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St.

Paul
University Philippines
Tuguegarao City,
Cagayan 3500

Assessment of the Canteen Services in St. Paul University Philippines

A Research Paper

Submitted to:

Ms. Jessica Angoluan

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Subject

Inquiry, Investigation and Immersion

Submitted by:

Theresa Marie Guzman

Jessa Kamille Lagasca

Kim Rheanne Jose

Miguel Donato

Mar Labog

Jiovan Corpuz
SY: 2017-2018

Introduction

The term “Social Media” refers to web-based or mobile technologies that are used for
collaborative information sharing. These technologies provide businesses with a number of ways to
communicate with and engage peers and the public with the goal of selling their product or service. Social
media is an umbrella term used to describe social interaction through a suite of technology based tools,
many of which are internet based. This includes, but is not limited to, internet forums,
networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Plus, webcasts, and blogs.

The web, as we know it, is neither a static nor stable medium. It is evolving. And as it evolves,
so too do the moral opportunities and challenges. The first generation web, the web of the dot com era
or what is now called web 1.0, represented a major change in the technology of corporate communication
but not in the underlying rules of the game. The most recent version of the web, however, represents the
opposites. Web 2.0 (a term initially coined by Tim O’Reilly) is not a new technology but a change in the
way existing technologies are used. And these new implementations, especially in the area of social
media, present some unique challenges to business ethics (Gunkel, 2015)
Business ethics is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines
ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. It is the study
of proper business policies and practices regarding potentially controversial issues such as corporate
governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, corporate social responsibility
and fiduciary responsibilities. Law often guides business ethics, while other times business ethics
provide a basic framework that businesses may follow to gain public acceptance.

Characteristics

Social media exhibits unique characteristics when compared to “traditional” media forms. Its
speed and scope means that once content is published it is available instantaneously, to a potentially
global audience. Social media tools tend to be free or available at a very low cost relative to other forms
of media and do not require users to have much technical knowledge. This allows larger numbers of
individuals to access and publish material than with traditional media forms.

Social media is usually interactive in a way that traditional media is not, so users can comment
on and edit published material, making it difficult to control content. Social media blurs private/public
boundaries when individuals‟ personal information and opinions enter the public domain. The
boundaries between personal and work life also become blurred as companies make use of social media
(originally designed for personal use) for business purposes, and likewise employees access personal
sites while at work. A 2011 DLA Piper survey found social media is used for personal and work related
activities by 95% of employees(1).

These unique characteristics of social media pose ethical challenges for business, through
employees‟ use of social media on behalf of the company, as well as their personal use.

An ethical business has a core value statement that describes its mission. Any business can create a
value statement, but an ethical business lives by it. It communicates this mission to every employee
within the structure and ensures that it is followed. The ethical business will institute a code of conduct
that supports its mission. This code of conduct is the guideline for each employee to follow as he
carries out the company's mission. Integrity is an all-encompassing characteristic of an ethical business.
The ethical business adheres to laws and regulations at the local, state and federal levels. It treats its
employees fairly, communicating with them honestly and openly. It demonstrates fair dealings with
customers and vendors including competitive pricing, timely payments and the highest quality
standards in the manufacture of its products. Ethics and respect go hand in hand. An ethical business
demonstrates respect for its employees by valuing opinions and treating each employee as an equal.
The business shows respect for its customers by listening to feedback and assessing needs. An ethical
business respects its vendors, paying on time and utilizing fair buying practices. And an ethical
business respects its community by being environmentally responsible, showing concern and giving
back as it sees fit.

Case Study Background

Organization: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics


Industry: Health Industry
Period: 1910 - present
Country: United States of America

Case Study #1

An internship director is reviewing applications for next year’s class. Is it legal or ethical to look at an
applicant’s public Facebook or Twitter page and use information s/he finds there in making her/his
decision?

Questions For Discussion


1. Is the situation described an ethical issue? Or, is it a business dispute?
This situation appears to be more of a business issue and an ethical one rather than a legal issue.
From a business (internship) perspective, these questions should be addressed: are there written policies
that cover the use of information publicly available on social media sites? What is expected by the
institutional (host) base for the internship? Was there notice or indication that material available on social
media sites could be accessed during the evaluation and selection process?
2. What principle(s) of the Code of Ethics does it relate to and how/why?
1. Indicate the Category for the Code of Ethics
2. Indicate the Principle(s) of the Code of Ethics
Fundamental Principles:
Principle #1: The dietetics practitioner conducts him/herself with honesty, integrity and
fairness.
Principle #1 relates to the Academy’s value of integrity and commitment to excellence in
utilization of available information. The value of integrity and fairness would apply relative to the
utilization of available information with regard to its content and it’s applicability to the internship. It
would seem an appropriate example of effectively utilizing information available if it could be used
without personal bias and applied fairly across all applicants Another point to consider relative to the
utilization of available information is the timing with which the information is accessed.

Responsibilities to Colleagues and Other Professionals: Principle #19: The dietetics


practitioner demonstrates respect for the values, rights, knowledge, and skills of colleagues and
other professionals.
Principle #19 relates to the student’s posting on social media and their behavior as emerging
professionals. Guidelines for postings on social media and the behavior of emerging and current
professionals suggest it is primarily the responsibility of the applicant. His/her judgment with regard to
the content of the post as well as the location of the initial post is important. Postings on public sites are
available for all to access, view and interpret. Respect for readers, evaluators and others would seem an
ethical consideration worthy of attention under Principle #19.
More specifically, Principle #19b: The dietetics practitioner provides objective evaluations of
performance for employees and coworkers, candidates for employment, students, professional
association memberships, awards, or scholarships, making all reasonable efforts to avoid bias in
the professional evaluation of others.

3. What are the key points to consider?

• The legality of viewing the information is in question, the possible mis-use of the information is the
concern.

• Internship directors should understand the policies of the internship sponsor.

• The appearance of bias or conflict must be considered.

• Objective evaluation of candidates with every effort taken to avoid bias is critical in the internship
decisions.
Legal Implications: It is legal to view information that is publicly available.
Ethical Implications: Three considerations are applicable to this case study based on the Fundamental
Principles #1, #19, and #19b as noted above. Consider more closely each of these noted above and their
contribution to clarity for the internship director as well as the posting of information by students.
Key Points to Consider:

• How carefully is the information to be used?

• The internet search may reveal personal information about the applicant’s health, race, religion, age,
military status, parental status, etc.

Case Study #2

An intern applicant posted negative remarks on Facebook about an internship for which she had
applied. The negative comments were focused on the policy for professional dress as an intern. After the
director saw the comment, the student was not selected for the internship..
Questions for Discussion
1. Is the situation described an ethical issue? Or, is it a business dispute?
It appears to be both an ethical and legal issue. However, there are two considerations that are
paramount in this case and in other cases like this:
1. Was the negative comment the reason why the individual was not selected to that internship?
2. How did the director access the information? Was it in the public domain or was it accessed through
another venue?
From a legal perspective, one would need to consider if the information was legally obtained and
was it a lawful use of the information and from an ethical perspective, was there a failure to implement
Fundamental Principle # 1 and/or # 19.
2. What principle(s) of the Code of Ethics does it relate to and how/why?
1. Indicate the Category for the Code of Ethics
2. Indicate the Principle(s) of the Code of Ethics

Fundamental Principles # 1 and #19.


Principle #1: The dietetics practitioner conducts him/herself with honesty, integrity, and
fairness. Principle #1 relates to the value of integrity and addresses attributes and behaviors that should
characterize all professionals, including students who are preparing to become dietetics professionals.
This speaks to the integrity of both the student with regard to information posted and to the internship
director with regard to how the information was accessed as well as how the information was used.
Principle #19: The dietetics practitioner demonstrates respect for the values, rights,
knowledge, and skills of colleagues and other professionals. Principle #19 relates to the importance
of adhering to the Code of Ethics including postings on social media.
Considerations related to this principle suggest an assessment of the location of the information:
How was the information used? Was information on a public site? Was the content of the information
posted respectful and applicable to the application process?

Fundamental Principles:
Principle #1: The dietetics practitioner conducts himself/herself with honesty, integrity, and
fairness.
Responsibilities to the Public: Principle #4: The dietetics practitioner complies with all laws and
regulations applicable or related to the profession or to the practitioner’s ethical obligations as
described in this Code. The situation warrants that the employer complies with laws and regulations
that govern the workplace and treats an employee fairly.

3. What are the key points to consider?

• Students or interns who are members of the organization are expected to adhere to the Code of Ethics
and this includes postings on social media.

• Internship directors must adhere to the Code of Ethics and serve as models for the students/interns.
• Consider that information on Facebook is considered to be public domain and available for viewing.

• Consideration of what is posted, where it is posted along with how is the information accessed and
how is that information utilized.

Legal Implications:
If the information was publically available, the intern applicant would have very little legal
protection here. The rights to free speech are not as broad and generally would not apply in this case.
Ethical Implications:

• A lack of respect for the value of integrity and professional behaviors seems evident in this situation.

• Postings on Facebook may have long term negative implications since once the post is made, the
originator no longer has control over who views it or how it is used.

Theories
The Nature of Business Ethics
Business ethics, according to the Rice University, should be grounded in deontology more than
in utilitarianism. That is, the ends should not typically be considered sufficient justification for the means
when it comes to framing a business strategy. Rather, it is the means that ennoble the ends. Utilitarianism,
as a consequentialist theory and when applied to business, emphasizes the greatest good (or profit) for
the greatest number of shareholders. However, this may be inappropriate criterion for determining what
is truly ethical in the conduct of business because business morality should not to be centered only on
calculations of profit or loss. Deontology, on the other hand, focuses on the motives and reasons why
entrepreneurs engage in business and the methods that they implement in doing so. Ultimately, both
theories have a place in business practice, but a preference should be shown to deontology.

Conclusion
Employers are permitted to use publicly available and other lawfully obtained information to
learn more about their applicants. This is a routine practice and it gives employers an opportunity to see
how a potential employee will conduct themselves. And employers may use this information to make
employment decisions. However, it is unlawful to make employment decisions based upon personal
characteristics such as age, race, military status, religion and health. Accordingly, employers should not
only be careful how they obtain information about applicants, but also how they use the information they
obtain.

Bibliography:
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