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TSUNAMI

Tsunami

Japanese word

pronounced: soo - nah me

means “wave in the harbor”

misnamed as “tidal waves”

Tsunamis are due to the sudden

upward (or downward) movement of rocks along a fault at the seafloor.

TSUNAMI

NOAA National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration

A set of ocean waves caused

by the large, abrupt

disturbance of the sea-surface.

TSUNAMI

Major tsunamis are produced by

earthquakes with magnitudes greater than

7.

Produced with hypocenters less than

30km.

Are generated by earthquakes along

convergent boundary (Reverse).

The seafloor will suddenly be driven

upward.

TSUNAMI

Faults are found not only on land but

also under the sea. When a fault at the

bottom of the sea suddenly moves, the water above it can be affected.

A sudden push from an underwater fault can produce a wave called a

tsunami.

Period

A series of waves may arrive every 10-60 minutes

Period • A series of waves may arrive every 10-60 minutes

Travel at speeds up to 600 miles per

hour (965.4 Km/hr)

Tsunami traveling in deep water and

open ocean cause no damage and are hardly noticeable.

Tsunami traveling in shallow water can batter coastlines with waves as high as

100 feet(30m), causing considerable

damage.

The wave is long, about 100 km or

so. When the “front” end reaches

the shore, it slows down. But the

“tail” end keeps on coming at great

speed. So the water piles up and grows to dangerous heights,

destroying everything in its path.

TSUNAMI

Far from the shore, a tsunami is low, maybe just a meter high. But

it travels at the speed of a jet plane. When the tsunami reaches

the shore, it slows down but it grows in height.

TSUNAMI

When a fault suddenly moves on land, you get an earthquake. But if a fault suddenly moves in or near a

body of water, you may get a

tsunami in addition to the earthquake.

Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN Friday, March 11, 2011
Magnitude 9.0 NEAR THE EAST
COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN
Friday, March 11, 2011

This earthquake occurred 130 km (80

miles) east of Sendai, Honshu, Japan and 373 km (231 miles) northeast of

Tokyo, Japan.

This earthquake occurred 130 km (80 miles) east of Sendai, Honshu, Japan and 373 km (231

Projection of Japan tsunami moving

across the Pacific Ocean

Projection of Japan tsunami moving across the Pacific Ocean

In March 2011, a powerful earthquake took place in the Pacific

Ocean near Japan. Afterward, a tsunami

hit Japan. Tens of thousands (please

check approximate figures) Twenty

thousand people were killed. More than

a million houses and buildings were

damaged or destroyed.

In December 2004, a strong

earthquake occurred in the Indian

Ocean near Indonesia. A tsunami soon followed. More than 200,000 people were confirmed dead, many

of them in Indonesia, Thailand, India,

and Sri Lanka.

In 1976, an earthquake took

place in the Moro Gulf in Mindanao.

Later on, a tsunami hit nearby coastal areas. Thousands of people

were killed. Many more were

declared missing. What is the connection between earthquakes and tsunamis?

The destruction of Tsunami

The destruction of Tsunami

SUMMARY

Thus, when you are near the sea and you

feel a strong earthquake, treat that as a

warning signal. Run to the highest place you

can find, or if you have a vehicle, evacuate

inland.

Not every fault movement beneath the sea

will produce a tsunami. Those faults that

move in a horizontal direction or sideways

will not result in a tsunami. The fault has to

move in the vertical sense. A sudden

upward push triggered the wave.