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2 Main Goals 
● Balance​ & ​Emotion 
● There are a lot of other, smaller things that go into a mix, but these are the most 

● Associated with the mix sounding good 
○ Good volume balance 
○ Good frequency balance 
○ Good dynamic balance 
● The more objective side of mixing 
○ We can use spectrum analyzers to check things 
○ In general vocals should be the loudest part of a mix etc. 
○ There is still some subjectiveness in this area, but less so than the emotion 
side of mixing 
● Main tools to achieve this 
○ EQ 
○ Compression 
○ Volume Fader 
● Techniques 
○ Volume Balancing 
■ This is where most of your “Balance” comes from  
■ Start with the most important thing and slowly bring up other 
tracks to the appropriate volume 
○ Using References 
■ Use professionally mixed tracks to compare your mix to 
■ Listen for the low end, mid-range, and upper frequency spectrum 
■ Decide how best to fix these issues (mix buss EQ, individual tracks, 
○ Compression 
■ Leveling the dynamics a bit to keep balance 
■ Vocals are a very important element you want to keep consistent  

● The subjective side of mixing 
○ This is where a mix can go from “good” to “great” 
○ Enhancing and exaggerating artistic intention  
● Main tools to achieve this 
○ Automation 
○ Effects like reverb and delay 
○ Any other crazy effects! 
● Example techniques 
○ Volume Automation 
■ Use automation to bring out different parts 
■ If one instrument drops out for a bar, listen and see if there is 
another instrument that takes over. Subtly turn this up to direct the 
listener’s attention to it 
○ Vocal Automation 
■ Bring out ends of words 
■ There is a lot of emotion hidden in the ends of phrases that you 
wouldn’t normally notice 
■ This can help achieve a hyper-realistic sound 
○ Vocal Delay 
■ You can add delay to the ends of words on a vocal 
■ Set up a delay track and send your vocal to it 
■ Fine tune the length of the delay and then automate it so that it 
only happens when you want it to 
■ This can fill in space and help guide the listener to the next section 
of a song