
» + m)(x + 1) = -X + - m - 1 ; vdi x > 0 va m > 1.
4(x + m)(x + 1) = (m^ - m - 1 - x)2
0 < X < - m - 1
f (x) = 3x^ + 2(m^ + m + l)x - (m^ + m + l)(m^ - 3m + 1) = 0
0<x<m^-m-l
A;- = (m^ + m + if + 3(m^ + m + IXm^ - 3m + 1) = 4(.m^ + m + l)(m - if
4/ Xet 2
S = — ( m ^ + m + 1) < 0; Vm
3
flm^ - m - 1) = 4m(m -lf(.m + 1) !
Vi m > 1 => A' > 0; S < 0; Rm^ - m - 1) > 0 [
=> fix) CO 2 nghiem rieng bigt, m^ tong 2 nghiem la so' am vll m^ - m - 1 n i m ngoai [
khoang 2 nghiem.
Muon bai toAn c6 Idi giai t h i mot trong hai nghiem phai 16n han 0 va m^ - m - 1 > 0.
- m - 1 > 0 (2)
Vi tong S < 0, nen phai c6 : (m^ + m + l)(m^ - 3m + 1)
1 = <0 (3)
1-V5 1 + V5
Giai (2) : m < v m >
2
3 +V5
Giai (3) : m < — : — v m >
2 2
3 + V5
Giao nghiem => m > t h i he (1) C O nghiem duy nhat.
^ , ^, 3 + V5
Luc do : m = >
c 6 + 2V5 _ V(V5 + if Vs + 1
b^V 4 2 2
c Vs +1
Vay : — > , ta se c6 mot Icri giai XQ > 0 duy nhat, v i
2 b*Xn
Xo = » h =
Tom lai, chi vdi dieu kien — > ^ ta mdi c6 mot til dien duy nhat vdi SH = h xac dinh.
h = va thoa SB = SA + SC (ycbt).
B a i 319 (DAI HOC BACH KHOA TP.HCM - 1986)
Cho mot hinh tuT dien SABC vdi SAB, SBC, SCA vuong goc vdi nhau timg doi mot va ci5
dien tich ttfcrng ilng la 24cm^, 30cm^, 40cm^. Hay tinh the tich cua hinh tut dien do.
224
Giai
xy = 2.24 = 48
Dat : SA = X , SB = y, SC = z yz = 2.30 = 60
zx = 2.40 = 80

Ta lai CO : V = — xyz = — ^xy.yz.zx


6 6

=> V = - V48.60.80 = - 6.10.8 = 80 (cm'').


6 6
Bai 320 (DAI HOC S i / PHAM TP.HCM - 1994)
Cho tuf dien SABC c6 canh SA 1 (ABC). N h i dien canh SB la n h i dien vuong, cho biet
SB = aV2 , ^ S C = 4 5 ° , ASfe = a (0 < a < 90°).
1/ Chufng minh r&ng BC 1 SB. Xac dinh tam va tinh bdn kinh hinh cau ngoai tiep tijf dien
SABC.
2/ Tinh the tich tuf dien SABC. Vdri gid t r i nao cua a t h i the tich do l(Jn nhat.
3/ Xac dinh a de goc phSng cua nhi dien canh SC bang 60".
Giai
(SBC) 1 (SAB)
y Ta CO : (SBC) o (ABC) = B C l (SAB)
(ABC) 1 (SAB)
=> BC 1 SB (dpcm).
Hinh cdu ngoai tiep tuf dien SABC c6 tam la trung diem W cua SC (A va B cung nhin SC

difdi 1 goc vuong) va ta c6 : fiSC = — => ASBC vuong can


4

=> SC = a.V2 .V2 = 2a =^ R = a (ycbt).

21 Th6 tich tuf dien SABC : V^^„^ = - BC .S = i BC.SA.AB

Trong do : BC = SB = a^I2
AB = SB sina = aV2 sina
SA = SB cosa = a V ^ cosa
a ^ V 2 s i n 2a
V, (dvtt)
SABC

V
VsAiic <
< — a (1)
b
Ding thuTc trong (1) xay ra « sin2a = 1 <=> a = — (nhon)
4
V2 3 7t
=> maxVsABC =
6

a , taong ufng a = — (ycbt).
4
3/ Dung A I 1 SB; AJ 1 SC
Ta CO BC 1 (SAB) BC 1 A I => A I 1 (SBC) A I 1 SC

a 225
Ma : A J ± S C => S C ± ( A I J ) ==> I J 1 S C => = XJl = -
3
Do : A I ± ( S B C ) => A I ± I J <::> A A I J vuong tai I
AI AI (1)
IJ IJ
A I = tana.SI
Vdi :
I J = s i n - . S I = — . S I ( A S I J vuong tai J v a I § ^ = - )
4 2 • 4
Sl.tana /- V6 V6
K h i do : <=> ;=r- = V 3 tana = => a = a r c t a n (ycbt).
SI
B a i 321 ( D A I H O C T O N G H O P K H O I D - 1994)
Cho t a m d i e n ba m a t vuong Oxyz. L a y Ian lifat t r e n Ox, Oy, Oz cac d i e m P, Q, R khong
t r t i n g v d i O. Ggi A , B , C theo thuT tu l a t r u n g d i e m cdc doan PQ, Q R , R P .
1/ ChiJtng m i n h r k n g bon m a t cua tiJ dien OABC la nhOng t a m giac bang nhau.
2/ Chufng m i n h r a n g : A B C c6 ca ba goc n h o n .
Giai
AB = - P R
2
1/ T a CO : AB = OC
OC = - P R
2
L a p l u a n tUcfng tiT => BC = OA; A C = OB
V a y bon m a t ciia tiif d i e n O A B C l a nhOng t a m
giac b a n g n h a u (dpcm).
BC = a OP = x
2/ Dat : < A C = b v a OQ = y
AB = c OR = z
A p dung d i n h l y h a m cos
a^+c^-b^
=> cos
2ac
1 / 2 2
a^ = 1 P Q 2
4
4
M a : • b^ = 1RQ^
4 4ac
4
= i R p 2
4
4
2 2
H o a n t o a n t u a n g t i f : cos B A C = —— > 0; cos ACfe = —— > 0
4bc 4ab
Vay AABC c6 ca ba goc n h o n (dpcm).
226
Bai 322 (DAI HOC K I N H TE TP.HCM - 1995)
Cho mot tam dien vuong dinh O. Tren ba canh cua tam dien lay 3 diem A,B.C sao cho
AC = 2.0B; BC = 2.0A.
1/ M, N la chan cac dUdng vuong goc ke til O xuong AC va BC. Chufng minh rftng M N vuong
goc vdi OC.
2/ Tinh cos I C ! ^ .

3/ Goi D 1^ diem giCfa cua doan AB, chufng minh : ^^^P + = 1-


tan^C^CA AB
Giai
(Xem De D A I H O C N G O A I T H U O N G T P . H C M - 1991)
l i 323 (DAI HOC LUAT TP.HCM - 1996)
Trong mat phang (P) cho dUdng tron (C) dUdng kinh AB co dinh va diem M di dong tren
(C). Goi S la diem co dinh tren dudng th^ng vuong goc vdi (P) t a i A. Ha AE ± SB t a i E va
ANiSMtaiN.
1/ Chufng minh A N 1 EN.
21 Chilng minh khi M di dong tren (C) thi N luon thuoc mot diTcmg tron co dinh
Giai
1/ Ta CO : BM 1 A M > MB 1 (SAM)
=> MB 1 A N
Ma : A N ± SM => A N 1 (SMB)
Suy ra AN 1 NE (dpcm).
2/ Ta CO :
[AN±(SMB)=:> A N I S B
AEISB
^ SBI(ANE)
Ma : AE va SB co dinh.
=> N thuoc mat phang co dinh chufa AE va vuong g6c vdi SB; hay mat phang (AEN) co dinh.
Mat khac : N luon nhin AE dudi mot goc vuong
=> N thuoc dudng tron dUdng kinh AE nkm trong mat phang qua AE v^ vuong goc vdi SB
(dpcm).
Bai 324 (DAI HOC Y DliOC TP.HCM - 1996)
Cho til dien ABCD viJi AB = CD; AC = BD; AD = BC. Trong mat phang (BCD) dung tam giac
PQR sao cho B, C, D Ian luot la trung diem cac canh QR. PR, PQ. Chufng minh rkng AP, AQ,
AR vuong g6c vdi nhau timg doi mot.
Giai

DC = - R Q
Be y : 2 AB = - R Q
2
DC = AB

=> AAQR CO trung tuyen AB hkng — R Q .


2
=> AAQR vuong tai A => RA 1 AQ
Tuong tu : AARP vuong tai A => A R 1 A P (dpcm).
AAPQ vuong tai A =^ AQ 1 A P
B a i 3 2 5 ( D A I HOC QUOC G I A TP.HCM - 1996)
Trong mat phang (P) cho dUcfng tron (C) dudng kinh AB co dinh va diem M di dong tren
(C). Goi S la diem co dinh tren dUcfng thSng vuong goc vdi (P) tai A. Ha AE i . SB tai E va AN
1 SM tai N .
1/ Chufng minh A N ± EN .
2/ Chtmg minh khi M di dong tren (C) thi N luon thuoc mot dtfcfng tron co dinh.
Giai
(Xem DAI H O C L U A T T P . H C M - 1996)
B a i 3 2 6 ( D A I H O C N G O A I NGtT H A N O I - P B - 1997)
Cho hinh chop O.ABC vdfi OA, OB, OC vuong goc vdi nhau tCftig doi mot va OA = a, OB = b,
OC = c.
1/ Ke OH vuong goc vdi mat phang (ABC). Chilng minh H la trifc tam cua tam giAc ABC.
2/ Chiirng minh rkng-neu H la triTc tam ciia tam giac ABC t h i OH vuong goc vdii mat phing
(ABC).
3/ Tinh dien tich tam giac ABC theo a, b, c.
4/ Chufng minh rang : a^tanA = b^tanB = c^tanC.
Giai
1/ Ta CO : OH -L (ABC) ^ OH 1 BC.
Ma : AO 1 BC
Nen : BC 1 (OAH) =^ BC 1 AH.
Tifong tir, ta CO : BH 1 AC; CH ± AB.
Vay : H la trifc tam AABC (dpcm).
2/ Gia siJf, H la true tam AABC.
[AHIBC
Ta C O : <^ BC 1 (AHO) =^ BC 1 OH
[AO 1 BC
Taong t i r : AC 1 OH.
Vay : OH 1 (ABC) (dpcm).
3/ Ta CO : BC = .Vb^Vc^
Goi : K = B C n A H BC ± (AKO) =>
OB.OC be
Suy ra: O K =
BC b^ +
V b^ +
Vay : SABC = - A K . B C = -^J(ahf +(acf + (hcf (ycbt)
2 2
b^
4/ Ta CO : BK^ = OB^ - OK^ = b^ -
b +c b^+c^
u2
AK
BK = . K h i do trong AABC : tanB =
BK
228
(ab)^ + (ac)^ + (hcf ^|h^ + Vub?T(ac7Tabc)^
=> t a n B = , -
b^+c^ • b^ ~

b'^.tanB = ^jiahf + (acf + (hcf

i ^ t a n A = V(ab)"^ + (ac)^ + (bc)^


Taong t i r :
^ t a n C = yl(ahf + (acf + (hcf

Vay : a^.tanA = b^.tanB = c'^.tanC (dpcm).


Bai 3 2 7 ( D A I H O C N G O A I THUONG T F . H C M K H O I A, D - 1998)

Cho tarn dien ba mat vuong Oxyz. Tren Ox, Oy, Oz Ian lutft lay cac diem A, B, C.
1/ Hay t i n h k h o a n g each ttf O den mSt p h a n g (ABC) theo O A = a, O B = b, OC = c.
21 Gia SLf diem A co d i n h con d i e m B va d i e m C t h a y doi nhiftig luon thoa m a n OB + OC =
OA. Hay xac d i n h v i t r i ciia B va C sac cho the t i c h tuf dien O A B C l a Idn n h a t . Chtfng m i n h
ring k h i do ban k i n h mftt cau ngoai t i e p tOf dien O A B C l a i la nho n h a t .

Giai
1/ Difng OK 1 BC => BC 1 ( A O K ) (1)

Difng O H 1 A K =^ O H 1 (ABC) t a i H (do :: BC 1 O H ) .


Khi do t a CO : d [ 0 ; (ABC)] = O H

1 1
A A O K vuong tai O
0 H 2 OA^ OK^
Xet:
1 1
A B O C vuong tai O
0 K 2 OB' OC^
1 1 1 1
OH^ OA^ OB^ OC^
abc
=> O H = (ycbt).
Va^ + b^ +
2/ Xem De DAI HOC NGOAI THl/ONG - DE 2 - 1995.

Doc gia CO the t h a y A b a n g S ; M b a n g C va N bang B . K h i do :


O B + O C = O A = O N + O M = a (ycbt).
Bai 3 2 8 ( D A I H O C D A N LAP NGOAI NGO T I N HOC CPB - 1998)

Cho t i i dien SABC c6 canh SA 1 (ABC), n h i d i e n canh SB l a n h i d i e n vuong. Cho b i e t

canh SB = a V 2 , fiSC = 45", ASt: = a 0 < a < -


2

1/ Chijfng m i n h r k n g BC 1 SB. Xac d i n h tarn va ban k i n h h i n h cau ngoai tiep tuT d i e n SABC.
21 Tinh the t i c h tijt dien SABC.
Giai
(SBC) 1 (SBA)
1/ Nhi dien (SB) vuong
(ABC) 1 (SBA)
Ma : B C = (SBC) n (ABC) N e n : BC ± (SBA) => B C l SB.
Khi do : A; B cCing n h i n SC dudi m o t goc vuong.

229
Vay S A B C n o i t i e p h i n h cau dUcfng k i n h SC c6 tarn O l a
t r u n g d i e m SC (ycbt).
4
Ta CO : => ASBC vuong can t a i B
2
=> SC = V 2 -SB = 2a =4. R = = a (ycbt).
2
2/ The' t i c h tiJ d i e n l a : VgABC = - B C S g A B = - B C . S A . A B
3 6
AS
cos a =
SC
Taco :
A B = V S B ^ - S A ^ = a V 2 ( l - 2 cos^ a ) = a V 2 ( - cos 2 a ) i f < a < |
Vay : VgABC = — cos a V ( - c o s 2 a ) ; — < a < — (ycbt).
3 4 2
B a i 329 ( D A I H O C H U N G VLf(3NG K H O I A - 1 9 9 8 )
Cho tijf dien OABC c6 OA, OB, OC d o i m o t vuong g6c nhau t a i O. Cho
OA = a, O B = b , OC = c.
1 / ChuTng m i n h tarn giac A B C c6 ba goc deu n h o n .
2/ T i n h dien t i c h tarn giac A B C vk ban k i n h h i n h cau ngoai tiep tiif dien OABC.
Giai
1 / A p d u n g d i n h l y h a m cosin, t a c6 :
AB^+AC^-BC^
cosA =
2AB.AC
a^+b^+a^+c^-b^-c^
<^ cos A =
2V(a2 + b2)(a2 + c2)
<=> cos A = >0
N e n A l a goc n h o n .
Tirctng t i r : cos B = ^ > 0; cosC =
V(?TbWT7) ^(^TTxb^TT)
Vay AABC c6 ba g6c deu n h o n (dpcm).
2/ Dirng : O H 1 (ABC). Doc g i ^ c6 t h g x e m Cfiu 3 D l D A I H O C N G O A I N G C T H A N O I - PB -
1997; de c6 k e t qua.
Goi I 1 ^ t r u n g d i e m A B . T f i m O' cua mSt cau ngoai tiep se n k m t r e n dUcfng t h i n g 11' vuong
9 c
goc v d i m a t p h d n g (OAB) vk cdch I m o t doan — .
2
Ta CO : R = OO
230
Bai 3 3 0 ( D A I H O C D A N L A P H O N G B A N G - K H O I A - 1998)

H i n h chop S A B C c6 ddy l a t a m g i i c cSn A B = A C = a, ( S B C ) 1 ( A B C ) S A = S B = a.


1/ ChiJng to r a n g S B C la m o t t a m giac vuong.
21 Xac d i n h t a m va ban k i n h h i n h cau ngoai t i e p h i n h ch6p bie't S C = x.
HiTdng dSn
(Xem De D A I H O C T A I C H A N H K E T O A N - 1993)

Bai 3 3 1 ( D A I H O C Q U O C G I A T P . H C M - K H O I B - 1999)

•J2
Cho Ui dien A B C D c6 A B = CD = 2x (0 < x < — ) va AC = A D = BC = B D = 1. G o i I ; J I a n
2
lUdt la t r u n g d i e m cua cdc canh A B va C D .
1/ Chufng m i n h A B 1 C D v ^ I J 1 ^ doan vuong goc chung ciia h a i dudng t h i n g A B va CD.'
21 T i n h the t i c h tuT d i e n A B C D theo x. T i m x de t h e t i c h nay I d n n h a t va t i n h gia t r i \6n
nhat do.
Giai
D I 1 A B
1/ Ta CO : ABJ.(ICD) =>AB1IJ
C I l A B

Tirctng t i f : C D 1 I J
Vay I J l a doan vuong g6c chung cua A B va C D
(dpcm).

2/ Ta CO : I J = VlD^ - D J ^ = Vl -
Dien t i c h A I C D : S J C D = - U . C D = xVl - 2x^
2
K h i do : VABCD = VAICD + VIBCD = ^ - S I C D - C A I + I B )
o

^ V(x) = VABCD = o x ^ V l - 2 x 2 (ycbt).


o

2\
''x^ + l-2x
Ap dung B D T Cauchy => V ' ( x ) = - . x ^ x ^ d - 2x^) < -

2V3
V ABCD (1)
27

V3
Dau d i n g thiJc xay r a t r o n g ( 1 ) k h i v ^ chi k h i : x^ = x^ = 1 - 2x^
=> x =
2V3
Vay : max(VABCD) = x^y r a k h i va c h i k h i : x = (ycbt).
27

Bai 3 3 2 ( D A I H O C H U E - K H O I D - 1 9 9 9 )

Tren nila dudng t r o n dudng k i n h A B = 2R l a y m o t d i e m C t u y y. D u n g C H vuong g6c v d i


AB (H thuoc doan A B ) va goi I l a t r u n g d i e m cua C H . T r e n nijfa dudng t h i n g I t vuong g6c v d i
mat p h i n g (ABC) t a i I l a y d i e m S sao cho XSfe = 9 0 ° .
V Chutog m i n h t a m giac S H C l a t a m gi^c deu.
21 Dat A H = h . T i n h t h e t i c h V cua tuf d i e n SABC theo h v£k R.

231
Giai
SI 1 (ABC) SI ± AB
1/ Ta CO :
CH J_ AB
=> A B l ( S C H ) => A B I S H
Trong AASB vuong tai S SH^ = AH.BH
Trong AACB vuong tai C => CH^ = AH.BH
^ SH = CH => ASCH can tai H
, , , JSI ± CH
Mat khac : • ASCH can tai S
[CI = I H
Vay A S C H la tarn giac deu (dpcm).
A A B C vuong tai C • AC^ = 2Rh
2/ Ta CO : A A H C vuong tai H HC^ = 2Rh -
V3h(2R - h)
ASHC deu • nl =
Dien tich A A B C : SAHC = ^ A B . C H = R.^h(2R - h)
VsABC = - r -SI.SABC = Rh(2R - h) (ycbt).
o
B a i 333 (DAI HOC QUOC GIA TP.HCM - KHOI D - 1999)
Trong mat phSng (P) cho hinh vuong ABCD canh a, c6 tam la O. Tren nijfa difcrng thing Ax;
Cy vuong goc vori (P) va a ve cung phia doi vdi (P) lay Ian li/crt hai diem M ; N. Dat AM = x;
CN = y.
a2
1/ Tinh do dai MN. Tir do chdng minh rkng, dieu kien can va dii de AOMN vuong tai O la xy = — .
2
2/ Gia suf M ; N thay doi sao cho AOMN vuong tai O. Tinh the tich t i l dien BDMN. Xac dinh
a^
x; y d l the tich tuT dien nay bang — .
4
Giai
1/ Ta CO : AC = V A D ^ T D C ^ = a^{2
Ha M M ' 1 Cy ^ CM' = x; M M ' = a^f2
Khi do : M N = V M ' M ^ + M ' N ^ = ^2a^ + (y - x)^
Gia sOf AOMN vuong tai O
^ M N ' = NO' + OM'
« 2 a 2 + ( y ~ x f = — + y 2 + ^ + x2
<=> xy = (dpcm).
2/ Ta CO : BD ± (CON) BD 1 NO
Ma : MO 1 NO; nen : NO 1 (MBD)
232
Khi do, t h e t i c h B D M N \k :

-) I / r a" 2 3
+ y-.-aV2. — = — ( x + y)

„, . ., a" 3a
Khi VROMN = ^ * * x + y= y

Ma k h i A O M N vuong t a i O t h i x y = — . T a c6 he phifcfng t r i n h :

3a _ a
X +y=•
' ~2 (ycbt).
y=a
a
X = —
2
Bai 334 ( D A I H O C L U A T - D A I H O C X A Y D l / N G H A N Q I - 2000)
Cho 4 d i e m A , B , C, D . ChiJtng m i n h rSng :
1/ AB ± C D k h i va chi k h i AC^ + BD^ = AD^ + BC^.
21 Neu A B 1 C D va A D 1 B C thi A C _L B D .

Giai
1/ Xet : AD^ + BC^ = A D " + B C "

o AD^+ BC^ = ( A B + B D ) ^ + ( B A + A C ) "

o A D ^ + BC^ =. A B ' + BD^ + BA^ + AC^ + 2 A B ( B D + C A )

<=> A D ^ + B C ' = B D ' + A C ' + 2AB" + 2 A B ( B D + C A )

o A D ' + B C ' = B D ' + A C ' + 27^3(131) + CA + A B )

o A D ' + B C ' = B D ' + A C ' + 2.ABCD (*)


(do he thilc Chales)
Dey: ABICD => A B . C D = 0
(•)

Nen : => A D ' + B C ' = B D ' + A C ' (**) (dpcm).


0 G h i c h u , : Dang thiic (**) con goi Id D I E U K I E N D A I S O (Dieu kienlKi^ vd du) D E H A I
CANH DOI CUA MOT Tlf DIEN VUONG GOC NHAU LA TONG BINH PFtUONG CUA HAI
CAP CANH DOI DIEN CON LAI BANG NHAU.
21 Xet dieu k i e n (**) cho t i l dien A B C D . T a c6 :
A B I C D <=> A D - + B C ^ = B D " + A C " (1)

A D ± B C <=> A B - + C D - = B D ^ + A C ^ (2)
So sanh (1) v a (2), t a dugc : A D ' + B C ' = A B ' + C D ' (3)
0)
=> A B I B D

0 Ghi c h i i 2 : Diiu kien: — ^ — ^ACIBD Id DIEU KIEN DAI SO (Diiu kien cdn vd du)
ADIBC
THiy NHI DE HAI CANH DOI CUA MOT Tlf DIEN VUONG GOC NHAU L A : HAI CAP
CANH CON L A I VUONG GOC NHA U.

233
Bai 335 (DAI HOC K I N H TE QUOC DAN - KHOI A - 2000)
Cho tiif dien ABCD c6 cdc canh thoa man he thijfc :
A B ' + C D ' = AC' + B D ' = A D ' + BC'
ChuTng minh r^ng trong 4 mSt cua t(S di$n ph&i c6 i t nhat mot mSt 1^ tam gi^c c6 ca ba
g6c deu nhon.
Giai
Xet ta dien ABCD vdi dieu ki?n da cho sSn nhu sau :
A B ' + C D ' = A C ' + B D ' = A D ' + BC' (1)
Gia suf Ai = S A G > 90° (khong nhon).
Luc do dinh ly ham cos cho ta :
BC' = AB'+ AC' - 2AB.AC.cosAi
=> BC' > AB'+ A C ' (2) (vi cos BAC < 0)
[AB^ + CD^ = AD^ + B C ^ (3)
Tif(l)cho: \
AC^ + BD^ = AD^ + B C ^ (4)
Til (2) & (3) => BC' + ( A B ' + CD') > (AD' + BC')+ (AB'+ AC')
=> C D ' > A D ' + A C ' => ^2 = CAt) > 90°
Tifcfng ta, (2) & (4) suy ra :
BC' + (AC' + BD') > ( A B ' + AC') + (AD' + BC')
=> B D ' > A B ' + A D ' ^ '^3= fiAl) > 90°
T6m lai ta c6 : ; ; A 3 > 90° (khong nhon). Nghia 1^, tai mgt dinh n^o d6 nS'u c6 mot
goc khong nhon t h i hai goc con lai cung khong nhon, do do neu c6 mgt goc d mdt dinh nhon thi
hai goc con lai d dinh do cung nhon (*).
T h a t vay, neu AABC khong la tam giAc nhon, ching han A i > 90°. Theo chilng minh tren
t h i cac AABC; AACD; AABD thil t u c6 B, va Cj; C2 va D2; D3 v£l B 3 deu nhon (vi moi mpt trong
ba tam giac vCra noi chi c6 dugc 1 goc khong nhon d dinh).
=> cac goc phang d ba dinh B; C; D deu nhon.
(*)
=> ABCD nhon (trong ycbt) => dpcm.
D E TlfCfNG TlJ
B a i 336 (DAI HOC SLf PHAM KHOI B - 1978)
Cho tijf dien ABCD vdi canh AB = a. Goi G la trong tam cua tam gi^c BCD.
a/ ChiJng minh rling AC 1 (BCD); t i n h do dai AC theo a.
b/ Lay M tren doan BC, N tren doan CD. Dat CM = x (0 < x < a), CN = y (0 < y < a). Tinh
the tich ciia tut dien ACMN theo a, x, y.
B a i 337 (DAI HOC K H O I B - 1981)
Cho hai dacrng th^ng cheo nhau d va d', d J. d' nhan IJ = h lam dudng vuong goc chung.
Lay A; B e d va CO l A = b. Lay M e d' va J M = m.
a/ Tim the tich t i l dien ABMJ.
b/ Ke BC 1 AJ. Goi H la trUc tam ACAM. ChiJng minh : BC 1 (CAM) va MA J_ BH.
234
Htfdfng d i n

a/ V = - h m ( a + b). b/ Doc gia tu giai.


6
Bai 338 (DAI H O C V A N H O A H A NOI - 1998)
TO dien ABCD c6 CD = 2a, cac canh con lai deu bkng aV2 .
a/ Chdrng minh : CAt) = CBt) = Iv. b/ Tim Stp til dien.
c/ Chilng minh mp (ACD) L (BCD).
HvCdng d a n
a/ ABCD = AACD (ccc) => CSt) = Iv.
b/ Stp = 3^(2 + 73)
c/ Theo dinh li dao Pythagore thi AlS (dpcm).

Chuyen de 15 : HINH LANG TRy - HINH LANG TRy C y T


L GIAH Ltfoc mfew THorc T 6 I Tm^n
a DNi : H i n h l a n g t r u la mpt k h o i da di§n c6 h a i
m^t (h&ng n h a u ) nSm t r o n g h a i m&t p h a n g song
song ((a) va (P)) gpi la day va t a t ca nhuTng c a n h
khong thuQC h a i day d e u song song n h a u .
n DN2 : C h i e u cao h i n h iSng t r v la : h = d[(a); (P)].
0 Ghi c h i i :
> Cdc mat ben cua hinh lang tru la hinh binh hanh.
> Ta CO the not mot hinh lang tru dugc xdc dinh khi
biet mot day va mot canh cua no.
0 DN3 : M a t cheo la t h i e t d i $ n chtfa h a i c a n h b e n
khong c u n g if t r o n g mpt mSt b e n .
• DN4 : Mfit p h a n g v u o n g goc vdri c a n h b e n cfit ^
hinh l a n g t r u tao n e n thie't d i $ n t h ^ n g Sf
• TA CO T H E PHAN LOAI L A N G T R U NHll SAU :
• DN5 : L a n g t r u dufng la l a n g t r u c6 c a n h b e n
vuong goc vdri day. K h i c a n h b e n co k h o n g v u o n g goc \6\y ta c6 l a n g t r u
xien.
• Trong lang tru dufng thi :
> Canh ben la dtf&ng cao.
> Thiet dien thing bftng day.
> Cac mat ben va mat cheo deu la hinh chuT nhat.
n DNs : LSng t r u d e u la l a n g t r u d i i ^ g c6 m a t day la da giac d e u .
Lang tru deu c6 cac mat ben deu la nhufng hinh chi? nhat bang nhau.
• D N 7 : L a n g t r u c u t la l&ng t r u c6 h a i m a t day k h o n g song song.
• Trong lang try cut t h i :
> Cac canh ben deu la hinh thang hay tarn giac.
> CAc canh ben khfing b^ng nhau.
• T i n h chat 1 : Dien tich xung quanh.
> Lang tru : p'f
> Lang tru dijfng, lang tru deu : = 'f.\\
in :
• T i n h chat 3 : The tich
r Lang tru : V S./ = C8.h
Ca + b
Lang tru tam giac : V = ; a, b, c la 3 canh day.
V
• T A CO M O T SO H I N H L A N G T R U DAC B I E T S A U : A, D,
• DNg : H i n h hpp la hinh lang tru c6 mpt day la hinh
binh hanh.
r Sau mat ben la hinh binh hanh.
n DN9 : Hinh hpp dufng la hinh hpp c6 cac m$t ben la
hinh chu" nh$t.
• DNio : H i n h hpp chOT nh$t la hinh hpp dihig c6 day la
hinh chuT nh^lt.
> DUcrng cheo : d -Ja'^ ^ ; a,b. c : ba
> Dien tich xung quanh : Sjq = 2(a + b)c
> Dien tich toan phan : Sip ^ 2(ab + be + ca)
> The tich : V = abc
• D N , i : H i n h lap phi^dng la hinh hpp chff nhat c6
A'
mpt mat ben la hinh vuong.
> Sau mat hinh lap phuang deu la hinh vuong (canh a).
> DUcfng cheo :
> Dien tich xung quanh : Sxq = 4a'
> Dien tich toan phan : Stp = 6a'
D
> The tich : V = a
n. C A C B A I T O A N O O B A N
B a i 339
Cho hinh hop chiJ nhat. Goi a, (3, y la goc tao bdi mot dUcrng cheo cua hinh hop \di ba canh
cijng phat xuat tir mpt dinh.
1/ ChiJtng minh : cos^a + cos^P + cos^y = 1 (1)
2/ Chtjfng minh : >/4cos^a + 1 + ^4cos^p + l ^ ^ 4 C O S ^ Y + 1 < V 2 I (2)
Giai
1/ Xet dudng ch6o B D ' = d cua hinh hop cha nhat A B C D . A ' B ' C ' D ' .
236
Dftt : a = ABtr ; p = ; y = I?Btr
ABAD' vuong 0 A =— cosa =
^ d BD'
b c
Tuong tLf => cos(5 = — va cosy = — \
d d

=> cos^ a + cos^ (5 + cos^ y =


d^
Theo tinh chat dudng ch6o ta c6 : = a^ + 2 +. c'
_2

=> cos^ a + cos^ P + cos^ y = 1 (1) (dpcm).


21 Ap dung bat dang thiifc Schwartz
=> 1. 74 008^0 + 1 - 1 . 7 4 c o s ^ p ^ l + 1 ^ 4 003^ y + 1 <

< + 1^ + l ' )(4 cos^ a + 1 + 4 cos^ p + 1 + cos^ y + 1) =

do ^3(4cos^ a * 4cos^ P + 4 cos^ y ^ 3) = V 2 I ( d p c m ) .

nLGlAlTOAMTHI
Bai 340 (DAI HOC KHOI B 1976)
Cho mot hinh lang tru diifng c6 day ABC la mgt tam giac vuong goc d B, c6 cac canh ben la
AA'. BB', CC.
a/ ChuTng minh rSng tam giac A B C la tam giac vuong, con tam giac A B C khong the la tam
giac vuong.
b/ ChOfng minh r&ng hai tam giac AB'C va ABC chia hinh lang tru thanh ba hinh chop c6
the tich bang nhau.
d Biet dien tich day (ABC) la S, canh BC bang a, goc giCIa A C vdi mat phang day bang u ,
tinh dien tich toan phan ciia hinh chop A.A'B'C.
Giai
a/ De y thay lang tru ABC.A'B'C la lang tru diJng.
=i. BC _L (AAB'B) ID AB' => B C l AB'; ma B C // BC
=> B C 1 AB' AAB'C vuong tai B'. (dpcm)
a That vay gia siJf AAB'C vuong tai C => AC 1 BC ma : AC 1 CC
=> AC 1 (BB'C'C) (dieu nay mau thuSn vdri AB 1 (BB'CC).
• Tuong t u ta cung chOfng minh difac rang AAB'C khong the vuong tai A hay tai B'. Vay
AABC khong the la tam giic vuong (dpcm).
b/ Goi ducfng cao cua lang t r u diJng ABC.A'B'C la C C = h , dien tich day cua n6 la
dt(AABC) = dUAA'B'C) = S. Ta c6 :

^ABC.A'B'C' -

VA.AHC = - AA'-dUAA-E'C) = - S h
3 3

VB'ABC = -BB'.dt(AABC) = - Sh
3 3

VA.B'CC = Sh - - S h + - S h = - S h
3 3 3

237
A.B'C'C
Vay hai tam giac A B C vk A B C chia iSng tru thanh ba phan bang nhau (dpcm).
c/ Hinh chop A . A ' B C c6 bon mat A A ' B ' , A B C , A A C , A B C deu la nhufng tam gidc vuong
Ta CO :
2S 2S
AB' = AB= = —
BC a
A C = AC = V B C ^ + A B ^ = - Va* +43^
a
A A ' = B B ' = C C = AC.tana = - Va* + 4 S ^ tana
a
AB' = VB'B^ + AB^ = - Va* tan^ a + 48^(1 + tan^ a)
SAA^'C = S - —AB'.B'C
SAAAK = ^ A A ' . A B '
Ma
S,^AAC=|AA'.AC
S,\AB'C' = — A B ' . B ' C '
1
=> S,p = - B ' C ' ( A ' B ' + AB') + - A A ' ( A ' B ' + A'C)
2S 1 I
^ S,p = - a — + -Va* tan^ a + 4 8 ^ ( 1 + tan^ a)
a a
+ i iVa* + 4 8 ^ .tanaf— + -yll^Tls'
2 a V a a
i(2S + Va* tan^ a + 48^ (1 + tan^ a)
2V
+ - . — V a * + 4 8 ^ tana(2S + Va* + 48^
2
Stp = S 1 +^ V a * + 48^ 1 + - Va* tan^ a + 48^(1 + tan^ a) +
1 tana, A , „ 2 ^. ,
+ - — 5 - ( a * + 4 8 ^ ) (ycbt).
1)
B a i 341 ( T T D A O T A O V A B O I D I J ( 3 N G C A N B O Y T E T P . H C M - 129 9 a
Cho hinh lang tru dilng ABCAiB,Ci day ABC la tam giac vuong, AB = AC = a, dtfcfng cao AAi =
h. M , N Ian lUcft tren AA, va BB,. Dat A M = x; BN = y.
1/ Tim cac dieu kien ciia a, h, x, y de tam giac CMN vuong.
3a
2/ Cho h = , t i m tam giac vuong CMN c6 dien tich Idn nhat. Tim dien tich do.
3/ Cho h = 3a. Tim tam giac vuong CMN c6 dien tich lorn nhat. Tim dien tich do.
238
Giai

1/ Ap dung dinh ly Pythagore, ta c6 :

NC2 = 2a2 + y2
MN2 = + |y x f = a^ + y2 + x2 - 2xy
Khi do ACMN vuong tai C M
« MN'^ = MC^ + NC^ X
« a^ + y^ + x^ - 2xy = a^ + x^ + 2a^ + y^ B
o -xy = a^ (v6 ly)
Vay khong ton tai a, h, x, y de ACMN vuong tai C (ycbt).
2/ TiJong tu ACMN vuong tai M A
o NC^ = MC^ + MN^
o 2a^ + y^ = a^ + x^ + + y^ + x^ - 2xy
o x(x - y) = 0 •» "x = 0 ; V y : 0 < y < h
X = y (0 < x,y < h )
Do do ACMN vuong tai M neu trong lang tru ABCAiBjCi xay ra mot trong hai kha nSng sau:
a THi : M = A,V N e BBi (ycbt).
• T H 2 : AM = BN « M N // AB (ycbt).
3/ ACMN vuong tai N « MC^ = NC^ + MN^
cs. a^ + x^ = 2a^ + y^ + a^ + y^ + x^ - 2xy
<=> y - xy + a = 0 (1)
Vay ACMN vuong tai N t h i cac do dai a, x, y phai thoa man dieu kien (1).
Do ; 0 < y < h (2), nen phUcfng trinh (1) phai c6 nghiem y thoa dieu kien (2).
Dat Ry) = y^ - xy + a^. Ta c6 : Af = x^ - 4a^ ^ 0 <=> x > 2a (do x ^ 0)
flO) = a^ > 0
h^+a^
flh) = h^ -hx + a^ nen : Rh) = 0 <^ x =

S x
--0 = - > 0 (do X ^ 0)
2 2
- - h =- - h < 0 (dox<h X < 2h)
2 2

X A f(0) «h) ?-0


2 1- K e t qua

- + + -
0 VN
+ + +
2a f-
y i = y2 = a

h + + + + - 0 < y i < y2 < h

h^+a^
h
+ + + -
0 < y , < h < y2

239
N h a n xet : Do h < , <^ a^>0
va do 0 < X < h nen ta phai chon 2a < x < h (3)
Vay vdi dieu ki^n (3) thi (1) cho ta hai gia tri cua y thoa (2) luc d6 A C M N vuong tai N.
2 2
* Mat khac (1) => X = ^ ^ (y * 0)
y
Do 0 ^ X ^ h (4) nen ta c6 : 0 < <h <=> g(y) = y^ - h y + a^ ^ 0 (5)
y
Vdri dieu kien (3), ta difgrc hai gia tri y thoa (2). V a n de con l a i la ta tim dieu kien de" (5)
di/ac thoa : A„ = h^ - 4a^ > 0 (theo (3) => h > 2a)
4a ^ h+ 4a ^
Den day (5) <=> ^ y< (6)
. h - V h ^ -4a2 ^ , h + Vh2-4a2
Da CO : > 0 va <h
2 2
Vay khi (6) thoa thi (2) thoa.
Ket luan : de A C M N vuong tai N thi cac do dai a, x, y dong thdi phai thoa dieu ki^n (1),
(3) va (6) (ycbt).
2/ Vdi h = — < 2a, dieu kien (3) khong thoa nen A C M N chi c6 the vuong tai M . Theo lb),
2
xet hai k h a nSng xay r a :
• THi: M ^ A va VN e BB,
y +a <z>y = h = —
2
Vay maxdt(NAC) = - AC. max(NA) = i a j — + = —
2 2 V 4 4
• TH2 : M N // A B <=> x = y : A N M C c6 canh goc vuong M N = a
3a
3maxdt(NMC) <=> 3 m a x M C <=> 3max 4^ a <=> X = h =
2 9a^
maxdt(NMC) = - a ,
2 Va +
O Ket ludn : .
3a a^VlS
• Vdri h = — , ACMN chi c6 the vuong tai M, va maxdt(CMN) = xay r a tai hai vi tri:
2 4
3a
AABjC (vuong tai A) vdi x = 0, y =
3a
AABJC (vuong tai A j ) vdi x = y = h =
3/ Vdi h = 3a > 2a dieu kien (3) thoa nen tam giac C M N c6 the vuong tai M (da khac sdt
rieng d cau 2) hoSc vuong tai N (vdi h = 3a). T a khao sat A C M N tai N .
240
(3) 2 a < X < 3a (3')
K h i h = 3a

Tif (1) => N M ^ = y2 - x y + + -xy


2 2
=> NM'^ = - xy = - ( y 2 + a^)= ^ ( a ^ + y2)
y

Dat: t = y2; (6') « ^ (7 - sVS) ^ t ^ — ( 7 + sVs)


2 2

1^
Luc d6: dt2(NMC) = - N C ^ N M ^ = —4 t ( 2 3 ^ + t ) (a^ + t)

+ 3 a n + 2a'
dt^(NMC) = = Z(t)

/^4.2
2a 2a^ a - 2a^
Z(t) = t + 3a^ 1-
4 4

Ta CO bang bien t h i e n :
a^(7-375) "2, + 375)
3-^(7
-a^V2 2 a^V2
Z'

z
(min)

maxZ = m a x
a2(7-3V5l a2(7 + 3V5
;Z

3a^ 3a^ 3a''


^ maxZ = max
(9 + V5); — 8( 9 - V 5 ) = ^ ( 9 + V5)

Vay m a x d t ( N M C ) = ^ l | ( 9 + VS) xay r a k h i :

7-3V5
t = y'= —-(7-3^5) « y = a thoa (6')
2 V 2

Luc do X = y ^y . ^ 2i S . r JV ' -2 ^ thoa (3').

0 Ket luqm :

Trong t n f d n g hap h = 3a => A N M C vuong t a i M maxdt(NMC) =

X = y = h = 3a
chi k h i
x = 0 A y = h = 3a
Con lai ANMC cung c6 th€ vuong tai N maxdt(NMC) = — J — ( 9 + V5) xay ra khi va
V^
7-3^5
X = ^ ( 3 + V5)„ ^
2 \
chi k h i (ycbt).
7-3^5
B a i 342 ( D A I H O C A N N I N H - C A N H S A T - K H O I A - 1997)
Cho hinh hop chiJ nhat ABCD.A'B'C'D'. Goi a la g6c phSng nhi dien (B'; CD, B).
1/ Xac dinh a va chufng to rSng : Sgcp = S^QD X cosa .
2/ Cho AA' = a va dUcfng t h i n g B'D tao vdi mat phang (ABCD) mot goc c6 so do [3, dong thdi
dadng t h i n g B'D tao vdi mat ben BCC'B' mot goc y. Tinh the tich hinh hop cha nhSt
ABCD.A'B'C'D' theo a, p, y, a.
Giai
1/ De y thay g6c phang nhi dien (B'; CD; B) la B C ^ ^ = a.
ABCB' vuong tai B ^.
BC
=> cosa = ——
EC => BC = cosa.B'C
- BC.CD = - B'C.CD.cosa
2 2
/
SHOD = S „ . C D ^ 0 ^ " «*P'='"^- B
2/ Ta xet cdc yeu to :
• B D la hinh chieu ciia B ' D len mat phang ( A B C D ) nen B D B * = [5.
• B C la h i n h chieu cua B ' D len mdt p h i n g ( B C C ' B ) nen C B ^ = y
• A B B ' D vuong tai B va A A ' = B B ' = a
^ s i n B D B ' = sinp = — = — B'D = — .
B'D B'D sinp
asiny
• A C B ' D vuong tai C => C D = B'D.siny =
sinp
BB'
• A C B ' B vuong tai B => BC = = a.cota.
tana
Khi do, the tich hinh hop ABCD.A'B'C'D' la :
siny
VABCD.ATJ'CD' = B B ' . B C . C D = a " ' c o t a . ^ (ycbt).
sinP
Bai 343 (DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA NOI - KHOI D - 1999)
Cho hinh lap phuang ABCD.A'B'C'D'. Difng mat phing chijfa dUcmg cheo AC cua hinh vuong
ABCD va di qua trung difem M cua canh B' C. Mat phing do chia hinh lap phuang thanh hai
phan. Tinh t i so the tich cua hai phan d6.
242
A
Giai
Goi : M N = (ACM) o (A'B'C'D'). T a c6 : A C // (A'B'C'D')
Nen : M N // A C // A ' C
Hay N la trung diem cua A'B'.

Goi a la canh h i n h lap phifang, ta c6 : V = a'

Mat khac the ti'ch h i n h ch6p cut A B C . N B ' M la :

^ABCNIiM ^ (SABC + SNB'M + V^ABC S N B M )

=> V =-a
a a" a' /\ B' \

24
ABC.NH'M 3 / 1
/ ^ D
S-y- V_^,„,=a='-^a3=ila3
24 24
V B
Vay: = — (ycbt).
V ABC
..„ NBM 7

Bai 344 (DAI H O C N G O A I N G O H A NOI - C B - 1999)

Cho mot hinh hop chfl nhat A B C D . A B ' C ' D ' va diem M tren canh A D . Mat phang ( A B M )
cStdifdng cheo A C ciia hinh hop tai diem I I .
1/ Chufng minh rang khi M thay doi tren canh A D thi dUcfng t h i n g M H cat ducfng thang A'B
tai mot di§m co dinh.
21 Tinh ty so the tich ciia hai khoi da di$n tao bdi mat phang (A'BM) cat hinh hop trong
trucrng hap M la trung diem cua canh A D .
3/ Gia suf AA' = A B va M B vuong goc vdi A C . Chufng minh rkng mat p h i n g (A'BM) vuong g6c
lisi AC va diem H la triic tam ciia tam giac A ' B M .

Giai
1/ Tren tia doi cua tia B ' C lay diem N sao cho : B' N = AM= x
^ AMB'N la hinh hinh hanh.
Goi : I = AB' o MN

AI = B'l = - A B '
2

MI = N I = - M N
2

Do do hinh chfl nhat A B B ' A ' c6 I cung la


trung diem ciia BA'
=> A'MBN la hinh binh hanh
^ A'N // B M N X B'
=> mp (A'BM) = mp (A'MBN)
=> N ; M; H ; I cung thupc mat phang (A'MBN) (1)
M ; I; N e N M
Ta CO : \ N; M; H ; I e ( A M C N) (2)
He A C

243
Tif (1) va (2) ^ N ; M ; H ; I t h i n g hang.
Vay khi M thay doi tren canh AD thi M H cat A'B tai diem co dinh 11^ trung diem A'B (dpcm).
2/ Dat : AB = a; AD = b; AA' = c. K h i do : AM = - .
2
Xet hinh chop A'.ABM, ta c6 :
abc
— .a.— .c =
2 2 ~12
•'ABCD A-BCD' - **bc
abc 11
=> = VABCD.A-BCD' ~ ABM = abc - abc (ycbt).
12 12 11
BM ± AC BM 1 A C
3/ Ta CO : i> B M 1 (ACC'A')
A A ' 1 ( A B C D ) => A A ' 1 B M A H I B M
AB = AA' => A A B M = AAA'M => BM = A M
=> A ' M B N la hinh thoi => A ' B ± M N (hay M H 1 A ' B )
Mat khac : A M 1 ( A A ' B ' B ) => A ' B 1 A M .
Nen : A'B 1 (AMC'N) => A ' B 1 A C .
[BM 1 A C
Vay : AC' 1 (A'BM).
[A'B 1 A C
BM 1 A H
va : =* H la trirc tam AABM (dpcm).
A'B 1 M H
B a i 345 ( D A I H O C T H U Y S A N N H A T R A N G - 1999)
Cho lang try tam giac ABC.A'B'C. Goi I , J , K Ian liTcft la trong tam cua cac tam giic
AABC, AA'B'C, AACC. Chufng minh rang :
1/ ( I J K ) / / ( B B ' C C ) 2/ (A'JK)//(AIB').
Giai
1/ Goi M ; N ; Q Ian lirat la trung diem BC; B'C; CC.
Trong hinh binh hanh AA'NM c6 :
A'J AI 2
A-N ~ A M " 3
=> I J / / M N =^IJ//(BCC'B')
AK AI 2
Trong AQAM c6 : -
AQ AM 3
KI//QM =>IK//(BCCB)
Vay : ( U K ) // (BCC'B') (dpcm).
2/ Ta CO : CMB'N la hinh binh hanh
=> C N / / B ' M
Ma : A'N // A M ; nen : (A'CN) // (AMB')
Suy ra : (A'JK) // (AIB') (dpcm).
244
Bai 346 ( D A I H O C G I A O T H O N G V A N T A I - C O Sd T P . H C M - 2 0 0 0 )

Cho hinh lap phifong ABCD.A'B'C'D' canh a.


1/ Xac dinh dadng vuong goc chung cua canh B B ' va difcfng cheo A C .
21 Mot mat ph^ng ( P ) di qua dudng cheo A C cSt B B ' va DD' t a i M va N . Thiet dien A M C ' N
la hinh ^ ? Hay xac dinh mat ph^ng ( P ) de thiet dien A M C ' N c6 dien tich be nhat va tinh
dien tich do.
Giai
A C : diTcfng xien
1/ De y :
A C : hinh chieu

Ma BB' 1 (ABCD) ID AC
BE 1 A C tai E

Dung E O ± ( A B C D ) tai E ; O e A C

O F / / B E ; F GB B '

OF la doan vuong goc chung cua BB' va


AC (Doc gia tU chijtng minh kiem tra each
difng) (ycbt).

Thay duoc ngay sau each dUng :

OF = B E = ^ B D = ^ .
2 2

^ d[BB'; ACJ = (ycbt).


2
(ABB'A')// (DCCD')
21 Ta CO : A M // N C
(P) n ( A B B ' A ' ) = A M ; (P) n ( D C C D ' ) = N C

TuangtU, do : ( A D D ' A ) V / ( C B B ' C ' ) => A N / / M C

Vay thiet dien nhan di/Oc la hinh binh hanh A M C ' N (ycbt).

Ha M H 1 A C ta thay dien tich thiet dien : S = 2. S ^ M C ' = 2 . — . A C ' . M H


2

S = a. V S . M H => 3min(S) <^ 3min(MH).

Da CO OF la doan vuong goc chung cua BB' va A C

aV2
OF = min(d[BB'; A C ' ] ) = min(MH) =

a^Ve
min(S) = a. VS . ^ (ycbt).
2 2

Bai 3 4 7 (DAI HOC QUOC GIA H A N O I - K H O I D - 2 0 0 0 )

Cho lang tru dufng ABC.A'BC c6 day la tarn giac can dinh A, Afit] = u ; B C hop vdi day
(ABC) goc p. Goi I la trung diSm ciia AA'. Biet rSng la goc vuong.
1/ Chufng minh rSng BIC la tarn giac vuong can.
21 Chufng minh rSng : tan^a + tan^p = 1.

245
Giai
1/ Goi M la trung diem canh d&y B C cua iSng try A B C . A ' B ' C '
=> A M 1 B C (vi A A B C can tai A)
Do A A ' J . ( A B C ) => I M 1 B C (dinh ly ba dtfdng vuong g6c)
'JBC 1 A M
B C 1 (lAM)
JBC 1 l A
^ A B I C can tai I (vi c6 difdng cao I M \k trung tuyen).
Vay A B I C vuong can tai I (dpcm).
A A ' = B B ' = C C = y.tanp
2/ Dat BC = y
AB = AC = —^—
2.cosa
Dinh ly Pythagore trong A I A B , ta c6 :
IB' = AB^ + AI^
V ( y-tanp^l
IB' =
,2.cosa,
2 /
IB^ = ^ + tan^ p
cos^a
IB^ = ^
—(tan^ a + tan^ P + l) (1)
Mat khac, tH A I B C vuong can tai I , ta c6 :
BC^ y2
2Bl^ = B C ^ => BI^ (2)
2 2
So sanh (1) va (2) => —(tan^a
4 + tan^P + 1)' = ^2
=> tan^a + tan^p = 1 (dpcm).
B a i 348 ( T T D A O T A O V A B O I DLfCiNG C A N B O Y T E T P . H C M - 2000)
Cho hinh lang try diifng ABC.A'B'C c6 day la tam giac deu ABC canh a. Lay tren BB' va
CC cac doan BM = x; CN = y.
1/ ChiJng minh rSng tam giac A M N chi c6 the vuong d M hay N . T i m h? thufc giffa x va y de
tam giac A M N vuong a M .
2/ Chufng minh rSng neu x = 2y thi mSt phSng (AMN) luon di qua mot di/dng thang co dinh.
3/ Goi I la trung diem ciia doan AA' va a la goc cua hai mat phang (BIC) va (ABC). "jTinh
canh ben AA' theo a va a.
Giai
AABM ( 6 = 90") AM^ = + (1)
1/ Lang try ABC.A'B'C:
AACN ( C = 90") AN2=a2+y2 (2)
Ila D N ± BB' tai D
246
A M D N (6 = 9 0 ° )

MN'' = + (x - y)^ = A M ^ + A N ^ (3)

(1) ; ( 3 ) = > M N < A M


Tif
(2) ; (3) =^ M N < A N

=> M N k h o n g t h e l a canh huyen A A M N .

=> . A A M N c h i CO t h e vuong t a i M
hoSc N (dpcm).

21 Gia sOf , \ A M N vuong t a i M , t a c6 :


AM^ + M N ^ = AN^
o (a^ + x^) + a^ + (x - y)^ = a^ + y^ cj> 2x^ - 2xy + a^ = 0 (ycbt).
Goi E = BC o M N , d o h a i canh ben l i n g t r u luon song song
EC NC y
— <=> — = - => E CO d i n h t r e n dudng t h ^ n g BC.
EB MB X 2y EB 2

De y t h a y : ( A M N ) 3 A (co d i n h ) .
=> M a t p h l n g ( A M N ) qua dudng t h a n g A E co' d i n h (dpcm).
3/ Goi F = I C ^ A C B F = ( B I C ) ^ (ABC).
riA//cc'
De y t h a y : FA = AC = A B
lA = - C C '
2
AFBC vuong d B ( F B 1 BC) (4)
Thee d i n h l y ba difcfng vuong goc => C'B 1 F B (5)
Tir(4) va (5) =: a = (f^ = [ ( B I C ) ; (ABC)]
C C AA'
Ta CO : tana = => A A ' = a.tana (ycbt).
BC a

Bai 349 (HOC V I E N Q U A N H E Q U O C T E - K H O I D - 2000)

Cho h i n h lap phuang A B C D . A ' B ' C ' D ' v d i canh a. Gia sijf M ; N ; P; Q I a n lifat l a t r u n g d i e m
cua cac canh A D ' ; D ' C ; C C ; AA'.
1/ Chiirng m i n h r a n g bdn d i 6 m M ; N ; P; Q cung n ^ m t r e n mot m a t p h ^ n g . T i n h chu v i cua tijf
giac M N P Q theo a.
2/ Tinh dien t i c h cua tuf giac M N P Q theo a.

Giai
PQ// = A ' C
1/ De y t h a y 1 2MN = QP
MN// = - A ' C '
2

=> M , N , P, Q cung n a m t r e n m o t m a t p h l n g .

247
Tiir gidc MNPQ la nijfa luc giac deu MNPKHQ ma
1V2
cac canh cua luc giac do c6 do dai la mjTa
dtfdng cheo ciia mat hinh lap phuang (dpcm).
Do do chu v i 'f cua tijf gidc MNPQ la :
'( = 3MN + PQ
^'f = 3 . ^ . AC
^ aV2 f- 5aV2 , ,
= 3. + aV2 = (ycbt .
2 2
2/ Dien tich S cua tuf giac MNPQ bang ba Ian di$n tich
tam giac deu canh aV2
iV2' V3 3V3a^
=> S = 3. (ycbt).
8
O Ghi chui : Doc gid c6 the xein each gidi khdc cua cd bdi todn bdng HHGT trong sack
TUYEN TAP 500 BAI TOAN HINH HOC GIAI TICH cua cung nhom tdc gid.
O Ghi c h u 2 : Doc gid c6 the gidi Cdu 2 cua Bdi todn nay bdng cdch sti dung dien tich va
hinh chieu SMNPQCOSCP = S^^^^^,
S =^a^
AMNC g ABCD g
Trong do J3
taiKp = coscp
tan^(p
3V3a^
5 MNPQ = (ycbt).
8
B a i 350 (DAI HOC Y T H A I B I N H - 2000)
Cho hinh lap phuang OBCD.OiB,CiDi c6 canh bang a.
1/ Tinh khoang each giffa hai dudng t h i n g OiB va B,C.
21 N la trung diem cua BD,. Tinh thg tich hinh chop ONBB,.
3/ M la mot diem bat ky thuoc OO,. Chijfng minh rang ty so the tich hinh chop MBCCiB, va
hinh lang try OCBOiC,Bi khong phu thuoc v i t r i diem M .
Giai
1/ De t i m d[0,B; B,C], ta difng (a) s (OiBD) :
O i D c (a)
'BIC// (a)
=> d[OiB; BiC] = d[C; (0,BD)] = h
B D 1 OC c ( O j O O r t a i l
Ta CO :
B D 1 OOj c: (OiOC)
248
=> BD 1 (OiOC)
=> (0,BD) 1 (0,0C) theo giao tuyen 0,1
Ha C H 1 0,1 tai H, thi CH = h.

Xet: V Q , BCD = Vc 0 ] B D <=> --OiO-SfiCD = g - C H . S o BD


j

aV3
o a. — = h . h=-
2
aVa
(ycbt).
Vay : d[0,B; BjC] = — ^

2/ De y N la tarn hinh lap phuang va : Sgj^Bj = —SBDBJ


2

=• Vo.BNB, =^VoBDBi = ^ Vg, QBD = ^.^.BiB.OB.OD

^O.BNB, - (ycbt).

3/ Xet: VM.BCC,B, = VO,.BCC,B, (cung day va chieu cao OiBj1 = a )

V^BcCiBi =g OIBI-SBCCIBI ^ 3-^-^^ (1)

a^ a^
Mat khac : VOBC.O,C,B, = OIOSOIC,B, = a (2)

TiJ (1) va (2), cho ta ty so the tich d gia thiet khong phu thuoc M nhu sau :
3

V , M.BCCiBi _ 3 _ 2
V --(dpcm).
*OCB.OiCiB, a_ ^

•A

Bai 351 ( D A I H O C X A Y D U N G V A L U A T H A N O I - 2000)

Cho lang tru deu A B C . A ' B ' C c6 chieu cao bSng h va hai dUcrng thSng A B ' , B C vuong g6c
nhau. Tim the tich lang tru do.
Giai
C
Keo dai iSng tru ABC.A'B'C them mot Idng tru AiBjCi.ABC
bing lang tru da cho => Tarn giac A j B C vuong tai B.
A'
Gia suf canh day iSng tru bang a. B'
,c
A A B B ' => A B ' 2 = a^ + h
Ta CO :
AAjBC ^ 2AIB2 = a^ + (2h)2
B
« a^ = 2h='

The tich lang tru la : V= — = — — (ycbt).


B,

249
D E Tl/CfNG T l f
B a i 352 (DAI HOC AN N I N H - CANH SAT - KHOI A - 1997)
Cho hinh hop chflr nhat ABCDAB'C'D', a la g6c phSng cua nhi dien (B', CD, B).
a/ Xac dinh a va chufng to S^BCD = ^.\B CD. cosa.
b/ Cho AA' = a va B'D tao vdi day goc p, tao vdi mat ben BCC'B' goc y. Tinh the tich hinh hpp.
HuTdrng dan
a/ ifcS = a => SMJCD = — B'C.CD.cosa = S^^pco .cosa (vi AB'BC cho BC = B'Ceosa)
y _ a ' ' C O S tan a tan Y
sinu
Chuyen de 16: HINH CH6P - HINH CHOP CyT
l o ^ i 1: Htelfi CHOP
L GIAN Lirpc KiiiM THiirc T6I TBShj
• DN) : H i n h chop la mpt khoi da di^n loi co