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North American University

Education Department

M.Ed. in Educational Leadership / M.Ed. in Curriculum and Instruction

EDUC 5324 Integrating Technology into Education

Name: Tuba Oguz Date: 7/13/2019

Cite the reviewed article in APA format:

Waxman, H., Boriack, A., Yuan-Hsuan, L., & MacNeil, A. (2013). Principals'

Perceptions of the Importance of Technology in Schools. Contemporary Educational

Technology, 4(3), 187-196.


Research Questions (if research questions are not specifically mentioned, what is

the theoretical background or overarching theme):

The present study specifically examines the following two research questions: (a) What

are principals’ perceptions of the importance of technology? And (b) Do principals’

perceptions of technology differ by years of experience and gender?

Purpose of the research:

The purpose of this study is to show how school principals’ gender and years of

experience influence the function of the technology in their schools.


What is the methodology for the research or approach used to understand the

issue? Provide information regarding the following:

Participants: 310 principals (126 males and 184 females)

Procedures: The survey instrument was designed specifically for this purpose and

included both qualitative and quantitative questions.

Data Collection Methods/Data Source: Collected by graduate students in south centrals

region of the US. A cognitive interview questionnaire about principals’ perceptions

regarding the importance of technology for their schools.

Data Analysis: Analysis of the interview data began with a process of data reduction.

The participants’ responses were read several times to become familiar with the data.

The data was then coded into meaningful categories


Findings or Results (or main points of the article):

 Male principals use better technology then their female counterparts

 Experienced principals make more use of technology then less

experienced ones

 Principals use technology more in communication then in student


 Female principals tend to utilize more technology for students then male

counterparts, on the other hand male principals use technology in

administrative tasks more than their female counterparts.


Conclusions/Implications (for your profession): As an elementary school teacher I

think a principal’s use of technology will transmit the importance of technology to both

staff members and students. Furthermore the principals and the teachers should be

professionally trained to be able to become effective managers of technologies.


Student’s Reflections (changes to your understanding; implications for your


Principals play big role implementation of technology in education. They should

promote and support new educational technologies in school. Also, they should pursue

new technological advancements and innovations that may benefit student achievement

and learning. School districts should provide funding and opportunities for principals

to attend technology training to better implementation of technology in entire schools.

With those training, principals will effectively lead their schools to acquire educational

resources to enhance student engagement and learning.