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Study and Implementation of Automation

Projects in Utilities

A Graduate Project Report submitted to Manipal Academy of Higher

Education in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the
degree of


Electronics and Communication Engineering

Submitted by
Piyush Shukla
Reg. No:140907108

Under the guidance of

Mr. Saurabh Mishra Dr. Kumara Shama

Senior Manager(Engineering Services) Professor
Tata Motors Limited Electronics and Communication



(A Constituent Institution of Manipal Academy of Higher Education)
(A Constituent Institution of Manipal Academy of Higher Education)



This is to certify that the project titled PROJECT TITLE is a record of the bonafide
work done by Piyush Shukla (Reg. No. 140907108) submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (BTech) in
Technology, Manipal, Karnataka, (A Constituent Institution of Manipal Academy of
Higher Education), during the academic year 2017- 2018.

Kumara Shama Prof. Dr. M. Sathish Kumar

Project Guide HOD, E&C.

I would like to thank my head of department Prof. Dr. M. Sathish Kumar for allowing me to
do my project work in Tata Motors Limited Lucknow Plant. I would also like to thank my
guide Prof. Kumara Shama for helping and guiding me regularly in the duration of the
project.I would also like to thank my Company guide Mr. Saurabh Mishra for helping me
during the work at company and guiding me where ever necessary

Variable frequency drives are used in the compression system for supplying compressed
gas to all the areas required. Variable frequency drives are used to control the speed of motor
which is used for compression in the compressor system. Variable frequency save of a lot of
energy wastage which could have been there if we were using just conventional motor as the
motor would have been operating even if it does not need the power output from the
compressed airline. Variable frequency drives are used to supply compressed air to
pneumatic tools used on the assembly line.

A system was developed and installed for the hooter used in the plant for emergency as well
as routine operations. The system uses many Siemens Programmable Logic controllers at
different locations which is operated using the main PLC which controls the actuation of
different PLC's installed at different locations. The communication between different PLC's
occurs using Local area Network(LAN) protocol.

The software used is Total integrated automation by Siemens and the hardware used is
Siemens S7-1200 Programmable logic Controller.

Figure No Figure Title Page No

1 Solar Energy Conversion 13
2 PUT function 25
3 GET function 27
4 PLC to PLC communication 30
5 Inserting CPU 30
6 Assigning IP 31
7 Configuring Local connection 31
8 Results 34-36
Page No
Acknowledgement 1
Abstract 2
List Of Figures 3

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 5-7

1.1 Introduction 5
1.2 Motivation 6
1.3 Organization of Report 7


2.1 Solar Energy 8-9
2.2 Hooter System 9-10
2.3 Variable frequency drives 10-11

Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 12-29

3.1 Solar Energy 12-13
3.1.1 Solar Panels 12
3.1.2 Controller 12
3.1.3 Inverter 13
3.2 Hooter System
3.2.1 PLC's Software Program 14-15
3.2.2 Individual PLC Section 15-16
3.2.3 PLC's software program 16-17
3.2.4 Peripheral devices 17-20
3.2.5 PUT: write data to remote CPU 21-23
3.2.6 GET: read data from a remote CPU 23-25
3.2.7 PLC to PLC communication 25-32

Chapter 4 RESULT ANALYSIS 33-38

4.1 Causes of IGBT failures 33-34
4.2 Hooter system 34-37


5.1 Work Conclusion 38
5.2 Future Scope of Work 38


Variable frequency drives

A variable frequency drive is a kind of motor controller which druns an electric motor by
changing the frequency and voltages supplied to the electric motor. The output that we get
from a variable frequency drive is rectangular waveform not a sinusoidal waveform as motors
require a rectangular waveform for its operation. For a variable frequency drive to work
properly, we need to maintain the V/Hz ratio. We vary the voltage in addition to the frequency
for maintaining the V/Hz ratio by using the concept of Pulse-width modulation. In Pulse width
modulation, for attaining a half of a particular voltage, we will switch ‘on’ half the time and
switch ‘off” half the time during one cycle.

S7-1200 Siemens PLC

The Siemens S7-1200 series micro-controller provides the flexibility and power to control a
large kind of devices. The Central processing unit has a processor, an attached power supply,
output and input circuit, high speed control motion I/O, and the analog inputs are present on
the board in a closed housing structure for creating a powerful microcontroller . The Central
Processing Unit has the suitable logic required to control and monitor the devices in an
application. The Central processing unit observes the outputs and inputs and changes according
to the algorithm of the program, which includes , timing, Boolean logic complex, and
communications mathematical operations with the other devices.

The software used for making the logic of the system is Total Integrated automation and the
medium used for communication to different PLC's is LAN cable.

The Aim of the project is to develop a logic for the actuation of hooter for different cases
required during the operation. The type of programming language used in the project is Ladder

Programmable logic controllers:

The PLC's are a digitally operating electronic components that makes use of programmable
memory for internal storage of instructions by working out particular functions, such as timing,
sequencing, logic, counting, and arithmetic for controlling through digital or analog O/I
module, various types of machines or processes. It is also defined as the solid-state industrially
used control device that can receive signal from the user supplied control devices, for example
switches and senors implementing in an accurate structure which is determined by relay
ladder logic-diagram-based application progress stored in usable memory, and provides
outputs for control of process or user-supplied device, such as relay or motor starter. So, it's a
solid-state, programmable electrical/electronic interface that can change, execute, and monitor,
at a very fast pace, the state of processes or communication systems. It works on the basis of
programmed data contained in an essential microprocessor-based system.
Solar Energy

Energy exists in different forms. Light is a form of energy. Often, one form of energy can be
converted into another. The fact is very important because it explains how people get
electricity, which people use in many ways. Electricity is used to bring light to streets and
buildings, for running computers and Televisions, and to run other machine and appliance at
work, at school, and at home. One way for getting electricity is to light a fuel like coal or oil.
The heat produced then boils water and then turn them into steam. The steam runs a turbine
which produces electricity. Often, the electricity produced then goes to a public power system
that then sends it out, through wires, to schools, homes, and businesses over a large area. This
method used for making electricity is popular but it has many problems. Our planet has a
limited supply of coal and oil. These are not fuels which can be renewed. When these are
Endless Energy for Electricity is an important form of energy. Also, they give off gases when
these coal and oil are burned. These gases make the air polluted, or dirty, and some of them
may even change the climate of earth. A small device called solar cell can make electricity
just from sunlight .A solar cell does not emit any gases give. It even does not even make noise.
A solar-panel is a set of solar cells which work together of which Only part of energy sent
towards the Earth by Sun actually comes to the surface of earth. Some of the solar energy
gets bounced- back into space. A part of it gets absorbed by air. Most part of solar energy
that does come to the surface of earth exists in the form of visible light. Solar cell panels use
the energy of light to produce electricity. But they do not work equally good with many forms
of light. Various types of solar cell panels use varying wavelengths. That means a cell can use
only a part of the solar-energy that it receives.

2.1 Solar Energy:

Solar-energy is a light and radiant heat which comes from the Sun that controls the climate of
Earth and protract life and weather. It is renewable energy source and originates due to thermo-
nuclear process that transfers about 650,000,000 tons of H2(Hydrogen) to He(helium) every
second. This process produces lot of heat and electro-magnetic radiation. The heat produces
remains in the sun and is beneficial in up-holding the thermo-nuclear reaction and electro-
magnetic radiation along with infrared, visible and ultra-violet radiation flow out
into the space in all the directions. Solar energy is actually nuclear energy.

There are mainly four types of solar power stations.

1. Off Grid Power type Solar Plant

2.Grid Tie Power type Solar Plant

3.Grid Tie Power with Backup

4.Grid Fallback Power type Solar Plant.

1. Off Grid Power Solar Power Station

These are one of the most commonly used photo-voltaic system used in providing localised
electricity in absence of routine source of electric-power at particular location. As it's name
suggests, the system does not have any indirect or direct connection with any grid-type
network. In standalone systems, the solar module produces electric energy which is then
utilized to charge a battery storage system and then the battery provides electricity to the
connected loads. Standalone-systems are usually small systems with generation capacity less
than one kilo watt.

2. Grid Tie Power Solar Power Station

In the case of grid tie solar system, users consume electricity generated by solar captivating
power plant during the time of day and it also exports surplus energy through grid but during
night the whole solar plant does not produce any energy, they then import electrical energy
through grid for consumption of power. The common disadvantage of having this system is
that in case of power cut in the grid, the solar cell modules have to be disconnected through
the grid. This system is not very profitable especially when the overall maximum capacity
demand of system does not occur during the peak sunny period of the day. Grid tie power solar
systems are of two types :single macro-central inverter and other with multiple micro -inverters.
In the earlier type of solar system, the solar panel as well as supply grid are connected to the
same central inverter called grid tie power inverter. The inverter in this case converts the DC
of the solar array panels to grid level AC supply and then finally feeds to the grid. Here the
grid-tie inverters also monitor the power being in supply from the grid. If there is any power
cut in grid, it actuates the switching system of the solar power system for disconnecting it
through the grid to ensure that no solar electricity could be fed back into the grid during power
cuts. There is only one energy meter which is connected to the main grid power supply line to
record the energy value export to grid.

3. Grid Tie Power with Backup Solar Power

It is called grid - interactive system. This is combination of a grid tie power solar power
generator unit and battery bank storage. The main drawbacks of grid tie system is whenever
there is power cut in grid the solar- module is cut out from the system. For avoiding
discontinuing supply during power cut period one bank of battery with sufficient capacity can
be connected with the system as power backup.

4. Grid Fall back Solar Power Generation

Fall back grid is most stable and reliable system used in electrifying small households.
In this case solar -panel module charges a battery bank which in return is involved in supplying
distribution board through inverter. When a battery is discharged to a pre required specified
level ,the system switches automatically back to the grid power-supply. The solar panel
modules then recharges the battery and after the battery is being charged up to a pre-required
specified level again the system then switches back to solar power. This system of power supply
is mainly popular when there is no facility available of selling power supply to the grid.

2.2 Hooter System

The system used earlier for the hooter system was manual as there was a switch installed at
each location for the actuation of hooter motors. The earlier system was purely electrical. The
idea of the project was to remotely actuate and control hooters from one location through
programmable logic controllers using automation. The previous system did not require any
logic as it was purely electrical but the new system required logic for its operation and the logic
was fed into the controllers using the concept of Ladder logics in Programmable logic
A Programmable logic controller receives (input) and transmits (output) various different types
of electronic and electrical signals and it can control as well as observe practically any type of
electrical and/or mechanical system. Therefore, it also has enormous flexibilities in interfacing
through machines ,computers, and various other peripheral devices or systems.
PLC's come in various different sizes. Generally, the size or space that a PLC can occupy has
a direct relation with the user system and output/input required as well as the picked
manufacturer's design/ packaging capability.
The chassis in a PLC can be of the enclosed or open type. The each module plugs into a back-
plane of chassis. The electronic devices or components are being mounted on printed circuit
board that are enclosed within a single module.
The first PLC was introduced in the late 1960s and was an outgrowth of the programmable
controller or PC. PCs have been around the industry since the early 60s.
The need for better and faster control relays that fit into less space as well as the frustration
over program inflexibility (hard-wired relays, stepping switches, and drum programmers) gave
birth to the PC.
Although the PC and PLC have been interchanged in speech, the difference between them is
that a PC is dedicated to control functions in a fixed program, similar in a sense to the past
problem of limited ability. A PLC, on the other hand, only requires that its software logic be
rewritten to meet any new demands of the system being controlled. Thus, a PLC can adapt to
changes in many processes or monitoring application requirements.

IP address:
The Internet-Protocol address or commonly known as IP address is a numerical digit alloted
to every device connected to a computer system network that can use the Internet- Protocol for
a communication over a network. The IP addresses serve two important functions: network or
host interface location addressing. Internet- Protocol ver4 defines the IP address as a number
of 32 bit.

Subnet Mask:
A sub-network or sub-net is a subdivision which is logical for of an IP- network. The process
of dividing a single network into 2 or many more network is called sub-netting.

Computers which do belong to a specific subnet are being addressed with an identical most
significant bit group in their IP address. This leads to the division that is logical of an IP address
in two different fields, the number of the network or the routing prefix of the network and the
rest of the field or a host identifier. The remaining field is identifier used for a particular host
or network-interface.

The prefix of the routing can be explained in Class-less Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) symbol
written as first address of a particular network which is to be followed by a single slash
character , and which ends with a bit length of a prefix. Sub-netting may also enhance routing
efficiency, or have advantages in network management when sub-networks are
administratively controlled by different entities in a larger organization. Subnets may be
arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning an organization's network address
space into a tree-like routing structure.
2.3 Pulse Width Modulated Variable Frequency Drives
When a VFD is operated with a constant-frequency source of power (typically 60Hz), AC
induction- motors are constant speed components. The variable frequency drive or a VFD
controlling the speed of an Alternating Current motor by changing the frequencies supplied to
a motor. The variable frequency drive also controls the output-voltage in proportion to output
-frequency to maintain a fixed ratio of volt to freq. (V/Hz), as is required by the significant
characteristics of the AC motors which produces the required torque for the system. The first-
step which in this process is converting the AC supply voltage to DC by using a device called
rectifier. Direct Currents power contain the voltage ripples which when smoothed using filter
capacitors gives pure DC. This particular section of the VFD's is frequently referred to as the
Direct current link. This Direct current voltage is converted back to AC. This conversion is
typically achievable through use of power-electronic devices such as Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistor. Power transistors use a technique called Pulse- Width Modulation. The output
voltage at the end is turned off and on at a very high frequency, with a duration of off-time, or
width of pulse, controlled for approximating a sinusoidal waveform from the Output. The
Previous drive technologies like the Current source Inverter and Variable-Voltage Controller
used thyristor as a control devices.

The whole bunch of processes happens by a micro-processor which monitors the:

• Incoming- voltage supply,

• Speed set point,
• DC-link voltages,
• Output voltages and current to ensure safe operations of the motors within the established
3.1 Solar energy

3.1.1 Solar Panels

The important part of solar power system is the solar array panel. Solar panel also known as
photo-voltaic solar-panels. Solar power panel or solar modules is basically a group of series
and parallels connected solar-cells. The voltage difference occuring across a solar panel cell
is about 0.50 volts and therefore the desired number of such solar cells which are to be
connected as series to achieve 14.0 to 18.0 volt to charge standard batteries of 12 volt. Solar
panel is joined together to create a solar panel array. Multiple solar panels are joined together
in parallel and in series to achieve more current and more voltage respectively.

3.1.2 Controller
We should never over-charge the battery and under discharged the lead acid batteries. Both the
over-charging and under-discharging could badly damage the batteries systems. For avoiding
these situations a micro-controller is required for attaching with a system to constant flow of
cur. through the battery.

3.1.3 Inverter
We know that electricity produced in the solar panel is Direct Current signal. Electricity that
we get through the grid supply is Alternating Current signal. So , running an equipment from
a grid as well as the solar system, for that it is required for us to install an inverter for converting
DC of solar power system to AC for the grid of the same level which is required for a grid
supply. In an off- grid system an inverter is directly connected through the batteries terminal
so that the DC coming from batteries is to be first converted to AC then fed into the load. In
grid tie power system, the solar power panel is connected directly to the inverter and the
inverters then feed the grid with the same voltages and frequencies.
3.2 Hooter System

The initial work was to understand the basics of Programmable logic controllers and et familiar
with the software and hardware used for Programmable logic controllers. A PLC is defined as
a digitally operating electronic apparatus which uses a programmable memory for the internal
storage of instructions by implementing specific functions, such as logic, sequencing, timing,
counting, and arithmetic to control through digital or analog I/O modules various types of
machines or processes.

The method used basically is same for all Programmable logic controllers. As special -
hardware module is added to the system and additional scan cycles are also required. Here is
one -simple scan process that is involved in every PLC. First, the O/I hard-ware module are
scanned by relay ladder logic software logic program as follow.
After power up, a processor scans input modules and transfer the data's content to the input
image tables or registers. Data values through the output image table is then transferred to
output module.
Last, a software-program is scanned and every statement is being checked to check if required
condition had been met or not. If conditions are met, the processors will write a digital level
bit "1" to the output image-table, and also a peripheral device will then be energized. If the
required conditions are not met, the processors writes a "0" to the output- image table, and the
peripheral device remains de energized.

The Programmable logic controllers interface various kinds of outside electronic and electrical
signals. The signal can be DC or AC current or voltage. Typically, it ranges from 4.0 to 20.0
milli-amperes (mA) or 0.0 to 120.0VAC, and 0.0 to 48.0VDC. The signals are called to as O/I
(input/output) point. The total is called the PLC O/I capability. Through an electronic point
of view, that number is based on how many point the PLC CPU is able to see at, or scans, in a
predefined amount of time. The performance characteristics are called scan times. From a
practical- perspective of the users, the numbers of I/O module need as well as the number of
O/I points contained on each O/I module will drive the system I/O capability should have been.
It is also important to have a sufficient I/O capabilities in our PLC system. It is better having
more than having less so that, when I/O point are required at a future time it is easier to write
the existing spare I/O's points into the. There is exactly no harm to the operating-system in
having spare O/I points. The software will be programmed to ignore them and these points
would have a null effect on the PLC scan time.
3.2.1 PLC's software program:

The program of the software is the center of a PLC and it is written by some programmer who
can use functions, elements, , and instructions for designing the system that has to be controlled
by PLC is to control or monitor. These components are kept on separately numbered rung in
the relay ladders logic (RLL's). The software RLL is done by the processors for the CPU
module or controller's module (different name, same module).
There is various types of Programmable logic controllers software's design package available
in the market. One randomly selected software's packages is of the RLL's format and includes
contacts, timers, counters, coils, , digital comparison blocks, registers and other type of special
data handling function. Using these element, the programmer can design the control systems.
The outer device and component are wired into the systems identical to those of the
programmer software's ladder logic. Not all software element will have a hard wired, physical
counter-part. However, As the PLC processor scan through the software programs (rung-by-
rung), each rung of RLL's are executed. The hard wired devices that the software's are
mirroring then become active. The software thus is the control device and provide the
programmers or technicians the flexibilities to either force a state or block a device from the
systems operation. A contact or coil can be made for operating directly from the software's
(independent of control cabinet hard wiring to source and field inputs device). The devices
can be made to appear invisible (removed from system operations), even though, it is
electrically hardwired and in place.

3.2.2 Individual PLC sections

There are things common to all PLCs are divided in four sections, each which can be sub-
divided into small but equally important section. The primary section include the power-
supply section, which provide the operating Direct current power to the PLC's and O/I base
module and include battery backups, the programs software sections, the CPU modules, which
contain the processors and hold memory, and the O/I section, which can control peripherals
device and contain the inputs and outputs module
Power supply section: The power supplies (PS's) section get its input powers from an external
120 V AC or 240 V AC source (line-voltage) which is usually fuse and fed through the control
relays and filter external to the Power Supply. In addition; the Power supply has own important
AC inputs fuse.
These line voltage is stepped-down, rectified , filtered , regulated , voltage and current
protected , and status monitored , with status indications displaying on the front of the Power
supply in the forms of several LED (light emitting diode). The Power supply can have an
important switch for securing the memory or selecting a fixed programming mode.
The output of the PS provides low DC voltage(s) to the PLC's various modules (typically, with
a total current capability of 20A or 50A) as well as to its integral lithium battery, which is used
for the memory backup. Should the PS fail or its input line voltage drop below a specific value,
the memory contents will not change from what they were prior to the failure.
The PS output provides power to every module in the PLC; however, it does not provide the
DC voltages to the PLC's peripheral I/O devices.
CPU module. "CPU," "controller," or "processor" are all terms used by different manufacturers
to denote the same module that performs basically the same functions. The CPU module can
be divided into two sections: the processor section and the memory section.
The processor section makes the decisions needed by the PLC so that it can operate and
communicate with other modules. It communicates along either a serial or parallel data-bus.
An I/O base interface module or individual on-board interface I/O circuitry provides the signal
conditioning required to communicate with the processor. The processor section also executes
the programmer's RLL software program.
The memory part stores (electronically) retrievable digital information in three dedicated
locations of the memory. These memory locations are routinely scanned by the processor. The
memory will receive digital information or have digital information by the processor. This
read/write capability provides an easy way to make program changes.
The memory contains data for several types of information. Usually, the data tables, or image
registers, and the software program RLL are in the CPU module's memory. The program
messages may or may not be resident with the other memory data.
A battery backup is used by some manufacturers to protect the memory contents from being
lost should there be a power or memory module failure. Still others use various integrated
circuit (IC) memory technologies and design schemes that will protect the memory contents
without the use of a battery backup.
A typical memory section of the CPU module has a memory size of 96,000 (96K) bytes. This
size tells us how many locations are available in the memory for storage. Additional memory
modules can be added to your PLC system as the need arises for greater memory size. These
expansion modules are added to the PLC system as the quantity of I/O modules are added or
the software program becomes larger. When this is done, the memory size can be as high as
1,024,000 (1024K) bytes.
Manufacturers state memory size either in bytes or words. A byte is eight bits, and a bit is the
smallest digit in the binary code. It's either a logic "1" or a logic "0." A word is equal in length
to two bytes or 16 bits. Not all manufacturers use 16-bit words, so be aware of what your PLC
manufacturer has defined as its memory word bit size.

3.2.3 Software program

The PLC not only requires electronic components to operate, it needs a software program. The
PLC programmer is not limited to writing software in one format. There are many types
available, each lending itself more readily to one application over and above another. Typical
is the RLL type previously discussed. Other S/W programs include C, State Language, and
SFC (Sequential Function Charts).
Regardless of which software is chosen, it will be executed by the PLC's CPU module. The
software can be written and executed with the processor in an online state (while the PLC is
actually running) or in the off-line state (whereby the S/W execution does not affect current
operation of the I/O base).
In the RLL software program, we find several types of programming elements and functions
to control processes both internal to the PLC (memory and register) as well as external (field)
devices. Listed below are some of the more common types of elements, functions, and

• Contacts
• Coils
• Timers Counters
• One-shot
• Drums
• Data manipulation instructions
• Arithmetic instructions

3.2.4 Peripheral devices:

Peripheral devices to the PLC and its I/O base(s) can be anything from a host computer and
control console to a motor drive unit or field limit switch. Printers and industrial terminals used
for programming are also peripheral devices.
Peripheral devices can generate or receive AC or DC voltages and currents as well as digital
pulse trains or single pulses of quick length (pulse width).
These external operating devices, with their sometimes harsh and/or fast signal characteristics,
must be able to interface with the PLC's sensitive microprocessor. Various types of I/O modules
(using the proper shielded cabling) are available to do this job.

Normally Open Contact:

The activation of the normally open contact depends on the signal state of the associated
operand. When the operand has signal state "1", the normally open contact closes and the signal
state at the output is set to the signal of the input.
When the operand has signal state "0", the normally open contact is not activated and the signal
state at the output of the instruction is reset to "0'.
Two or more normally open contacts are linked bit-by-bit by AND when connected in series.
With a series connection ,power flows when all contacts are closed.The normally open contacts
are linked by OR when connected in parallel. With a parallel connection, power flows when
one of the contacts is closed.

Organization block (OB)

Organization blocks provide the structure for program. They serve as the interface between
the operating system and the user program. OBs are event driven. An event, such as a
diagnostic interrupt or a time interval, will cause the CPU to execute an OB. Some OBs have
predefined start events and behavior.
The program cycle OB contains your main program. You can include more than one program
cycle OB in your user program. During RUN mode, the program cycle OBs execute at the
lowest priority level and can be interrupted by all other types of program processing. The
startup OB does not interrupt the program cycle OB because the CPU executes the startup
OB before going to RUN mode. After finishing the processing of the program cycle OBs, the
CPU immediately executes the program cycle OBs again. This cyclic processing is the
"normal" type of processing used for programmable logic controllers. For many applications,
the entire user program is located in a single program cycle OB.

Function (FC)

A function (FC) is a code block that typically performs a specific operation on a set of input
values. The FC stores the results of this operation in memory locations. For example, use
FCs to perform standard and reusable operations (such as for mathematical calculations) or
technological functions (such as for individual controls using bit logic operations). An FC can
also be called several times at different points in a program. This reuse simplifies the
programming of frequently recurring tasks. An FC does not have an associated instance data
block (DB). The FC uses the local data stack for the temporary data used to calculate the
operation. The temporary data is not saved. To store data permanently, assign the output value
to a global memory location, such as M memory or to a global DB.

Function block (FB):

A function block (FB) is a code block that uses an instance data block for its parameters and
static data. FBs have variable memory that is located in a data block (DB), or "instance" DB.
The instance DB provides a block of memory that is associated with that instance (or call) of
the FB and stores data after the FB finishes. You can associate different instance DBs with
different calls of the FB. The instance DBs allow you to use one generic FB to control multiple
devices. You structure your program by having one code block make a call to an FB
and an instance DB. The CPU then executes the program code in that FB, and stores the
block parameters and the static local data in the instance DB. When the execution of the FB
finishes, the CPU returns to the code block that called the FB. The instance DB retains the
values for that instance of the FB. These values are available to subsequent calls to the function
block either in the same scan cycle or other scan cycles.

Data block (DB):

You create data blocks (DB) in your user program to store data for the code blocks. All of the
program blocks in the user program can access the data in a global DB, but an instance DB
stores data for a specific function block (FB).

Relay Ladder Logic:

Ladder logic was originally a written method to document the design and construction of relay
racks as used in manufacturing and process control.[1] Each device in the relay rack would be
represented by a symbol on the ladder diagram with connections between those devices shown.
In addition, other items external to the relay rack such as pumps, heaters, and so forth would
also be shown on the ladder diagram.

Ladder logic has evolved into a programming language that represents a program by a graphical
diagram based on the circuit diagrams of relay logic hardware. Ladder logic is used to develop
software for programmable logic controllers (PLCs) used in industrial control applications. The
name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two
vertical rails and a series of horizontal rungs between them. While ladder diagrams were once
the only available notation for recording programmable controller programs, today other forms
are standardized in IEC 61131-3 (For example, as an alternative to the graphical ladder logic
form, there is also a more assembly language like format called Instruction list within the IEC
61131-3 standard.).

Sequential Function charts:

Sequential function chart (SFC) is a graphical programming language used for programmable
logic controllers (PLCs). It is one of the five languages defined by IEC 61131-3 standard. The
SFC standard is defined as, Preparation of function charts for control systems, and was based
on GRAFCET.It can be used to program processes that can be split into steps.
Basic Batch SFC, with important elements labelled Main components of SFC are Steps with
associated action, Transitions with associated logic conditions, Directed links between steps
and transitions.
Steps in an SFC diagram can be active or inactive. Actions are only executed for active steps.
A step can be active for one of two motives :It is an initial step as specified by the programmer,
It was activated during a scan cycle and not deactivated since.
Steps are activated when all steps above it are active and the connecting transition is superable
(i.e. its associated condition is true). When a transition is passed, all steps above are deactivated
at once and after all steps below are activated at once.

Actions associated with steps can be of several types, the most relevant ones being Continuous
(N), Set (S) and Reset (R). Apart from the obvious meaning of Set and Reset, an N action
ensures that its target variable is set to 1 as long as the step is active. An SFC rule states that if
two steps have an N action on the same target, the variable must never be reset to 0. It is also
possible to insert LD (Ladder Diagram) actions inside an SFC program (and this is the standard
way, for instance, to work on integer variables).
SFC is an inherently parallel language in that multiple control flows — Program Organization
Units (POUs) in the standard's parlance — can be active at once.
Non-standard extensions to the language include macro actions: i.e. actions inside a program
unit that influence the state of another program unit. The most relevant such macro action is
"forcing", in which a POU can decide the active steps of another POU.

Functional Block Diagram:

The Function Block Diagram (FBD) is a graphical language for programmable logic controller
design,[1] that can describe the function between input variables and output variables. A
function is described as a set of elementary blocks. Input and output variables are connected to
blocks by connection lines.
Inputs and outputs of the blocks are wired together with connection lines, or links. Single lines
may be used to connect two logical points of the diagram: An input variable and an input of a
block, An output of a block and an input of another block, An output of a block and an output
variable. The connection is oriented, meaning that the line carries associated data from the left
end to the right end. The left and right ends of the connection line must be of the same type.

Multiple right connection, also called divergence can be used to broadcast information from its
left end to each of its right ends. All ends of the connection must be of the same type.
Function Block Diagram is one of five languages for logic or control configuration supported
by standard IEC 61131-3 for a control system such as a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
or a Distributed Control System (DCS). The other supported languages are ladder logic,
sequential function chart, structured text, and instruction list.

Time: TIME data is stored as a signed double integer interpreted as milliseconds. The editor
format can use information for day (d), hours (h), minutes (m), seconds (s) and milliseconds
(ms). It is not necessary to specify all units of time. For example T#5h10s and 500h are valid.
The combined value of all specified unit values cannot exceed the upper or lower limits in
milliseconds for the Time data type (-2,147,483,648 ms to +2,147,483,647 ms).

Date: DATE data is stored as an unsigned integer value which is interpreted as the number of
days added to the base date 01/01/1990, to obtain the specified date. The editor format must
specify a year, month and day.

TOD: TOD (TIME_OF_DAY) data is stored as an unsigned double integer which is interpreted
as the number of milliseconds since midnight for the specified time of day (Midnight = 0 ms).
The hour (24hr/day), minute, and second must be specified. The
fractional second specification is optional

Input module
The input module has two functions: reception of an external signal and status display of that
input point. In other words, it receives the peripheral sensing unit's signal and provides signal
conditioning, termination, isolation and/or indication for that signal's state.
The input to an input module is in either a discrete or analog form. If the input is an ON-OFF
type, such as with a push button or limit switch, the signal is considered to be of a discrete
nature. If, on the other hand, the input varies, such as with temperature, pressure, or level, the
signal is analog in nature.
Peripheral devices sending signals to input modules that describe external conditions can be
switches (limit, proximity, pressure, or temperature), push buttons, or logic, binary coded
decimal (BCD) or analog-to-digital (A/D) circuits. These input signal points are scanned, and
their status is communicated through the interface module or circuitry within each individual
PLC and I/O base. Some typical types of input modules are listed below.

• DC voltage (110, 220, 14, 24, 48, 15-30V) or current (4-20 mA).
• AC voltage (110, 240, 24, 48V) or current (4-20 mA).
• TTL (transistor transistor logic) input (3-15VDC).
• Analog input (12-bit).
• Word input (16-bit/parallel).
• Thermocouple input.
• Resistance temperature detector.
• High current relay.
• Low current relay.
• Latching input (24VDC/110VAC).
• Isolated input (24VDC/85-132VAC).
• Intelligent input (contains a microprocessor).
• Positioning input.
• PID (proportional, intregal, differentiation) input.
• High-speed pulse.

Output module:
The output module transmits discrete or analog signals to activate various devices such as
hydraulic actuators, solenoids, motor starters, and displays the status (through the use of LEDs)
of the connected output points. Signal conditioning, termination, and isolation are also part of
the output module's functions. The output module is treated in the same manner as the input
module by the processor.
Some typical output modules available today include the following:
• DC voltage (24, 48,110V) or current (4-20 mA).
• AC voltage (110, 240v) or current (4-20 mA).
• Isolated (24VDC).
• Analog output (12-bit).
• Word output (16-bit/parallel).
• Intelligent output.
• ASCII output.
• Dual communication port.

Normally Closed Contact:

The activation of the normally closed contact depends on the signal state of the associated
operand. When the operand has signal state "1", the normally closed contact opens and the
signal state at the output of the instruction is reset to "0".

When the operand has signal state "0", the normally closed contact is not enabled and the signal
state of the input is transferred to the output.

Two or more normally closed contacts are linked bit-by-bit by AND when connected in series.
With a series connection, power flows when all contacts are closed.

The normally closed contacts are linked by OR when connected in parallel. With a parallel
connection, power flows when one of the contacts is closed.
---( )---: Assignment
You can use the "Assignment" instruction to set the bit of a specified operand. If the result of
logic operation (RLO) at the input of the coil has signal state "1", the specified operand is set
to signal state "1". If the signal state is "0" at the input of the coil, the bit of the specified
operand is reset to "0".

Assigning Internet Protocol (IP) addresses

If your programming device is using an on-board adapter card connected to your plant LAN
(and possibly the world-wide web), the IP Address Network ID and subnet mask of your CPU
and the programming device's on-board adapter card must be exactly the same. The
Network ID is the first part of the IP address (first three octets) (for example, 211.154.184
.16) that determines what IP network you are on. The subnet mask normally has a value of; however, since your computer is on a plant LAN, the subnet mask may have
various values (for example, in order to set up unique subnets. The subnet
mask, when combined with the device IP address in a mathematical AND operation, defines
the boundaries of an IP subnet.

If your programming device is using an Ethernet-to-USB adapter card connected to an

isolated network, the IP Address Network ID and subnet mask of your CPU and the
programming device's Ethernet-to-USB adapter card must be exactly the same. The Network
ID is the first part of the IP address (first three octets) (for example, that
determines what IP network you are on. The subnet mask normally has a value of The subnet mask, when combined with the device IP address in a mathematical
AND operation, defines the boundaries of an IP subnet.

3.2.5 PUT: Write data to a remote CPU

You can write data to a remote CPU with the instruction "PUT".
The instruction is started on a positive edge at control input REQ:

• The pointers to the areas to be written (ADDR_i) and the data (SD_i) are then sent to
the partner CPU. The partner CPU can be in RUN or STOP mode.

• The data to be sent is copied from the configured send areas ((SD_i). The partner CPU
saves the sent data under the addresses supplied with the data and returns an execution
• If no errors occur, this is indicated at the next instruction call with status parameter
DONE = "1". The writing process can only be activated again after the last job is

Errors and warnings are output via ERROR and STATUS if access problems occurred while
the data was being written or if the execution check results in an error.

Requirements for using the instruction

• The "Permit access with PUT/GET communication from remote partner" function was
activated in the properties of the partner CPU under "Protection".

• The blocks which you access with the "PUT" instruction were created with the access
type "standard".

• Make sure that the areas defined with the parameters ADDR_i and SD_i match in terms
of number, length and data type.

• The area to be written (ADDR_i parameter) must be as large as the send area (SD_i


3.2.6 GET: Read data from a remote CPU

With the instruction "GET", you can read data from a remote CPU.
The instruction is started on a positive edge at control input REQ:
• The relevant pointers to the areas to be read out (ADDR_i) are then sent to the partner
CPU. The partner CPU can be in RUN or STOP mode.
• The partner CPU returns the data:
o If the reply exceeds the maximum user data length, this is displayed with error
code "2" at the STATUS parameter.
o The received data is copied to the configured receive areas (RD_i) at the next
• Completion of this action is indicated by the status parameter NDR having the value
"1". Reading can only be activated again after the previous reading process has been
completed. Errors and warnings are output via ERROR and STATUS if access
problems occurred while the data was being read or if the data type check results in an
error. Changes in the data areas addressed on the partner CPU are not registered by the
"GET" instruction.

• The "Permit access with PUT/GET communication from remote partner" function was
activated in the properties of the partner CPU under "Protection".

• The blocks which you access with the "GET" instruction were created with the access
type "standard".

• Make sure that the areas defined with the parameters ADDR_i and SD_i match in terms
of number, length and data type.

• The area to be read (ADDR_i parameter) cannot be larger than the area for data storage
(RD_i parameter).

TOF: Generate off-delay

You can use the "Generate off-delay" instruction to delay resetting of the Q output by
the programmed time PT. The Q parameter is set when the result of logic operation
(RLO) of the IN parameter changes from "0" to "1" (positive signal edge). When the
signal state at the IN parameter changes back to "0", the programmed time PT starts.
The Q parameter remains set as long as time PT is running. When the time PT expires,
the Q parameter is reset. If the signal state of the IN parameter changes to "1" before
the time PT expires, the timer is reset. The signal state of the Q parameter remains set
to "1".

The current time value can be queried in the ET parameter. The time value starts at
T#0s and ends when the value of the time PT is reached. When the time PT expires, the
ET parameter remains set to the current value until the IN parameter changes back to
"1". If input IN changes to "1" before the time PT elapses, the ET output is reset to the
value T#0s.

Configuring the IP address:

Ethernet (MAC) address: In a PROFINET network, each device is assigned a Media

Access Control address (MAC address) by the manufacturer for identification. A MAC
address consists of six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by
hyphens (-) or colons (:), in transmission order, (for example, 01-23-45-67-89-AB or
IP address: Each device must also have an Internet Protocol (IP) address. T
his address allows the device to deliver data on a more complex, routed network.
Each IP address is divided into four 8-bit segments and is expressed in a dotted, decimal
format (for example, The first part of the IP address is used for the
Network ID (What network are you on?), and the second part of the address is for the
Host ID (unique for each device on the network). An IP address of 192.168.x.y is a
standard designation recognized as part of a private network that is not routed on the
Subnet mask: A subnet is a logical grouping of connected network devices. No
des on a subnet tend to be located in close physical proximity to each other on a Local
Area Network (LAN). A mask (known as the subnet mask or network mask) defines
the boundaries of an IP subnet.
Structure of Program:

When you create a user program for the automation tasks, you insert the instructions
for the program into code blocks:
●An organization block (OB) responds to a specific event in the CPU and can interrupt
the execution of the user program. The default for the cyclic execution of the user
program (OB 1) provides the base structure for your user program and is the only code
block required for a user program. If you include other OBs in your program, these OBs
interrupt the execution of OB 1. The other OBs perform specific
functions, such as for startup tasks, for handling interrupts and errors, or for execu
ting specific program code at specific time intervals.

● A function block (FB) is a subroutine that is executed when called from another code
block (OB, FB, or FC). The calling block passes parameters to the FB and also identifies
a specific data block (DB) that stores the data for the specific call or instance of that
FB. Changing the instance DB allows a generic FB to control the ope
ration of a set of devices. For example, one FB can control several pumps or valve
s, with different instance DBs containing the specific operational parameters for
each pump or valve.

● A function (FC) is a subroutine that is executed when called from another code block
(OB, FB, or FC). The FC does not have an associated instance DB. The calling block
passes parameters to the FC. The output values from the FC must be written to a
memory address or to a global DB.

Based on the requirements of your application, you can choose either a linear structure
or a modular structure for creating your user program:
● A linear program executes all of the instructions for your automation tasks in
sequence, one after the other. Typically, the linear program puts all of the program
instructions into the OB for the cyclic execution of the program (OB 1).
● A modular program calls specific code blocks that perform specific tasks. To create
a modular structure, you divide the complex automation task into smaller subordinate
tasks that correspond to the technological functions of the process. Each code block
provides the program segment for each subordinate task. You structure your program
by calling one of the code blocks from another block.

3.2.7 PLC-to-PLC communication

A CPU can communicate with another CPU on a network by using the TSEND_C and
TRCV_C instructions. Consider the following when setting up communications
between two CPUs:

●Configuration/Setup: Hardware configuration is required.

●Supported functions: Reading/Writing data to a peer CPU

●No Ethernet switch is required for one-to-one communications; an Ethernet switch is

required for more than two devices in a network.

PLC-to-PLC communication


Inserting a CPU in the project:

Assigning the Address:

Configuring the Local connection path


Causes of IGBT failure

The main causes of IGBT failures in both solar inverters and Variable frequency drives are as
mentioned below :

Collector-emitter voltage:
The collector-emitter voltage also called the turn-off surge voltage happens when due to the
fast switching feature of IGBT’s at turn off, instantaneous di/dt would be very high. Due to
high di/dt, there will be a high surge voltage Ldi/dt in the parasitic inductances .
Gate emitter voltage:
The gate emitter voltage can happen due to static electricity or gate oscillation. The gate
emitter overvoltage can be removed by wearing the discharge band.

The overheating can happen because of excess current or overload. Other reason can be lack
of heat dissipation.

Hooter System



The overvoltage caused in the electronic devices like Insulated gate bipolar
transistor’s(IGBT’s) in case of solar inverters and variable frequency drives can be suppressed
by using a protection circuit called snubber circuit. In this circuit a film capacitor
is connected to bypass the high frequency surge currents. Snubber circuits are used to limit
dv/dt or di/dt and overvoltage during turn-offs.

5.1 Need of the snubber circuit:

When we are switching from on state to off state in Insulated gate bipolar transistor, the
impedance of the device increases which causes small current to flow in the circuit and the
rate of change of current in the circuit determines the voltage in the circuit. The snubber circuit
has a series capacitor and resistor which accommodates for a sudden change in voltage. The
capacitor charges slowly and discharges slowly through the resistor. The amount of energy
stored in the capacitor is same as the energy dissipated through the resistor. The fast turn on in
the circuit leads to higher dv/dt and fast turn off in the circuit leads to higher di/dt. Insulated
gate bipolar circuits are used in high power circuits in both resonant and hard switching
topologies. Resonant topologies minimize the switching losses as they are either zero voltage
switching or zero current switching.

5.2 Hooter System

The one thing that can be added to the current deployed system is adding a Human machine
interface and removing the switches from the system and developing a feedback system to
check if the hooters are working properly because in the current there is no feedback
mechanism to check if the hooters are working properly remotely. In the current scenario one
person has to stand at each hooter system if we need to check the proper working of Hooters.
The Hooter status will be shown on the screen of Human machine interface in the form of
graphical user interface.






Student Details
Student Name Piyush Shukla
Register Number 140907108 Section / Roll D/12
Email Address Phone No (M) 9620699786
Project Details
Project Title Study and Implementation of automation projects in Utilities
Project Duration 4 months Date of 30th january
Organization Details
Organization Tata Motors Limited
Full postal address Tata Motors Limited, Deva Road Lucknow-226019
with pin code
Website address
Supervisor Details
Supervisor Name Saurabh Mishra
Designation Senior Manager
Full contact address Engineering Services department , Tata Motors Limited, Deva Road
with pin code Lucknow-226019
Email address Phone No (M) +919956388229
Internal Guide Details
Faculty Name Kumara Shama
Full contact address Dept of E &C Engg, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal – 576 104
with pin code (Karnataka State), INDIA
Email address