Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30


What is Computer?
Introduction :
A computer is an electronic device used to store and process information. It plays a major
role in our lives. You use computers in education and research. You also use them for
broadcasting news, receiving and sending messages to family and friends, making
presentations, maintaining official and personal records, making weather forecasts, and for
various other business and recreation activities. By using computers, you save a lot of
time, effort, and money.

Types of computer (classification)

 Mainframe –
A mainframe is a big, powerful, expensive computer that can support many users at the
same time. Large businesses and organizations use mainframes. Capacity: Enormous - the
capacity of several hundred or even thousands of PCs Speed: Very fast - much, much faster
than a PC Cost: Very, very expensive - can usually only be afforded by large organizations
Users: Only used by large businesses and organizations.

 PC
A PC is a personal computer, originally designed by IBM way back in 1981. Many different
companies make PCs, but all of them are IBM-compatible. What this means, according to
Bill Gates, is that they will all run Microsoft Windows. Capacity: Average hard disk size is 20
GB to 80 GB Speed: Fast. Average speed is from 1 GHz to 3 GHz Cost: Fairly inexpensive -
under $1,000 - and getting cheaper every day! Users: Just about everyone uses a PC!
Homes, offices, schools…

 Networked Computer
A network is a group of computers that are connected so that they can share equipment and
information. Most people on a network use workstations, which are simply PCs that are
connected to the network. A server is a central computer where users on the network can
save their files and information. Capacity: (Workstation) Same as a PC, only needs an
inexpensive network card (Server) Greater than a PC, often more than 100 GE Speed:
(Workstation) Same as a PC (Server) Generally faster than a PC, may use multiple CPUs
Cost :( Workstation) Same as a PC (Server) More expensive than a PC but not as costly as
a mainframe
Users: (Workstation) People in a networked office or organization
(Server) Generally a network administrator or engineer
 Laptop
A laptop, or notebook, is a lighter and more portable version of a PC or Mac that can run on
batteries. Capacity: Average hard disk size is 10 GB to 40 GB Speed: Fast, but slightly less
than a PC. Average speed is from 700 MHz to 2 GHz Cost: Fairly inexpensive, but more than
an equivalent PC Users: People on the move, especially business people and students

 Palmtop/PDA
A PDA (Personal Data Assistant) is a handheld computer that is generally used to keep track
of appointments and addresses. Capacity: Much smaller than a PC - 8 MB to 64 MB of
storage space Speed: Much slower than a PC - 8 MHz to 266 MHz Cost: Expensive when
compared to the capacities of a PC Users: Business people and others who need to be

Generations of computer

 First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes

The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and
were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in
addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the
cause of malfunctions.
First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming
language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one
problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was
displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation
computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business
client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.
UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)
Electronic Numeric Integrator And Computer(ENIAC)

 Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors

Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The
transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late
50s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become
smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation
predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the
computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation
computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output.
Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or
assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-
level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions
of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions
in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology.
The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.

 Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits

The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of
computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called
semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead
of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through
keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device
to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the
memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they
were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

 Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors

The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of
integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled
an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in
1971, located all the components of the computer - from the central processing unit
and memory to input/output controls - on a single chip. In 1981 IBM introduced its first
computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.
Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many
areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form
networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation
computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

 Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in the
development though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are
being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to
make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and
nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal
of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language
input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

 What makes a computer powerful?

Speed A computer can do billions of actions per

Reliability Failures are usually due to human error,

one way or another. (Blush for us all!)

Storage A computer can keep huge amounts of

 The Role of Computers
Computers play a major role in our daily lives. They are used in industries, schools,
government offices, and shops. You can use computers to communicate with your
family and friends, create a household budget, book travel and movie tickets, or
manage your business.

In business and industry, you use computers to maintain accounts, create personnel
records, track inventory, prepare presentations and reports, manage projects, and
communicate by e-mail. You can use computers to design any type of publication
ranging from simple newsletters to fashion magazines, marketing materials, books, or

In the field of education, trainers can use computers to deliver training through
audio-visual learning aids, maintain student records to track performance, search for
information on different topics, and create or submit assignments.

In government organizations, you use computers to organize information by storing

and updating records. Computers are also used for providing services to citizens. For
example, you can view information on current policies and government issues on a

In the field of medicine, doctors use computers to review medical records of

patients. Doctors also use computers to find information about the latest drugs
available to treat a disease. Doctors can also use computer technology to discuss and
share information about various diseases. You can use computers to view the details of
your bank account. Traders use computer technology to get instant information on
stock markets, to trade stocks, and to manage investments.

Scientist use computers for scientific research, and to gather and analyze
information. For example, they use computers to view images from space and to
publish information on their recent research.

You can also use computers to create drawings and paintings. Photographers
use computers to edit and enhance pictures. Writers use computers to write content
for their books and to also create illustrations. By using computers, writers can make
changes in the content easily and save a lot of time.

In the field of entertainment, you can use computers to listen to music, watch
movies, store and print photographs, send greetings, and play games.
 What is Hardware ?
This is the physical component of the computer which we can see and touch Hardware
is made up of four types of devices or units. These include: input devices, processing
devices, output devices and storage devices.
 Input Devices
Input devices to provide information to a computer, such as typing a letter or giving
instructions to a computer to perform a task. Some examples of input devices are
described in the following list:

- Mouse: A device that you use to interact with items displayed on the
computer screen. A standard mouse has a left and a right button. You
use the left button to select items and provide instructions by clicking an
active area on the screen. You use the right button to display commonly
used menu items on the screen.

Keyboard: A set of keys that resembles a typewriter keyboard. You use

the keyboard to type text, such as letters or numbers into the computer.

Microphone: A device that you can use to talk to people in different

parts of the world. You can record sound into the computer by using a
microphone. You can also use a microphone to record your speech and let
the computer convert it into text.

- Scanner: A device that is similar to a photocopy machine. You can use this
device to transfer an exact copy of a photograph or document into a
computer. A scanner reads the page and translates it into a digital format,
which a computer can read. For example, you can scan photographs of your
family using a scanner.
- Webcam: A device that is similar to a video camera. It allows you to
capture and send the live pictures to the other user. For example, a webcam
allows your friends and family to see you when communicating with them.

 Output Devices
- You use output devices to get feedback from a computer after it performs a
task. Some examples of output devices are described in the following list.

- Monitor: A device that is similar to a television. It is used to display

information, such as text and graphics, on the computer.

- Printer: A device that you use to transfer text and images from a
computer to a paper or to another medium, such as transparency film.
You can use a printer to create a paper copy of whatever you see on your

Impact Printers.

Impact printers.
use some form of striking action to press a car-bon or fabric ribbon against paper to create
a character. The most common impact printers are the dot matrix, daisy wheel and line
printers. Line printers print one line at a time therefore they are faster than one-character
type printers. Impact printers have even been produced for portable uses. There is a
portable printer, for example, that can print barcode labels conveniently.

Non-Impact Printers.
Nonimpact printers overcome the deficiencies of impact printers. There are different types
of nonimpact printers: laser, thermal, ink-jet. Laser printers (see photo) contain high quality
devices that use laser beams to write information on photosensitive drums, whole pages at
a time then the paper passes over the drum and picks up the image with toner. Because
they produce print-quality text and graphics and do so quickly, laser printers are used in
desktop publishing and in reproduction of artwork. Thermal printers create whole characters
on specially treated paper that responds to patterns of heat produced by the printer. For
example, SiPix’s Pocket Printer A6 does not need ink cartridges or ribbons, but instead uses
thermal technology to print by heating coated paper. Ink-jet printers shoot tiny dots of ink
onto paper. Sometimes called bubble jet, they are relatively.
Speaker/Headphone: Devices that allow you to hear sounds. Speakers may either be
external or built into the computer.
What is Software?
Software is the collection of programs in the computer, which we can see at times but
cannot touch.

Types of software
There are three major types of software, namely:

a) System software b) Application software and

System software

These are programs that control the operations of any computer. Some of these Operations
include starting up the computer (booting), loading, executing (that is carrying out
instructions). System software includes operating system and language translators or what
we call compilers. Some operating systems include:

1. MS-DOS [Microsoft Disk Operating System]

2. Windows 95 or 98

3. Windows 2000 Professional

4. Windows ME (Millennium Edition)

5. Windows XP (Windows Experience)

6. Windows Vista , Linux , Solaris, HPOs, Symbian, Macintosh etc….

Application software:

These are programs that are designed to carry out specific tasks for us. Application software
is sometimes referred to as packages. Again, there are different types of application
software namely:

1. Word-processing: This software enables us to type letters, memos and documents.

E.g. MSWord, WordPerfect, Lotus AmiPro, WordStar, Write, MultiWrite, Windows
WordPad and so on.

2. Spreadsheet: We use spreadsheets to manage tables, prepare financial reports or

calculate scores for an examination report sheet in the school. E.g. MS Excel, FoxPro,
LOTUS 1-2-3.

3. Computer Graphic software : This makes it possible for the user to manipulate
charts, pictures and several beautiful designs with the computer. E.g. COREL DRAW
10, ADOBE Photoshop, ADOBE Illustrator, PRINTMASTER Gold Deluxe and so on.

4. Database: This software allows the user to enter data such as the names of
students in a school with their ages and classes and enables the user to retrieve such
information at a later date.
 Central Processing Unit and Memory
The central processing unit (CPU) is a device that interprets and runs the commands that
you give to the computer. It is the control unit of a computer. The CPU is also referred to s
the processor.

Memory is where information is stored and retrieved by the CPU. There are two main types
of memory.

 1. Primary 2. Secondary

Primary Memory

- Random Access Memory (RAM): It is the main memory and allows you
to temporarily store commands and data. The CPU reads data and
commands from RAM to perform specific tasks. RAM is volatile, which
means it is available only while the computer is turned on. The contents
of RAM must be copied to a storage device if you want to save the data in
the RAM.

- Read Only Memory (ROM): It is the memory that retains its contents
even after the computer is turned off. ROM is nonvolatile, or permanent,
memory that is commonly used to store commands, such as the
commands that check whether everything is working properly.

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer

components, devices, and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for
some interval of time. Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the
modern computer, that of information retention. It is one of the fundamental components of
all modern computers, and coupled with a central processing unit (CPU, a processor),
implements the basic computer model used since the 1940s.

In contemporary usage, memory usually refers to a form of semiconductor storage known

as random-access memory (RAM) and sometimes other forms of fast but temporary
storage. Similarly, storage today more commonly refers to mass storage - optical discs,
forms of magnetic storage like hard disk drives, and other types slower than RAM, but of a
more permanent nature. Historically, memory and storage were respectively called primary
storage and secondary storage.

The contemporary distinctions are helpful, because they are also fundamental to the
architecture of computers in general. The distinctions also reflect an important and
significant technical difference between memory and mass storage devices, which has been
blurred by the historical usage of the term storage. Nevertheless, this article uses the
traditional nomenclature.
Primary storage

Direct links to this section: Primary storage, Main memory, Internal Memory.

Primary storage, presently known as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the
CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required.
Any data actively operated on is also stored there in uniform manner.

Historically, early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums
as primary storage. By 1954, those unreliable methods were mostly replaced by magnetic
core memory, which was still rather cumbersome. Undoubtedly, a revolution was started
with the invention of a transistor, that soon enabled then-unbelievable miniaturization of
electronic memory via solid-state silicon chip technology.

This led to a modern random-access memory (RAM). It is small-sized, light, but quite
expensive at the same time. (The particular types of RAM used for primary storage are also
volatile, i.e. they lose the information when not powered).

As shown in the diagram, traditionally there are two more sub-layers of the primary
storage, besides main large-capacity RAM:

 Processor registers are located inside the processor. Each register typically holds a
word of data (often 32 or 64 bits). CPU instructions instruct the arithmetic and logic
unit to perform various calculations or other operations on this data (or with the help
of it). Registers are technically among the fastest of all forms of computer data
 Processor cache is an intermediate stage between ultra-fast registers and much
slower main memory. It's introduced solely to increase performance of the
computer. Most actively used information in the main memory is just duplicated in
the cache memory, which is faster, but of much lesser capacity. On the other hand it
is much slower, but much larger than processor registers. Multi-level hierarchical
cache setup is also commonly used—primary cache being smallest, fastest and
located inside the processor; secondary cache being somewhat larger and slower.

Main memory is directly or indirectly connected to the CPU via a memory bus. It is actually
comprised of two buses (not on the diagram): an address bus and a data bus. The CPU
firstly sends a number through an address bus, a number called memory address, that
indicates the desired location of data. Then it reads or writes the data itself using the data
bus. Additionally, a memory management unit (MMU) is a small device between CPU and
RAM recalculating the actual memory address, for example to provide an abstraction of
virtual memory or other tasks.

As the RAM types used for primary storage are volatile (cleared at start up), a
computer containing only such storage would not have a source to read instructions from, in
order to start the computer. Hence, non-volatile primary storage containing a small startup
program (BIOS) is used to bootstrap the computer, that is, to read a larger program from
non-volatile secondary storage to RAM and start to execute it. A non-volatile technology
used for this purpose is called ROM, for read-only memory (the terminology may be
somewhat confusing as most ROM types are also capable of random access).

Many types of "ROM" are not literally read only, as updates are possible; however it is
slow and memory must be erased in large portions before it can be re-written. Some
embedded systems run programs directly from ROM (or similar), because such programs
are rarely changed. Standard computers do not store non-rudimentary programs in ROM,
rather use large capacities of secondary storage, which is non-volatile as well, and not as
Secondary storage

A hard disk drive with protective cover removed.

Secondary storage in popular usage, differs from primary storage in that it is not
directly accessible by the CPU. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to
access secondary storage and transfers the desired data using intermediate area in primary
storage. Secondary storage does not lose the data when the device is powered down—it is
non-volatile. Per unit, it is typically also an order of magnitude less expensive than primary
storage. Consequently, modern computer systems typically have an order of magnitude
more secondary storage than primary storage and data is kept for a longer time there.

In modern computers, hard disk drives are usually used as secondary storage. The time
taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few
thousandths of a second, or milliseconds. By contrast, the time taken to access a given byte
of information stored in random access memory is measured in billionths of a second, or
nanoseconds. This illustrates the very significant access-time difference which distinguishes
solid-state memory from rotating magnetic storage devices: hard disks are typically about a
million times slower than memory. Rotating optical storage devices, such as CD and DVD
drives, have even longer access times.

Some other examples of secondary storage technologies are: flash memory (e.g. USB flash
drives or keys), floppy disks, magnetic tape, paper tape, punched cards, standalone RAM
disks, and Iomega Zip drives.

The secondary storage is often formatted according to a file system format, which
provides the abstraction necessary to organize data into files and directories, providing also
additional information (called metadata) describing the owner of a certain file, the access
time, the access permissions and other information.

Most computer operating systems use the concept of virtual memory, allowing
utilization of more primary storage capacity than is physically available in the system. As
the primary memory fills up, the system moves the least-used chunks (pages) to secondary

storage devices (to a swap file or page file), retrieving them later when they are needed. As
more of these retrievals from slower secondary storage are necessary, the more the overall
system performance is degraded.
How the CPU works
The CPU is centrally located on the motherboard. Since the CPU carries out a large share of
the work in the computer, data pass continually through it. The data come from the RAM
and the units (keyboard, drives, etc.). After processing, the data is sent back to the RAM
and the units.

The CPU continually receives instructions to be executed. Each instruction is a data

processing order. The work itself consists mostly of calculations and data transport.

The Instruction-Execution Cycle

Many types of personal computers can execute instructions in less than one-millionth of a
second; supercomputers can execute instructions in less than one-billionth of a second.

The CPU performs four steps in executing an instruction:

1. The control unit gets the instruction from memory.

2. The control unit decides what the instruction means and directs the necessary data
to be moved from the memory to the arithmetic logic unit.
3. The arithmetic logic unit performs the actual operation on the data.
4. The result of the operation is stored in memory or a register.

The first two instructions make up what is called the instruction time. The last two
instructions make up what is called the execution time.

The combination of these two is called a machine cycle.

Each central processing unit has an internal clock (or system clock), which produces pulses
at a fixed rate to synchronise all computer operations. A single machine cycle instruction is
made up of a number of sub instructions, each of which must take at least one clock cycle.

Each type of CPU is designed to understand a specific group of instruction called the
instruction set.

How the CPU finds Instructions and Data

The location in memory for each instruction and each piece of data is identified by an
address, or a number that stands for a location in the computer memory.

An address may be compared to a mailbox in everyday life, except that the address can
hold only one item - a fixed amount of data, a number or a word - at any one time.

The following is an example of a simple case of adding two numbers together and placing
the result in a location X.

The command executed is - Let X = N1 + N2. See the diagram below.

What is Booting Process?

This is the initial start-up procedure of the computer. When you put on the computer, it
tests itself and loads the operating system into the main memory of the computer. When it
is doing this, then computer is not ready for use yet and is said to be booting.

The typical computer system boots over and over again with no problems,
starting the computer's operating system (OS) and identifying its hardware and
software components that all work together to provide the user with the complete
computing experience. But what happens between the times that the user powers up the

computer and when the GUI icons appear on the desktop?

In order for a computer to successfully boot, its BIOS, operating system and
hardware components must all be working properly; failure of any one of these three
elements will likely result in a failed boot sequence.

When the computer's power is first turned on, the CPU initializes itself, which is
triggered by a series of clock ticks generated by the system clock. Part of the CPU's
initialization is to look to the system's ROM BIOS for its first instruction in the startup
program. The ROM BIOS stores the first instruction, which is the instruction to run the

power-on self test (POST), in a predetermined memory address. POST begins by

checking the BIOS chip and then tests CMOS RAM. If the POST does not detect a battery
failure, it then continues to initialize the CPU, checking the inventoried hardware devices

(such as the video card), secondary storage devices, such as hard drives and floppy
drives, ports and other hardware devices, such as the keyboard and mouse, to ensure
they are functioning properly.

Once the POST has determined that all components are functioning properly and the CPU
has successfully initialized the BIOS looks for an OS to load. The BIOS typically looks to the
CMOS chip to tell it where to find the OS, and in most PCs, the OS loads from the C drive on
the hard drive even though the BIOS has the capability to load the OS from a floppy disk,

CD or ZIP drive. The order of drives that the CMOS looks to in order to locate the OS is
called the boot sequence, which can be changed by altering the CMOS setup.
Operating System

Operating System.
The main component of systems software is a set of programs collectively known as
the operating system. The operating system, such as Windows XP, supervises the overall
operation of the computer, including monitoring the computer’s status, handling executable
program interruptions, and scheduling operations, which include controlling input and
output processes. Mainframes and minicomputers contain only one CPU, but they perform
several tasks simultaneously (such as preparation and transfer of results).

In such cases, the operating system controls which particular tasks have access to the
various resources of the computer. At the same time, the operating system controls the
overall flow of information within the computer.

On a microcomputer, the operating system controls the computer’s communication

with its display, printer, and storage devices. It also receives and directs inputs from the
keyboard and other data input sources. The operating system is designed to maximize the
amount of useful work the hardware of the computer system accomplishes.

Programs running on the computer use various resources controlled by the

operating system. These resources include CPU time, primary storage or memory, and
input/output devices. The operating system attempts to allocate the use of these resources
in the most efficient manner possible.

The operating system also provides an interface between the user and the
hardware. By masking many of the hardware features, both the professional and end user
programmers are presented with a system that is easier to use.
Portability, a desirable characteristic of operating systems, means that the same
operating system software can be run on different computers. An example of a portable
operating system is UNIX. Versions of UNIX can run on hardware produced by a number of
different vendors. Examples include Linux, Xenix, and Sun’s Solaris. However, there is no
one standard version of UNIX that will run on all machines.

Operating System Functions.

The operating system performs four major functions in the operation of a computer system,
job management, resource management, server consolidation, and data management.

1. Job management is the preparing, scheduling,and monitoring of jobs for

continuous processing by the computer system.A job control language (JCL) is a
special computer language found in the mainframe-computing environment that
allows a programmer to communicate with the operating system.
2. Resource management is controlling the use of computer system resources
employed by the other systems software and application software programs being
executed on the computer. These resources include primary storage, secondary
storage, CPU processing time, and input/output devices.
3. Server consolidation is all about creating a simpler, more rational and manageable
infrastructure. There are four possible consolidation strategies: logical consolidation,
physical consolidation, workload consolidation, and application consolidation.
Consolidation also leads to much more flexible, consistent, and efficient use of
resources than distributed servers by allowing customers to strike the right balance
within each server.
4. Data management is the controlling of the input and output of data as well as
their location, storage, and retrieval. Data management programs control the
allocation of secondary storage devices, the physical format and cataloging of data
storage, and the movement of data between primary storage and secondary storage
Microsoft Word 2003
What is word Processor ?

Using a computer to create, edit, and print documents. Of all computer applications, word
processing is the most common. To perform word processing, you need a computer, a
special program called a word processor, and a printer. A word processor enables you to
create a document, store it electronically on a disk, display it on a screen, modify it by
entering commands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer.

The great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can make
changes without retyping the entire document. If you make a typing mistake, you simply
back up the cursor and correct your mistake. If you want to delete a paragraph, you simply
remove it, without leaving a trace. It is equally easy to insert a word, sentence, or
paragraph in the middle of a document. Word processors also make it easy to move
sections of text from one place to another within a document, or between documents. When
you have made all the changes you want, you can send the file to a printer to get a

Word processors vary considerably, but all word processors support the following basic

 insert text: Allows you to insert text anywhere in the document.

 delete text: Allows you to erase characters, words, lines, or pages as easily as you can
cross them out on paper.
 cut and paste : Allows you to remove (cut) a section of text from one place in a
document and insert (paste) it somewhere else.
 copy : Allows you to duplicate a section of text.
 page size and margins : Allows you to define various page sizes and margins, and the
word processor will automatically readjust the text so that it fits.
 search and replace : Allows you to direct the word processor to search for a particular
word or phrase. You can also direct the word processor to replace one group of
characters with another everywhere that the first group appears.
 word wrap : The word processor automatically moves to the next line when you have
filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if you change the margins.
 print: Allows you to send a document to a printer to get hardcopy.

Word processors that support only these features (and maybe a few others) are called text
editors. Most word processors, however, support additional features that enable you to
manipulate and format documents in more sophisticated ways. These more advanced word
processors are sometimes called full-featured word processors. Full-featured word
processors usually support the following features:

 File management : Many word processors contain file management capabilities that
allow you to create, delete, move, and search for files.
 Font specifications: Allows you to change fonts within a document. For example, you

can specify bold, italics, and underlining. Most word processors also let you change the
font size and even the typeface.
 Footnotes and cross-references: Automates the numbering and placement of
footnotes and enables you to easily cross-reference other sections of the document.

 Graphics: Allows you to embed illustrations and graphs into a document. Some word
processors let you create the illustrations within the word processor; others let you
insert an illustration produced by a different program.

 Headers , footers, and page numbering: Allows you to specify customized headers
and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every page. The
word processor automatically keeps track of page numbers so that the correct number
appears on each page.
 Layout: Allows you to specify different margins within a single document and to specify
various methods for indenting paragraphs.

 Macros : A macro is a character or word that represents a series of keystrokes. The

keystrokes can represent text or commands. The ability to define macros allows you to
save yourself a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes.

 Merges: Allows you to merge text from one file into another file. This is particularly
useful for generating many files that have the same format but different data.
Generating mailing labels is the classic example of using merges.

 Spell checker : A utility that allows you to check the spelling of words. It will highlight
any words that it does not recognize.
 Tables of contents and indexes: Allows you to automatically create a table of
contents and index based on special codes that you insert in the document.
 Thesaurus: A built-in thesaurus that allows you to search for synonyms without leaving
the word processor.
 Windows : Allows you to edit two or more documents at the same time. Each document

appears in a separate window. This is particularly valuable when working on a large

project that consists of several different files.

The line dividing word processors from desktop publishing systems is constantly shifting. In
general, though, desktop publishing applications support finer control over layout, and more
support for full-color documents.

What is the Difference between Save and Save As?

Ans. Save allows to save the contents to the file while in save as it will create a copy of the
existing file.
: Menu bar Across the top of the window is the menu bar
which contains drop-down menus allowing you to
access all of Word’s functions. To see the menu
items, click once on the menu name. Where a
menu item has an arrow to the right of it, clicking
on it will reveal a further sub-menu.
Toolbars Below the menu bar you will find one or more
toolbars. The window in Figure 2 shows the
Standard toolbar and the Formatting toolbar below
it. The Standard toolbar contains icons to perform
common tasks such as copy and paste. There are a
number of other toolbars available in Word. To
show or hide them, click on the View menu and
select Toolbars. This shows a list of all toolbars. To
show a toolbar click on its name. Clicking on a
toolbar with a tick next to its name will hide it.
Status bar Along the bottom of the screen is the status bar
which displays information about your document,
for example page number. If you press the
<Insert> key to go into overtype mode, the OVR
button on the status bar is highlighted. Pressing
the <Insert> key a second time takes you out of
overtype mode.
Rulers You can display rulers along the top and left of
your document. The top ruler shows the indent
settings and any tab settings you have created for
the current
What is page Break?
A very useful feature of MS-Word is the option to insert and remove your own page breaks.
Word has two types of page breaks. The program itself inserts automatic page breaks. You
cannot remove automatic page breaks. Word adjusts their position automatically as you add
and remove text from a page. The second type of page break is called a manual page break
because you place and remove them yourself.

To insert a manual page break:

1. Place your cursor at the point where you went to insert the page break.

2. Hold down the <control> key and press the <enter> key.

3. A line across the screen will appear with the words Page Break. (If you don’t see the
words go the “View” menu and choose “Normal”)

To remove a manual page break:

1. Place your cursor immediately below the page break

2. Press the <backspace> key

What is Spell and Grammer Cheching facility?

A spell checker and thesaurus are provided with Word. To spell-check a document, select Spelling
and Grammar from the Tools menu or press <F7>.

When the checker finds a mis-spelling it highlights the word and displays a list of
alternatives. You can choose from the following options:

Ignore Ignore Do not change this occurrence of the word.

Ignore All Ignore all words spelt this way.
Add Add Do not change the word, and add this spelling to the
Change Change the word for the highlighted suggestion.
Change All Change all words spelt this way to the highlighted suggestion.
AutoCorrect Correct the spelling to the highlighted suggestion and automatically
correct any future similar mis-spellings.
Cancel Leave the spell checker.

To look a word up in the Thesaurus, place your cursor on the word, and from the Tools
menu select Language, Thesaurus or press <Shift> and <F7> together.
MS -Word will automatically check for spelling and grammar errors as you type unless you
turn this feature off. Spelling errors are identified in the document with a red underline.
Grammar errors are indicated by a green underline.

To use the spelling and grammar checker, follow these steps:

 From the Menu bar, select Tools > Spelling & Grammar.
 The Spelling and Grammar dialog box will notify you of the first mistake in the
 Document and misspelled words will be highlighted in red.
 If the word is spelled correctly, click the Ignore Once button or click the Ignore
 All button if the word appears more than once in the document.
 If the word is spelled incorrectly, choose one of the suggested spellings in the
Suggestions box and click the Change button or Change All button to correct all
occurrences of the word in the document. If the correct spelling is not suggested,
enter the correct spelling in the Not in Dictionary section and click the Change
 If the word is spelled correctly, click the Add to Dictionary button to add the word
 to the dictionary so it will no longer appear as a misspelled word

Explain Paragraph Formatting.

Paragraph Attributes
You can format a paragraph by placing the cursor within the paragraph and selecting
Format > Paragraph from the Menu bar. From the Paragraph dialog box, select the
Indents and Spacing tab.

Under the Indentation section, you can set

the indentation to be either Before text,
After text, or both by assigning the desired

There are special types of indentations:

• None: No indentation occurs.
• First line: Indents the first line.
• Hanging: Indents every line except

the first.
Under the Spacing section, from the Line
spacing drop down menu, you can select the
space you would like between lines of the

You can view the changes you have made

from the Preview section, click OK when
Explain Headers and Footers in MS-Word with example.

Headers are added to the top margin of every page such as a document title or
page number. Footers are added to the lower margin at the bottom of the page.
Follow these
steps to add or edit headers and footers in the document:

1. From the Menu bar, select View > Header and Footer. The Header and
Footer toolbar will appear and the top of the page.
2. Type the heading in the Header box. You may use many of the standard text
formatting options such as font face, size, bold, italics, etc.
3. Click the Insert AutoText button to view a list of options available.
4. Use the other options on the toolbar to add page numbers, the current date and
5. To edit the footer, click the Switch between Header and Footer button found
on the
Header and Footer toolbar.
6. When you are done adding headers and footers, click the Close button on the
Header and Footer toolbar.

What is AutoCorrect facility in Ms Word ? Explain.

Word automatically corrects commonly misspelled words and punctuation marks

with the AutoCorrect feature.You can view a list of words that are automatically
corrected by Word: From the Menu bar, select Tools > AutoCorrect Options. If this
feature is not showing, expand the Tools menu by clicking on the double arrows at
the bottom of the Tools Menu.

The Autocorrect dialog box will appear, select the first tab called AutoCorrect.
Many options including the accidental capitalization of the first two letters of a word
and capitalization of the first word of the sentence can be automatically corrected
from this page. If there are words you often misspelled, enter the wrong and
correct spellings in the Replace and with boxes.

What is Format Painter

A handy feature on the standard toolbar for formatting text is the Format Painter. If you have
formatted a cell with a certain font style, date format, border, and other formatting options, and
you want to format another cell or group of cells the same way, place the cursor within the cell
containing the formatting you want to copy. Click the Format Painter button in the standard
toolbar (notice that your pointer now has a paintbrush beside it). Highlight the cells you want to
add the same formatting to.

To copy the formatting to many groups of cells, double-click the Format Painter button. The
format painter remains active until you press the ESC key to turn it off.
What is Drop Cap Effects ?

Drop Caps

A drop cap is a larger letter that begins a paragraph and drops through several
lines of your text. To add a drop cap to a paragraph:

e.g. Word 2003 – Tutorial 1

Steps :

1. Place the cursor within the paragraph whose first

letter will be dropped.

2. Select Format > Drop Cap from the Menu bar.

The Drop Cap dialog box allows you to select the
Position of the drop cap, the Font, the number of
Lines to drop, and the Distance from text.
3. Click OK when all selections have been made.

4. To modify a drop cap, select Format > Drop Cap

again to change the attributes, or click on the letter
and use the handles to move and resize the letter.
What is table facility in MS Word? Explain it in detail.

Tables -
Tables are used to display data and there are several ways to build them in Word. Begin by
placing the cursor where you want the table to appear in the document and choose one of the
following methods.

Insert Tables
There are two ways to add a table to the document using the Insert feature:
Click the Insert Table button on the Standard toolbar. Drag the
mouse along the grid, highlighting the number of rows and columns
for the table.
Or, select Table > Insert > Table from the Menu bar. Specify the
number of rows and columns for the table and click OK.

A table can also be drawn on the document:

1. Draw the table by selecting Table > Draw Table from the bar.
The cursor is now the image of a pencil and the Tables and
Borders toolbar has appeared.

2. Draw the cells of the table with the mouse. If you make a mistake, click the
Eraser button and click/drag the mouse over the area to be deleted.

3. To draw more cells, click on the Draw Table button

Insert Rows and Columns

Once the table is drawn, you can insert additional rows by placing the cursor in the row
Next to which you want to insert the new row.

Select Table > Insert > Rows Above or Rows Below. Or, select an entire row and right-click
the mouse.

Choose Insert Rows from the Table Shortcut menu, a new row appears above the selected
one. Similar to inserting a row, you can add a new column by placing the cursor in a cell
adjacent to where you want the new column be added.

Select Table > Insert > Columns to the Left or Columns to the Right. Or, select the column,
right-click the mouse, and select Insert Columns, a new column appears to the right of the
selected one. Move