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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM


Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Utilization of Steamed Organic Rice (Oryza sativa) and


Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatic) as Liquid Organic Fertilizer on the
Growth of Petsay (Brassica rapa)

Patricia Jean P. Faeldonea, Marian G. Frac, Rovimae B. Teves,


Everly F. Flores

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study


Past trends in conventional western agriculture,
including monoculture without crop rotation, overuse of
inorganic fertilizers, and wide-scale applications of broad-
spectrum organophosphate pesticides, have hindered the role of
naturally occurring microorganisms in promoting biological
nitrogen fixation and decomposition of organic matter,
microbiologically enhanced plant nutrient uptake, and other
natural soil processes that depend on active soil microbe
populations (Park 2010).
Commercially available fertilizers are a cost-effective
means of supplementing soil with nitrogen (N) for plant growth
and high crop yields; however, improper or excessive use of N
fertilizer can lead to nitrate pollution of ground or surface
water (Foley et al. 2012). Producers can minimize this
predicament by implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs)
for fertilizer use that reduce nutrient losses and avert
runoff and leaching from agricultural lands.
These reasons prompted the researcher to adapt and
incorporate the methods on the use of Indigenous

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Microorganisms (IMO) and Fermented Plant Juice on Rice and


Kangkong.
The overwhelming rising cost of inorganic and organic
fertilizers is inevitably uncontrollable in the coming
production years. And because of the pressures of the highly
competitive capitalistic economy, the farmers have no other
choice but to look for an alternative measures to sustain his
farming business probability.
Figure 1. shows the paradigm of the study.

Independent Variables Dependent Variables


(Cause) (Effect)

Different Concentration of Growth of Petsay in


Liquid Organic Fertilizer and terms of height and
Kangkong its mass

TA-(100% Steamed Organic Rice)


TB-(100% Kangkong)
TC-(50% Steamed Organic Rice:
50% Kangkong)
TD-(30% Steamed Organic Rice:
70% Kangkong)
TE-(70% Steamed Organic Rice:
30% Kangkong)
TF-(Positive Control; Commercial
Fertilizer)
TG-(Negative Control; Water)

Figure 1. Factors associated with the growth of petsay using


different concentration of liquid organic fertilizer as growth
enhancer.

Statement of the Problem and Hypothesis


This study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of
varying proportions of steamed organic rice (Oryza sativa) and
Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica) as Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF)
on the growth of Petsay (Brassica rapa).

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Specifically it sought to answer the following questions:


1. What is the growth of petsay using different concentrations
of liquid organic fertilizer from steamed rice and kangkong
compared to the control group?
2. Is there a significant difference in the growth of Petsay
in terms of its mass and height using different concentration
of steamed organic rice and kangkong as growth enhancer when
it is compared to the control (water only and commercial
fertilizer)?

Hypothesis
There is no significant difference on the growth of
Petsay in terms of its mass and height using different
concentration of steamed organic rice and kangkong as growth
enhancer when it is compared to the control (water only and
commercial fertilizer)?

Significance of the Study


The result of this study is beneficial to the farmers who
commonly use petsay as their market vegetable product as well
as to government agencies like the Department of Agriculture
and other researchers.
The use of steamed organic rice and kangkong concoct as
liquid organic fertilizer in enhancing the growth of plants is
better than the use of harmful commercial fertilizer. This
will help farmers improve the production of petsay. The
introduction of this liquid organic fertilizer as substitute
to chemical fertilizer in the production of petsay would
lessen the use of hazardous chemicals. This can also reduce
the contamination of the environment.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Agencies like Department of Agriculture would likewise


welcome positive results from the study. Department of
Agriculture Technicians can be able to integrate this
information for their extension work.
Also, the results of this study may serve as reference
for further studies.

Definition of Terms
For purpose of clarity and understanding, the following
terms were specified their conceptual and operational
definitions:
Indigenous Microorganisms - The indigenous microorganisms
play an important role by protecting the normal host from
invasion by microorganisms with a greater potential for
causing disease. They compete with the pathogens for essential
nutrients and for receptors on host cells by producing
bacteriocins and other inhibitory substances, making the
environment inimical to colonization by pathogens (Prell, J.
(2010). Importance of IMO” IMO(Cultivation and Processing)
pages 135- 137).
In this study, these microorganisms will be cultivated
and reinforced in the soil activity by using them as the main
ingredient in the LOF.
Kangkong - Kangkong grows in water or on moist soil. Its
stems are 2–3 meters (7–10 ft) or more long, rooting at the
nodes, and they are hollow and can float. The leaves vary from
typically sagittate (arrow head-shaped) to lanceolate, 5–15 cm
(2–6 in) long and 2–8 cm (0.8–3 in) broad. The flowers are
trumpet-shaped, 3–5 cm (1–2 in) in diameter, and usually white
in color with a mauve centre. Propagation is either by

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along


nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed
pods (Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2014).
In this study, it is used as one of the independent
variables and the main component in making Fermented Plant
Juice in Treatment B.
Molasses – is a viscous by-product of the refining of
sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. The word comes from the
Portuguese melaco, ultimately derived from mel, the Latin word
from”honey”. Molasses varies by amount of sugar and method of
extraction, and age of plant.
(http://www.omnilexica.com/?q=molasses)
In this study, molasses refers to one of the materials in
liquid organic fertilizer.
Liquid Organic Fertilizer - Organic fertilizers are
fertilizers derived from animal or vegetable matter. (e.g.
compost, manure) in liquid form. Liquid fertilizers are
faster-acting than seed meals and other solid organic
products, so liquids are most of the time the best choice for
several purposes. As soon as seedlings have used up the
nutrients provided by the sprouted seeds, they benefit from
small amounts of fertilizer
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organic_fertilizer).
In this study, the Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF) made
of steamed organic rice will be the independent variable.
Petsay – is a low maintenance vegetable and could be
planted any day, most anywhere there is full sun and
practically any kind of soil
(http://www.interaksyon.com/lifestyle/urban-farmer-pechay-by-
golly-wow).

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

In this study, it was used to test if different FPJ has


an effect on its growth and yield.
Rice - Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the
plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.
Rice is normally grown as an annual plant, although in
tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a
ratoon crop for up to 30 years. The rice plant can grow to 1–
1.8 m (3.3–5.9 ft) tall, occasionally more depending on the
variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100
cm (20–39 in) long and 2–2.5 cm (0.79–0.98 in) broad. The
edible seed is a grain (caryopsis) 5–12 mm (0.20–0.47 in) long
and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick
(http://everything.explained.today/Rice/).
In this study, rice is the primary ingredient that will
be utilized to create the Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF).

Delimitation of the Study


This research study was limited only in determining the
effects of steamed organic rice (Oryza sativa) and Kangkong as
Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF) on the growth of Petsay
(Brassica rapa). The subject of the study was petsay. The
variables were the different concentration of steamed organic
rice and kangkong as independent variable and growth (plant
height and mass) as the dependent variable. A control (water
only and commercial fertilizer) was included as part of the
independent variable.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

The study was conducted at Brgy. Poblacion, Dumalag,


Capiz from August 10, 2015 to January 6, 2016 within the span
of 2 months. The study was laid out in Randomized Complete
Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times. Treatment means
were compared using paired t-test set 5% alpha level.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Rice
Rice is the seed of the
monocot plants Oryza sativa
(Asian rice) or Oryza
glaberrima (African rice). As a
cereal grain, it is the most
widely consumed staple food for
a large part of the world's
human population, especially in
Steamed Rice Asia. It is the grain with the
Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice second-highest worldwide
production, after corn, according to data for 2010.
It is a staple in Indonesia, Korea, China, Japan,
Malaysia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Thailand,
Myanmar, Philippines, and numerous other Latin American and
Asian countries. It is also used as a main ingredient in many
dishes.
Steamed rice is traditionally prepared in one of two
ways. Actual steaming is done by placing a bowl or pot
containing dry rice, along with some water that will be
absorbed, into a food steamer, and cooking it until done.
Steamed rice is normally cooked by adding dry rice and a small
amount of salt to water and boiling it in a covered pot.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Indigenous Microorganisms
Indigenous Microorganisms
(IMO) is called beneficial
microbes because it inhabits the
soil and the surfaces of all
living things, inside and out. IMO
is involved indifferent processes
such as fermentation,
decomposition, nitrogen fixation,
and nutrient fixation. It aids in
Cultivating IMO
Source: the assimilation of the plants. It
thainaturalfarming.com enables better nutrient absorption
and hence healthier plant growth. IMO is said to be cheap
because of the availability of the materials in cultivating
it. It can be collected in rice or in fermented vegetables
like mustard. A large diversity of IMO can be found in
forests, bamboo groves and areas with thick accumulation of
plant residues.

Petsay
Petsay is a popular
vegetable in the Philippines.
It is a subspecies of the plant
having the scientific name
Brassica rapa. It is also known
as snow cabbage, Chinese chard

Petsay or Chinese white cabbage in


Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C English. These vegetables are
hinese_cabbage both variant cultivars and
subspecies of the turnip and belong to the same genus as such
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SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Western staples as cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. Both


have many variations in name, spelling, and scientific
classification—especially the bok choy (B. rapa chinensis)
variety.

Kangkong
Kangkong is a smooth,
widely spreading vine,
with the stems trailing on
mud or floating on water.
Leaves are oblong-ovate, 7
to 14 centimeters long,
with a pointed tip and
heart-shaped or arrow-
shaped base, long
petioled, the margins

Kangkong
Source:http://www.medicalhealthgui entire or angular, and
de.com/articles/kangkong.htm
sublobed. Peduncles are
erect, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, with 1 or 2 flowers, borne
in the axils of the leaves. Sepals are green, oblong, about 8
millimeters long. Corolla is narrowly bell-shaped, about 5
centimeters long, and purplish; limb nearly white or pale pink
purple, about 5 centimeters in diameter, the tube deeper
purple inside. Capsules are smooth and ovoid, about 1
centimeter long. (Source: Britannica Encyclopedia, 2014)
Studies conducted with pregnant diabetes-induced rats
have shown a blood sugar-lowering effect of Ipomoea aquatica
by inhibiting the intestinal absorption of glucose.

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SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

Experimental Treatments and Research Design


The study involved seven experimental treatments, which
were in different proportions of steamed organic rice and
kangkong. The study was laid out in a Randomized Complete
Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times as shown in figure
2.

Independent Variables
Concentration of Steamed Organic Rice and Kangkong

Dependent Variable
Growth of petsay

Control Variables
Amount of fertilizer applied per plant, variety of
plants, and exposure to direct sunlight, application and
observation period.

Experimental Set-ups
Pots applied with treatments A (100% Steamed Organic
Rice), B (100% Kangkong), C (50% Steamed Organic Rice: 50%
Kangkong), D (30% Steamed Organic Rice: 70% Kangkong), and E
(70% Steamed Organic Rice: 30% Kangkong).

Control Set-ups
Pots applied with treatments F (Positive Control;
Commercial Fertilizer) and G (Negative Control; Water).

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Treatments R1 R2 R3
A
Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using Steamed Organic Rice petsay

B
Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using Kangkong

C
Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using 50% Kangkong and 50%
Rice
D
Liquid Organic Fertilizer plot
Using 70% Kangkong and 30%
Rice
E
Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using 30% Kangkong and 70%
Rice
F
Positive Control:
Commercial Fertilizer

G
Negative Control: Water

Figure 2. A schematic diagram of an experimental design


showing the experimental set-ups and the control set-ups.

Materials and Equipments


This study utilized 1 kilogram steamed organic rice, 2
kilograms of molasses, wooden box with 8 ½ x 11” x 3”, 1
kilogram kangkong stem and the equipments used in this study
were spade, beaker, measuring cup, plastic cover, plastic
pail, meter stick, knife, cutting board and graduated
cylinder.

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SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Procedures
The following procedures were followed during the conduct
of the study.

Collection and Preparation of the Materials


All the materials were gathered and brought to the site
where the experiment was conducted. Cooked/steamed rice was
placed inside a wooden box that is 8 1/2” x 11” x 3.” The
wooden box was covered with a clean sheet of paper and plastic
cover that tied down with a string. The day made and day
harvested will also be labeled. The box was buried in the
shaded and cool place after five days until white molds was
formed on top of the rice.

Fermentation of the Molded Rice


The moldy rice was placed in a plastic pail and we added
1 kg of molasses that we have brought from the sugar cane
factory. The pail was covered with a clean sheet of paper that
is tied down with a string. The pail was placed in a cool and
shaded place. After 7 days, the mud-like juice was squeezed
out and was stored in wide-mouth bottles. The bottles were
then placed in shaded and cool place.

Fermentation of the Kangkong


Kangkong should be picked before 5:00 in the morning,
while dew is still on the leaf. Plants grow during the night –
so pre-dawn is when the most growth hormones are concentrated
in the growing tips – only these growing tips should be
collected and used. Kangkong stem were cut into smaller pieces
(approximately 2-3 inches.)

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

The shredded Kangkong was placed in a separate plastic


pail and we added 1 kg of molasses that we have brought from
sugar cane factory. The pail was covered with a clean sheet of
paper and plastic cover that is tied down with a string. It
was fermented for 1 week then the juice was squeezed out and
was stored in wide-mouth bottles. The bottles were then placed
in shaded and cool place.

Preparation of the Concoction


Mix 2 spoonfuls of the juice to 1 liter of water. This
will be used as a foliar spay on soil and plants.

Sowing of the Petsay Seed


The seeds of Petsay were sown in finger-made furrows. The
seedlings were kept for about one week until it has a two
primary leaves and then letting it to harden by exposing them
to the open sunlight.

Preparation of the Plot


A 1.5 meters plot was prepared by Patricia Jean P.
Faeldonea, Marian G. Frac, Everly F. Flores, Rovimae B. Teves,
at Brgy. Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz. The plot was divided into
7 columns with 40x40 inch intervals. The plot has a rain
shelter to protect from heavy rain.

Planting of Petsay
After a week, before transplanting, the seedlings were
first measured; the height then it was transplanted to the
prepared plot. Watering was done everyday except when the soil
was wet, and by hand picking to remove the weeds.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Application of the Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF)


The plot was composed of 1.5 meters with 10 plants each
treatment. The application of LOF at the treatment was done
every Sunday morning; each plant receives 100 mL of LOF.

Data and Data Gathering Procedures


The data in the growth of petsay were recorded in terms
of the plant height was measured in centimeters by means of
ruler and the mass was measured in grams using triple beam
balance.
Statistical Data Analysis Procedure
The data obtained for this study were subjected to the
following descriptive and inferential statistical treatments
using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
Software:
The mean was used to express the average growth (height
and mass) developed in each treatment in this study.
Standard Deviation. To determine the dispersion of the
means, standard deviation was used.
ANOVA. To determine the significant difference of three
or more groups means set at 0.05 level of significance.
Paired t-test. This was used to determine the
significance existing in two treatments of variables.

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SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Chapter 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Descriptive Data Analysis


A. Height of Petsay
Table 1 presents the mean and growth of petsay in terms
of its height 1-4 weeks after planting. It is observed in the
table that the highest mean growth was observed when the
petsay was treated with treatment E, which is liquid organic
fertilizer with 30% kangkong and 70% steamed organic rice.
Treatment G that is 100% water (Negative control) has the
lowest mean growth having a mean score of 12.6 cm at the 4th
week after planting.

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Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Table 1. Growth of petsay in terms of height 1-4 weeks after


planting.
Growth of Petsay in terms of Height Measured in Centimeters (cm)
1 WAP 2 WAP 3 WAP 4 WAP
Treatment
Replication Replication Replication Replication
1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean

A
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 5.9 5.5 5.6 5.7 9.6 9.8 9.4 9.6 16.7 17.2 16.9 16.9 23.2 23.8 23.9 23.6
Using Steamed
Organic Rice)

B
(Liquid Organic 5.2 5.6 4.9 5.2 7.9 7.5 7.3 7.6 15.2 14.9 14.7 14.9 20.2 20.4 21.5 20.7
Fertilizer
Using Kangkong)

C
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 7.2 7.6 7.5 7.4 12.9 12.5 12.7 12.7 21.2 21.3 21.5 21.3 27.2 26.9 26.8 27.0
Using 50%
Kangkong and
50% Rice)

D
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 6.9 6.5 6.3 6.6 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.6 25.6 25.8 25.7 25.7
Using 70%
Kangkong and
30% Rice)

E
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 9.4 9.5 10.5 9.8 15.5 15.5 15.8 15.6 22.5 23.1 22.9 22.8 28.2 27.8 28.1 28.0
Using 30%
Kangkong and
70% Rice)

F
(Positive 5.2 5.6 5.5 5.4 6.2 6.9 6.7 6.6 11.2 10.9 11.5 11.2 19.5 19.7 19.2 19.5
Control:
Commercial
Fertilizer)

G
(Negative
4.2 4.6 4.9 4.6 5.2 5.9 5.0 5.4 7.5 7.9 8.4 7.9 12.2 12.8 12.9 12.6
Control:
Water)

WAP-week after planting

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B. Mass of Petsay
Table 2 presents the mean and growth of petsay in terms
of its mass during post-harvest. It is observed in the table
that the highest mean was observed when the petsay was treated
with treatment E, which is liquid organic fertilizer with 30%
kangkong and 70% steamed organic rice. Treatment G that is
100% water (Negative control) has the lowest mean growth
having a mean score of 12.4 g during post-harvest.

Table 2. Growth of petsay in terms of its mass.


Growth of Petsay in terms of Mass Measured in Grams (g):
Post-harvest Observations Mean
Treatment
Replication
1 2 3
A
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer
22.2 23.6 23.7 23.2
Using Steamed Organic Rice)

B
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer
19.4 19.3 18.7 19.1
Using Kangkong)

C
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer 20.3 23.5 25.4 23.1
Using 50% Kangkong and 50%
Rice)

D
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer 24.5 25.3 23.6 24.5
Using 70% Kangkong and 30%
Rice)

E
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer 48 44.8 36.7 43.2
Using 30% Kangkong and 70%
Rice)

F
(Positive Control:
18.2 17.5 18.6 18.1
Commercial Fertilizer)

G 11.5 12.2 13.6 12.4


(Negative Control: Water)

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Inferential Data Analysis

A. Height of Petsay
Table 3 shows the test of difference in the growth of
petsay in terms of its height 4 weeks after planting using
paired t-test. The results showed that there is a significant
difference in the growth of petsay among treatments. And the
difference lies between Treatments A (Liquid Organic
Fertilizer Using Steamed Organic Rice) and Treatment C (Liquid
Organic Fertilizer Using 50% Kangkong and 50% Rice), Treatment
A(Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using Steamed Organic Rice) and
Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong and
70% Rice), Treatment B (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using
Kangkong) and Treatment C (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 50%
Kangkong and 50% Rice), Treatment B (Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using Kangkong) and Treatment D (Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using 70% Kangkong and 30% Rice), Treatment B (Liquid Organic
Fertilizer Using Kangkong) and Treatment E (Liquid Organic
Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong and 70% Rice), Treatment C
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 50% Kangkong and 50% Rice)
and Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong
and 70% Rice), Treatment C (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using
50% Kangkong and 50% Rice) and Positive Control (Commercial
Fertilizer), Treatment C (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 50%
Kangkong and 50% Rice) and Negative Control (Water), Treatment
D (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 70% Kangkong and 30% Rice)
and Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong
and 70% Rice), Treatment D (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using
70% Kangkong and 30% Rice) and Positive Control (Commercial
Fertilizer), Treatment D (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 70%

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Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Kangkong and 30% Rice) and Negative Control


(Water), Treatment E(Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30%
Kangkong and 70% Rice) and Positive Control(Commercial
Fertilizer), and Treatment E(Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using
30% Kangkong and 70% Rice) and Negative Control(Water).

Table 3. Test of difference in the growth of petsay in terms


of height.
Pairing t-value p-value Interpretation
TA and TB 2.25 0.355 not significant
TA and TC 8.74 1.95 significant
TA and TD 4.49 0.0002 not significant
TA and TE 20.59 2.09 significant
TA and PC 1.25 0.2257 not significant
TA and NC 5.49 1.89 not significant
TB and TC 10.98 3.66 significant
TB and TD 6.74 1.14 significant
TB and TE 22.84 2.59 significant
TB and PC 1.00 0.3294 not significant
TB and NC 3.25 0.0039 not significant
TC and TD 4.24 0.0004 not significant
TC and TE 11.86 9.08 significant
TC and PC 9.99 1.99 significant
TC and NC 14.23 2.96 significant
TD and TE 16.10 2.72 significant
TD and PC 5.74 1.07 significant
TD and NC 9.99 1.99 significant
TE and PC 21.84 6.39 significant
TE and NC 26.09 1.74 significant
PC and NC 4.24 0.0004 not significant

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B. Mass of Petsay
Table 4 shows the difference in the growth of petsay in
terms of mass using paired t-test. Based on the results, there
is a significant difference in the growth of petsay among
treatments during post-harvest. And the difference lies
between Treatment A (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using Steamed
Organic Rice) and Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30%
Kangkong and 70% Rice), Treatment A (Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using Steamed Organic Rice) and Treatment G (Water), Treatment B
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using Kangkong) and Treatment E (Liquid
Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong and 70% Rice), Treatment C
(Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 50% Kangkong and 50% Rice) and
Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong and 70%
Rice), Treatment D (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 70% Kangkong
and 30% Rice) and Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30%
Kangkong and 70% Rice), Treatment D (Liquid Organic Fertilizer
Using 70% Kangkong and 30% Rice) and Negative Control (Water),
Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong and 70%
Rice) and Positive Control (Commercial Fertilize), and
Treatment E (Liquid Organic Fertilizer Using 30% Kangkong and 70%
Rice) and Negative Control (Water).

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Table 3. Test of difference in the growth of petsay in terms


of mass.
Pairing t-value p-value Interpretation
TA and TB 1.98 0.0678 not significant
TA and TC 0.05 0.9615 not significant
TA and TD 0.64 0.5337 not significant
TA and TE 9.82 1.18 significant
TA and PC 2.49 0.0261 not significant
TA and NC 5.27 0.0001 significant
TB and TC 1.93 0.0741 not significant
TB and TD 2.64 0.0203 not significant
TB and TE 11.80 1.17 significant
TB and PC 0.51 0.6199 not significant
TB and NC 3.29 0.0054 not significant
TC and TD 0.69 0.5032 not significant
TC and TE 9.87 1.11 significant
TC and PC 2.44 0.0287 not significant
TC and NC 2.78 0.0001 not significant
TD and TE 9.18 2.67 significant
TD and PC 3.12 0.0075 not significant
TD and NC 5.91 3.83 significant
TE and PC 12.30 6.79 significant
TE and NC 15.08 4.73 significant
PC and NC 2.78 0.0147 not significant

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Chapter 5
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Summary
The study aimed to determine and evaluate the effects of
varying proportions of steamed organic rice (Oryza sativa) and
Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica) as Liquid Organic Fertilizer (LOF)
on the growth of Petsay (Brassica rapa.) Specifically it
sought to find out what is the growth of petsay using
different concentrations of liquid organic fertilizer from
steamed rice and kangkong compared to the control group and if
there a significant difference between and among treatments
when it was compared to the control (water only and commercial
fertilizer).
The subject of the study was petsay. The variables were
the different concentration of steamed organic rice and
kangkong as independent variable and growth (plant height and
mass) as the dependent variable. A control (water only and
commercial fertilizer) was included as part of the independent
variable.
The study was conducted at Brgy. Poblacion, Dumalag,
Capiz from August 10, 2015 to January 6, 2016.
The study was laid out in Randomized Complete Block
Design (RCBD) replicated three times.
The data in the growth of petsay were recorded in terms
of the plant height was measured in centimeters by means of
ruler and mass was measured in grams using triple beam
balance. The data was plotted in tabular form and treated
statistically to determine the effects of each treatment in

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

the growth of petsay. Treatment means were compared using


paired t-test set 5% alpha level.
The findings of the investigation were:
1. The highest mean in the growth of petsay in terms of height
and mass was observed when it was treated with treatment E,
which is liquid organic fertilizer with 30% kangkong and 70%
steamed organic rice. The mean score in the growth of petsay
in terms of height is 28.0 cm while in terms of mass it has a
mean score of 43.2 g.
2. There is a significant difference in the growth of petsay
between and among treatments both in terms of height and mass.

Conclusions
Considering the foregoing findings, the following
conclusions were drawn:
1. The use of steamed organic rice and kangkong as liquid
organic fertilizer had a positive effect in the growth of
petsay for it enhanced its growth more effectively than
commercial fertilizer.
2. In making liquid organic fertilizer, proper proportioning
of its component must be observed in order to have the best
treatment.
3. The null hypothesis which is, there is no significant
difference between and among treatments is rejected.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Recommendations
Based on the results of the study, the researcher
recommends the following:
1. Farmers are encouraged to utilize the use of Liquid Organic
Fertilizer for it is environment-friendly and cheap compared
to commercial fertilizer.
2. Future researchers are advised to try other plant such as
fermented Plant Juice from Malabar Nightshade stem; Sweet
Potato stem and Banana pseudo trunk in making liquid organic
fertilizer.
3. Repeat the experiment to find out how to improve the
product more effectively in order to compete with the
commercial product.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

References
Cosico, Wilfredo C. 1985. Organic Fertilizers: Their Nature,
Properties and Use. Los Banos, Laguna: Farming System and
Soil Resources Institute.

Philippine Council for Agriculture, Aquatic and Natural


Resources Research and Development, 2009.

Prell, J. (2010). Importance of IMO” IMO (Cultivation and


Processing) pages 135- 137

Prell, J. (2010). Natural Farming with Indigenous


Microogranisms, p. 30

http://gardening.knoji.com/natural-farming-how-to-prepare-a-
fermented-plant-juice/.Retrieved: January 6, 2016

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendices

Appendix A
REQUEST/PERMISSION LETTER

Letter to the Grammarian

DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL


Special Science Class
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

January 7, 2016

JECIL F. VILLANUEVA
Teacher I
Dumalag Central National High School

Madame:

Greetings!

The undersigned are the Gr-10 Special Science Class (SSC) student of Dumalag Central
National High School- Dumalag, Capiz undertaking a Research subject. As part of the
requirements for the subject, the SSC students are required to undergo Research study
(Science Investigative Project) to develop their scientific ability.

With your knowledge and expertise, we are humbly asking your permission to become our
grammarian for the aforementioned study.

We are looking forward that our request would merit your positive response.

Thank you and more power!!!

Respectfully yours,

PATRICIA JEAN P. FAELDONEA


EVERLY F. FLORES
MARIAN G. FRAC
ROVIMAE B. TEVES
Researchers

Noted by:

MILAGROS F. JUSA
Adviser

Approved by:

JECIL F. VILLANUEVA
Teacher I

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Letter to the Statistician

DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL


Special Science Class
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

January 7, 2016

MYLENE F. LUSAYA
Teacher III
Dumalag Central National High School

Madame:

Greetings!

The undersigned are the Gr-10 Special Science Class (SSC) student of Dumalag Central
National High School- Dumalag, Capiz undertaking a Research subject. As part of the
requirements for the subject, SSC students are required to undergo Research study
(Science Investigative Project) to develop their scientific ability.

With your knowledge and expertise- we are humbly asking your permission to become our
grammarian for the aforementioned study.

We are looking forward that our request would merit your positive response.

Thank you and more power!!!

Respectfully yours,

PATRICIA JEAN P. FAELDONEA


EVERLY F. FLORES
MARIAN G. FRAC
ROVIMAE B. TEVES
Researchers

Noted by:

MILAGROS F. JUSA
Adviser

Approved by:

MYLENE F. LUSAYA
Teacher III

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendix B
TIME AND PROJECT COST

TIME TABLE
This section includes the number of hours and days consumed by the
researchers for the entire process in conducting the study.

Research Title :

UTILIZATION OF STEAMED ORGANIC RICE AND


KANGKONG AS LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON THE
GROWTH OF PETSAY

Date Started : August 10, 2015


Date Finished : January 6, 2016

Date Entry (Activities) Remarks

August 10, 2015 Formulating and planning research Done


problem.
August Gathering of data and information Done
about the study.
October , 2015 Gathering of the materials needed in Done
the study
October, 2015- Conducting an experiment Done
January, 2016
January 2016 Gathering and analyzing the result Done
January 2016 Formulating Problems, Conclusions, and Done
Recommendations.

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

PROJECT COST

UTILIZATION OF STEAMED ORGANIC RICE AND KANGKONG


Research Title :
AS LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH AND
OF PETSAY

Date Started : August 10, 2015


Date Finished : January 16, 2016

Quantity Materials Value


6pcs. Bottles Owned
2kgs. Molasses 50
1kg. Kang-kong Collected
1kg. Spoiled steamed Rice Collected
1pc. Bottle Spray Owned
2pc. Container Owned
1pc. Knife Owned
1pack Petsay seedlings 25

Cost of Materials : P 75

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendix C
TOOLS AND MATERIALS USED IN THE STUDY

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendix D

TREATMENTS/SET-UPS

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendix E

PICTURALS

Fermentation of the Molded Rice

The photos from left to right, from the upper to the lower part of
the figure represents the steps taken on chronological order.
Photo Credits to: Marian G. Frac

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Fermentation of the Kangkong

The photos from left to right, from the upper to the lower part of
the figure represents the steps taken on chronological order.
Photo Credits to: Patricia Jean P. Faeldonea

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendix F

EVALUATION SHEET/DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT

Height of Plant

Std.
Mean n Dev

5.7 4 0.17 TA

5.2 4 0.29 TB

7.4 4 0.17 TC

6.6 4 0.25 TD

9.8 4 0.50 TE

5.4 4 0.17 PC

4.6 4 0.29 NC

6.4 28 1.69 Total

ANOVA
table

p-
Source SS df MS F value

2.57E-
Treatment 75.31 6 12.552 156.43 16

Error 1.68 21 0.080

Total 76.99 27

Post hoc analysis

p-values for pairwise t-


tests

NC TB PC TA TD TC TE

4.6 5.2 5.4 5.7 6.6 7.4 9.8

NC 4.6

TB 5.2 .0039

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

PC 5.4 .0004 .3294

1.89E-
TA 5.7 05 .0355 .2257

1.99E- 1.14E- 1.07E-


TD 6.6 09 06 05 .0002

2.96E- 3.66E- 1.99E- 1.95E-


TC 7.4 12 10 09 08 .0004

1.74E- 2.59E- 6.39E- 2.09E- 2.72E- 9.08E-


TE 9.8 17 16 16 15 13 11

Tukey simultaneous comparison t-values (d.f. = 21)

NC TB PC TA TD TC TE

4.6 5.2 5.4 5.7 6.6 7.4 9.8

NC 4.6

TB 5.2 3.25

PC 5.4 4.24 1.00

TA 5.7 5.49 2.25 1.25

TD 6.6 9.99 6.74 5.74 4.49

TC 7.4 14.23 10.98 9.99 8.74 4.24

TE 9.8 26.09 22.84 21.84 20.59 16.10 11.86

critical values for experimentwise error rate:

0.05 3.26

0.01 4.00

Comparison of Groups
11.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
TA TB TC TD TE PC NC

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Weight of Petsay

One factor ANOVA


Std.
Mean n Dev

23.2 3 0.84 TA

19.1 3 0.38 TB

23.1 3 2.58 TC

24.5 3 0.85 TD

43.2 3 5.82 TE

18.1 3 0.56 PC

12.4 3 1.07 NC

23.4 21 9.39 Total

ANOVA
table

p-
Source SS df MS F value

2.38E-
Treatment 1,675.73 6 279.288 44.85 08

Error 87.18 14 6.227

Total 1,762.91 20

Post hoc analysis

p-values for pairwise t-


tests

NC PC TB TC TA TD TE

12.4 18.1 19.1 23.1 23.2 24.5 43.2

NC 12.4

PC 18.1 .0147

TB 19.1 .0054 .6199

TC 23.1 .0001 .0287 .0741

TA 23.2 .0001 .0261 .0678 .9615

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

3.83E-
TD 24.5 05 .0075 .0203 .5032 .5337

4.73E- 6.79E- 1.17E- 1.11E- 1.18E- 2.67E-


TE 43.2 10 09 08 07 07 07

Tukey simultaneous comparison t-values (d.f.


= 14)

NC PC TB TC TA TD TE

12.4 18.1 19.1 23.1 23.2 24.5 43.2

NC 12.4

PC 18.1 2.78

TB 19.1 3.29 0.51

TC 23.1 5.22 2.44 1.93

TA 23.2 5.27 2.49 1.98 0.05

TD 24.5 5.91 3.12 2.62 0.69 0.64

TE 43.2 15.08 12.30 11.80 9.87 9.82 9.18

critical values for experimentwise error


rate:

0.05 3.42

0.01 4.30

Comparison of Groups
Appendix G
60.0
DATA/COMPUTATION
50.0

40.0

30.0
I. Height of the Petsay.
20.0

10.0

0.0
TA TB TC TD TE PC NC

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Appendix G

RAW DATA/COMPUTATIONS

I. Height of the Petsay.

Growth of Petsay in terms of Height Measured in Centimeters (cm)


Treatment Replication Replication Replication Replication
1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean 1 2 3 Mean

A
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 5.9 5.5 5.6 5.7 9.6 9.8 9.4 9.6 16.7 17.2 16.9 16.9 23.2 23.8 23.9 23.6
Using Steamed
Organic Rice)

B
(Liquid Organic 5.2 5.6 4.9 5.2 7.9 7.5 7.3 7.6 15.2 14.9 14.7 14.9 20.2 20.4 21.5 20.7
Fertilizer
Using Kangkong)

C
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 7.2 7.6 7.5 7.4 12.9 12.5 12.7 12.7 21.2 21.3 21.5 21.3 27.2 26.9 26.8 27.0
Using 50%
Kangkong and
50% Rice)

D
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 6.9 6.5 6.3 6.6 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.6 25.6 25.8 25.7 25.7
Using 70%
Kangkong and
30% Rice)

E
(Liquid Organic
Fertilizer 9.4 9.5 10.5 9.8 15.5 15.5 15.8 15.6 22.5 23.1 22.9 22.8 28.2 27.8 28.1 28.0
Using 30%
Kangkong and
70% Rice)

F
(Positive 5.2 5.6 5.5 5.4 6.2 6.9 6.7 6.6 11.2 10.9 11.5 11.2 19.5 19.7 19.2 19.5
Control:
Commercial
Fertilizer)

G
(Negative
4.2 4.6 4.9 4.6 5.2 5.9 5.0 5.4 7.5 7.9 8.4 7.9 12.2 12.8 12.9 12.6
Control:
Water)

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

II. Mass of the Petsay in grams

Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Treatment Positive Negative


A B C D E Control Control

R1 22.2 19.4 20.3 24.5 48 18.2 11.5


R2 23.6 19.3 23.5 25.3 44.8 17.5 12.2
R3 23.7 18.7 25.4 23.6 36.7 18.6 13.6
Mean 23.2 19.1 23.1 24.5 43.2 18.1 12.4

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DUMALAG CENTRAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
SPECIAL SCIENCE CLASS CURRICULUM
Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz

Biographical Sketch

Patricia Jean Plana Faeldonea is the eldest


among the three daughters of Mr. Paterno Fajanil
Faeldonea and Ma. Gina Plana Faeldonea. She lives
at Sanger St., Brgy. Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz and
was born on the 31st of July, 1999. She finished her
elementary education at Dumalag Christian School
and pursued her secondary education at Dumalag
Central National High School. She likes spending
her time texting, hanging out with friends and
surfing the internet.She believes in the saying "It
is better to take the hardship of
education than to taste the bitterness of
ignorance."
Everly Fango Flores is the eldest daughter of
Mr. Efren Fegarido Flores and Mrs. Melinda Fango
Flores. She lives at Brgy. Sto. Angel, Dumalag,
Capiz and was born on the 8th day of October, 1999.
She finished her elementary education at Dumalag
Central School and pursued her secondary education
at Dumalag Central National High School. She likes
reading books, writing poems, singing, listening to
music and surfing the internet. She believes in the
saying “Change is inevitable. Change is constant.”
Marian Giner Frac, daughter of Mr. Afnulfo
Frias Frac and Mrs. Marissa Giner Frac, She was
born for the 10th day of July, 1999. She lives at
Rizal St. Brgy. Poblacion, Dumalag, Capiz. She
graduated her elementary education at Saint Martin
Academy and pursued her secondary education at
Dumalag Central National High School. Her hobbies
are watching anime shows, listening to music,
painting and surfing the internet. She believes in
the saying “Opportunity is a bird that never
perches.”
Rovimae Barnego Teves, youngest daughter of
Mr. Roger Villar Teves and Mrs. Vilma Bernego
Teves. She was born on the 11th day of May, 2000.
She lives at Sto. Angel, Dumalag, Capiz. She
graduated her elementary education at Dumalag
Central School and pursued her secondary education
at Dumalag Central National High School. Her
hobbies are taking selfies posting musically
videos, playing and surfing the internet. She
believes in the saying. “Instead of regretting what
we cannot do, it is better to do what one can”.

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