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MODAL VERBS

What are modal verbs?


Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary
verbs, modal auxiliaries) are special verbs which
behave irregularly in English. They are different from
normal verbs like "work, play, visit..." They give
additional information about the function of the main
verb that follows it. They have a great variety
of communicative functions.

Here are some characteristics of modal verbs:

 They never change their form. You can't add "s", "ed", "ing"...

 They are always followed by an infinitive without "to" (e.i. the


bare infinitive.)

 They are used to indicate modality allow speakers to express


certainty, possibility, willingness, obligation, necessity, ability

List of modal verbs


can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must

The verbs or expressions dare, ought to, had better, and need not behave like modal auxiliaries
to a large extent and may be added to the above list.

Use of modal verbs:


Modal verbs are used to express functions such as:

1. Permission

2. Ability

3. Obligation

4. Prohibition

5. Lack of necessity

6. Advice

7. Possibility

8. Probability
Examples of modal verbs
Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without "to", also called the bare infinitive.

 You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.

 You should see to the doctor.

 There are a lot of tomatoes in the fridge. You need not buy any.

Modal Verb Expressing Example

Strong obligation You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
must logical conclusion / Certainty He must be very tired. He's been working all day
long.

must not prohibition You must not smoke in the hospital.

ability I can swim.

can permission Can I use your phone please?

possibility Smoking can cause cancer.

ability in the past When I was younger I could run fast.

could polite permission Excuse me, could I just say something?

possibility It could rain tomorrow!

permission May I use your phone please?


may
possibility, probability It may rain tomorrow!

polite permission Might I suggest an idea?


might
possibility, probability I might go on holiday to Australia next year.

lack of necessity/absence of I need not buy tomatoes. There are plenty of


need not
obligation tomatoes in the fridge.

50 % obligation I should / ought to see a doctor. I have a terrible


headache.
should/ought
advice You should / ought to revise your lessons
to
logical conclusion He should / ought to be very tired. He's been
working all day long.

had better advice You 'd better revise your lessons


PERSUASIVE ESSAY
What is a persuasive/argument essay?
Persuasive writing, also known as the argument essay, utilizes logic and
reason to show that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to
persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action.
The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating
facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting experts.

When planning a persuasive essay, follow these steps

1. Choose your position. Which side of the issue or problem are you going to write about, and
what solution will you offer? Know the purpose of your essay.

2. Analyze your audience. Decide if your audience agrees with you, is neutral, or disagrees
with your position.

3. Research your topic. A persuasive essay must provide specific and convincing evidence.
Often it is necessary to go beyond your own knowledge and experience. You might need to
go to the library or interview people who are experts on your topic.

4. Structure your essay. Figure out what evidence you will include and in what order you will
present the evidence. Remember to consider your purpose, your audience, and your topic.

The following criteria are essential to produce an effective


argument

 Be well informed about your topic. To add to your knowledge of a topic, read thoroughly
about it, using legitimate sources. Take notes.

 Test your thesis. Your thesis, i.e., argument, must have two sides. It must be debatable. If
you can write down a thesis statement directly opposing your own, you will ensure that
your own argument is debatable.
 Disprove the opposing argument. Understand the opposite viewpoint of your position and
then counter it by providing contrasting evidence or by finding mistakes and
inconsistencies in the logic of the opposing argument.

 Support your position with evidence. Remember that your evidence must appeal to reason.

The following are different ways to support your argument:


Facts - A powerful means of convincing, facts can come from your reading, observation, or
personal experience.
Note: Do not confuse facts with truths. A "truth" is an idea believed by many people, but it cannot
be proven.
Statistics - These can provide excellent support. Be sure your statistics come from responsible
sources. Always cite your sources.
Quotes - Direct quotes from leading experts that support your position are inv aluable.

Examples - Examples enhance your meaning and make your ideas concrete. They are the proof.
Here are some ideas of popular persuasive essay topics:

 Anorexia or model body

 Encouraged abortions

 School uniform

These essay topic examples are debatable, it is important to choose the topic that is interesting
for you.