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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [1]

Grade 10
Linear Equations in Two Variables
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Answer the questions

(1) Which of the following equations has a unique solution?


4x + 3y + 9 = 0, 8x + 6y + 18 = 0
4x + 3y + 9 = 0, 12x + 9y + 20 = 0
4x + 3y + 20 = 0, 8x + 4y + 15 = 0
4x + 3y + 9 = 0, 8x + 6y + 20 = 0
(2) If following pair of equations have infinitely many solutions, find the value of p and q.
15x + 9y = 12
(3p + q)x + (2p + q)y = 4
(3) Yejoon and Geonwoo have some pencils. Yejoon says to Geonwoo, "If you give me 19 of your pencils,
I will have twice the number of pencils left with you". Geonwoo replies, "if you give me 19 of your pencils
I will have the same number of pencils left with you". Find the the number of pencils with Yejoon and
Geonwoo separately.
(4) It is given that the sum of digits of a two digit number is 12. If 18 is added to the number, the digits
interchange their place. Find the number.
(5) Which of the following conditions is true if the system of equations below is shown to be inconsistent
a1x + b 1y + c 1 = 0, a 2x + b 2y + c 2 = 0

a1 b1 c1
= ≠
a2 b2 c2

a1 b1 c1
≠ ≠
a2 b2 c2

a1 b1 c1
= =
a2 b2 c2

a1 a2 c1
= =
b1 b2 c2

(6) Which of the following equations has an infinite number of solutions?


4x + 2y + 1 = 0, 12x + 6y + 5 = 0
4x + 2y + 1 = 0, 12x + 6y + 3 = 0
4x + 2y + 1 = 0, 16x + 8y + 4 = 0
4x + 2y + 5 = 0, 12x + 4y + 2 = 0
(7) Three years ago Geonwoo was five times older than his daughter. After three years, Geonwoo will be 9
years more than two times the age of his daughter. Find the present age of Geonwoo and his daughter.

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [2]
(8) 11 pens and 8 pencils cost ₩93 and 10 pens and 13 pencils cost ₩96. Find the cost of 5 pens and 6
pencils.
(9) Two numbers are in ratio 3:2. If 8 is added to both the numbers, ratio becomes 7:6. Find the numbers.
(10) Find value of k such that equations -2x - 3y - 1 = 0 and -6x + ky - 3 = 0, represents coincident lines.
(11) If twice the daughter's age in years is added to father's age, the sum is 51. If twice the father's age is
added to the daughter's age, the sum is 72. Find the age of father and daughter.

Choose correct answer(s) from the given choices

(12) For which value of λ, following pair of linear equations have no solution.
λ x + 12 y = λ
3x+λy=λ-3
a. 3 b. -6
c. -3 d. 6

(13) If a pair of linear equations is consistent, then the lines will be


a. intersecting or coincident b. parallel
c. always intersecting d. always coincident

(14) For which value of λ, following pair of linear equations have no solution.
λ x + y = λ2 and x + λ y = 1
a. -1 b. 0
c. 0.5 d. 1

Check True/False

(15) Equations -2x + y = 2 and -4x + 2y = c will have an unique solution for all real values of c.
True False

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [3]

Answers
(1) 4x + 3y + 20 = 0, 8x + 4y + 15 = 0

Step 1
Equations a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 have unique solution if,
a1 b1

a2 b2

Step 2
If we try this condition on given four equations, it is only satisfied by pair 4x + 3y + 20 = 0, 8x + 4y
+ 15 = 0, since
4 3

8 4

Step 3
Therefore answer is 4x + 3y + 20 = 0, 8x + 4y + 15 = 0

(2) p = 2, q = -1

Step 1
From the equations, 15x + 9y = 12 and (3p + q)x + (2p + q)y = 4, we notice that,
a1 = 15, b1 = 9, c 1 = 12
and a2 = 3p + q, b 2 = 2p + q, c 2 = 4

Step 2
It is given that, the equations 15x + 9y = 12 and (3p + q)x + (2p + q)y = 4 have infinitely many
solutions.
a1 b1 c1
Therefore, = =
a2 b2 c2

15 9 12
⇒ = =
3p + q 2p + q 4

Step 3
On comparing first two terms,
15 9
⇒ =
3p + q 2p + q
By cross multiplying both sides, we get,
15(2p + q) = 9(3p + q)
⇒ 30p + 15q = 27p + 9q
⇒ 3p = -6q
p -6
⇒ =
q 3
⇒ p = -2 q
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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [4]

Step 4
Now, lets compare first and last term,
15 12
=
3p + q 4
By cross multiplying both sides, we get,
15(4) = 12(3p + q)
⇒ 60 = 36p + 12q
On substituting p = -2 q,
⇒ 60 = 36(-2 q) + 12q
⇒ q = -1

Step 5
p = -2 q
⇒ -2 × -1
⇒2

Step 6
Therefore, the value of p = 2,
and the value of q = -1.

(3) 133 and 95 items

Step 1
Let the number of pencils with Yejoon and Geonwoo be x and y respectively. It is given that,
x + 19 = 2 (y - 19)
x - 19 = y + 19

Step 2
On subtracting second equation from first equation
2 × 19 = 2 (y - 19) - (y + 19)
38 = y - 57
y = 5 × 19
y = 95

Step 3
Substitute value of y in first equation,
x + 19 = 2 (95 - 19)
x = 133

Step 4
Therefore, the number of pencils with Yejoon and Geonwoo are 133 and 95 respectively.

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [5]
(4) 57

Step 1
Let the ten's digit of the number be x and unit's digit be y. The number becomes 10x + y.
Now, it is given that the sum of digits of a two digit number is 12.
i.e. x + y = 12 ________________________(1)
It is also given that if 18 is added to the number, the digits interchange their place.
The number formed after interchanging the digits = 10y + x
So, the equation becomes (10x + y) + 18 = 10y + x
9x - 9y = -18
x - y = -2 ________________________(2)

Step 2
On adding the two equations,
2x + y - y = 12 - 2
2x = 10
x=5

Step 3
Substituting the value of x in equation (1), we have:
x + y = 12
5 + y = 12
y = 12 - 5 = 7
Therefore, the number is 57.

a1 b1 c1
(5) = ≠
a2 b2 c2

Step 1
Two equations are inconsistent if no solution exists which can satisfy both the equations. This
situation would arise when ratio of coefficients of variables are same, while ratio of constants is
different, i.e.
a1 b1 c1
= ≠ ,
a2 b2 c2
where a1, b1 and a2, b2 are the coefficients of the variables and c1 and c2 are the constants of
the equations respectively.

Step 2
a1 b1 c1
Hence, the true condition for the given equations is = ≠ .
a2 b2 c2

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [6]
(6) 4x + 2y + 1 = 0, 12x + 6y + 3 = 0

Step 1
Equations a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 have infinitely many solutions if,
a1 b1 c1
= =
a2 b2 c2

Step 2
If we try this condition on given four set of equations, it is only satisfied by pair 4x + 2y + 1 = 0, 12x
+ 6y + 3 = 0, since
4 2 1
= =
12 6 3

Step 3
Therefore answer is 4x + 2y + 1 = 0, 12x + 6y + 3 = 0

(7) 28 years and 8 years

Step 1
Let x and y be the current age of Geonwoo and his daughter respectively.
It is given that, Three years ago Geonwoo was five times older than his daughter
(x - 3) = 5 (y - 3)
x - 5y = -12 ____________________(1)

Step 2
It is also given that, after three years Geonwoo will be 9 years more than two times the age of his
daughter
(x + 3) = 2 (y + 3) + 9
x - 2y = 12 ____________________(2)

Step 3
On subtracting eq. 1 from 2
3y = 24
y = 8 years

Step 4
On substituting value of y in eq. 1
x - 5(8) = -12
x = 28 years

Step 5
Therefore,
present age of Geonwoo = x = 28 years
present age of his daughter = y = 8 years

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [7]
(8) ₩47

Step 1
Let the cost of a pen and pencil be ₩ x and ₩ y respectively. It is given that
11 x + 8 y = 93
10 x + 13 y = 96

Step 2
On multiplying first equation by 13 and second equation by 8
143 x + 104 y = 1209
80 x + 104 y = 768

Step 3
Subtract second equation from first equation 1
=> 63 x = 441
=> x = (441)/(63) = ₩7

Step 4
Substitute this value in first equation
=> 11 × 7 + 8 y = 93
=> 8 y = 93 - 11 × 7 = 16
=> y = (16)/(8) = ₩2

Step 5
Price of 5 pens and 6 pencils
=> 5x + 6y = 5 × 7 + 6 × 2
=> = ₩47

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [8]
(9) 6 and 4

Step 1
Since numbers are in ratio 3:2, lets assume numbers are 3x and 2x

Step 2
When 8 is added to both numbers, numbers become (3x + 8) and (2x + 8)

Step 3
Since new ratio is 7:6
(3x + 8)/(2x + 8) = 7/6
⇒ 6 (3x + 8) = 7 (2x + 8)
⇒ 18x + 48 = 14x + 56
⇒ 18x - 14x = + 56 - 48
⇒ 4x = 8
⇒ x = 8/4
⇒x=2

Step 4
Therefore numbers are,
3x = 3 × 2 = 6
2x = 2 × 2 = 4

(10) -9

Step 1
Equations a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 represent coincident lines if,
a1 b1 c1
= =
a2 b2 c2

Step 2
On substituting coefficients in above condition,
-2 -3 -1
= =
-6 k -3

Step 3
Threfore k = -9

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [9]
(11) 31 and 10 years

Step 1
Let the age of father be x and that of daughter be y. It is given that
x + 2y = 51
2x + y = 72

Step 2
On solving above two equations we get x = 31 and y = 10 years

(12) b. -6

Step 1
We know that when a pair of linear equations has no solution, the condition is:
a1 b1 c1
= ≠ .
a2 b2 c2

Step 2
In the given case, the condition will become:
λ 12 λ
= ≠ .
3 λ λ-3

Step 3
λ 12
From above step we have: =
3 λ
On cross multiplying we have: λ2 = 36, which gives us λ = ± 6.

Step 4
From step 2 we also have:
λ λ
=
3 λ-3
Cross multiplying the fractions we have: λ - 3 = 3, which gives us λ = 6.

Step 5
Hence option b is the correct answer.

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [10]
(13) a. intersecting or coincident

Step 1
When we say that a pair of lines has a consistent solution, it means either it has a unique solution,
or infinitely many solution.

Step 2
This means either the lines are intersecting at one point, or they are intersecting at many points,
which basically means they are coincident.

Step 3
Hence option a is the correct answer for this question.

(14) a. -1

Step 1
We know that when a pair of linear equations has no solution, the condition is:
a1 b1 c1
= ≠ .
a2 b2 c2

Step 2
In the given case, the condition will become:
λ 1 λ2
= ≠
1 λ 1

Step 3
On checking the condition for the given options, we conclude that only option a is satisfying the
condition.

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ID : kr-10-Linear-Equations-in-Two-Variables [11]
(15) False

Step 1
On comparing equations with standard form of equations a1x + b 1y + c 1 = 0 and a2x + b 2y + c 2 =
0, we get,
a1 = -2, b 1 = 1, c 1 = 2,
and a2 = -4, b 2 = 2, c 2 = c

Step 2
a1 -2
Now, =
a2 -4

b1 1
and =
b2 2

Step 3
Since (a1/a2) = (b1/b2) , the two lines represented by the equations -2x + y = 2 and -4x + 2y = c
are parallel, and these equations will not have an unique solution, for all values of c.
Therefore, the answer is False.

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