Sie sind auf Seite 1von 29

[ research report ]

ANNALIE BASSON, PhD1 • BENITA OLIVIER, PhD1 • RICHARD ELLIS, PhD2


MICHEL COPPIETERS, PhD3-5 • AIMEE STEWART, PhD1 • WITNESS MUDZI, PhD1

The Effectiveness of Neural Mobilization


for Neuromusculoskeletal Conditions:
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

T
he 2010 Global Burden of Disease study revealed (CTS) and cubital tunnel
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

that musculoskeletal disorders are the second syndrome, and may be af-
biggest contributor to disability worldwide.118 Low fected in conditions such
as lateral epicondylalgia27
back–related leg pain and neck-related arm pain
and plantar heel pain.6
can arise from a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral The effectiveness of neu-
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

nervous system.69,99 The peripheral nervous system is also compromised ral mobilization (NM) for neuromusculo-
in common entrapment neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome skeletal conditions remains unclear.
Neurodynamics (NM) is an interven-
UUSTUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-
tion aimed at restoring the homeostasis
mean difference, –1.78; 95% CI: –2.55, –1.01;
analysis. P<.001) improved following NM. For chronic in and around the nervous system, by mo-
UUOBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of neck-arm pain, pain improved (intensity: mean bilization of the nervous system itself or
neural mobilization (NM) for musculoskeletal difference, –1.89; 95% CI: –3.14, –0.64; P<.001) the structures that surround the nervous
conditions with a neuropathic component. following NM. For most of the clinical outcomes in system.32,34 Neural mobilization facilitates
individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome, NM was
UUBACKGROUND: Neural mobilization, or movement between neural structures and
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

not effective (P>.11) but showed some positive


neurodynamics, is a movement-based intervention their surroundings (interface) through
neurophysiological effects (eg, reduced intraneural
aimed at restoring the homeostasis in and around edema). Due to a scarcity of studies or conflict- manual techniques or exercise.83 Human
the nervous system. The current level of evidence ing results, the effect of NM remains uncertain and animal studies revealed that NM
for NM is largely unknown. for various conditions, such as postoperative low reduces intraneural edema,101 improves
UUMETHODS: A database search for randomized back pain, cubital tunnel syndrome, and lateral intraneural fluid dispersion,20,53 reduces
trials investigating the effect of NM on neuromus- epicondylalgia. thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia,105
UUCONCLUSION: This review reveals benefits of
culoskeletal conditions was conducted, using
and reverses the increased immune re-
standard methods for article identification, selec-
NM for back and neck pain, but the effect of NM sponses96,105 following a nerve injury.
tion, and quality appraisal. Where possible, studies
on other conditions remains unclear. Due to the Three systematic reviews evaluated the
were pooled for meta-analysis, with pain, disability,
limited evidence and varying methodological qual-
and function as the primary outcomes. effectiveness of NM. One review77 focused
ity, conclusions may change over time.
UURESULTS: Forty studies were included in this on CTS (6 studies) and observed a pos-
UULEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapy, level 1a. sible trend toward improved outcomes
review, of which 17 had a low risk of bias. Meta-
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):593-615.
analyses could only be performed on self-reported following NM, but concluded that the effi-
Epub 13 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7117
outcomes. For chronic low back pain, disability cacy of NM for CTS was unclear. Another
(Oswestry Disability Questionnaire [0-50]: mean UUKEY WORDS: back pain, exercise, manual ther-
review45 included various musculoskeletal
difference, –9.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: apy, musculoskeletal conditions, neck pain, nerve
–14.50, –4.01; P<.001) and pain (intensity [0-10]: mobilization, neurodynamics, physical therapy conditions (11 studies) and concluded
that, although the evidence supported the

1
Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Department of Physiotherapy, School of Clinical
Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. 3Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit
Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 4School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. 5School of Allied Health Sciences,
Faculty of Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia. The protocol for this systematic review was published in the journal Joanna Briggs Institute Database of Systematic
Reviews and Implementation Reports (registration number 1401). Dr Basson receives funding for her PhD from the Orthopaedic Research Investment Fund of the South African
Society of Physiotherapy and from the Faculty Research Committee Individual Grants of the University of the Witwatersrand. The authors certify that they have no affiliations with or
financial involvement in any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the article. Address correspondence to Dr Annalie
Basson, 407 Stonewall Avenue, Faerie Glen 0043 South Africa. E-mail: bassonannalie@gmail.com t Copyright ©2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 593


[ research report ]
use of NM, the evidence was limited. A active exercises or passive techniques. ing relevant titles and abstracts. Articles
recent review108 (20 studies) assessed the Included techniques could be directed that met the inclusion criteria were as-
effect of NM on chronic conditions and to the nervous system itself (eg, sliding sessed by 2 independent reviewers using
concluded that NM is not superior to oth- and tensioning techniques30,32,33,46) or to the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Meta-
er interventions. This review focused on the structures that surround the nervous Analysis of Statistics Assessment and
chronic musculoskeletal conditions and system (eg, cervical lateral glide36,48 or Review Instrument for critical appraisal
only considered the outcome measures of lumbar foraminal opening100 techniques). (MAStARI)63 (APPENDIX B, available at
pain and disability. A narrative review of Outcome Measures  Outcome measures www.jospt.org). The MAStARI is a tool
NM for spinal radiculopathy concluded of primary interest were pain, disability, that was developed by experts and ratified
that NM might be beneficial for certain and/or function. Disability is defined as by the JBI’s International Scientific Com-
subgroups of patients.44 encompassing impairments, activity limi- mittee. It has been designed for review
Since the publication of these reviews, tation, participation restriction, personal and critical appraisal of methodology of
additional randomized trials have been factors, and environmental factors.62,107 individual studies and for meta-analysis
published on the effectiveness of NM. The Secondary outcomes included quality- following appraisal. In this regard, the
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

objective of this systematic review was to of-life measures, limb or joint range of MAStARI tool was used to establish the
assess the effectiveness of NM for neuro- motion (ROM), neurodynamic test out- methodological quality of included stud-
musculoskeletal conditions, as measured comes (eg, levels and region of symptom ies and to conduct the relevant meta-
by outcomes related to pain, disability, provocation, presence of neural struc- analyses.63 Disagreements were discussed
and function. It was anticipated that an tural differentiation and test sequence between the 2 reviewers. Any unresolved
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

updated systematic review with meta- ROM), and neurophysiological changes issues were resolved through discussion
analysis would provide more definite an- (eg, changes in temporal summation, with a third reviewer (R.E.). Agreement
swers regarding the effectiveness of NM median nerve intraneural edema, and between reviewers was evaluated using
for neuromusculoskeletal conditions. H-reflex latency). Cohen’s kappa. Risk of bias was assessed
independently of study appraisal using
METHODS Search Strategy the GRADE guidelines.56 This takes into
The databases searched included MED- account randomization, concealment of
Protocol and Registration LINE (PubMed), CINAHL Plus, Coch­ allocation, blinding of outcomes assess-

T
he protocol for this systematic rane Central Register of Controlled ment, incomplete outcome data, selective
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

review was published in the Joanna Trials, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, reporting, and other biases, such as stop-
Briggs Institute Database of Sys- ProQuest Central (Family Health, Health ping early for benefit or the use of non-
tematic Reviews and Implementation and Medical Complete), Nursing and Al- validated outcome measures.
Reports (registration number 1401).12 lied Health Source, EBSCO MasterFILE
Premier, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. The Data Collection
Eligibility Criteria search was conducted to include articles Data extracted from studies were grouped
Studies  Randomized clinical trials, pub- from January 1980 to April 2016. The together by patient subgroup, patient
lished in English, that evaluated the effect search for unpublished studies included demographics, interventions, outcome
of NM in participants over the age of 18 EBSCO MasterFILE Premier. A previous measures, timing of assessments, and
years with neuromusculoskeletal condi- review45 searched from 1830, and the main results. Authors were contacted for
tions indicative of neural tissue dysfunc- oldest article included in that review was clarification or missing data.
tion were considered for inclusion. Case from 1996.
reports and case-control and cohort stud- The search terms included neural, Data Synthesis
ies were excluded. Studies that evaluated nerve, mobilization, manipulation, Quantitative data, where possible, were
the effect of NM in systemic diseases, physical therapy, physiotherapy, manual pooled in a statistical meta-analysis us-
central nervous system disorders, and therapy, exercises, treatment, interven- ing the MAStARI. Effect sizes, expressed
polyneuropathies were excluded. Animal tion, management, modality, stretching, as odds ratios for categorical data and
studies or studies on healthy participants tension, and neurodynamics (APPENDIX A, weighted mean differences for continuous
were also excluded. available at www.jospt.org). data, and their 95% confidence intervals
Interventions  Studies that evaluated the (CIs) were calculated for analysis. Hetero-
effect of NM on disorders where neu- Methodological Quality geneity was assessed statistically using a
rodynamic dysfunction was implicated Two independent reviewers (A.B. and standard chi-square test. Meta-analyses
were considered for inclusion. Neural B.O.) considered records for inclusion, were not performed when the chi-square
mobilization could be achieved through and full text was reviewed after identify- test had a P value of less than .1.63 Where

594 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


statistical pooling was not possible, the
Searched MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Central Register of
findings are presented in a narrative form. Controlled Trials, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, ProQuest Central
(Family Health, Health and Medical Complete), Nursing and Allied
Levels of Evidence Health Source, EBSCO MasterFILE Premier, ScienceDirect, Scopus
The JBI Levels of Evidence and Grades of
Recommendation64 (APPENDIX C, available at
Articles identified through database Articles identified through reference
www.jospt.org) were used for making rec- searching, n = 3871 lists, n = 3
ommendations about treatment efficacy. Article from coauthor, n = 1

Meta-analysis
Meta-analyses were conducted for CTS
Articles, n = 3875 Duplicates removed, n = 60
(outcomes: pain intensity, Phalen’s test,
grip strength, 2-point discrimination,
and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder Article titles screened, 3815
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

and Hand questionnaire), nerve-related


low back pain (N-LBP) (outcomes: modi-
Article abstracts screened for Articles excluded after review of
fied Oswestry Disability Questionnaire inclusion, n = 96 abstracts, n = 31
and pain intensity), and nerve-related
neck and arm pain (N-NAP) (outcome:
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

pain intensity). It was not possible to Full-text articles assessed for Articles excluded, n = 24
perform a meta-analysis for lateral epi- eligibility, n = 65 • Other language, n = 2
• Not randomized trials, n = 6
condylalgia, cubital tunnel syndrome, • Not neural mobilization, n = 4
post–lumbar surgery, tarsal tunnel syn- Articles included in review (1 • Not neuromusculoskeletal
drome, or plantar heel pain. duplicate study population; condition, n = 5
40 studies), n = 41 • Healthy population, n = 5
• Treatment not aimed at
RESULTS • Study participants, n = 1759
peripheral nervous system, n = 2

F
orty studies, with a total of 1759 Articles included in qualitative Articles included in quantitative
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

participants, were included in the synthesis, n = 21 analysis (meta-analysis), n = 19


review, 19 of which were included
in a meta-analysis for CTS, N-LBP, and FIGURE 1. Flow diagram of search results and studies included.
N-NAP (FIGURE 1). Primary and second-
ary outcome measures for 1 study were low risk of bias and 23 studies had an un- leg raise (SLR) mobilization for N-LBP,
reported separately in 2 papers, and these clear or high risk of bias. The assessment tarsal tunnel syndrome, plantar heel pain,
2 papers were therefore treated as 1.35,36 of risk of bias is presented in the study and postoperative low back pain.
There were 12 studies for CTS, 11 for N- descriptions and in APPENDIX E (available
LBP, 10 for N-NAP, 3 for lateral epicon- at www.jospt.org). The most problematic Nerve-Related Low Back Pain
dylalgia, and 1 each for cubital and tarsal domains were blinding of assessors and The majority of studies had a high risk of
tunnel syndrome, plantar heel pain, and concealed allocation. Incomplete out- bias (TABLE 1). Five studies evaluated mo-
postoperative low back pain. The exclud- come data and high dropout rates were bilization in the slump position,4,25,61,81,90
ed studies are listed in APPENDIX D (avail- commonly listed as other forms of bias. which resulted in significant improve-
able at www.jospt.org). Blinding of participants is often difficult ments in pain and disability. Three
in clinical trials, although some of the studies compared mobilization in slump
Risk of Bias Across Studies studies used a sham intervention that with exercises and lumbar mobiliza-
The initial overall level of agreement be- successfully blinded participants.15,66 tion,25,61,81 and 1 compared it to stabili-
tween the 2 reviewers was κ = 0.615 (95% zation exercises.4 One study could not
CI: 0.41, 0.82), indicating good reliability. Techniques Used as NM be included in the meta-analysis, as it
The main areas of disagreement between The NM techniques that were assessed measured the H-reflex and compared
reviewers were blinding of participants, most frequently were NM exercises for slump with SLR.90 The treatment period
whether groups were treated equally, and CTS; cervical lateral glides for N-NAP and varied between 1 and 6 weeks (TABLE 2).
whether appropriate statistical analyses lateral epicondylalgia; mobilization in the The remaining studies used a variety of
were performed. Seventeen studies had a slump position for N-LBP; and straight techniques; SLR was compared to exer-

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 595


[ research report ]

TABLE 1 Results of Study Appraisals*

Question†
Study 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ahmed et al2 Y N Y U N Y Y Y Y Y
Akalin et al3 U N U U U Y Y Y Y Y
Ali et al4 Y N N U U Y Y Y Y Y
Allison et al5 Y U U U Y Y Y Y Y Y
Anwar et al7 Y N N U N Y Y Y Y N
Bardak et al11 Y U Y U Y N Y Y Y Y
Baysal et al13 Y U Y U U Y Y Y Y Y
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

Bialosky et al15 Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y
Brininger et al19 Y N U N Y Y Y Y Y Y
Cleland et al25 Y U Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Coppieters et al35 Y Y Y U Y Y N Y Y Y
Coppieters et al36 Y Y Y U Y Y N Y Y Y
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Dabholkar et al37 U N U N N U Y Y Y U
Drechsler et al42 Y N U U U U Y Y Y Y
Dwornik et al43 Y N N U U U Y Y Y Y
Gupta and Sharma55 Y N U N N Y N Y Y Y
Heebner and Roddey59 Y U U N U Y Y Y Y Y
Horng et al60 Y N Y N Y Y U Y Y Y
Jain et al61 Y U U U U Y Y Y Y Y
Kaur and Sharma65 Y U U U U Y Y Y Y Y
Kavlak and Uygur66 N Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

Kumar67 Y U U U U U Y Y Y Y
Langevin et al68 Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Marks et al76 Y U N Y N N Y Y Y Y
Mehta et al78 Y U U Y U U Y Y Y Y
Nagrale et al81 Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Nar82 Y U U Y U Y Y Y Y N
Nee et al84 Y N Y N Y U Y Y Y Y
Oskouei et al86 Y Y Y U Y Y Y Y Y Y
Patel87 Y N U U U Y Y Y Y Y
Pinar et al88 Y N U Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Ragonese89 Y N Y N Y N Y Y Y Y
Rezk-Allah et al90 Y N N U U Y Y Y Y Y
Saban et al93 Y U Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Schmid et al101 Y N Y N Y Y N Y Y Y
Scrimshaw and Maher102 Y N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Svernlöv et al109 Y U U N Y U U Y Y Y
Tal-Akabi and Rushton111 Y U U Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Vicenzino et al115 U Y Y Y Y U Y Y Y Y
Mahmoud75 Y N N Y N Y N Y Y Y
Wolny et al119 Y N Y N Y N Y Y Y Y
Abbreviations: N, no; U, unclear; Y, yes.
*See APPENDIX B for appraisal tool.

1, Random allocation; 2, Participant blinding; 3, Concealment of allocation to groups; 4, Study withdrawal described and included in analysis; 5, Blinding
of assessors; 6, Groups comparable at entry; 7, Groups treated identically; 8, Outcomes measured the same way for groups; 9, Outcomes measured reliably;
10, Appropriate statistical analysis.

596 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy



TABLE 2 Descriptions of Studies on N-LBP

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Ahmed et al2 n = 30 (14 male, 16 n = 15 participants with n = 15 participants with Outcomes measured at No baseline differences Appraisal: 7;
female). Overall sciatica sciatica baseline and end of Improvement in both measures in low
age range, 45-67 Same treatment as CG, Flexion and extension exer- treatment both groups, but significantly more
y. Mean ± SD age: plus SLR with tibial and cises47 for 2 to 3 sets 1. NPRS and clinically relevant in the IG
IG, 53.00 ± 1.91 peroneal bias TENS 2. SF-12 (NPRS, P = .001; SF-12, P = .001).
y; CG, 52.60 ± 2 sets of 20 mobilizations Home exercises NPRS IG, 3.47 ± 1.12 (95% CI: 2.85,
1.60 y. Duration of of each bias 3 treatments per week for 4.09) and NPRS CG, 4.93 ± 1.10
symptoms: IG, 4.87 3 treatments per week 2 wk (95% CI: 4.34, 5.55)
± 1.50 wk; CG, 5.26 for 2 wk Between-group difference favoring
± 1.75 wk IG, 1.46 (14.6%). SF-12 IG, 65.57 ±
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

12.00 (95% CI: 58.97, 72.17); SF-12


CG, 54.53 ± 7.34 (95% CI: 50.49,
58.57)
Between-group difference favoring IG,
11.04 (11.04%)
Ali et al4 n = 40 (10 male, 30 n = 22 participants with n = 18 participants with Outcomes measured at Both groups had a significant Appraisal: 6;
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

female) chronic radicular LBP chronic radicular LBP baseline and end of improvement in pain on the VAS high
Overall age range, Same treatment as CG, Lumbar stabilization treatment (95% CI: 2.85, 4.09)
20-60 y. Mean ± plus slump slider exercises 1. MODI Only the IG had a significant improve-
SD age: IG, 34.32 mobilization Shortwave diathermy 2. VAS (5-point scale) ment in disability (MODI) (IG:
± 8.94 y; CG, 33.22 5 d/wk for 3 wk 5 d/wk for 3 wk P = .003, 2.91 ± 0.69; CG: P = .163,
± 7.16 y 1.49 ± 0.32)
Cleland n = 30 (9 male, 21 n = 16 participants with n = 14 participants with LBP Outcomes measured at No baseline differences between Appraisal: 9;
et al25 female). Overall LBP 5-min cycle warm-up baseline and end of groups (P>.05). Participants who low
age range, 18-60 y. Same treatment as CG Lumbar spine mobilization treatment received slump stretching had
Mean ± SD age: IG, plus slumped stretching (PA mobilizations to hypo- 1. Body diagram (for dis- significantly greater improve-
40.0 ± 12.2 y; CG, exercise (position held mobile lumbar segments, tribution of symptoms) ments in disability. Between-group
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

39.4 ± 11.3 y. Dura- 30 s, 5 repetitions) grades 3-4) 2. NPRS difference favoring IG: MODI, 9.7
tion of symptoms: Home exercise slump Standardized exercise 3. MODI (95% CI: 5.4, 14.0; P<.001); NPRS,
IG, 14.5 ± 8.0 wk; stretches (2 repetitions program (pelvic tilts, 4. FABQ 0.93 (95% CI: 0.35, 1.6; P = .001);
CG, 18.5 ± 12.5 wk for 30 s) bridging, squats, centralization of symptom distribu-
2 times per week for 3 wk quadruped alternate arm/ tion (P<.01)
leg activities; 2 sets, 10
repetitions each)
2 times per week for 3 wk
Dwornik n = 97 (44 male, 53 n = 42 participants with n = 45 participants with Outcomes measured at NM had significant effect on resting Appraisal: 5;
et al43 female). Mean ± neurogenic LBP; 5 did neurogenic LBP; 2 did not baseline and end of muscle tone compared to control. high
SD age (IG and not complete treatment complete treatment treatment Significant improvement in clinical
CG), 43 ± 10 y 10 treatments over 2 wk 10 treatments over 2 wk 1. Resting muscle tone tests (Lasègue, P<.001; between-
(range, 19-60 y). NM techniques according 10 sets of TENS for 10-15 min (quadriceps femoris, group difference, 2.7° [6%]
No other data to Butler and Jones21 of 10 sets of laser over painful biceps femoris, tibialis favoring IG) and pain (P<.001;
available femoral, sciatic, tibial area anterior, gastrocnemius) difference, 1.5 [15%] favoring IG)
nerves Movement exercises for in- measured by EMG in the NM group. No other values
Techniques not described tervertebral joints without 2. ROM of Lasègue sign available
axial loading and reverse Lasègue Dropouts, 7 of 87 participants
sign measured with
inclinometer
3. Presence of Bragard
sign and reverse
Lasègue sign
4. VAS
Table continues on page 598

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 597


[ research report ]

TABLE 2 Descriptions of Studies on N-LBP (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Jain et al61 n = 30 (11 male, 19 n = 15 participants with n = 15 participants with LBP, Outcomes measured at For pain (VAS), significant differences Appraisal: 6;
female). Overall LBP, unilateral limb unilateral limb pain, and baseline and at 1, 2, 3, were found at the end of weeks 2, 3, high
age range, 19-60 y. pain, and positive slump positive slump 4, and 5 wk 4, and 5 (P = .019, P<.001, P<.001,
Mean ± SD age: IG, All participants were All participants were treated 1. VAS and P<.001, respectively) between
34.26 ± 5.66 y; CG, treated for 9 sessions (3 for 9 sessions (3 d/wk for 2. MODI the 2 groups, in favor of the IG
33 ± 6.86 y. Dura- d/wk for first week and first week and 2 d/wk for MODI between-group differences were
tion of symptoms: 2 d/wk for next 3 wk) next 3 wk) nonsignificant at the end of weeks
IG, 8.067 ± 1.10 Same treatment as CG PA mobilization of lumbar 1 (P = .438), 2 (P = .452), 3 (P =
wk; CG, 8.266 ± plus slump stretching spine, exercises .078), and 4 (P = .087). No means
1.16 wk from second week or SD values available
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

Kaur and n = 27. Age range, n = 12 participants with n = 15 participants with Outcomes measured at Between-group analysis of all the vari- Appraisal: 6;
Sharma65 18-45 y. No other subacute neuro- subacute neurogenic baseline and end of ables demonstrated a significant high
data available genic LBP: pain in lower LBP: pain in lower lumbar treatment postintervention difference (P<.05)
lumbar region with or region with or without 1. VAS in patient-reported VAS scores
without radiation to radiation to lower limb; 2. Hip flexion ROM (mean change of 3 [30%], favoring
lower limb; without any without any neurological 3. Werneke overlay IG; IG, 2; 95% CI: 0.74, 3.26 and
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

neurological deficits; deficits; and positive SLR template CG, 4; 95% CI: 2.74, 5.26), hip flex-
and positive SLR 10 sessions over 2 wk 4. MODI ion ROM (74.6° for the IG and 60°
10 sessions over 2 wk Advice for the CG), and disability scores
Passive SLR Exercise (MODI IG, 6; CG, 2). A statistically
significant reduction in the area
of reported symptoms for NM oc-
curred within the IG (50.3%), but
not in the CG (25.1%)
Mahmoud75 n = 60. Overall age Group A: n = 30 par- Note: used rotation SLR Outcomes measured at Manipulation and NM: the lumbar ma- Appraisal: 6;
range, 30-50 y. ticipants with chronic (Maitland) in comparison baseline and end of nipulation (with SLR) techniques high
Mean ± SD age: radicular LBP group, described as treatment were more effective than NM tech-
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

IG, 44.2 ± 6.16 y; MRI compromise of nerve mobilization group 1. VAS niques for leg pain (group A, 3.03
CG, 42.93 ± 5.73 SLR and slump mobi- 2. MODI ± 1.88; 95% CI: 2.33, 3.73; group
y. Duration of lization to onset of 3. MRI compromise of B, 1.83 ± 1.31; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.32;
symptoms: pain symptoms nerve P = .006); a difference of 1.2 (12%)
for longer than 3 3 treatments per week favored the CG. MODI (group A,
mo. No other data for 6 wk 23.9 ± 4.9; 95% CI: 22.07, 25.73;
available Group B: n = 30; PA mobi- group B, 18.4 ± 6.87; 95% CI: 16.57,
lizations, 3-4 repetitions 20.23; P = .001); a difference of
(Maitland) 5.5% favored group B
Lumbar rotation with SLR,
3-4 repetitions
Mehta et al78 n = 50 (22 male, 28 n = 25 participants with n = 25 participants with sub- Outcomes measured at Both treatment techniques improved Appraisal: 6;
female). Mean ± subacute LBP and a acute LBP and a capsular baseline and end of pain and disability, but the IG high
SD age: IG, 45.58 capsular pattern of pattern of restriction treatment improved sooner than the CG
± 6 y; CG, 46 ± 6.8 restriction 3 wk of treatment on alter- 1. VAS VAS (IG, 4.6; CG, 6.3; P = .013; differ-
y. Sex: IG, 12 male 3 wk of treatment on alter- nate days and follow-up 2. ROM: lumbar spine ence, 1.7 [17%]), slump ROM (IG,
and 13 female; CG, nate days and follow-up at week 4 3. ROM: slump test 2.4°; CG, 2.7°; P = .004) at 4 wk
10 male and 15 at week 4 Ultrasound 4. MODI posttreatment
female. No other Ultrasound Exercise No SDs or other information available
data available Exercise Maitland joint mobilization
NM from static opener,
progressing to dynamic
end-range closer
30 mobilizations of 3 sets,
with 30 s of rest

Table continues on page 599

598 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy



TABLE 2 Descriptions of Studies on N-LBP (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Nagrale n = 60 (21 male, 39 n = 30 participants with n = 30 participants with Outcomes measured at There were large within-group Appraisal: 9;
et al81 female) nonradicular LBP with nonradicular LBP with baseline and at 1, 2, 3, changes for all outcomes (P<.01) low
Mean ± SD age: IG, positive slump and SLR positive slump and SLR and 6 wk and large between-group differ-
38.2 ± 3.47 y; CG, >45° >45° 1. NPRS ences at weeks 3 (IG, 28 ± 3.93;
37.76 ± 4.70 y. Same treatment as CG 3 wk of treatment 2. MODI CG, 39.5 ± 7.25) and 6 (IG, 28.2 ±
Symptom duration: plus slump stretching, 5 PA mobilization of lumbar 3. FABQ 4.11; CG, 44.1 ± 6.40). Between-
IG, 15.26 ± 2.57 wk; times with 30-s hold spine group difference favoring IG, 11.5;
CG, 14.76 ± 1.79 wk Stabilization exercises ac- 95% CI: 8.51, 14.4 for the MODI,
cording to Childs et al24 and at weeks 1 (IG, 5.4 ± 0.93; CG,
6.1 ± 1.09), 2 (IG, 3.6 ± 0.77; CG,
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

4.7 ± 0.94), 3 (IG, 2.1 ± 0.54; CG,


3.7 ± 0.95), and 6 (IG, 2.4 ± 0.80;
CG, 4.3 ± 1.12) for the NPRS
Between-group difference favoring
IG, 1.06; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.45 for
the FABQ (P<.01). Significant
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

differences favoring the slump


stretching group (P<.01)
Patel87 n = 50. Age range, Group A: n = 25 par- … Outcomes measured at Results of the study show that both Appraisal: 6;
30-60 y. No other ticipants with LBP and a baseline and end of techniques (BLR and slump) are high
data available positive SLR of >15° treatment effective in reducing pain and alter
BLR57 for 30 s × 3 1. VAS the ROM (P≤.05) of passive SLR.
4 treatments for a week 2. ROM of SLR However, group A showed greater
Group B: n = 25 par- improvement in pain and ROM
ticipants with LBP and a of passive SLR (P = .003 pretest;
positive SLR of >15° mean, 67.6; posttest mean, 85)
Slump stretching exercise than group B (P = .07l; pretest
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

for 30 s × 3 mean, 70.4; posttest mean, 85.68);


4 treatments for a week between-group difference, 14.6%
favoring IG in participants with LBP.
No SD or other measures available
Rezk-Allah n = 40. Overall age Group A: n = 20 (slump … Outcomes measured at Significant reduction in pain (group A, Appraisal: 6;
et al90 range, 35-50 y. group). Positive findings baseline and end of t = 13.85, P<.001; difference, high
Mean ± SD age: on EMG, prolonged treatment 2.34; 95% CI: 1.54, 3.14; group B,
group A, 43.95 ± latency of H-reflex 1 VAS t = 14.25, P <.001; difference, 2.67;
4.84 y; group B, >30 ms 2. H-reflex latency 95% CI: 1.99, 3.35) and H-reflex
44.9 ± 4.55 y. No Slump to full range: held latency (group A, t = 2.92, P =
other data available for 60 s × 5 .006; difference, 27.77; 95% CI:
3 treatments per week 26.65, 28.88; group B, 29.67; 95%
for 4 wk CI: 28.90, 30.44) in comparison to
Group B: n = 20 (SLR pretreatment values. No significant
group). Positive findings difference in pain intensity (VAS)
on EMG, prolonged between groups posttreatment.
latency of H-reflex NM significantly improved symp-
>30 ms toms and decreased nerve root
SLR to onset of symptoms compression
or resistance: held for
60 s × 5
3 treatments per week
for 4 wk
Abbreviations: BLR, bent-leg raise; CG, control group; CI, confidence interval; EMG, electromyogram; FABQ, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire; IG,
intervention group; LBP, low back pain; MODI, Modified Oswestry Disability Index; N-LBP, nerve-related low back pain; NM, neural mobilization; NPRS,
numeric pain-rating scale; NRS, numeric rating scale; PA, posterior/anterior; ROM, range of motion; SF-12, Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short-Form
Health Survey; SLR, straight leg raise; TENS, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; VAS, visual analog scale.

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 599


[ research report ]
studies had low, as well as high, risk
N-LBP: Pain
of bias.
Study Weight DerSimonian-Laird Random WMD*
The H-reflex latency was improved
Jain et al61 10.10% –4.47 (–6.44, –2.50)
in a study comparing slump and SLR
Dwornik et al43 21.00% –1.00 (–1.90, –0.10)
Kaur and Sharma65 17.03% –2.00 (–3.21, –0.79)
mobilization,90 and a decrease in nerve
Cleland et al25 25.51% –1.00 (–1.56, –0.44) compression was reported in another
Nagrale et al81 26.35% –1.97 (–2.46, –1.48) study.75 Four studies measured ROM in
Total† 100.00% –1.78 (–2.55, –1.01) N-LBP.43,65,78,87 They reported improve-
–10 0 10
ment in SLR65,87 and slump78 following
Favors treatment Favors control
NM, but no change in Lasègue’s sign.43
*Values in parentheses are 95% confidence interval.

Heterogeneity: χ2 = 16.81 (P<.01). Test for overall effect: z = 4.52 (P<.001).
Nerve-Related Neck and Arm Pain
FIGURE 2. Meta-analysis for pain (visual analog scale and numeric pain-rating scale) in N-LBP. Abbreviations: Five of the 10 studies had a low risk of bias
N-LBP, nerve-related low back pain; WMD, weighted mean difference. (TABLE 1).5,36,68,84,89 Two studies used only
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

1 intervention.36,76 The study period and


N-LBP: Disability number of treatments varied greatly be-
Study Weight DerSimonian-Laird Random WMD*
tween studies (TABLE 3). Four studies evalu-
Jain et al61 16.20% –2.27 (–5.47, 0.93) ated cervical lateral glide techniques,5,36,84,89
and all reported a significant improvement
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Kaur and Sharma65 52.99% –9.00 (–10.77, –7.23)


Cleland et al25 8.39% –9.70 (–14.15, –5.25) in pain for the groups receiving NM. Cer-
Nagrale et al81 22.43% –15.93 (–18.65, –13.21) vical lateral glide was compared to a wait-
Total† 100.00% –9.52 (–10.81, –8.23) list group,5 ultrasound,35,36 and advice
–19 0 19 only,84 and these studies were included in
Favors treatment Favors control
the meta-analysis (pain intensity: mean
*Values in parentheses are 95% confidence interval.

Heterogeneity: χ2 = 41.33 (P<.01). Test for overall effect: z = 14.48 (P<.001). difference, –1.89; 95% CI: –3.14, –0.64;
P<.001) (FIGURE 4). The fourth study was
FIGURE 3. Meta-analysis for disability (Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire) in N-LBP. Abbreviations: N-LBP,
nerve-related low back pain; WMD, weighted mean difference.
not included in the meta-analysis, as it
compared cervical lateral glide techniques,
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

sliders, thoracic mobilization, and exercise


N-NAP: Pain to strengthening exercises.89
Study Weight DerSimonian-Laird Random WMD* Four studies used sliding and ten-
Allison et al5 7.82% –5.30 (–9.64, –0.96) sioning exercises.55,67,76,82 The use of NM
Nee et al84 54.74% –1.60 (–2.87, –0.33) exercises resulted in significant improve-
Coppieters et al35,36 37.45% –1.60 (–3.31, 0.11) ments in pain (P<.001) compared to
Total† 100.00% –1.89 (–3.14, –0.64) interferential therapy, traction, and exer-
–10
Favors treatment
0
Favors control
10 cises.82 Sliding techniques improved pain
*Values in parentheses are 95% confidence interval. compared to exercise and ergonomic ad-

Heterogeneity: χ2 = 2.65 (P = .267). Test for overall effect: z = 2.96 (P<.001). vice55 (P<.05). When comparing NM for
FIGURE 4. Meta-analysis for pain (visual analog scale and numeric pain-rating scale) in N-NAP. Abbreviations: the radial nerve to McKenzie exercises,67
N-NAP, nerve-related neck and arm pain; WMD, weighted mean difference. McKenzie exercises had better outcomes
for pain (P<.001). The above studies all
cises in 2 studies.2,65 Neural mobiliza- The meta-analyses revealed that NM had a high risk of bias.
tion techniques that aimed to open the (slump and SLR mobilization) had a sig- The effect of NM on disability could
intervertebral foramina78 also reported nificant effect on both pain25,43,61,65,81 (in- not be explored by meta-analysis, as
improved pain (P = .01) in the NM group tensity [0-10]: mean difference, –1.78; different outcomes were used. One low-
compared to a group receiving ultra- 95% CI: –2.55, –1.01; P<.001) (FIGURE 2) risk-of-bias study84 reported better out-
sound, exercises, and lumbar mobiliza- and disability25,61,65,81 (Oswestry Disability comes (number needed to treat) for the
tion. Three studies compared 2 types of Questionnaire [0-50]: mean difference, Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the
NM with each other.75,87,90 All NM groups –9.52; 95% CI: –10.81, –8.23; P<.001) Patient-Specific Functional Scale follow-
had an improvement in pain (P<.05), (FIGURE 3) in participants with N-LBP ing NM compared to advice to stay ac-
but there were no significant between- when compared to exercises or to exer- tive. Two other studies reported better
group differences (P>.05). cise and lumbar mobilization. Included outcomes (P<.05) on the NDI following

600 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


NM compared to joint mobilization and
CTS: Pain
exercise.7,55 One study did not report the
Study Weight DerSimonian-Laird Random WMD*
outcomes for the NDI.82 Another study
Bialosky et al15 26.53% 0.30 (–0.71, 1.31)
also measured the NDI68 but found that
Baysal et al13 8.65% 0.10 (–1.67, 1.87)
the NM group and comparison group
Pinar et al88 20.94% –0.60 (–1.74, 0.54)
improved to the same extent. One low- Tal-Akabi and Rushton111 20.29% –0.57 (–1.73, 0.59)
risk-of-bias study documented that NM Schmid et al101 23.60% –0.30 (–1.37, 0.77)
resulted in no adverse effects.84 Total† 100.00% –0.22 (–0.74, 0.30)
Pain was the only outcome measure –10 0 10
for which a meta-analysis could be per- Favors treatment Favors control
*Values in parentheses are 95% confidence interval.
formed. Participants who received cervi- †
Heterogeneity: χ2 = 1.94 (P = .747). Test for overall effect: z = 0.84 (P = .401).
cal lateral glides had a significantly better
outcome for pain than the control groups FIGURE 5. Meta-analysis for pain (visual analog scale) in CTS. Abbreviations: CTS, carpal tunnel syndrome; WMD,
(FIGURE 4). weighted mean difference.
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

There were 3 studies on N-NAP that


assessed ROM.35,55,89 Two studies report- CTS: Disability
ed an improvement in neurodynamic test Study Weight DerSimonian-Laird Random WMD*
ROM following NM,35,55 whereas 1 study Bialosky et al15 26.61% –5.30 (–17.49, 6.89)
found no difference.89
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Horng et al60 43.10% –2.50 (–12.08, 7.08)


Heebner and Roddey59 30.29% 3.11 (–8.32, 14.54)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Total† 100.00% –1.55 (–7.84, 4.75)
Five studies had a low risk of –18 0 18
Favors treatment Favors control
bias.15,60,86,88,101 Four studies had an unclear
*Values in parentheses are 95% confidence interval.
risk of bias,13,19,111,119 and the other 3 had a †
Heterogeneity: χ2 = 1.04 (P = .598). Test for overall effect: z = 0.48 (P = .631).
high risk of bias3,11,59 (TABLE 4). Seven stud-
ies3,11,13,19,59,60,88 used the original NM exer- FIGURE 6. Meta-analysis for disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire) in CTS.
Abbreviations: CTS, carpal tunnel syndrome; WMD, weighted mean difference.
cises as outlined by Totten and Hunter.113
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®


TABLE 3 Descriptions of Studies on N-NAP

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Allison et al5 n = 30 (20 female, 10 n = 17 participants with n = 10 participants with cervi- Outcomes measured at Both manual therapies combined Appraisal: 7;
male). Age range, cervicobrachial pain cobrachial pain. Received no baseline, 4 wk into with home exercises are effective low
18-75 y. Median du- Cervical lateral glide, intervention for the initial 8 treatment, and post- in improving pain intensity, pain
ration of symptoms: shoulder girdle wk (at the end of the study, treatment quality scores, and functional dis-
IG, 12 mo (n = 10); oscillation, muscle they were given neural 1. McGill Pain Question- ability levels. A group difference
CG, 12 mo (n = 10); re-education, home treatment as a crossover naire was observed for the VAS scores
articular treatment, mobilization protocol) 2. NPQ at 8 wk, with the NM resulting in a
72 mo (n = 10) Duration of treatment, Articular treatment, n = 9 3. Pain (VAS) significantly lower score (P<.001;
8 wk patients with cervicobrachial relative change, 66%)
pain. Glenohumeral joint
mobilization, thoracic mobili-
zation, and home exercise
Duration of treatment, 8 wk
Anwar et al7 n = 40. Age and dura- n = 20 participants with n = 20 participants with cervical Outcomes measured at Addition of neurodynamics to a Appraisal: 5;
tion of symptoms cervical radiculopathy radiculopathy baseline and end of multimodal program resulted high
not available Moist heat Moist heat treatment in a significant improvement in
Mobilization and isomet- Mobilization and isometric 1. VAS disability (P<.05; 1.53 ± 0.52)
ric exercises exercises 2. NDI No other values available
NM (technique not Treated over a period of 6 mo
mentioned)
Treated over a period
of 6 mo
Table continues on page 602

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 601


[ research report ]

TABLE 3 Descriptions of Studies on N-NAP (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Coppieters n = 20 (16 female, 4 n = 10 participants with n = 10 participants with brachial Outcomes measured at Significant differences in treatment Appraisal: 8;
et al35,36 male). Overall age brachial or cervico- or cervicobrachial neuro- baseline and end of effects between 2 groups could low
range, 35-65 y. brachial neurogenic genic pain treatment be observed for all outcome
Mean ± SD age: pain Received ultrasound dose of 0.5 1. Elbow E ROM during measures (P≤.306). For the
IG, 49.1 ± 14.1 y; Received NM treatment W/cm2, 5-min sonation time, NTPT-1 mobilization group, the increase
CG, 46.6 ± 12.1 y. (contralateral glide of 20% size of head: 5 cm2, 2. Pain (NPRS) in neck in elbow E from 137.3° to 156.7°,
Mean duration of cervical segment) frequency of 1 MHz and arm the 43% decrease in area of
symptoms: IG, 2.7 One intervention and im- One intervention and immediate 3. Symptom distribution symptom distribution, and
mo; CG, 3.2 mo mediate follow-up follow-up decrease in pain from 7.3 to 5.8
were significant (P≤.001). For the
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

ultrasound group, there were no


significant differences
Gupta and n = 34 (initially 37) (16 n = 16 participants with n = 18 participants with Outcomes measured at Both groups showed statistically Appraisal: 5;
Sharma55 female, 18 male). cervicobrachial pain cervicobrachial pain (n = 1 baseline and end of 7 d significant improvement in pain high
Median age, 29.5 y (n = 2 discontinued) discontinued) 1. NDI intensity (0.95; Z = 4.94), elbow E
(range, 18-40 y). No Median slider applied 3 × Exercise (isometric), posture, 2. CBSQ ROM (12.50°; Z = 5.02), and NDI
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

other data available 10 repetitions advice to move regularly 3. VAS and CBSQ (both decreased by 5
5 treatments over 7 d Frequency not clear 4. Pain-free elbow E in IG, compared to CG decrease
of 2 for the NDI and 1 for the
CBSQ) scores after completion
of treatment (P<.05). The IG
receiving NM showed better
improvement compared to the
conventional group
Kumar67 n = 30 (20 female, 10 Group B: n = 10 par- Group A: n = 10 participants Outcomes measured at Pain reduction in first 5 d was great- Appraisal: 5;
male). Age range, ticipants with cervical with cervical radiculopathy days 1, 5, and 10 est in patients treated with McK- high
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

25-68 y. No other radiculopathy McKenzie exercises 1. VAS enzie method, and best symptom
data available Active or passive through Shortwave 2. Pain recovery percent- relief achieved (group A: t =
range and end-range Traction age 10.24, P<.001; group B: t = 5.106,
oscillation in ULNDT- Group C: n = 10 participants 3. ROM P = .001; group C: t = 14.596,
2a position, moving with cervical radiculopathy P<.001). Conventional method
distal component Shortwave gave more relief between fifth
Shortwave Traction and 10th day of treatment; ROM
Traction 10 treatments over 10 d recovery was even in all groups.
10 treatments over 10 d NM shows poor improvement,
possibly because of provocation
to the nerve roots
Langevin n = 36 (12 male, 24 n = 18 participants with n = 18 participants with cervical Outcomes measured Both groups showed statistically and Appraisal: 9;
et al68 female). Mean age: cervical radiculopathy radiculopathy at baseline and at clinically significant improvement low
IG, 42.8 ± 10.4 y; Stabilization and mobility Cervical and thoracic mobiliza- 4 wk and 8 wk post­ from baseline to week 4 and to
CG, 47.8 ± 11.3 y. exercises tions, as well as stabilization treatment week 8 on the NDI (F2,68 = 0.84,
Symptom duration: Cervical mobilization and mobility exercises 1. NDI P = .44), QuickDASH (F2,62 = 0.36,
IG, 5.4 ± 3.2 wk; techniques aimed Treatment period of 4 wk 2. QuickDASH P = .70), and NPRS (F2,68 = 1.87,
CG, 5.7 ± 3.7 wk at opening the inter- 3. NPRS P = .16) scores (P<.05)
vertebral foramina 4. Cervicothoracic Manual therapy and exercises are
(eg, lateral glide and mobility effective in reducing pain and
F rotation away from functional limitations related
pain) to cervical radiculopathy. NM
Treatment period of 4 wk yielded no significant (P ≥.14)
additional benefits
Table continues on page 603

602 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy



TABLE 3 Descriptions of Studies on N-NAP (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Marks et al76 n = 20 (4 male, 16 n = 10 participants with n = 10 participants with cervico- Outcomes measured at Significant decrease observed in Appraisal: 6;
female). Mean ± SD cervicobrachial pain brachial pain baseline, posttreat- neck pain in both groups posttest high
age: CG, 53.7 ± 9 Nerve tensioner depend- Cervical spine mobilization and ment, and 1-wk (CG, 1.18; IG, 1.2). Significant
y; IG, 52.6 ± 12.5 y. ing on most painful first rib follow-up improvement in CG for cervical
Symptom duration: test Once for 15 min 1. VAS for neck and arm E (CG, 5.2° ± 7.2°; IG, 1.2° ±
CG, 215 ± 214.2 wk; Once for 15 min 2. Active ROM F/E/LF/ 7.7°) and LF toward painful side.
IG, 323 ± 404.1 wk rotation Significant improvement in range
3. ULNDT favoring the CG (P = .015)
Nar82 n = 30 (9 male, 21 n = 15 participants with n = 15 participants with cervical Measured pretreatment NM along with conventional Appraisal: 6;
female). Mean ± SD cervical radiculopathy radiculopathy and posttreatment treatment is more effective than high
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

age: IG, 43.93 ± 7.05 Interferential therapy Interferential therapy 1. VAS conventional treatment alone.
y; CG, 45.06 ± 7.46 Traction Traction 2. NDI VAS IG, 2.06 ± 1.33; CG, 3.53 ±
y. Sex: IG, 11 female Exercise Exercise 1.12; P = .01
and 4 male; CG, 10 Advice Advice
female and 5 male NM using ULNDT-1 10 treatments, 6 d/wk
10 treatments, 6 d/wk
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Nee et al84 n = 60 (38 female, 22 n = 40 participants with n = 20 participants with N-NAP Outcomes measured at Numbers needed to treat favored Appraisal: 7;
male). Overall mean N-NAP Advice to stay active baseline and 3 to 4 wk the IG for the NDI (IG, 8.9 ± 5.4; low
± SD age, 47 ± 9 y. Advice to stay active after treatment CG, 11.2 ± 5), neck pain (IG, 2.6
Mean age IG, 47 ± Brief education 1. Global rating of change ± 2.4; CG, 4.2 ± 2.2), arm pain
8 y; CG, 48 ± 9 y. Cervical lateral glide 2. Neck pain (NPRS) (IG, 2.4 ± 2.1; CG, 4 ± 1.9), and
Mean ± SD duration Nerve gliding exercises 3. Arm pain (NPRS) PSFS (IG, 2.0 ± 2.1; CG, 0.4 ± 1).
of symptoms, 26 ± 4 treatments over 2 wk 4. PSFS NM provides clinically relevant
12 wk. IG, n = 32; 5. NDI improvement with no evidence of
CG, n = 18. Sex: harm. Risk difference for global
IG, 14 male and 26 rating of change between groups,
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

female; CG, 8 male –38 (95% CI: –16, 60), favoring


and 12 female the IG
Ragonese89 n = 30. No other Group 1: n = 10 with n = 10 with cervical radicu- Outcomes measured at All groups improved significantly in Appraisal: 7;
demographic data cervical radiculopathy lopathy baseline and end of terms of pain (IG 1, 2.4 ± 1.1; IG unclear
available Cervical lateral glide Strengthening of deep neck week 1, week 2, week 3, 2, 0.9 ± 1.2; CG, 1.6 ± 1.5; P<.01),
(grade 3-4) flexors, lower and middle and end of treatment disability (IG 1, 17.2 ± 10.3; IG 2,
ULNDT sliders, progress- trapezius, and serratus 1. NPRS 7.8 ± 5.5; CG, 10.2 ± 7.1), and ROM
ing to tensioners anterior 2. NDI (IG 1, 74.3° ± 3.58°; IG 2, 71.4° ±
Thoracic mobilization 3. Neck rotation ROM 3.67°; CG, 74.4° ± 4.12°; P<.05).
3 times per week for For pain and disability, the group
3 wk receiving NM and exercise did
Group 2: n = 10 with significantly better than the other
cervical radiculopathy 2 groups
Treatments as above plus
strengthening of deep
neck flexors, lower
and middle trapezius,
and serratus anterior
3 times per week for
3 wk
Abbreviations: CBSQ, Cervicobrachial Symptom Questionnaire; CG, control group; CI, confidence interval; E, extension; F, flexion; IG, intervention group; LF,
lateral flexion; NDI, Neck Disability Index; NM, neural mobilization; N-NAP, nerve-related neck and arm pain; NPQ, Northwick Park Neck Pain Question-
naire; NPRS, numeric pain-rating scale; NTPT, neural tissue provocation test; PSFS, Patient-Specific Functional Scale; QuickDASH, shortened version of the
Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire; ROM, range of motion; ULNDT, upper-limb neurodynamic test; VAS, visual analog scale.

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 603


[ research report ]

TABLE 4 Descriptions of Studies on CTS

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Akalin et al3 n = 36 (2 male, 34 n = 18 participants with n = 18 participants Outcomes measured at base- At the end of treatment, a significant Appraisal: 5;
female). Overall CTS with CTS line and 8 wk posttreatment improvement was obtained in all pa- high
mean ± SD age, Same as control plus Custom-made neutral 1. Phalen’s sign rameters in both groups. The nerve and
51.93 ± 5.1 y tendon glides in 5 volar wrist splint 2. Tinel’s sign tendon glide group had slightly greater
(range, 38-64 y); positions and median was instructed to 3. 2-point discrimination scores, but the difference between
CG age, 52.16 ± nerve exercises in 6 be worn all night 4. Grip strength groups was not significant except for
5.6 y; IG age, 51.7 positions (each posi- and during the day 5. Pinch strength lateral pinch strength (P = .026; CG,
± 5.5 y. Duration of tion was maintained as much as pos- 6. Symptom severity score 30.0 ± 9.3 and IG, 35.27 ± 9.7)
symptoms: CG, 47.6 for 5 s; 10 repetitions sible for 4 wk 7. Functional Status Score A total of 72% of the CG and 93% of the IG
± 6.8 mo; IG, 49.6 of each exercise were A patient satisfaction investiga- reported good or excellent results in the
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

± 5.2 mo done 5 times a day) tion was undertaken by patient satisfaction investigation, but
Continued for 4 wk telephone 8.3 ± 2.5 mo the difference between the groups was
posttreatment not significant
Bardak n = 111 (3 male, 108 Group 1: n = 40 partici- Group 2: n = 35 Outcomes measured at base- All groups improved significantly in terms Appraisal: 7;
et al11 female). Mean ± SD pants with CTS participants with line and end of treatment of pain and functionality. Groups 1 and high
age: group 1, 33 ± Splint for 3 wk worn day CTS 1. Phalen’s test 2 were better (P<.001) than group 3
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

9.6 y; group 2, 26 ± and night and 3 wk for Splint as for IG 2. Tinel’s test (receiving only nerve and tendon glid-
10.3 y; group 3, 22 night only Cortisone injection 3. Reverse Phalen’s test ing exercises; P = .02)
± 9.9 y Cortisone injection (group 3 not 4. Compression test Three interventions and patient satisfac-
Nerve and tendon gliding included in analy- 5. 2-point discrimination tion were done via telephone at 11 mo
exercises (Totten and ses) 6. Total symptom scale Within-group differences reported as
Hunter113) followed 7. Functional symptom scale percentages and means and SDs, but
once a week for 3 wk no between-group difference values
Group 3: n = 36 who had available
only nerve and tendon
gliding exercises
Baysal n = 36 (female pa- Group 1: n = 12 partici- Group 2: n = 12 Outcomes measured at No significant differences between groups Appraisal: 7;
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

et al13 tients with clinical pants with CTS participants with baseline, end of treatment, at the end of treatment and 8-wk unclear
and electrophysi- Custom-made neutral CTS (dropouts, n = and 8-wk follow-up follow-up for all measures of treatment
ological evidence volar splint (worn for 3 4). Custom-made 1. VAS effect (measures 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
of CTS, all with wk); exercise therapy neutral volar splint 2. Tinel’s sign Significant improvement seen in all 3
bilateral involve- (nerve and tendon (worn for 3 wk); 3. Phalen’s sign groups in Tinel’s and Phalen’s signs at
ment). Mean ± SD gliding exercises as ultrasound (15 4. Mean static 2-point dis- end of treatment and 8-wk follow-up
age: group 1, 47.8 ± described by Totten min per session crimination (pulp of radial 3 (P<.05)
5.5 y; group 2, 50.1 and Hunter113): 5 to palmar carpal digits) Significant improvement seen in all 3
± 7.3 y; group 3, sessions daily, each tunnel, 1 MHz, 1.0 5. Hand grip strength (hand- groups in grip strength (group 1, 1.9 ±
51.4 ± 5.2 y. Mean exercise repeated 10 W/cm2, 1:4, 5-cm2 held dynamometer) 2.7; group 2, 1.6 ± 2.5; group 3, 1.0 ±
± SD duration of times per session transducer) once 6. Pinch strength (between 1.7) and pinch strength (group 1, 0.8 ±
symptoms: group 1, for 3 wk per day, every 5 d, thumb and little finger, with 0.9; group 2, 0.6 ± 1.4; group 3, 0.9 ±
1.5 ± 1.6 y; group 2, Group 3: n = 12 for 3 wk (total, 15 dynamometer) 0.7) at 8-wk follow-up (P<.05)
1.4 ± 0.8 y; group 3, (dropouts, n = 4). treatments) 7. Symptom-severity scale No changes seen in 2-point discrimination
1.4 ± 0.8 y Custom-made neutral questionnaire (11 items) Significant improvement in pain (group
volar splint (worn for 3 8. Functional status scale 1, 2.2 ± 3.4; group 2, 2.5 ± 2.5; group
wk); exercise therapy questionnaire (8 items) 3, 4.5 ± 3.0), symptom (group 1, 6.3
(nerve and tendon 9. Median motor nerve ± 7.1; group 2, 5.8 ± 7.2; group 3, 8.2
gliding exercises as conduction (motor distal ± 5.2), and functional scales (group 1,
described by Totten latency EMG of abductor 7.8 ± 10.7; group 2, 10.5 ± 6.8; group
and Hunter113): 5 pollicis) 3, 14.4 ± 9.4) in all 3 groups at end of
sessions daily, each 10. Sensory distal latency (EMG treatment and 8-wk follow-up
exercise repeated 10 of abductor pollicis) Group 3 had the best results at 8-wk follow-
times per session and 11. Needle EMG of abductor up patient satisfaction questionnaire
continued for 3 wk; pollicis brevis (group 2: excellent, 3 [25.0%]; group 3:
ultrasound (as for CG) 12. Patient satisfaction survey excellent, 8 [66.7%])
(at 8-wk follow-up only) Dropouts, 8 out of 36; influenced results
Table continues on page 605

604 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy



TABLE 4 Descriptions of Studies on CTS (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Bialosky n = 40 CTS (females n = 19 participants with n = 20 participants Outcomes measured at base- Significant improvement in both groups Appraisal: 9;
et al15 only). Mean ± SD CTS (n = 1 lost to with CTS. Sham line and end of treatment immediately postintervention and at 3 low
age, IG, 44.3 ± 6.97 follow-up). Nerve technique to 1. NRS wk, but no intergroup differences. Mean
y; CG, 49.5 ± 12.35 gliding exercises and minimize strain on 2. DASH ± SD decrease of self-report of tempo-
y. Mean duration of splint. Received treat- nerve and splint. 3. Grip strength ral summation pain, –8.8 ± 14.7 (P =
symptoms, 156 wk ment for 3 wk Received treat- 4. Pressure pain sensitivity .02; Cohen’s d = 0.35) in IG, a positive
Cycle 6 s, 5 sets of 10 ment for 3 wk 5. Temporal summation neurophysiological effect. Mean ± SD
cycles for first 3 increase of temporal summation pain,
treatments and 7 sets 4.2 ± 16.0 (P = .26; Cohen’s d = 0.13) in
of 10 in treatments 4 participants receiving the sham
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

through 6
Brininger n = 61 (14 male, 47 Group 1: n = 16 Group 2: n = 17 Outcomes measured at All groups improved over time, irrespec- Appraisal: 7;
et al19 female). Mean age, participants with CTS participants with baseline, 4 wk in clinic, and tive of exercise or no exercise: the unclear
50 y (range, 21-86 (completed, n = 13) CTS (completed, 8 wk by mail groups with neutral splints had better
y). No other data Neutral splint plus nerve n = 14) 1. Symptom-specific scale outcomes
available gliding exercises, ac- Neutral splint 2. Functional Status Score Symptom-specific scale: P = .014,
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

cording to Totten and Group 4: n = 12 (com- 3. Grip strength F1,14 = 6.45; Functional Status Score:
Hunter,113 3-5 times pleted, n = 11) 4. Pinch strength P = .029, F1,14 = 5.10 (mean, 2.045)
per day, 10 repetitions Cock-up splint Dropouts, 10 of 61 patients; influenced
Group 3: n = 16 (com- All groups: exercise results
pleted, n = 13) sheet and exer-
Cock-up splint and nerve cises shown once
gliding exercises as
above
Heebner and n = 60 (9 male, 51 n = 30 participants with n = 30 participants Outcomes measured at base- Nerve gliding exercise did not improve Appraisal: 6;
Roddey59 female). Mean age, CTS randomized, 25 with CTS ran- line, 1 mo, and 6 mo outcomes: improvement similar in both high
52 y (range, 32-72 completed domized, 20 1. DASH groups (P values ranged from .308
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

y). No other data Standard care completed 2. Carpal Tunnel Symptom to .966)
available Nerve gliding exercises Standard care con- Questionnaire Group 1 (control) had better outcomes
according to Sweeney sisting of advice, 3. Elbow extension range of on functional status scale and Carpal
and Harms (based on splint, tendon ULNDT Tunnel Symptom Questionnaire (CG
Totten and Hunter113): gliding exercises mean, 2.2; IG mean, 2.9). There were
tensioner 3 to 5 times no significant between-group differ-
per day, 10 repetitions ences in ULNDT (P = .366; values not
available)
Horng et al60 n = 60. Mean ± SD Group 2: n = 20 Group 1: n = 20 Outcomes measured at Only the CG (group 1) showed significant Appraisal: 7;
age: group 1, 48.9 participants with participants with baseline and after 2 mo improvements in their scores on func- low
± 8.9 y; group 2, CTS randomized, CTS randomized, 1. DASH tional status, the DASH questionnaire,
51.9 ± 9.3 y; group n = 19 participants n = 18 participants 2. WHO Quality of Life Ques- and the physical domain of the WHO
3, 53.6 ± 9.1 y. Sex completed completed tionnaire Quality of Life Questionnaire
(male/female): Splint Splint 3. Functional Status Score Post hoc analyses detected a significant
3/57 Paraffin Paraffin 4. Phalen’s sign difference (P = .04; group 1, –0.4 ± 0.5;
Nerve gliding exercise Tendon gliding 5. Tinel’s sign group 2, 0.1 ± 0.5; group 3, 0.2 ± 0.7)
(Totten and Hunter113) exercise 6. BCTQ in functional status scores between
Received sheet with Group 3: n = 20 7. Sensory testing using groups 1 and 2, favoring the CG
exercises to do 3 participants monofilament One intervention: exercise sheet given to
times daily. Follow-up randomized, n = 8. VAS patients
at 2 mo 16 participants Dropouts, 7 out of 60 patients; influenced
completed results
Splint
Paraffin
Table continues on page 606

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 605


[ research report ]

TABLE 4 Descriptions of Studies on CTS (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Oskouei n = 20 patients, 32 n = 16 hands n = 16 hands Outcomes measured at base- Routine physical therapy, including Appraisal: 9;
et al86 hands. Mean ± Splint as much as pos- Splint as much as line and end of treatment rest splint, TENS, and therapeutic low
SD age, 46.7 ± sible for 4 wk possible for 4 wk 1. BCTQ ultrasound, seems to improve the
11 y. Duration of TENS TENS 2. Phalen’s test symptom-severity scale (IG, 1.53 ±
symptoms, 19.6 ± Ultrasound Ultrasound 3. VAS 0.53; CG, 1.7 ± 0.72), VAS (IG, 2.68 ±
15.9 mo NM starting in nerve off 3 treatments per 4. ULNDT 1.62; CG, 3.31 ± 3.05), median nerve
tension, progressing week for 4 wk tension test (IG, 9.04 ± 9.6; CG, 18.41 ±
into tension using 11.6), and Phalen’s sign (IG, 19%; CG,
elbow F/E 31%) in patients with CTS (P<.05)
3 treatments per week The NM in combination with routine physi-
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

(15 repetitions) for cal therapy improved the functional


4 wk status scale and the median nerve
distal motor latency. This combination
can be used as an effective noninvasive
treatment for patients with CTS
Pinar et al88 n = 26 (female). Age n = 14 participants (19 n = 12 participants Outcomes measured at Pretreatment and posttreatment Appraisal: 8;
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

range, 35-55 y. hands) (16 hands) baseline and after a 10-wk intragroup analyses of both groups low
Mean ± SD dura- Patients diagnosed with Patients diagnosed treatment program revealed that there were no statistically
tion of symptoms: early to middle stages with early to 1. Tinel test significant differences between the 2
CG, 47.6 ± 6.8 mo; of CTS middle stages 2. Phalen test groups in average muscle strength,
IG, 49.6 ± 5.2 mo Splint and patient of CTS 3. Pain (VAS) over 1 d functional sensitivity, normal sensory
training program: Treated in volar splint 4. Motor function: manual test, or manual muscle tests
nerve gliding exercises in neutral, worn testing of grip and pinch Significant progress was detected in both
(Totten and Hunter113), day and night for 6 strength with handheld control and experimental groups during
10 repetitions for 5 wk, then night only dynamometer the posttreatment phase compared
sets a day for 10 wk, from weeks 6 to 5. Grip strength (Jamar hand with the initial phase (P<.05). When
combined with a pa- 10, and a patient dynamometer) the 2 groups were compared, the
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

tient training program training program 6. Sensory evaluation experimental group, in which nerve
as for the CG for the modifica- (Semmes-Weinstein gliding exercises were added, dem-
tion of functional monofilament and 2-point onstrated more rapid pain reduction
activities (avoid discrimination test) (IG, 1 ± 1.6; CG, 1.6 ± 1.8) and greater
repetitive activi- 7. Electrophysiological test: functional improvement, especially
ties, etc) median and ulnar nerve in grip strength (IG, 22.0 ± 6.8; CG,
distal latencies 21.7 ± 4.3) (P<.05)
Tal-Akabi and n = 21. Mean ± SD Group 1: n = 7 partici- Group 3: n = 7 Outcomes measured at base- Only the pain-relief scale demonstrated a Appraisal: 8;
Rushton111 age of IG and CG, pants with CTS who participants with line and end of treatment statistically significant difference be- unclear
47.1 ± 14.8 y (range, received ULTT-2a CTS who received 1. Symptoms diary (24-h VAS) tween the 3 groups (P<.01). VAS: group
29-85 y). Mean mobilization based no intervention 2. Functional box scale 1 mean, 1.57; group 2 mean, 0.71; group
± SD duration of on physical therapist Group 2: n = 7 with 3. ROM wrist F/E 3 mean, 0.71. Groups 1 and 2 were both
symptoms, 2.3 ± clinical reasoning CTS who received 4. ULTT-2a significantly better than group 3
2.5 y (range, 1-3 y). Number of treatments carpal bone mo- 5. Pain-relief scale No statistically significant difference in
All subjects were on or treatment time not bilization (anterior 6. Continuing to have surgery effectiveness of treatment was demon-
the waiting list for mentioned to posterior and/ strated between the 2 IGs. The number
surgery or posterior to of patients continuing to surgery was
anterior) and a 2 in NM, 1 in carpal bone mobilization,
flexor retinaculum and 6 in the CG
stretch ULTT: group 1, 5 of 7 negative; group 2, 4
Treatment time not of 7 negative; group 3, all still positive
mentioned
Table continues on page 607

606 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy



TABLE 4 Descriptions of Studies on CTS (continued)

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Schmid n = 21 (12 male, 8 n = 11 participants with n = 10 participants Outcomes measured before, The findings of this study suggest that Appraisal: 7;
et al101 female). Mean ± CTS randomized (1 with CTS random- 10 min after, and 1 wk after a reduction in intraneural edema is a low
SD age: IG, 49.9 ± dropout) ized intervention therapeutic mechanism of both nerve
12.5 y; CG, 57.9 ± Received neural gliding Received night splint 1. Signal intensity at pisiform, and tendon gliding exercises and
16.3 y. Sex (male/ aimed at improving for 1 wk radioulnar, and hamate splinting
female): IG, 5/5; nerve excursion; exer- 2. Ligament bowing at hamate The chronicity of the symptoms of the
CG, 7/3. Mean ± SD cises: 10 repetitions, 3. BCTQ patients involved in this study and the
symptom duration: 10 times per day 4. Pain (VAS) short treatment period suggest that
IG, 54.6 ± 47.6 mo; for 1 wk 5. Numbness (VAS) the reduction in intraneural edema is
CG, 62.8 ± 56.1 mo. 6. Patient-Specific Functional associated with the interventions rather
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

CTS severity: mild, Scale than the result of the natural course
4 in IG and 3 in CG; of CTS
moderate, 6 in IG Signal intensity did not change in patients
and 7 in CG who were not treated
BCTQ: F1,17 = 16.70, P = .001; Patient-
Specific Functional Scale: F1,16 = 22.10,
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

P<.001
Post hoc comparisons revealed that both
groups improved significantly after
1-wk intervention (all, P<.004). No
significant interaction or main effects
for pain intensity and numbness were
found (all, P>.16)
Wolny et al119 n = 160 initially n = 80 with CTS (not n = 80 with CTS (not Outcomes measured before The outcomes of treatment on 2-point Appraisal: 7;
analyzed (18 male, analyzed, n = 10) analyzed, n = 10) and at the end of treatment discrimination demonstrated that both unclear
122 female). Mean Manual therapy and Ultrasound and laser 1. 2-point discrimination methods had a significant therapeutic
age: IG, 53.12 y; CG, ULNDT-1 sliders and therapy effect (IG, 2.6; 2.25-2.95 and CG,
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

51.51 y. Sex (male/ tensioners 2 treatments per 0.5; 0.16-0.84; P<.001). It should
female): IG, 8/62; 2 treatments per week week for 10 wk be noted, however, that the groups
CG, 10/60 for 10 wk differed significantly before starting the
treatment cycle. Larger disturbances
of 2-point discrimination sensation in
symptomatic extremities occurred in
the IG as compared with the CG. After
a course of therapy, there were no sta-
tistically significant (P>.05) intergroup
differences
Abbreviations: BCTQ, Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire; CG, control group; CTS, carpal tunnel syndrome; DASH, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and
Hand questionnaire; EMG, electromyogram; F/E, flexion/extension; IG, intervention group; NM, neural mobilization; NRS, numeric rating scale; ROM, range
of motion; TENS, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; ULNDT, upper-limb neurodynamic test; ULTT, upper-limb tension test; VAS, visual analog
scale; WHO, World Health Organization.

The other studies15,86,101,111,119 used a vari- the effect of 1 treatment session in which a high and low risk of bias. There were
ety of different techniques. Treatment in exercises were shown to patients, who several studies that reported on Tinel’s
comparison groups included in the meta- were then instructed to continue for a pe- sign and the Functional Status Score, but
analyses consisted of splint only3,19,88,101; riod of 1101 to 1088 weeks (see TABLE 4 for the heterogeneity was substantial (P<.1),
splint and ultrasound therapy13; splint information on interventions). and therefore a meta-analysis was not
and cortisone injections11; splint and The clinical outcome measures as- performed on these outcomes.63
sham NM15; splint, advice, and tendon sessed with meta-analyses were nonsig- In CTS, positive neurophysiological
gliding exercises59; splint and paraffin nificant (P>.11) (APPENDIX F, available at effects, such as decreased intraneural
therapy60; and splint, ultrasound, and www.jospt.org). FIGURES 5 and 6 illustrate edema, decreased temporal summation,
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimula- the meta-analyses for pain and disabil- and median nerve latency, were observed
tion.86 The majority of studies evaluated ity. Meta-analysis included studies with in the groups that received NM.15,86,101

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 607


[ research report ]

TABLE 5 Descriptions of Studies on Lateral Epicondylalgia

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Dabholkar et al37 n = 40. No other data n = 20 participants with n = 20 participants with Outcomes measured at Both groups improved significantly Appraisal: 3;
available lateral epicondylalgia lateral epicondylalgia baseline and posttreat- in all outcomes, but the Mul- high
Exercise program Exercise program ment ligan mobilization with move-
Radial-head mobiliza- Treatment: 6 to 7 repetitions 1. VAS ment of the radial head and
tion once a day, 4 times per 2. Pain-free grip NM showed more improvement
NM aimed at radial week, for 4 wk 3. Strength than the exercise group in grip
nerve into tension 4. Pressure pain threshold strength (P<.001; 30.16 ± 7.33),
without provoking 5. PRTEE pressure pain threshold (P =
symptoms .031; 4.7 ± 1.8), and PRTEE (P =
Treatment: 6 to 7 repeti- .027; 22.75 ± 5.35)
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

tions once a day, 4


times per week, for
4 wk
Drechsler et al42 n = 18 (10 female, 8 n = 8 participants with n = 10 participants with Outcomes measured at Subjects who received radial-head Appraisal: 5;
male). Age range, lateral epicondylalgia lateral epicondylalgia baseline, posttreatment, mobilizations improved over high
30-57 y; overall Neural tension group: Standard treatment group. and 3-mo follow-up time (P<.05; 4.71)
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

mean age, 46 y; ULTT-2b with (1) Two times a week for 1. Self-report questionnaire Results from IG were linked to
IG mean age, 46.4 graded flexion and/or 6-8 wk: 2. Grip strength radial-head treatment, and
y; CG mean age, shoulder abduction 1. Ultrasound over common 3. Isometric testing of isolated effects could not be
45.5 y and (2) anterior/ extensor tendon extension of third finger determined. There were no
posterior mobiliza- 2. Transverse friction to ten- 4. ULNDT-2b long-term positive results in
tions of radial head don (1 min per session) 5. Radial-head mobility the CG
if radial head mobil- 3. Stretch and strengthen 6. Elbow extension ROM
ity was judged to be wrist extensors for 5-10 during ULNDT
hypomobile repetitions × 30 s. Dumb-
Home exercise plan to bells gradually increasing
mimic ULTT-2b for to 3 sets of 15 repetitions
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

10 repetitions a day, 4. Home exercise program to


increasing to but stretch and strengthen
not exceeding 2 sets
a day, 2 times per
week for 6 to 8 wk
Vicenzino et al115 n = 15 with lateral Contralateral grade 3 Arm rested on abdomen Outcomes measured at The treatment group produced Appraisal: 8;
epicondylalgia (8 glide at C5-6, with with no manual contact. baseline (immediately significant improvements in low
female, 7 male). affected arm in Placebo group: manual before) and after treat- pressure pain threshold (mean,
Mean ± SD age, a predetermined contact was applied as in ment 45 kPa for IG), pain-free grip
44 ± 2 y (range, position the treatment group, with 1. ULNDT-2b (measuring strength (mean, 33.2 N for IG),
22.5-66 y). Duration All treatments were the patient’s arm rested degrees of abduction) neurodynamics (mean, 7° for
of symptoms, 8 ± applied in 3 sets of on abdomen, but no glide 2. Pain-free grip strength IG), and pain scores (mean, 1.7
2 mo (range, 2-36 30 s, with 60-s rest was applied (handheld dynamom- cm) relative to the placebo and
mo) periods eter) control groups (P<.05)
Subjects received 1 3. Pressure pain threshold
of the 3 treatment 4. Pain VAS (over 24 h)
conditions for 3 d in 5. Function VAS (over 24 h)
a random order
Abbreviations: CG, control group; IG, intervention group; NM, neural mobilization; PRTEE, Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire; ROM,
range of motion; ULNDT, upper-limb neurodynamic test; ULTT, upper-limb tension test; VAS, visual analog scale.

Two studies3,13 reported improved pa- groups,59,86 whereas 1 study revealed an had a low risk of bias115 and 2 had a high
tient satisfaction, and another study re- improvement following NM.111 risk of bias (TABLE 5).37,42
ported more rapid improvement in pain The low-risk-of-bias study used cer-
in the NM groups.88 Three studies on CTS Lateral Epicondylalgia vical lateral glides,115 resulting in sig-
measured neurodynamic test ROM.59,86,111 Three studies used NM for the treatment nificant improvements in pressure pain
Two studies found no difference between of lateral epicondylalgia.37,42,115 One study threshold, pain-free grip strength, neuro-

608 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy



TABLE 6 Descriptions of Studies on Other Conditions

Study Patient Demographics Intervention Group Control Group Outcome Measures Results Risk of Bias
Kavlak and n = 28. Mean ± SD age: IG, n = 14 participants with n = 14 participants with Outcomes measured at Conservative treatment of tarsal Appraisal: 8;
Uygur66 40.71 ± 12.84 y; CG, 43.64 tarsal tunnel syndrome tarsal tunnel syndrome baseline and at 6 wk tunnel syndrome is effective in unclear
± 14.72 y. Duration of Strengthening and stretch- Strengthening and stretch- 1. VAS increasing ROM and muscle
symptoms: IG, 3.40 ± 5.06 ing exercise plus NM of ing exercises for 6 wk. 2. ROM of talar and strength and alleviating pain;
y; CG, 2.54 ± 2.43 y the tibial nerve in slump Follow-up every 10 d to subtalar joints the addition of NM to this
for 6 wk. Follow-up check compliance 3. Strength of muscles in- treatment did not enhance the
every 10 d to check nervated by tibial nerve treatment effects for these pa-
compliance 4. 2-point discrimination rameters. However, the decrease
5. Light touch (Tinel’s in Tinel sign (IG, 78.6% still
sign) positive; CG, 100%) and 2-point
discrimination values (IG, 1.46
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

± 0.30; CG, 1.39 ± 0.44) implies


that sensory parameters may
benefit from NM
Saban n = 69 (30 male, 39 female). n = 33 participants with n = 36 participants with Outcomes measured at The overall group-by-time interac- Appraisal: 9;
et al93 Mean ± SD age: IG, 54 ± 12 plantar heel pain plantar heel pain baseline and 4 to 6 wk tion was statistically significant low
y; CG, 52 ± 13 y. Duration of syndrome syndrome posttreatment (P = .034) for functional scale
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

pain at admission: IG, 19 ± Deep calf massage Stretching exercises 3 1. Foot and ankle com- points, with a mean change of 15
19 wk; CG, 25 ± 21 wk Stretching exercises as times per day, with 5 puterized adaptive test (95% CI: 9, 21) for the IG and 6
for SLR repetitions for each of lower extremity (95% CI: 1, 11) for the CG. Both
Ultrasound stretch, using intermit- 2. Functional scale treatment protocols resulted
SLR exercises with belt tent stretching of 20 s in an overall improvement for
3 times per day, with 5 followed by 10 s of rest within-group changes on the
repetitions for each Ultrasound functional scale (IG 95% CI: 9, 21
stretch, using intermit- and CG 95% CI: 1, 11); however,
tent stretching of 20 s IG treatment was significantly
followed by 10 s of rest more effective in treating heel
pain than CG treatment
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

Scrimshaw n = 81 (30 female, 51 male). n = 35 participants n = 46 participants Outcomes measured at All patients received the treatment Appraisal: 8;
and Mean ± SD age: IG, 55 ± 17 undergoing lumbar dis- undergoing lumbar baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, as allocated, with 12-mo follow- low
Maher102 y; CG, 59 ± 16 y. Duration cectomy (n = 9), fusion discectomy (n = 7), and 12 mo up data available for 94% of
of symptoms: IG, <6 wk, (n = 6), or laminectomy fusion (n = 9), or lami- 1. Global perceived effect those randomized. There were
n = 2; >6 wk, n = 19; >6 mo, (n = 20) nectomy (n = 30) 2. VAS no statistically significant or
n = 14. CG, <6 wk, n = 8; Same as control but with Standard postoperative 3. McGill Pain Question- clinically significant benefits
>6 wk, n = 14; >6 mo, NM (SLR) added care (exercises for naire provided by the NM treatment
n = 24 Exercises were encouraged lower limb and trunk) 4. Quebec disability scale for any outcome
for up to 6 wk postdis- Exercises were encour- 5. SLR
charge aged for up to 6 wk 6. Time taken to return to
postdischarge work
Svernlöv n = 70. Mean ± SD age: group Group B, n = 23 partici- Group A, n = 26 par- Outcomes measured at n = 57 patients were followed for 6 Appraisal: 5;
et al109 A, 43 ± 13.2 y (range, 18-72 pants with cubital tunnel ticipants with cubital baseline and at 6 mo mo; 51 (89.5%) were improved high
y); group B, 44 ± 10.1 y syndrome tunnel syndrome 1. Canadian at follow-up. There were no
(range, 26-67 y); group C, Excluded from analysis, n Excluded from analysis, n 2. Occupational perfor- significant differences between
44 ± 14.8 y (range, 17-72 = 8; final, n = 15 treated = 5; final, n = 21 mance measure groups in any of the recorded
y). Duration of symptoms: with nerve gliding/ten- Elbow brace that prevents 3. Grip strength variables
group A, 13.5 ± 15.7 mo sioning exercises.22 Six more than 45° of flex- 4. Adduction strength of Night splints and nerve gliding
(range, 3-72 mo); group exercises maintained for ion for 3 mo at night fifth digit exercises did not add favorably
B, 10.5 ± 9.6 mo (range, 30 s × 3 repetitions, with Group C, n = 21 included. 5. VAS to treatment outcomes
3-42 mo); group C, 9.5 ± 1-min rest, twice a day. Excluded from analysis,
5.8 mo (range, 3-24 mo). Increased to 3 times per n = 6; final, n = 15
Sex: group A (9 female, 12 day if not aggravated Information on condition
male); group B (8 female, 7 Exercise sheet given to
male); group C (10 female, patients
5 male)
Abbreviations: CG, control group; CI, confidence interval; IG, intervention group; NM, neural mobilization; ROM, range of motion; SLR, straight leg raise;
VAS, visual analog scale.

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 609


[ research report ]
dynamic test ROM, and pain scores com- DISCUSSION as this was not measured consistently, no
pared to the placebo and control groups firm conclusions can be made. Measuring

N
(P<.05). Two studies37,42 with a high risk eural mobilization is effective function in these patients is important, as
of bias compared NM and radial-head in reducing pain and disability in they are more disabled than patients with
mobilization to exercise37 and to friction certain neuromusculoskeletal con- nonspecific neck pain.38 Future studies
massage and exercise.42 One study42 re- ditions. Conditions where NM can be rec- should investigate function and disability
vealed significant improvements (P<.05) ommended (JBI grades of evidence) are using common outcome measures, such
in elbow and neurodynamic test ROM N-LBP, N-NAP, tarsal tunnel syndrome, as the NDI or Patient-Specific Functional
following radial-head mobilization. The and plantar heel pain. Currently, the Scale.
other study37 reported improved grip available evidence is insufficient to sup-
strength (P<.001), pressure pain thresh- port the use of NM for CTS, post–lumbar Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
old (P = .031), and Patient-Rated Tennis surgery, and cubital tunnel syndrome. Neural mobilization for CTS did not
Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire score (P show significant effects for the clinical
= .027) in the group receiving NM. Due Nerve-Related Low Back Pain outcomes assessed. This finding is sup-
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

to differences in outcome measures and Evidence for effective management of ported by a recent review of the effect
techniques used, a meta-analysis could patients with N-LBP is scarce.70,92 Fur- of nerve gliding exercises on CTS.10 The
not be performed. thermore, N-LBP is also a risk factor majority of studies had a low risk of bias,
for chronicity,54 and therefore effective which should strengthen the confidence
Other Conditions management is important. People with in the findings from a research method-
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Four studies used NM for other conditions, N-LBP distal to the buttocks, a positive ological point of view. However, several
including tarsal tunnel syndrome,66 plantar slump test, and pain lasting longer than studies gave patients home exercises with
heel pain,93 cubital tunnel syndrome,109 and 3 months had a significant and clinically only 1 intervention before follow-up. One
post–lumbar surgery (TABLE 6).102 Two stud- relevant50 improvement in both pain study had 3 interventions and a follow-
ies had a low risk of bias,93,102 1 had unclear and disability following NM.25,61,81 Using up at 11 months.11 Although these studies
risk of bias,66 and 1 had a high risk of bias.109 other forms of NM, such as SLR mobi- can inform clinicians about these types of
The combination of SLR mobilization, lization,65 techniques aimed at opening treatment schemes, many clinicians favor
deep calf massage, and exercises compared the intervertebral foramina,78 bent-leg a more progressive exercise regime with
to ultrasound and exercise resulted in a raise,87 and mobilization of tibial and closer monitoring and follow-up. Perhaps
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

significant improvement in pain (P = .034) femoral nerves,43 also resulted in im- as a consequence, some studies had high
in the plantar heel.93 Using SLR mobiliza- proved pain and disability. The findings patient dropout rates.19,60 Furthermore,
tion with a tibial nerve bias, compared to of the review support the suggestion of many studies3,11,13,19,59,60,88 evaluated ten-
exercises and supportive inserts, improved a previous study100 that patient outcomes sioning techniques. Given the decrease in
Tinel’s sign and 2-point discrimination can be improved when treatment is tar- blood circulation in the median nerve in
(P<.05) in tarsal tunnel syndrome.66 In geted at subgroups of patients with N- CTS,16 along with increased neural mech-
tarsal tunnel syndrome, a decrease was LBP. A recent review on lower-quadrant anosensitivity in response to local inflam-
observed in sensory parameters, namely NM for healthy populations and patients mation,41,51 increasing the tension in the
Tinel’s sign, light touch, and 2-point dis- with low back pain also found that NM nerve may further diminish circulation
crimination values.66 Other outcomes, such improved pain and disability.85 Neural and aggravate symptoms. More studies
as disability, muscle strength, and pressure mobilization exercises incorporating that evaluate the effects of more modern
and thermal pain thresholds, were not sig- slump and SLR mobilization can be rec- NM concepts,28 including “sliding tech-
nificantly different between the NM and ommended for N-LBP. niques,” are required before conclusions
usual-care groups.66,93 can be reached regarding the effect of
Post–lumbar surgery patients received Nerve-Related Neck and Arm Pain NM on CTS (and other conditions). Slid-
SLR mobilization and usual care com- As the evidence for nonsurgical manage- ing techniques resulted in a reduction in
pared to usual care only.102 Neural mo- ment of N-NAP is scarce,17,18,94 it is rec- intraneural edema in CTS and improve-
bilization did not have added benefit to ommended that treatment be aimed at ment in pain and function.101
usual care post–lumbar surgery.102 Last, specific subgroups.94 Using cervical lat-
NM exercises109 did not result in im- eral glide techniques for people with N- Lateral Epicondylalgia
proved pain and disability (P>.05) when NAP had a positive effect on pain, with a In a study with a low risk of bias, the use
compared to a control group and a group clinically meaningful effect size.1,26 of cervical lateral glides improved pain in
of patients who received an elbow brace The effect of NM on disability in N- lateral epicondylalgia and can therefore
for cubital tunnel syndrome. NAP also seems positive.7,55,84,89 However, be considered in the treatment of tennis

610 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


elbow.115 Due to the high risk of bias of neural edema is important in the man- plots, as less than 10 trials were included
the other studies,37,42 differences in tech- agement of CTS. Sensory parameters may in the meta-analyses.8
niques used, and conflicting outcomes, also benefit from NM.66
it is not possible to make firm recom- Strengths and Limitations
mendations on the use of NM for lateral NM Techniques This study included an additional 20
epicondylalgia. Two NM techniques consistently pro- articles that were not included in the
duced good results in conditions consid- most comprehensive review to date.108
Other Conditions ered difficult to treat.73,94 Mobilization An increase in studies on CTS, N-LBP,
Two studies support the use of SLR mo- in slump improved pain and disabil- and N-NAP, and the ability to perform
bilization for patients with plantar heel ity in N-LBP,25,61,81,87 and cervical lateral meta-analysis, provided a better overview
pain and tarsal tunnel syndrome.66,93 This glides improved pain in N-NAP and of the clinical effectiveness of NM. How-
is in accordance with other studies that epicondylalgia.5,36,84,115 ever, there is still a paucity of information
illustrated that the SLR transmits move- Our findings showed that tensioning on many relevant conditions, such as cu-
ment to the tibial nerve29 and can have an techniques were useful in the treatment of bital tunnel syndrome and post–lumbar
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

effect on pain, function, and movement chronic nerve-related conditions, such as surgery.
of patients with subcalcaneal heel pain.80 N-LBP25 and plantar heel pain.66,93 More Although authors were contacted
As this is supported by a low-risk-of-bias recently, however,28 sliding techniques when necessary, some authors could not
study, the use of NM for these conditions have been typically advocated because be reached, and not all required infor-
can be recommended. they expose the nervous system to less mation was available. The majority of
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Two studies102,109 found no added ben- strain and greater mobilization,28 which studies had low numbers of participants,
efit when using NM in addition to usual might be more advantageous when nerve and therefore results are not necessarily
care for post–lumbar surgery and cubital mechanosensitivity is still increased.32 generalizable.
tunnel syndrome. There is insufficient Therefore, the choice of technique should
evidence for the use of NM in these con- be based on sound clinical reasoning.49,83 Recommendations
ditions, and more studies are needed. Unfortunately, the reasoning process be- • Cervical lateral glide mobilization im-
hind the choice of techniques is absent or proves pain in N-NAP (level A).
Outcome Measures unclear in many studies. • Slump and SLR mobilization im-
In studies evaluating CTS and N-LBP, The terminology can also be confus- proves pain and disability in N-LBP
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

similar outcome measures were used, ing. Some studies explicitly state whether (level A).
and therefore a meta-analysis could be “sliding techniques” or “tensioning tech- • Neural mobilization has positive
performed. Unfortunately, this was not niques” were used,4,55,76 but other studies neurophysiological outcomes in CTS
the case for most other conditions. Pain use the more generic term “nerve gliding (upper-limb neurodynamic test 1) and
was measured in most studies, but the exercises.” In order not to confuse generic N-LBP (slump and SLR) (level A).
method of assessment was not consistent “gliding” exercises with specific “sliding” • Neural mobilization does not have a
across studies. Future studies should con- exercises, we recommend to abandon the positive effect on most of the clinical
sider a core set of clinical outcome mea- term “nerve gliding exercises” and use outcome measures in CTS (level A).
sures to evaluate the clinical effectiveness NM or “neurodynamic techniques” to re- • Neural mobilization improves pain in
of these interventions. fer to techniques that aim to mobilize the tarsal tunnel syndrome and plantar
nerve or its surrounding structures. The heel pain (low-risk-of-bias evidence
Neurophysiological Effects need for consistent use of terminology is from a single study)
An improvement in neurophysiological evident.
parameters was observed in a number of CONCLUSION
studies, such as a decrease in intraneural Risk of Bias Across and Within Studies

S
edema.101 This observed decrease in intra- This review was limited to the inclusion lump and SLR mobilization and a
neural edema is supported by 2 studies of randomized clinical trials. We in- cervical lateral glide technique have
on unembalmed cadavers, which dem- cluded all randomized trials, regardless been shown to improve pain and
onstrated the ability of NM to disperse of quality, in an endeavor to include all function in groups of patients who are often
intraneural fluid.20,53 One of the aims of conditions treated and techniques used. resistant to treatment, such as those with
NM is to restore the homeostasis in and Seventeen studies had a low risk of bias. chronic N-LBP and N-NAP and plantar
around the targeted nerve.34 As ischemia Two non-English studies were identified heel pain. The findings of this review may
of the median nerve contributes to the but not included.9,71 Potential publication help inform guidelines on the management
symptoms of CTS,58 a decrease in intra- bias could not be assessed using funnel of CTS and low back and neck pain. t

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 611


[ research report ]
KEY POINTS diculopathy. Rawal Med J. 2015;40:34-36. ic mobilization on fluid dispersion within the tib-
FINDINGS: Neural mobilization (NM) is 8. A nzures-Cabrera J, Higgins JP. Graphical displays ial nerve at the ankle: an unembalmed cadaveric
effective in the management of nerve- for meta-analysis: an overview with suggestions study. J Man Manip Ther. 2011;19:26-34. https://
for practice. Res Synth Methods. 2010;1:66-80. doi.org/10.1179/2042618610Y.0000000003
related low back pain, nerve-related
https://doi.org/10.1002/jrsm.6 21. Butler DS, Jones MA. Mobilisation of the Nervous
neck and arm pain, and plantar heel 9. B ahrami MH, Raygani SM, Baghbani M, Barze- System. London, UK: Churchill Livingstone; 1991.
pain and tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neu- gari Bafghi MR. The role of nerve and tendon 22. Byron PM. Upper extremity nerve gliding: pro-
ral mobilization is not effective in the gliding exercises in the conservative treatment grams used at the Philadelphia Hand Center. In:
of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Med Council IRI. Hunter JM, Mackin EJ, Callahan AD, eds. Reha-
management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
2006;24:5-12. bilitation of the Hand: Surgery and Therapy. 4th
Positive neurophysiological effects were 10. B
 allestero-Pérez R, Plaza-Manzano G, Urraca- ed. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1995:951-956.
present in groups that received NM. Gesto A, et al. Effectiveness of nerve gliding ex- 23. Castellote-Caballero Y, Valenza MC, Martín-
IMPLICATIONS: The findings of this review ercises on carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic Martín L, Cabrera-Martos I, Puentedura EJ,
review. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2017;40:50- Fernández-de-las-Peñas C. Effects of a neurody-
may help inform clinicians in regard
59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2016.10.004 namic sliding technique on hamstring flexibility
to the management of chronic nerve- 11. B
 ardak AN, Alp M, Erhan B, Paker N, Kaya B, in healthy male soccer players. A pilot study.
related low back pain, nerve-related Önal AE. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of con- Phys Ther Sport. 2013;14:156-162. https://doi.
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

neck and arm pain, and plantar heel servative treatment in the management of carpal org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2012.07.004
tunnel syndrome. Adv Ther. 2009;26:107-116. 24. Childs JD, Fritz JM, Flynn TW, et al. Summaries
pain. Sound clinical reasoning remains
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-008-0134-7 for Patients: identifying patients with low back
essential when treating nerve-related 12. B
 asson A, Olivier B, Ellis R, Coppieters M, pain who are likely to benefit from spinal manip-
conditions with NM. Stewart A, Mudzi W. The effectiveness of neural ulation. Ann Intern Med. 2004;141:I-39. https://
CAUTION: Due to the limited evidence and mobilizations in the treatment of musculoskeletal doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-141-12-200412210-
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

conditions: a systematic review protocol. JBI Da- 00003


often small study samples, conclusions
tabase Syst Rev Implement Rep. 2015;13:65-75. 25. Cleland JA, Childs JD, Palmer JA, Eberhart S.
may change over time. https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2015-1401 Slump stretching in the management of non-
13. B
 aysal O, Altay Z, Ozcan C, Ertem K, Yologlu S, radicular low back pain: a pilot clinical trial. Man
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: The authors would like Kayhan A. Comparison of three conservative Ther. 2006;11:279-286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
treatment protocols in carpal tunnel syndrome. math.2005.07.002
to thank Elna Kruger for her assistance in
Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:820-828. https://doi. 26. Cleland JA, Childs JD, Whitman JM. Psycho-
database searches. org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.00867.x metric properties of the Neck Disability Index
14. B
 eneciuk JM, Bishop MD, George SZ. Pain catas­ and numeric pain rating scale in patients with
trophizing predicts pain intensity during a neu- mechanical neck pain. Arch Phys Med Reha-
REFERENCES rodynamic test for the median nerve in healthy bil. 2008;89:69-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

participants. Man Ther. 2010;15:370-375. https:// apmr.2007.08.126


1. Abbott JH, Schmitt J. Minimum important differ- doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2010.02.008 27. Coombes BK, Bisset L, Vicenzino B. Bilateral
ences for the Patient-Specific Functional Scale, 15. B
 ialosky JE, Bishop MD, Price DD, Robinson ME, cervical dysfunction in patients with unilateral
4 region-specific outcome measures, and the Vincent KR, George SZ. A randomized sham-con- lateral epicondylalgia without concomitant cervi-
numeric pain rating scale. J Orthop Sports Phys trolled trial of a neurodynamic technique in the cal or upper limb symptoms: a cross-sectional
Ther. 2014;44:560-564. https://doi.org/10.2519/ treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Orthop case-control study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther.
jospt.2014.5248 Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39:709-723. https://doi. 2014;37:79-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
2. Ahmed N, Tufel S, Khan MH, Khan PB. Effective- org/10.2519/jospt.2009.3117 jmpt.2013.12.005
ness of neural mobilization in the management of 16. B
 land JD. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Curr Opin 28. Coppieters MW, Alshami AM. Longitudinal excur-
sciatica. J Musculoskelet Res. 2013;16:1350012. Neurol. 2005;18:581-585. sion and strain in the median nerve during novel
https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218957713500127 17. B
 ono CM, Ghiselli G, Gilbert TJ, et al. An evi- nerve gliding exercises for carpal tunnel syn-
3. Akalin E, El Ö, Peker Ö, et al. Treatment of dence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis drome. J Orthop Res. 2007;25:972-980. https://
carpal tunnel syndrome with nerve and tendon and treatment of cervical radiculopathy from doi.org/10.1002/jor.20310
gliding exercises. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. degenerative disorders. Spine J. 2011;11:64-72. 29. Coppieters MW, Alshami AM, Babri AS, Souvlis
2002;81:108-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2010.10.023 T, Kippers V, Hodges PW. Strain and excursion
4. Ali M, Rehman SS, Ahmad S, Farooq MN. Effec- 18. B
 oyles R, Toy P, Mellon J, Hayes M, Hammer of the sciatic, tibial, and plantar nerves during a
tiveness of slump neural mobilization technique B. Effectiveness of manual physical therapy in modified straight leg raising test. J Orthop Res.
for the management of chronic radicular low the treatment of cervical radiculopathy: a sys- 2006;24:1883-1889. https://doi.org/10.1002/
back pain. Rawal Med J. 2015;40:41-43. tematic review. J Man Manip Ther. 2011;19:135- jor.20210
5. Allison GT, Nagy BM, Hall T. A randomized clinical 142. https://doi.org/10.1179/204261861 30. Coppieters MW, Andersen LS, Johansen R, et
trial of manual therapy for cervico-brachial pain 1Y.0000000011 al. Excursion of the sciatic nerve during nerve
syndrome – a pilot study. Man Ther. 2002;7:95- 19. B
 rininger TL, Rogers JC, Holm MB, Baker NA, Li mobilization exercises: an in vivo cross-sectional
102. https://doi.org/10.1054/math.2002.0453 ZM, Goitz RJ. Efficacy of a fabricated customized study using dynamic ultrasound imaging. J Or-
6. Alshami AM, Souvlis T, Coppieters MW. A splint and tendon and nerve gliding exercises for thop Sports Phys Ther. 2015;45:731-737. https://
review of plantar heel pain of neural origin: the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a ran- doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2015.5743
differential diagnosis and management. Man domized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 31. Coppieters MW, Bartholomeeusen KE, Stap-
Ther. 2008;13:103-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. 2007;88:1429-1435. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. paerts KH. Incorporating nerve-gliding tech-
math.2007.01.014 apmr.2007.07.019 niques in the conservative treatment of cubital
7. Anwar S, Malik AN, Amjad I. Effectiveness of 20. B
 rown CL, Gilbert KK, Brismee JM, Sizer PS, tunnel syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol Ther.
neuromobilization in patients with cervical ra- James CR, Smith MP. The effects of neurodynam- 2004;27:560-568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

612 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


jmpt.2004.10.006 https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.6.3.226 ejpain.2006.03.004
32. Coppieters MW, Butler DS. Do ‘sliders’ slide and 43. D wornik M, Kujawa J, Białoszewski D, Slupik 55. Gupta R, Sharma S. Effectiveness of median
‘tensioners’ tension? An analysis of neurodynam- A, Kiebzak W. Electromyographic and clinical nerve slider’s neurodynamics for managing pain
ic techniques and considerations regarding their evaluation of the efficacy of neuromobilization and disability in cervicobrachial pain syndrome.
application. Man Ther. 2008;13:213-221. https:// in patients with low back pain. Ortop Traumatol Indian J Physiother Occup Ther. 2012;6:127-132.
doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2006.12.008 Rehabil. 2009;11:164-176. 56. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist G, et al. GRADE
33. Coppieters MW, Hough AD, Dilley A. Different 44. E fstathiou MA, Stefanakis M, Savva C, Giakas G. guidelines: 4. Rating the quality of evidence—
nerve-gliding exercises induce different magni- Effectiveness of neural mobilization in patients study limitations (risk of bias). J Clin Epidemiol.
tudes of median nerve longitudinal excursion: an with spinal radiculopathy: a critical review. J 2011;64:407-415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
in vivo study using dynamic ultrasound imaging. Bodyw Mov Ther. 2015;19:205-212. https://doi. jclinepi.2010.07.017
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39:164-171. org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2014.08.006 57. Hall T, Hardt S, Schäfer A, Wallin L. Mulligan bent
https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2009.2913 45. E llis RF, Hing WA. Neural mobilization: a leg raise technique—a preliminary randomized
34. Coppieters MW, Nee R. Neurodynamic manage- systematic review of randomized controlled trial of immediate effects after a single interven-
ment of the peripheral nervous system. In: trials with an analysis of therapeutic efficacy. tion. Man Ther. 2006;11:130-135. https://doi.
Jull G, Moore A, Falla D, Lewis J, McCarthy C, J Man Manip Ther. 2008;16:8-22. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.math.2005.04.009
Sterling M, eds. Grieve’s Modern Musculoskeletal org/10.1179/106698108790818594 58. Han SE, Boland RA, Krishnan AV, Vucic S,
Physiotherapy. 4th ed. Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier; 46. E llis RF, Hing WA, McNair PJ. Comparison of lon- Lin CS, Kiernan MC. Ischaemic sensitivity of
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

2015:287-297. gitudinal sciatic nerve movement with different axons in carpal tunnel syndrome. J Peripher
35. Coppieters MW, Stappaerts KH, Wouters LL, mobilization exercises: an in vivo study utilizing Nerv Syst. 2009;14:190-200. https://doi.
Janssens K. Aberrant protective force genera- ultrasound imaging. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. org/10.1111/j.1529-8027.2009.00231.x
tion during neural provocation testing and the 2012;42:667-675. https://doi.org/10.2519/ 59. Heebner ML, Roddey TS. The effects of neural
effect of treatment in patients with neurogenic jospt.2012.3854 mobilization in addition to standard care in per-
cervicobrachial pain. J Manipulative Physiol 47. E lnaggar IM, Nordin M, Sheikhzadeh A, Par- sons with carpal tunnel syndrome from a com-
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Ther. 2003;26:99-106. https://doi.org/10.1067/ nianpour M, Kahanovitz N. Effects of spinal munity hospital. J Hand Ther. 2008;21:229-240;
mmt.2003.16 flexion and extension exercises on low-back quiz 241. https://doi.org/10.1197/j.jht.2007.12.001
36. Coppieters MW, Stappaerts KH, Wouters LL, pain and spinal mobility in chronic mechanical 60. Horng YS, Hsieh SF, Tu YK, Lin MC, Horng YS,
Janssens K. The immediate effects of a cervical low-back pain patients. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). Wang JD. The comparative effectiveness of ten-
lateral glide treatment technique in patients 1991;16:967-972. don and nerve gliding exercises in patients with
with neurogenic cervicobrachial pain. J Orthop 48. E lvey RL. Treatment of arm pain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial. Am
Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33:369-378. https://doi. abnormal brachial plexus tension. Aust J Physio- J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;90:435-442. https://
org/10.2519/jospt.2003.33.7.369 ther. 1986;32:225-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/ doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0b013e318214eaaf
37. Dabholkar AS, Kalbande VM, Yardi S. Neural S0004-9514(14)60655-3 61. Jain R, Hameed UA, Tuteja R. Effectiveness of
tissue mobilisation using ULTT2b and radial 49. E va KW. What every teacher needs to know about slump stretching in comparison to conventional
head mobilisation v/s exercise programme clinical reasoning. Med Educ. 2005;39:98-106. physiotherapy in treatment of subacute non-ra-
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

in lateral epicondylitis. Indian J Physio- https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01972.x dicular low back pain. Indian J Physiother Occup
ther Occup Ther. 2013;7:247-252. https://doi. 50. F arrar JT, Young JP, Jr., LaMoreaux L, Werth Ther. 2012;6:123-126.
org/10.5958/j.0973-5674.7.4.157 JL, Poole RM. Clinical importance of changes 62. Jette AM. Toward a common language for
38. Daffner SD, Hilibrand AS, Hanscom BS, Brislin in chronic pain intensity measured on an function, disability, and health. Phys Ther.
BT, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ. Impact of neck and 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Pain. 2006;86:726-734. https://doi.org/10.1093/
arm pain on overall health status. Spine (Phila 2001;94:149-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/ ptj/86.5.726
Pa 1976). 2003;28:2030-2035. https://doi. S0304-3959(01)00349-9 63. Joanna Briggs Institute. Reviewers’ Manual: 2014
org/10.1097/01.BRS.0000083325.27357.39 51. F ernández-de-las-Peñas C, de la Llave-Rincón Edition. Adelaide, Australia: Joanna Briggs Insti-
39. Day JM, Willoughby J, Pitts DG, McCallum AI, Fernández-Carnero J, Cuadrado ML, Arendt- tute; 2014.
M, Foister R, Uhl TL. Outcomes following the Nielsen L, Pareja JA. Bilateral widespread 64. Joanna Briggs Institute Levels of Evidence and
conservative management of patients with non- mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel Grades of Recommendation Working Party. Sup-
radicular peripheral neuropathic pain. J Hand syndrome: evidence of central processing in porting Document for the Joanna Briggs Institute
Ther. 2014;27:192-199; quiz 200. https://doi. unilateral neuropathy. Brain. 2009;132:1472-1479. Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommenda-
org/10.1016/j.jht.2014.02.003 https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp050 tion. Adelaide, Australia: Joanna Briggs Institute;
40. De-la-Llave-Rincon AI, Ortega-Santiago R, 52. F erreira GE, Stieven FF, Araújo FX, et al. Neurody- 2014.
Ambite-Quesada S, et al. Response of pain inten- namic treatment for patients with nerve-related 65. Kaur G, Sharma S. Effect of passive straight leg
sity to soft tissue mobilization and neurodynamic leg pain: protocol for a randomized controlled raise sciatic nerve mobilization on low back pain
technique: a series of 18 patients with chronic trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2016;20:870-878. of neurogenic origin. Indian J Physiother Occup
carpal tunnel syndrome. J Manipulative Physiol https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2016.02.012 Ther. 2011;5:179-184.
Ther. 2012;35:420-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. 53. G ilbert KK, James CR, Apte G, et al. Effects of 66. Kavlak Y, Uygur F. Effects of nerve mobilization
jmpt.2012.06.002 simulated neural mobilization on fluid movement exercise as an adjunct to the conservative treat-
41. Dilley A, Lynn B, Pang SJ. Pressure and stretch in cadaveric peripheral nerve sections: implica- ment for patients with tarsal tunnel syndrome.
mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerve fibres tions for the treatment of neuropathic pain and J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011;34:441-448.
following local inflammation of the nerve dysfunction. J Man Manip Ther. 2015;23:219- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2011.05.017
trunk. Pain. 2005;117:462-472. https://doi. 225. https://doi.org/10.1179/204261861 67. Kumar S. A prospective randomized controlled
org/10.1016/j.pain.2005.08.018 4Y.0000000094 trial of neural mobilization and Mackenzie [sic]
42. Drechsler WI, Knarr JF, Snyder-Mackler L. A 54. G rotle M, Brox JI, Glomsrød B, Lønn JH, Vøll- manipulation in cervical radiculopathy. Indian J
comparison of two treatment regimens for lat- estad NK. Prognostic factors in first-time care Physiother Occup Ther. 2010;4:69-75.
eral epicondylitis: a randomized trial of clinical seekers due to acute low back pain. Eur J Pain. 68. Langevin P, Desmeules F, Lamothe M, Robitaille
interventions. J Sport Rehabil. 1997;6:226-234. 2007;11:290-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. S, Roy JS. Comparison of 2 manual therapy and

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 613


[ research report ]
exercise protocols for cervical radiculopathy: a 81. N
 agrale AV, Patil SP, Gandhi RA, Learman K. Ef- heel pain: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Man
randomized clinical trial evaluating short-term fect of slump stretching versus lumbar mobiliza- Ther. 2014;19:102-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
effects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2015;45:4-17. tion with exercise in subjects with non-radicular math.2013.08.001
https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2015.5211 low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. J Man 94. Salt E, Wright C, Kelly S, Dean A. A systematic
69. Leaver AM, Maher CG, McAuley JH, Jull GA, Manip Ther. 2012;20:35-42. https://doi.org/10.11 literature review on the effectiveness of non-
Refshauge KM. Characteristics of a new episode 79/2042618611Y.0000000015 invasive therapy for cervicobrachial pain. Man
of neck pain. Man Ther. 2013;18:254-257. https:// 82. N
 ar NH. Effect of neural tissue mobilization on Ther. 2011;16:53-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2012.05.008 pain in cervical radiculopathy patients. Indian J math.2010.09.005
70. Lee J, Gupta S, Price C, Baranowski AP. Low back Physiother Occup Ther. 2014;8:144-148. https:// 95. Sansare PS, Mhatre BS, Mehta AA. Correlation of
and radicular pain: a pathway for care devel- doi.org/10.5958/j.0973-5674.8.1.028 neurodynamics response of posterior tibial nerve
oped by the British Pain Society. Br J Anaesth. 83. N
 ee RJ, Butler D. Management of peripheral (PTN) with ankle foot mechanics in young adults.
2013;111:112-120. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/ neuropathic pain: integrating neurobiology, Indian J Physiother Occup Ther. 2013;7:153-159.
aet172 neurodynamics, and clinical evidence. Phys Ther https://doi.org/10.5958/j.0973-5674.7.4.140
71. Leonelli C, Zucchini E, Messora A, Sartini S, Sport. 2006;7:36-49. 96. Santos FM, Silva JT, Giardini AC, et al. Neural
Fontana L, Parazza S. [Neurodynamic technique 84. N
 ee RJ, Vicenzino B, Jull GA, Cleland JA, Cop- mobilization reverses behavioral and cel-
benefits in patients with chronic cervical radicu- pieters MW. Neural tissue management provides lular changes that characterize neuropathic
lopathy: a pilot study]. Sci Riabil. 2013;15:19-28. immediate clinically relevant benefits without pain in rats. Mol Pain. 2012;8:57. https://doi.
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

72. Lorentzen J, Nielsen D, Holm K, Baagøe S, Grey harmful effects for patients with nerve-related org/10.1186/1744-8069-8-57
MJ, Nielsen JB. Neural tension technique is no neck and arm pain: a randomised trial. J Phys- 97. Saranga J, Green A, Lewis J, Worsfold C. Effect of
different from random passive movements in iother. 2012;58:23-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/ a cervical lateral glide on the upper limb neuro-
reducing spasticity in patients with traumatic S1836-9553(12)70069-3 dynamic test 1. Physiotherapy. 2003;89:678-684.
brain injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2012;34:1978-1985. 85. N
 eto T, Freitas SR, Marques M, Gomes L, An- https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9406(05)60101-0
https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2012.665132 drade R, Oliveira R. Effects of lower body quad- 98. Savva C, Giakas G. The effect of cervical trac-
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

73. Luijsterburg PA, Verhagen AP, Ostelo RW, van Os rant neural mobilization in healthy and low back tion combined with neural mobilization on pain
TA, Peul WC, Koes BW. Effectiveness of conserva- pain populations: a systematic review and meta- and disability in cervical radiculopathy. A case
tive treatments for the lumbosacral radicular analysis. Musculoskelet Sci Pract. 2017;27:14-22. report. Man Ther. 2013;18:443-446. https://doi.
syndrome: a systematic review. Eur Spine J. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2016.11.014 org/10.1016/j.math.2012.06.012
2007;16:881-899. https://doi.org/10.1007/ 86. O
 skouei AE, Talebi GA, Shakouri SK, Ghabili K. 99. Schäfer A, Hall T, Briffa K. Classification of low
s00586-007-0367-1 Effects of neuromobilization maneuver on clinical back-related leg pain—a proposed patho-mech-
74. Madenci E, Altindag O, Koca I, Yilmaz M, Gur and electrophysiological measures of patients anism-based approach. Man Ther. 2009;14:222-
A. Reliability and efficacy of the new massage with carpal tunnel syndrome. J Phys Ther Sci. 230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2007.10.003
technique on the treatment in the patients 2014;26:1017-1022. https://doi.org/10.1589/ 100. Schäfer A, Hall T, Müller G, Briffa K. Outcomes
with carpal tunnel syndrome. Rheumatol Int. jpts.26.1017 differ between subgroups of patients with low
2012;32:3171-3179. https://doi.org/10.1007/ 87. P
 atel G. To compare the effectiveness of Mul- back and leg pain following neural manual
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

s00296-011-2149-7 ligan bent leg raising and slump stretching in therapy: a prospective cohort study. Eur Spine
75. Mahmoud WS. Effect of neural mobilization patient with low back pain. Indian J Physio- J. 2011;20:482-490. https://doi.org/10.1007/
versus spinal manipulation in patients with ther Occup Ther. 2014;8:24-28. https://doi. s00586-010-1632-2
radicular chronic low back pain. Eur J Sci Res. org/10.5958/0973-5674.2014.00350.5 101. Schmid AB, Elliott JM, Strudwick MW, Little M,
2015;131:122-132. 88. P
 inar L, Enhos A, Ada S, Güngör N. Can we use Coppieters MW. Effect of splinting and exercise
76. Marks M, Schöttker-Königer T, Probst A. Efficacy nerve gliding exercises in women with carpal on intraneural edema of the median nerve
of cervical spine mobilization versus peripheral tunnel syndrome? Adv Ther. 2005;22:467-475. in carpal tunnel syndrome—an MRI study to
nerve slider techniques in cervicobrachial pain https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02849867 reveal therapeutic mechanisms. J Orthop Res.
syndrome – a randomized clinical trial. J Phys 89. R
 agonese J. A randomized trial comparing man- 2012;30:1343-1350. https://doi.org/10.1002/
Ther. 2011;4:9-17. ual physical therapy to therapeutic exercises, to jor.22064
77. Medina McKeon JM, Yancosek KE. Neural gliding a combination of therapies, for the treatment of 102. Scrimshaw SV, Maher CG. Randomized
techniques for the treatment of carpal tunnel cervical radiculopathy. Orthop Phys Ther Pract. controlled trial of neural mobilization af-
syndrome: a systematic review. J Sport Reha- 2009;21:71-76. ter spinal surgery. Spine (Phila Pa 1976).
bil. 2008;17:324-341. https://doi.org/10.1123/ 90. R
 ezk-Allah SS, Shehata LA, Gharib NM. Slump 2001;26:2647-2652.
jsr.17.3.324 stretching versus straight leg raising in the 103. Sharma S, Balthillaya G, Rao R, Mani R. Short
78. Mehta A, Mhatre B, Mote N. Effects of Maitland’s management of lumbar disc herniation. Egypt J term effectiveness of neural sliders and neural
joint mobilization versus Shacklock’s neurody- Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg. 2011;48:345-349. tensioners as an adjunct to static stretching of
namic mobilization techniques in low back pain. 91. R
 ozmaryn LM, Dovelle S, Rothman ER, Gor- hamstrings on knee extension angle in healthy
Indian J Physiother Occup Ther. 2014;8:248-255. man K, Olvey KM, Bartko JJ. Nerve and tendon individuals: a randomized controlled trial.
https://doi.org/10.5958/j.0973-5674.8.2.094 gliding exercises and the conservative manage- Phys Ther Sport. 2016;17:30-37. https://doi.
79. Mehta CR, Pocock SJ. Adaptive increase in ment of carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Ther. org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2015.03.003
sample size when interim results are promis- 1998;11:171-179. 104. Sharma V, Sarkari E, Multani NK. Efficacy of neu-
ing: a practical guide with examples. Stat Med. 92. R
 ubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft ral mobilization in sciatica. Indian J Physiother
2011;30:3267-3284. https://doi.org/10.1002/ WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal manipula- Occup Ther. 2011;5:125-127.
sim.4102 tive therapy for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane 105. Song XJ, Gan Q, Cao JL, Wang ZB, Rupert RL.
80. Meyer J, Kulig K, Landel R. Differential diagnosis Database Syst Rev. 2011:CD008112. https://doi. Spinal manipulation reduces pain and hyper-
and treatment of subcalcaneal heel pain: a case org/10.1002/14651858.CD008112.pub2 algesia after lumbar intervertebral foramen
report. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002;32:114- 93. S
 aban B, Deutscher D, Ziv T. Deep massage inflammation in the rat. J Manipulative Physiol
122; discussion 122-124. https://doi.org/10.2519/ to posterior calf muscles in combination with Ther. 2006;29:5-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
jospt.2002.32.3.114 neural mobilization exercises as a treatment for jmpt.2005.10.001

614 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


106. Sterling M, Pedler A, Chan C, Puglisi M, Vuvan pare the effectiveness of carpal bone mobilisa- trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43:204-213.
V, Vicenzino B. Cervical lateral glide increases tion and neurodynamic mobilisation as methods https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4524
nociceptive flexion reflex threshold but not pres- of treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Man 117. Villafañe JH, Silva GB, Chiarotto A, Ragusa OL.
sure or thermal pain thresholds in chronic whip- Ther. 2000;5:214-222. https://doi.org/10.1054/ Botulinum toxin type A combined with neurody-
lash associated disorders: a pilot randomised math.2000.0355 namic mobilization for upper limb spasticity after
controlled trial. Man Ther. 2010;15:149-153. 112. T orres JR, Martos IC, Sánchez IT, Rubio AO, stroke: a case report. J Chiropr Med. 2012;11:186-
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2009.09.004 Pelegrina AD, Valenza MC. Results of an ac- 191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2012.05.009
107. Stineman MG, Henry-Sánchez JT, Kurichi JE, tive neurodynamic mobilization program in 118. Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, et al. Years lived
et al. Staging activity limitation and participa- patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a random- with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289
tion restriction in elderly community-dwelling ized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic
persons according to difficulties in self-care and 2015;96:1771-1778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
domestic life functioning. Am J Phys Med Re- apmr.2015.06.008
2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2163-2196. https://doi.
habil. 2012;91:126-140. https://doi.org/10.1097/ 113. T otten PA, Hunter JM. Therapeutic techniques
org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2
PHM.0b013e318241200d to enhance nerve gliding in thoracic outlet syn-
119. Wolny T, Saulicz E, Linek P, Myśliwiec A, Saulicz
108. Su Y, Lim EC. Does evidence support the use drome and carpal tunnel syndrome. Hand Clin.
M. Effect of manual therapy and neurodynamic
of neural tissue management to reduce pain 1991;7:505-520.
and disability in nerve-related chronic muscu- 114. V
 éras LS, Vale RG, Mello DB, et al. Electro- techniques vs ultrasound and laser on 2PD in
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

loskeletal pain?: A systematic review with meta- myography function, disability degree, and patients with CTS: a randomized controlled
analysis. Clin J Pain. 2016;32:991-1004. https:// pain in leprosy patients undergoing neural trial. J Hand Ther. 2016;29:235-245. https://doi.
doi.org/10.1097/AJP.0000000000000340 mobilization treatment. Rev Soc Bras Med org/10.1016/j.jht.2016.03.006
109. Svernlöv B, Larsson M, Rehn K, Adolfsson L. Trop. 2012;45:83-88. https://doi.org/10.1590/ 120. Young IA, Michener LA, Cleland JA, Aguilera
Conservative treatment of the cubital tunnel syn- S0037-86822012000100016 AJ, Snyder AR. Manual therapy, exercise, and
drome. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2009;34:201-207. 115. V
 icenzino B, Collins D, Wright A. The initial traction for patients with cervical radicu-
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1753193408098480 effects of a cervical spine manipulative physio- lopathy: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther.
110. Szlezak AM, Georgilopoulos P, Bullock-Saxton therapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction 2009;89:632-642. https://doi.org/10.2522/
JE, Steele MC. The immediate effect of unilat- of lateral epicondylalgia. Pain. 1996;68:69-74. ptj.20080283
eral lumbar Z-joint mobilisation on posterior https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3959(96)03221-6
chain neurodynamics: a randomised controlled 116. Villafañe JH, Cleland JA, Fernández-de-las-Peñas

@ MORE INFORMATION
study. Man Ther. 2011;16:609-613. https://doi. C. The effectiveness of a manual therapy and
org/10.1016/j.math.2011.06.004 exercise protocol in patients with thumb carpo-
111. Tal-Akabi A, Rushton A. An investigation to com- metacarpal osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled WWW.JOSPT.ORG
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

CHECK Your References With the JOSPT Reference Library


JOSPT has created an EndNote reference library for authors to use in
conjunction with PubMed/Medline when assembling their manuscript
references. This addition to Author and Reviewer Tools on the JOSPT website
under offers a compilation of all article reference sections published in the
Journal from 2006 to date as well as complete references for all articles
published by JOSPT since 1979—a total of more than 20,000 unique
references. Each reference has been checked for accuracy.

This resource is updated quarterly on JOSPT’s website.

The JOSPT Reference Library can be found at: http://www.jospt.org/page/


authors/author_reviewer_tools

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | 615


[ research report ]
APPENDIX A

EXAMPLE SEARCH STRATEGY (PUBMED/MEDLINE)


Treatment Technique Management Type Condition Study Type
Nerve tissue/therapy[mh] Conservative intervention[tw] Radiculopathy[mh] Randomized controlled trial[mh]
Nerve treatment[tw] Conservative approach[tw] Musculoskeletal pain[mh] Clinical trial[mh]
Neural treatment[tw] Conservative management[tw] Referred pain[mh] Randomised control*[tw]
Neurodynamic*[tw] Conservative therap*[tw] Nerve tissue/injuries[mh] Randomized control*[tw]
Nerve stretch*[tw] Physical approach[tw] Radicular pain[tw] Randomised control trial[tw]
Nerve tension[tw] Physical intervention[tw] Nerve pain[tw] Randomized control trial[tw]
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

Neural tension[tw] Physical management[tw] Neuropathy[tw] Controlled clinical trial[tw]


Nerve mobili*[tw] Physical therapy[tw] Randomi*[tw]
Neural mobili*[tw] Physiotherapy[tw] RCT[tw]
Nerve modalit*[tw] Manual therapy[tw] Trial[tw]
Neural modalit*[tw] Placebo[tw]
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Nerve glid*[tw] Group*[tw]


Neural glid*[tw]

Search Strategy in the PubMed Advanced Search Builder


#1 Nerve tissue/therapy[mh] OR Nerve treatment[tw] OR Neural treatment[tw] OR Neurodynamic*[tw] OR Nerve stretch*[tw] OR Nerve tension[tw]
OR Neural tension[tw] OR Nerve mobili*[tw] OR Neural mobili*[tw] OR Nerve modalit*[tw] OR Neural modalit*[tw] OR Nerve glid*[tw] OR Neural
glid*[tw]. Number of articles found, 9022
#2 Conservative intervention[tw] OR Conservative approach[tw] OR Conservative management[tw] OR Conservative therap*[tw] OR Physical
approach[tw] OR Physical intervention[tw] OR Physical management[tw] OR Physical therapy[tw] OR Physiotherapy[tw] OR Manual therapy[tw].
Number of articles found, 61848
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

#3 Radiculopathy[mh] OR Musculoskeletal pain[mh] OR Referred pain[mh] OR Nerve tissue/injuries[mh] OR Radicular pain[tw] OR Nerve pain[tw] OR
Neuropathy[tw]. Number of articles found, 57929
#4 Randomized controlled trial[mh] OR Clinical trial[mh] OR Randomised control*[tw] OR Randomized control*[tw] OR Randomised control trial[tw]
OR Randomized control trial[tw] OR Controlled clinical trial[tw] OR Randomi*[tw] OR RCT[tw] OR Trial[tw] OR Placebo[tw] OR Group*[tw]). Number of
articles found, 3446845
#5 #1 AND #2 AND #3 AND #4. Number of articles found, 26

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | a1


[ research report ]
APPENDIX B

JOANNA BRIGGS INSTITUTE CRITICAL APPRAISAL TOOL


Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

Reprinted with permission from Joanna Briggs Institute.63 ©Joanna Briggs Institute.

a2 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


APPENDIX C

JOANNA BRIGGS INSTITUTE LEVELS OF EVIDENCE FOR RECOMMENDATIONS


Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

Reprinted with permission from Joanna Briggs Institute.64 ©Joanna Briggs Institute.

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | a3


[ research report ]
APPENDIX D

EXCLUDED STUDIES
1. Bahrami et al.9 Reason for exclusion: article in Arabic; could only locate abstract in English
2. Beneciuk et al.14 Reason for exclusion: healthy population
3. Coppieters et al.31 Reason for exclusion: case report
4. Castellote-Caballero et al.23 Reason for exclusion: healthy population
5. Day et al.39 Reason for exclusion: not a randomized controlled trial
6. De-la-Llave-Rincon et al.40 Reason for exclusion: not a randomized controlled trial
7. Ferreira et al.52 Reason for exclusion: design of a trial
8. Leonelli et al.71 Reason for exclusion: other language (Italian)
9. Lorentzen et al.72 Reason for exclusion: not a neuromusculoskeletal condition
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

10. Madenci et al.74 Reason for exclusion: massage techniques used not aimed at neural tissue
11. Torres et al.112 Reason for exclusion: rheumatologic condition and treatment not aimed at peripheral nervous system
12. Rozmaryn et al.91 Reason for exclusion: not a randomized clinical trial
13. Sansare et al.95 Reason for exclusion: healthy population; not neural mobilization
14. Saranga et al.97 Reason for exclusion: healthy population
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

15. Savva and Giakas.98 Reason for exclusion: case report


16. Schäfer et al.100 Reason for exclusion: not a randomized clinical trial
17. Sharma et al.104 Reason for exclusion: not a randomized clinical trial
18. Sharma et al.103 Reason for exclusion: healthy population; not testing treatment effect
19. Sterling et al.106 Reason for exclusion: treatment not aimed at peripheral nervous system
20. Szlezak et al.110 Reason for exclusion: not neural mobilization; healthy population
21. Véras et al.114 Reason for exclusion: not a neuromusculoskeletal condition
22. Villafañe et al.116 Reason for exclusion: not a neuromusculoskeletal condition
23. Villafañe et al.117 Reason for exclusion: not a neuromusculoskeletal condition
24. Young et al.120 Reason for exclusion: manual technique used; not neural mobilization
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

a4 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy


APPENDIX E

RISK OF BIAS OF STUDIES AND MOTIVATION FOR JUDGMENTS


Study Judgment Motivation
Ahmed et al2 Low Domain 3 had unclear bias
Akalin et al3 High Only domain 4 had low bias
Ali et al4 High Domains 1 and 6 had low bias
Allison et al5 Low Domain 2 had unclear bias
Anwar et al7 High Only domain 1 had low bias
Bardak et al11 Unclear Domains 4 and 6 had unclear bias and domain 5 had high bias
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

Baysal et al13 Unclear Domains 4 and 6 had high bias


Bialosky et al15 Low All domains had low bias
Brininger et al19 Unclear Domains 2 and 6 had high bias
Cleland et al25 Low All domains had low bias
Coppieters et al35,36 Low Domain 2 had unclear bias
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.

Dabholkar et al37 High Domains 2 and 5 had unclear bias and domains 3 and 4 had high bias
Drechsler et al42 High Domains 2, 3, and 5 had high bias
Dwornik et al43 High Domains 2, 4, and 6 had high bias
Gupta and Sharma55 High Domains 2, 3, and 6 had high bias
Heebner and Roddey59 High Domains 3 and 5 had unclear bias and domains 2 and 6 had high bias
Horng et al60 Low All domains had low bias
Jain et al61 High Only domain 1 had low bias
Kaur and Sharma65 High Only domains 1 and 5 had low bias
Kavlak and Uygur66 Unclear Domains 1 and 2 had high bias; others had low bias
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

Kumar67 High Domain 4 had high bias and domains 2, 3, and 6 had unclear bias
Langevin et al68 Low All domains had low bias
Marks et al76 High Domains 2, 3, and 5 had high bias
Mehta et al78 High Domains 2, 3, and 5 had high bias
Nagrale et al81 Low All domains had low bias
Nar82 High Domains 2, 3, 5, and 6 had unclear bias
Nee et al84 Low Domain 6 had unclear bias; others had low bias
Oskouei et al86 Low Domain 6 had unclear bias; others had low bias
Patel87 High Domains 2, 3, and 5 had unclear bias and domain 4 had high bias
Pinar et al88 Low Domain 2 had unclear bias; others had low bias
Ragonese89 Unclear Domain 4 had unclear bias and domain 6 had high bias
Rezk-Allah et al90 High Only domain 1 had low bias
Saban et al93 Low All domains had low bias
Schmid et al101 Low Domain 6 had unclear bias
Scrimshaw and Maher102 Low All domains had low bias
Svernlöv et al109 High Domains 2, 3, and 6 had high bias
Tal-Akabi and Rushton111 Low Domain 2 had unclear bias
Vicenzino et al115 Low Domain 1 had unclear bias
Mahmoud75 High Domains 1, 2, and 3 had high bias
Wolny et al119 Low All domains had low bias

journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy | volume 47 | number 9 | september 2017 | a5


[ research report ]
APPENDIX F

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF META-ANALYSES FOR CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME


Outcome Relative Effect* Participants/Studies, n P Value Low Risk of Bias, n
Pain (VAS) –0.22 (–0.74, 0.3) 126/513,15,88,101,111 .40 4
Favors treatment
Hand grip strength 1.18 (–1.29, 3.66) 139/43,13,19,88 .35 1
Neutral
Disability (DASH) –1.55 (–7.84, 4.75) 153/315,59,60 .63 2
Favors treatment
2-point discrimination 0.36 (–0.8, 0.08) 173/33,11,13 .11 2
Downloaded from www.jospt.org at on August 9, 2019. For personal use only. No other uses without permission.

Favors treatment
Phalen’s sign 0.81 (0.87, 1.86) 229/53,11,13,86,88 .42 2
Favors treatment
Abbreviations: DASH, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire; VAS, visual analog scale.
*Values in parentheses are 95% confidence interval.
Copyright © 2017 Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®. All rights reserved.
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy®

a6 | september 2017 | volume 47 | number 9 | journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy