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EC111:Fundamental of Electronics

Engineering
RUPESH KUMAR DUTTA
Assistant Professor, ECE Department
COURSE CONTENT: UNIT 3
 NUMBER SYSTEMS:
 Introduction, Binary Number System, Octal Number System,
Decimal Number System, Hexadecimal System, Conversions:
Binary to Decimal conversion and vice-versa, Octal to Decimal
Conversion and vice versa, Hexadecimal to Decimal
Conversion and vice-versa, Binary to Hexadecimal Conversion
and vice-versa, Octal to Decimal and vice-versa, Octal to
Hexadecimal and vice versa.
 Complements: One‟s Complement, Two‟s Complement, Nine‟s
Complement, Ten‟s Complement. Binary Arithmetic (addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division), Octal Arithmetic,
Hexadecimal Arithmetic, Signed Numbers, Floating Numbers,
Codes.

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Digital Systems and Binary Numbers
 Digital age and information age
 Digital computers
 General purposes
 Many scientific, industrial and commercial applications
 Digital systems
 Telephone switching exchanges
 Digital camera
 Electronic calculators, PDA's
 Digital TV
 Discrete information-processing systems
 Manipulate discrete elements of information
 For example, {1, 2, 3, …} and {A, B, C, …}…

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Analog and Digital Signal
 Analog system
 The physical quantities or signals may vary continuously over a
specified range.
 Digital system
 The physical quantities or signals can assume only discrete values.
 Greater accuracy
X(t) X(t)
Discrete time signal
Analog signal

t t
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Digital Signal
 An information variable represented by physical quantity.
 For digital systems, the variable takes on discrete values.
 Two level, or binary values are the most prevalent values.
 Binary values are represented abstractly by:
 Digits 0 and 1
V(t)
 Words (symbols) False (F) and True (T)
 Words (symbols) Low (L) and High (H)
Logic 1
 And words On and Off
 Binary values are represented by values undefine
or ranges of values of physical quantities.
Logic 0
t
Binary digital signal
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal Number System
 Base (also called radix) = 10
 10 digits { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 }
 Digit Position
2 1 0 -1 -2
 Integer & fraction
 Digit Weight 5 1 2 7 4
 Weight = (Base) Position
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
 Magnitude
 Sum of “Digit x Weight”
 Formal Notation 500 10 2 0.7 0.04

d2*B2+d1*B1+d0*B0+d-1*B-1+d-2*B-2

(512.74)10
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Number System
 Base = 2
 2 digits { 0, 1 }, called binary digits or “bits”
 Weights
Position 4 2 1 1/2 1/4
 Weight = (Base)
 Magnitude 1 0 1 0 1
 Sum of “Bit x Weight” 2 1 0 -1 -2

 Groups of bits 4 bits = Nibble =(5.25)10

8 bits = Byte (101.01)2
1011
11000101
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Octal Number System
 Base = 8
 8 digits { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }
 Weights
Position 64 8 1 1/8 1/64
 Weight = (Base)
 Magnitude 5 1 2 7 4
 Sum of “Digit x Weight” 2 1 0 -1 -2

=(330.9375)10

(512.74)8

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
 Base = 16
 16 digits { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F }
 Weights
Position 256 16 1 1/16 1/256
 Weight = (Base)
 Magnitude 1 E 5 7 A
 Sum of “Digit x Weight” 2 1 0 -1 -2

=(485.4765625)10

(1E5.7A)16

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Examples:

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
The Power of 2
n 2n n 2n
0 20=1 8 28=256
1 21=2 9 29=512
2 22=4 10 210=1024 Kilo

3 23=8 11 211=2048
4 24=16 12 212=4096
5 25=32 20 220=1M Mega

7 27=128 40 240=1T Tera

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Number Base Conversions
Evaluate
Magnitude
Octal
(Base 8)

Evaluate
Magnitude
Decimal Binary
(Base 10) (Base 2)

(Base 16)
Evaluate
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Magnitude
EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal (Integer) to Binary Conversion
 Divide the number by the „Base‟ (=2)
 Take the remainder (either 0 or 1) as a coefficient
 Take the quotient and repeat the division

Example: (13)10
Quotient Remainder Coefficient
13/ 2 = 6 1 a0 = 1
6 /2= 3 0 a1 = 0
3 /2= 1 1 a2 = 1
1 /2= 0 1 a3 = 1
Answer: (13)10 = (a3 a2 a1 a0)2 = (1101)2

MSB LSB
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal (Fraction) to Binary Conversion
 Multiply the number by the „Base‟ (=2)
 Take the integer (either 0 or 1) as a coefficient
 Take the resultant fraction and repeat the multiplication

Example: (0.625)10
Integer Fraction Coefficient
0.625 * 2 = 1 . 25 a-1 = 1
0.25 * 2 = 0 . 5 a-2 = 0
0.5 *2= 1 . 0 a-3 = 1
Answer: (0.625)10 = (0.a-1 a-2 a-3)2 = (0.101)2

MSB LSB
14 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta
EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal to Octal Conversion
Example: (175)10
Quotient Remainder Coefficient
175 / 8 = 21 7 a0 = 7
21 / 8 = 2 5 a1 = 5
2 /8= 0 2 a2 = 2
Answer: (175)10 = (a2 a1 a0)8 = (257)8

Example: (0.3125)10
Integer Fraction Coefficient
0.3125 * 8 = 2 . 5 a-1 = 2
0.5 *8= 4 . 0 a-2 = 4
Answer: (0.3125)10 = (0.a-1 a-2 a-3)8 = (0.24)8

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary − Octal Conversion
Octal Binary
 8= 23
0 000
 Each group of 3 bits represents an
octal digit 1 001
2 010
Assume Zeros
Example: 3 011

( 1 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 )2 4 100
5 101
6 110
( 2 6 . 2 )8 7 111

Works both ways (Binary to Octal & Octal to Binary)

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary − Hexadecimal Conversion
Hex Binary
 16 = 24 0 0000
1 0001
 Each group of 4 bits represents a 2 0010
hexadecimal digit 3 0011
4 0100
5 0101
Assume Zeros 6 0110
Example: 7 0111
8 1000
( 1 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 )2 9 1001
A 1010
B 1011
C 1100
D 1101
(1 6 . 4 )16 E 1110
F 1111

Works both ways (Binary to Hex & Hex to Binary)

17 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta
EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Octal − Hexadecimal Conversion
 Convert to Binary as an intermediate step
Example:
( 2 6 . 2 )8

Assume Zeros Assume Zeros

( 0 1 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 0 )2

(1 6 . 4 )16

Works both ways (Octal to Hex & Hex to Octal)

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal
Decimal Binary Octal Hex
00 0000 00 0
01 0001 01 1
02 0010 02 2
03 0011 03 3
04 0100 04 4
05 0101 05 5
06 0110 06 6
07 0111 07 7
08 1000 10 8
09 1001 11 9
10 1010 12 A
11 1011 13 B
12 1100 14 C
13 1101 15 D
14 1110 16 E
15 1111 17 F

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
1.5 Complements
 There are two types of complements for each base-r system: the radix complement and
 Diminished Radix Complement - (r-1)’s Complement
 Given a number N in base r having n digits, the (r–1)‟s complement of N
is defined as:
(rn –1) – N
 Example for 6-digit decimal numbers:
 9‟s complement is (rn – 1)–N = (106–1)–N = 999999–N
 9‟s complement of 546700 is 999999–546700 = 453299
 Example for 7-digit binary numbers:
 1‟s complement is (rn – 1) – N = (27–1)–N = 1111111–N
 1‟s complement of 1011000 is 1111111–1011000 = 0100111
 Observation:
 Subtraction from (rn – 1) will never require a borrow
 Diminished radix complement can be computed digit-by-digit
 For binary: 1 – 0 = 1 and 1 – 1 = 0

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements
 1‟s Complement (Diminished Radix Complement)
 All „0‟s become „1‟s
 All „1‟s become „0‟s
Example (10110000)2
 (01001111)2
If you add a number and its 1‟s complement …

10110000
+ 01001111
11111111

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements

The r's complement of an n-digit number N in base r is defined as

rn – N for N ≠ 0 and as 0 for N = 0. Comparing with the (r 1) 's
complement, we note that the r's complement is obtained by adding
1 to the (r 1) 's complement, since rn – N = [(rn 1) – N] + 1.

 Example: Base-10
The 10's complement of 012398 is 987602
The 10's complement of 246700 is 753300

 Example: Base-2
The 2's complement of 1101100 is 0010100
The 2's complement of 0110111 is 1001001
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements
 2‟s Complement (Radix Complement)
Take 1‟s complement then add 1

OR Toggle all bits to the left of the first „1‟ from the right
Example:
Number:
1‟s Comp.: 10110000 101100 00
01001111
+ 1
01010000 01010000

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements
 Subtraction with Complements
 The subtraction of two n-digit unsigned numbers M – N in base
r can be done as follows:

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements
 Example 1.5
 Using 10's complement, subtract 72532 – 3250.

 Example 1.6
 Using 10's complement, subtract 3250 – 72532.
There is no end
carry.

Therefore, the answer is – (10's complement of 30718) = 69282.

25 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta
EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements
 Example 1.7
 Given the two binary numbers X = 1010100 and Y = 1000011,
perform the subtraction (a) X – Y ; and (b) Y X, by using 2's
complement.

There is no end carry.

Therefore, the answer is
Y – X = (2's complement
of 1101111) = 0010001.

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Complements
 Subtraction of unsigned numbers can also be done by means of the (r 1)'s
complement. Remember that the (r 1) 's complement is one less then the r's
complement.
 Example 1.8
 Repeat Example 1.7, but this time using 1's complement.

There is no end carry,

Therefore, the answer is Y –
X = (1's complement of
1101110) = 0010001.
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III

1 1 Carry
5 5
+ 5 5

1 1 0
= Ten ≥ Base
 Divide it by base:
Quotient becomes carry

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III

1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 0 1 = 61
+ 1 0 1 1 1 = 23

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 = 84

≥ (2)10
Divide it by base

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Subtraction
 Borrow a “Base” when needed
1 2 = (10)2
0 2 2 0 0 2
1 0 0 1 1 0 1 = 77
− 1 0 1 1 1 = 23

0 1 1 0 1 1 0 = 54

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Multiplication
 Bit by bit
1 0 1 1 1
x 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 1 1

1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
31 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta
EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Division
100110 Quotient

11 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
Dividend
1 10
10
Divisor
1 10
10 0
11 0
10 01
1 10
111
110 Reminder
10
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Octal Arithmetic

SUM

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
 Add the right most digits of each octal numbers.
 Find the modulo of the sum of digits means divide the sum by
8 and the remainder so obtained is the octal equivalent of the
sum and the quotient is added to the next sum of digits from
right side.
 Example1:- Add the octal numbers (123)8 and (527)8.
1
1 2 3 3+7=10 (more than 7)
Divide 10 by 8
5 2 7 (Quotient=1,
Reminder=2 )
6 5 2
If SUM is ≤ 7 than
no change.
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Octal Subtraction
 Find either 7‟s or 8‟s complement of the subtrahend.
 Add the minuend and the subtrahend.
 Example:- Subtract (453)8 – (234)8.
 Using 8‟s complement:
 8‟s complement of 234 = 544
 Add (453)8 + (544)8
If SUM is ≤ 7 than no change.
11 If SUM is >7 than divide the sum by 8.

453
+ 544
1217 Thus, (453)8 – (234)8 =(217)8

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III

36 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
 Add the right most digits of each Hexadecimal numbers.
 Find the modulo of the sum of digits means divide the sum by
16 and the remainder so obtained is the Hexadecimal
equivalent of the sum and the quotient is added to the next
sum of digits from right side.
 Example 2: Find the sum of the hexadecimal numbers
(A2AC)16 and (1FAB)16?
C(12)+B(11)=23 (more than 15)
1 1 1
If SUM is ≤ 15 than no Divide 23 by 16
change. A 2 A C
(Quotient=1,
If SUM is >15 than divide the
Reminder=7)
sum by 16. 1 F A B 21/16(Quotient=1,
Reminder=5)
If SUM is ≤ 15 C 2 5 7 18/16(Quotient=1,
Reminder=2)
than no change.
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
 Find either 15‟s or 16‟s complement of the subtrahend.
 Add the minuend and the subtrahend.
 Example:- Subtract (ABC)16 – (A3B)16.
 Using 16‟s complement:
 16‟s complement of ABC = 234
 Add (ABC)16 + (5C5)16
If SUM is ≤ 15 than no change.
11 If SUM is >15 than divide the sum by
16.
ABC
+ 5C5
1081 Thus, (ABC)16 – (A3B)16=(81)16

38 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
39 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta
EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
1.6 Signed Binary Numbers
 To represent negative integers, we need a notation for negative
values.
 It is customary to represent the sign with a bit placed in the
leftmost position of the number since binary digits.
 The convention is to make the sign bit 0 for positive and 1 for
negative.
 Example:

 Table 1.3 lists all possible four-bit signed binary numbers in the
three representations.

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Signed Binary Numbers

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Signed Binary Numbers
 The addition of two numbers in the signed-magnitude system follows the rules
of ordinary arithmetic. If the signs are the same, we add the two magnitudes
and give the sum the common sign. If the signs are different, we subtract the
smaller magnitude from the larger and give the difference the sign if the larger
magnitude.
 The addition of two signed binary numbers with negative numbers represented
in signed-2's-complement form is obtained from the addition of the two
numbers, including their sign bits.
 A carry out of the sign-bit position is discarded.
 Example:

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Signed Binary Numbers
 Arithmetic Subtraction
 In 2‟s-complement form:
1. Take the 2‟s complement of the subtrahend (including the sign bit)
and add it to the minuend (including sign bit).
2. A carry out of sign-bit position is discarded.

( A) ( B ) ( A) ( B )
( A) ( B ) ( A) ( B )

 Example:
( 6) ( 13) (11111010 11110011)
(11111010 + 00001101)
00000111 (+ 7)
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Floating Numbers
 Different data types:
 Integer: 7,1086,..
 Rational: 5/8, 45/32,….
 Real: √2
 Complex: 2-3i
 Extremely large and small values:
 Distance pluto – sun: 5.9*1012 m
 Mass of electron:9.1*10-28gm
 The Solution: IEEE 754 standard

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
IEEE Floating Point Representation
 The IEEE 32-bit standard Floating point numbers can be
stored into 32-bits, by dividing the bits into three parts:

1 2 9 10 32

The first (leftmost) field of our floating point

representation will STILL be the sign bit.
Use the IEEE 32-bit standard
 the leftmost digit must be a 1.
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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
IEEE Floating Point Representation
 Every binary number, except the one corresponding to the number
zero, can be normalized by choosing the exponent so that the radix
point falls to the right of the leftmost 1 bit.
37.2510 = 100101.012 = 1.0010101 x 25

0.312510 = 0.01012 = 1.01 x 2-2

 The second field of the floating point number will be the exponent.
 The exponent is stored as an unsigned 8-bit number, RELATIVE to a
bias of 127.
 Exponent 5 is stored as (127 + 5) or 132
 132 = 10000100
 Exponent -5 is stored as (127 + (-5)) or 122
 122 = 01111010

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
IEEE Floating Point
Representation
2-10
exponent -10 8-bit
bias +127 value
117  01110101
28
exponent 8 8-bit
bias +127 value
135  10000111
 The mantissa is the set of 0’s and 1’s to the right of the radix point of
the normalized (when the digit to the left of the radix point is 1) binary
number.
Ex: 1.00101 X 23
(The mantissa is 00101)
 The mantissa is stored in a 23 bit field, so we add zeros to the right
side and store:
 00101000000000000000000

47 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal Floating Point to
IEEE standard Conversion
Ex 1: Find the IEEE Floating Point(FP) representation of 40.15625
Step 1.
Compute the binary equivalent of the whole part and the fractional part. (i.e.
convert 40 and .15625 to their binary equivalents)
40.1562510 = 101000.001012
Step 2. Normalize the number by moving the decimal point to the right of the
leftmost one.
 101000.00101 = 1.0100000101 x 25

Step 3. Convert the exponent to a biased exponent

127 + 5 = 132
And convert biased exponent to 8-bit unsigned binary:
13210 = 100001002
Step 4. Store the results from steps 1-3:
Sign Exponent Mantissa
(from step 3) (from step 2)
0 10000100 01000001010000000000000

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Decimal Floating Point to
IEEE standard Conversion.
Ex 2: Find the IEEE FP representation of –24.75
Step 1. Compute the binary equivalent of the whole part and the
fractional part.
-24.7510 = -11000.112
Step 2.
Normalize the number by moving the decimal point to the right of the
leftmost one.
-11000.11 = -1.100011 x 24

Step 3. Convert the exponent to a biased exponent

127 + 4 = 131
==> 13110 = 100000112

Sign Exponent mantissa

1 10000011 1000110..0

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
IEEE standard to Decimal
Floating Point Conversion.
 Do the steps in reverse order

 In reversing the normalization step move the

radix point the number of digits equal to the
exponent:
 If exponent is positive, move to the right
 If exponent is negative, move to the left

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
IEEE standard to Decimal
Floating Point Conversion.
Ex 1: Convert the following 32-bit binary number to its decimal floating point equivalent:
Sign Exponent Mantissa
1 01111101 010..0
Step 1: Extract the biased exponent and unbias it
Biased exponent = 011111012 = 12510

Unbiased Exponent: 125 – 127 = -2

Step 2: Write Normalized number in the form:
Exponent
1 . Mantissa x 2 ----

For our number:

-1. 01 x 2 –2
Step 3: Denormalize the binary number from step 2 (i.e. move the decimal and get rid of (x 2n) part):
-0.01012 (negative exponent – move left)
Step 4: Convert binary number to the FP equivalent (i.e. Add all column values with 1s in them)
 -0.01012 = - ( 0.25 + 0.0625)
 = -0.312510

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
1.7 Binary Codes
 BCD Code
 A number with k decimal digits
will require 4k bits in BCD.
 Decimal 396 is represented in
BCD with 12bits as 0011 1001
0110, with each group of 4 bits
representing one decimal digit.
 A decimal number in BCD is the
same as its equivalent binary
number only when the number is
between 0 and 9.
 The binary combinations 1010
through 1111 are not used and
have no meaning in BCD.

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Code
 Example:
 Consider decimal 185 and its corresponding value in BCD and
binary:

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Code
 Example:
 Consider the addition of 184 + 576 = 760 in BCD:

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Codes

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Codes)
 Gray Code
 The advantage is that only bit in
the code group changes in going
from one number to the next.
 Error detection.
 Representation of analog data.
 Low power design.
000 001

010 011
100 101

110 111
56 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta
1-1 and onto!! EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary-to-Gray code conversion
 The MSB in the Gray code is the same as corresponding MSB in the
binary number.
 Going from left to right, EX-OR each adjacent pair of binary code
bits to get the next Gray code bit.
ex: convert 101102 to Gray code
1 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 0 binary

1 1 1 0 1 Gray
 The MSB in the binary code is the same as the corresponding bit
in the Gray code.
 EX-OR each binary code bit generated to the Gray code bit in
the next adjacent position.
1 1 0 1 1 Gray
+ + + +
1 0 0 1 0 Binary

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Excess-3 or XS-3 or X-3 Code
 A self complementary binary-coded decimal code.

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Codes
 American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Character
Code

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Binary Codes
 ASCII Character Code

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EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
ASCII Character Codes
 American Standard Code for Information Interchange
(Refer to Table 1.7)
 A popular code used to represent information sent as
character-based data.
 It uses 7-bits to represent:
 94 Graphic printing characters.
 34 Non-printing characters.
 Some non-printing characters are used for text format
(e.g. BS = Backspace, CR = carriage return).
 Other non-printing characters are used for record
marking and flow control (e.g. STX and ETX start and
end text areas).

61 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
ASCII Properties
 ASCII has some interesting properties:
 Digits 0 to 9 span Hexadecimal values 3016 to 3916
 Upper case A-Z span 4116 to 5A16
 Lower case a-z span 6116 to 7A16
 Lower to upper case translation (and vice versa) occurs by flipping bit
6.

62 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Assignment

63 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III
Queries are Welcome….

64 Assistant Professor Mr. Rupesh Kumar Dutta

EC111: Fundamental of Electronics Engineering Unit III