Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

1|Page

NAZISM
FINAL DRAFT SUBMITTED IN THE FULFILLMENT OF THE COURSE TITLED:

POLITICAL SCIENCE-II

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:

Dr. S.P. SINGH Aditya bhardwaj(1705)

(faculty of POLITICAL SCIENCE II) B.A.LL.B(2017-22)

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, NYAYA NAGAR,


MITHAPUR, PATNA – 800001

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


2|Page

DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE


I hereby declare that the work presented in the B.A.LL.B(HONS.) project report
entitled “NAZISM” submitted at Chanakya National Law University is an authentic
record of my work carried out undetr the supervision of Dr. S.P. SINGH. I have not
submitted this work elsewhere for any other degree or diploma. I am fully
responsible for the contents of my project report.

SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE:

ADITYA BHARDWAJ

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, PATNA

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


3|Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to thank my faculty Dr. S.P. SINGH , whose guidance helped me a lot
with structuring my project,

I owe the present accomplishment of my project to my friends , who helped me


immensely with materials throughout the project and without whom I couldn’t
have completed it in the present way.

I would also like to express my gratitude to my parents and all those unseen
hands that helped me out at every stage of my project.

ADITYA BHARDWAJ

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


4|Page

INDEX

CONTENT PAGE NO.


DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE 2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 3

1. NAZISM : AN INTRODUCTION 5-6


 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
 HYPOTHESIS
 SOURCES OF DATA

2. ORIGIN OF THE NAZI 7-9


3. STATUS OF NAZI : POST WAR 10-13
4. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 14-16
5. BIBLIOGRAPHY 17

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


5|Page

INTRODUCTION:
Nazism (less commonly known as National Socialism) refers to the political beliefs held by the
Nazi Party (officially the "National Socialist German Workers' Party" - Nationalsozialistische
Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, commonly shortened to NSDAP). It resembled the contemporary
doctrine of fascism in many particulars, such as its authoriatism and ethnic nationalism,
although it had a much stronger emphasis on race. It destroyed terretroized ruled
germany from 1933 to 1945, during a period known as the "Third Reich." In case you were
wondering, the first Reich was the Holy Roman Empire and the second Reich was the German
Empire. Despite being in office longer than hitler, the Weimar Republic doesn't count.1
Communist of that time lumped all their authoritarian enemies together under the label of
"fascist". Today, continuing this usage, many people use the
terms Nazi and fascist interchangeably. Since very few true Nazis are still living (although there
are quite a few neo-Nazi groups), the term is often used more generally in reference to various
authoritarians, especially those who focus on hate, racism, or grammar; though brandishing the
term Nazi around to anyone who disagrees with you in a haphazard fashion rather diminishes
the atrocities commited by the Nazi regime
The myriad of influences leading up to the rise to power of the Nazis are well documented, but
there are also many topics which are hotly debated. Oswald Spengler's historical
determinist book The Decline of the West is cited as an "intellectual" influence although his
work was later banned by the Nazis because he dared to criticize them, and because he
rejected anti-Semitism. Spengler also rejected racismand found the idea of racial superiority
laughable, since the work that the Nazis loved had eight dominant cultures(called 'high
cultures'), only two of which were actually European. Ironically, his other book, Prussiandom
and Socialism, provided a basis for their view of socialism. Germanic romanticism and national
mysticism, as expressed in Wagner's operas, the Wandervögel youth movement (which was
outlawed by the Nazis, too), and German occultist movements like Ariosophy, are also cited as
precursors. More hotly disputed is the extent to which Nietzsche may have been an influence,
but his sister Elisabeth was an early and enthusiastic supporter of Hitler's and helped the Nazis
to claim him as one at least in name; some allege that certain potentially racist turns of phrase
found in contemporary editions of his works (most famously, the "splendid blond beast of
noble race") were added by her after his death.

1
https://www.britannica.com/event/National-Socialism

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


6|Page

AIMS AND OBJECTIVE:

The focus of researcher will be on following issues:

 To get an idea about the Nazism ideology.


 To trace back the causes of rise of Nazism.
 To relate Nazism with religion.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
The researcher reviewed the following books, articles and available act.
 THE RISE AND FALL OF THIRD REICH:A HISTORY OF NAZI GERMANY BY WILLIAM L.
SHIRER
 MEIN KAMPF BY ADOLF HITLER

HYPOTHESIS:
The researcher presumes that:
 Nazism ideology was not in accordance with the principles of mankind.
 Nazism ideology did not follow a good form of governance.

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


7|Page

ORIGIN OF THE NAZI:

NAZI PARTY ORIGINS

In 1919, army veteran Adolf Hitler, frustrated by Germany’s defeat in World War, which had
left the nation economically depressed and politically unstable, joined a fledgling political
organization called the German Workers’ Party. Founded earlier that same year by a small
group of men including locksmith Anton Drexler (1884-1942) and journalist Karl Harrer (1890-
1926), the party promoted German nationalism and anti-Semitism, and felt that the Treaty of
Versailles, the peace settlement that ended the war, was extremely unjust to Germany by
burdening it with reparations it could never pay. Hitler soon emerged as a charismatic public
speaker and began attracting new members with speeches blaming Jews and Marxists for
Germany’s problems and espousing extreme nationalism and the concept of an Aryan “master
race.” In July 1921, he assumed leadership of the organization, which by then had been
renamed the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party.

Through the 1920s, Hitler gave speech after speech in which he stated that unemployment,
rampant inflation, hunger and economic stagnation in postwar Germany would continue until
there was a total revolution in German life. Most problems could be solved, he explained, if
communists and Jews were driven from the nation. His fiery speeches swelled the ranks of the
Nazi Party, especially among young, economically disadvantaged Germans.

In 1923, Hitler and his followers staged the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, a failed takeover of the
government in Bavaria, a state in southern Germany. Hitler had hoped that the “putsch,” or
coup d’etat, would spark a larger revolution against the national government. In the aftermath
of the Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler was convicted of treason and sentenced to five years in prison,
but spent less than a year behind bars (during which time he dictated the first volume of
“Mein Kampf,” or “My Struggle,” his political autobiography). The publicity surrounding the
Beer Hall Putsch and Hitler’s subsequent trial turned him into a national figure. After his
release from prison, he set about rebuilding the Nazi Party and attempting to gain power
through the election process.

HITLER AND THE NAZIS COME TO POWER: 1933

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


8|Page

In 1929, Germany entered a period of severe economic depression and widespread


unemployment. The Nazis capitalized on the situation by criticizing the ruling government and
began to win elections. In the July 1932 elections, they captured 230 out of 608 seats in the
“Reichstag,” or German parliament. In January 1933, Hitler was appointed German chancellor
and his Nazi government soon came to control every aspect of German life.

Under Nazi rule, all other political parties were banned. In 1933, the Nazis opened their first
concentration camp, in Dachau, Germany, to house political prisoners. Dachau evolved into a
death camp where countless thousands of Jews died from malnutrition, disease and overwork
or were executed. In addition to Jews, the camp’s prisoners included members of other groups
Hitler considered unfit for the new Germany, including artists, intellectuals, Gypsies, the
physically and mentally handicapped and homosexuals.

MILITANT FOREIGN POLICY: 1933-39

Once Hitler gained control of the government, he directed Nazi Germany’s foreign policy
toward undoing the Treaty of Versailles and restoring Germany’s standing in the world. He
railed against the treaty’s redrawn map of Europe and argued it denied Germany, Europe’s
most populous state, “living space” for its growing population. Although the Treaty of
Versailles was explicitly based on the principle of the self-determination of peoples, he pointed
out that it had separated Germans from Germans by creating such new postwar states as
Austria and Czechoslovakia, where many Germans lived. 2

From the mid- to late 1930s, Hitler undermined the postwar international order step by step.
He withdrew Germany from the League of Nations in 1933, rebuilt German armed forces
beyond what was permitted by the Treaty of Versailles, reoccupied the German Rhineland in
1936, annexed Austria in 1938 and invaded Czechoslovakia in 1939. When Nazi Germany
moved toward Poland, Great Britain and France countered further aggression by guaranteeing
Polish security. Nevertheless, Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, and Great
Britain and France declared war on Germany. Six years of Nazi Party foreign policy had
ignited World War II.

FIGHT TO DOMINATE EUROPE: 1939-45

2
https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/nazi-party

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


9|Page

After conquering Poland, Hitler focused on defeating Britain and France. As the war expanded,
the Nazi Party formed alliances with Japan and Italy in the Tripartite Pact of 1940, and honored
its 1939 Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact with the Soviet Union until 1941, when Germany
launched a massive blitzkrieg invasion of the Soviet Union. In the brutal fighting that followed,
Nazi troops tried to realize the long-held goal of crushing the world’s major communist power.
After the United States entered the war in 1941, Germany found itself fighting in North Africa,
Italy, France, the Balkans and in a counterattacking Soviet Union. At the beginning of the war,
Hitler and his Nazi Party were fighting to dominate Europe; five years later they were fighting
to exist.

SYSTEMATIC MURDER OF EUROPEAN JEWS

When Hitler and the Nazis came to power in 1933, they instituted a series of measures aimed
at persecuting Germany’s Jewish citizens. By late 1938, Jews were banned from most public
places in Germany. During the war, the Nazis’ anti-Jewish campaigns increased in scale and
ferocity. In the invasion and occupation of Poland, German troops shot thousands of Polish
Jews, confined many to ghettoes where they starved to death and began sending others to
death camps in various parts of Poland, where they were either killed immediately or forced
into slave labor. In 1941, when Germany invaded the Soviet Union, Nazi death squads
machine-gunned tens of thousands of Jews in the western regions of Soviet Russia 3.

In early 1942, at the Wannsee Conference near Berlin, the Nazi Party decided on the last phase
of what it called the “Final Solution” of the “Jewish problem” and spelled out plans for the
systematic murder of all European Jews. In 1942 and 1943, Jews in the western occupied
countries including France and Belgium were deported by the thousands to the death camps
mushrooming across Europe. In Poland, huge death camps such as Auschwitz began operating
with ruthless efficiency. The murder of Jews in German-occupied lands stopped only in last
months of the war, as the German armies were retreating toward Berlin. By the time Hitler
committed suicide in April 1945, some 6 million Jews had died.

3
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/8843158/Why-Hitler-hated-being-called-a-Nazi-
and-whats-really-in-humble-pie-origins-of-words-and-phrases-revealed.html

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


10 | P a g e

STATUS OF NAZI :POST WAR:

In World War II, Germany brought immeasurable suffering and destruction to the whole of
Europe. An estimated 60 million people were killed in the conflict, of whom around five million
were German. Two thirds of the dead were civilians – among them six million Jews.

Adolf Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945. On May 8 in Reims and again on May 9 in
Berlin, Germany’s military signed the unconditional surrender.

At the end of the Nazi regime Germany was almost totally destroyed. Some 12 million Germans
were refugees – mostly from regions in the East that were now in Soviet hands – and looking
for a new home.

The responsibility for WWII and the national sentiment of guilt shaped the role of German
politicians and citizens in Europe for decades.

Never again: Holocaust and anti-semitism

Holocaust (the Greek word for “burnt”) or Shoah (the Hebrew word for “catastrophe”) refers to
the mass murder of six millions Jews, or people that the Nazi regime considered Jews.

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


11 | P a g e

It was the declared aim of the Nazis to ban all Jews from Europe, Hitler’s “final solution to the
Jewish question” that led to industrial mass murder.

Jews, but also Sinti, Roma, homosexuals and political opponents were persecuted by the Nazi
regime. The worst horrors were the organised mass shootings and death by gas of death-camp
prisoners from all over Europe.

It was only when the Soviet Red Army and then the Allied Forces liberated the concentration
camps at the end of the war that the degree of the crimes became apparent.

The Allies tried to bring to justice the perpetrators of the Holocaust in the Nuremberg Trials.

Since the end of World War II, Germany has been trying to come to terms with anti-semitism
and has made the denial of the Holocaust punishable by law.

The Shoah also explains a very special relationship between Germany and Israel, where Yad
Vashem in Jerusalem remembers the six million murdered Jews.

Cold war and a divided Germany

At the Yalta and Potsdam conferences in 1945, the leaders of the USA, the USSR and Great
Britain planned the de-nazification, democratisation and demilitarisation of a post-war
Germany.

These three ultimately victorious powers, along with France, shared the administration of
Germany, which was carved up into four zones of occupation. Berlin – which found itself within
the Soviet zone of occupation, or “Eastern Zone”, was also itself divided into four zones of
occupation (sectors).

Immediately after the war, Winston Churchill spoke of an “Iron Curtain” that had descended
across Europe, behind which the Soviet Union was hiding: “An Iron Curtain is drawn down upon
their front. We do not know what is going on behind.”
The Iron Curtain separated the capitalist West from the Soviet, communist East and became the
front line in a new conflict – the Cold War.

On May 23, 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany (known as West Germany) was founded on
the model of Western democracies. Five months later the Soviet occupied Eastern Zone, along
with East Berlin, officially became the “German Democratic Republic” (known as East
Germany), a Soviet-style socialist state.

There followed a progressive separation of the two German states, the most visible being the
Berlin Wall built by the Soviet-backed GDR in August 1961. The fall of the Wall in 1989 was the
first big step toward German reunification, 44 years after the end of the Second World War

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


12 | P a g e

The Marshall Plan and German economic ‘miracle’

In Germany and in Europe most industries were destroyed after WWII, causing chronic
unemployment and poverty. In 1947, the US Secretary of State George C. Marshall had the idea
of a ‘European Recovery Programme’. It was designed to “contain” totalitarism and
communism and to create markets for US products. Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany,
Austria, Greece and the Benelux countries received help from the USA. Washington invested
13.2 billion dollars into the European economy. For many experts this provided the basis of
what is today the European Union.

In the 1950s the German economy was beginning to experience what Germans described as
a Wirtschaftswunder (Economic Miracle). The Christian Democrats had introduced the so-
called “social market economy” and industry grew by 185 percent between 1950 and 1963. To
rebuild Germany, the economy needed extra hands and from the mid 1950s a steady flow of
“Gastarbeiter” (guest workers) were recruited – first from Italy, but then also from other
countries including many from Turkey. West Germany had been transformed within 15 years
from a Nazi disaster zone into a prosperous, immigration state.4

Pacifism and the new role

After the bitter experience of the Nazi regime and Second World War, Germans, both in East
and West turned away from militarism. Although West Germany decided in the early 1950s –
despite strong protests in Parliament and among the public – to follow East Germany in
rebuilding an army and (unlike East Germany) join NATO, West German soldiers took no part in
international combat missions until German reunification in 1990.

4
http://www.euronews.com/2015/05/05/how-world-war-ii-shaped-modern-germany

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


13 | P a g e

Although the end of the division forced Germany to abandon its passivity and redefine its role
in the Western defense alliance, a pacifist attitude and a certain skepticism about military
activities in Germany – regardless of generational change – can still be observed today.

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


14 | P a g e

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS:

The prospective victory of neo-Nazi political parties and ideological narratives in Europe is by no
means a foregone conclusion. However, for such a series of victories to be averted will require
existing trends in the exponential growth in popularity of these parties to be halted and
reversed.

This investigation has not set out to identify wider sociological and economic drivers of the rise
of the ‘new’ far-right, but has focused on the growing internal cohesion within the movement
with respect to its shared neo-Nazi heritage and ideology — along with its tactical efforts to
conceal this heritage and ideology in order to consolidate leverage over mainstream public
institutions.

To the extent that mainstream institutions have enabled this process to take place, they have
become (unwittingly or otherwise) structural accomplices in the emergence of a trans-Atlantic
neo-Nazi political movement with considerable influence on mainstream right-wing parties
across the Western world. The distinctive character of this trans-Atlantic neo-Nazi movement is
precisely its axiomatic public denunciation of the very ideology that animates it at core.

It is for this reason that this ‘new’ revamped form of Nazism — cosmetically altered through
public relations and internal policing, allowing itself to temporarily ‘bury’ its animating ideology
for later resurrection when the consolidation of power no longer requires such measures — is
not simply ‘neo-Nazism’, but something far more insidious.

A more conceptually accurate way of capturing this phenomenon is the idea of reconstructed-
Nazism, indicating that the core ideology embraces core Nazi principles, but embeds them in a
range of cosmetic narrative adjustments which allow those principles to function subliminally in
a new postwar, anti-Nazi and post-9/11 global cosmopolitan context.

This is an unprecedented development in the history of Europe that makes the continent
vulnerable to neo-fascist subversion.

This suggests the following ways forward for concerned citizens, public institutions, government
policymakers and political parties:

Recommendation 1
Citizens, including especially journalists, must be aware of how legitimate public debates over
immigration, multiculturalism and the future of the European Union have been subtly defaced
from behind the scenes by political parties and groups belonging to a trans-Atlantic
reconstructed-Nazi movement. The questions involved in these debates are widely recognised as
bearing critical importance for the future of viable and safe liberal democracies — however, the

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


15 | P a g e

trans-Atlantic reconstructed-Nazi movement sees these debates as, effectively, ideological


‘Trojan Horses’ by which to cement their legitimacy in mainstream public institutions.

Therefore, it is absolutely crucial that citizens reflect critically on the way in which these debates
are being exploited by parties and groups affiliated to the reconstructed-Nazi movement to
endorse discriminatory and exclusionary policy proposals that threaten the most fundamental
values of liberal democracies. This includes the real threat from Islamist terrorism, whose latest
incarnation is the ‘Islamic State’.

Reconstructed-Nazism privately welcomes the escalation of Islamist terrorist attacks as a


mechanism to convince Western publics of the need for white-supremacist institutions that
discriminate against and exclude various types of ‘Other.’ While for tactical reasons the current
focus of such proposals comprise Muslim communities, in principle the internal dynamics of this
movement reveals that Jewish communities alongside numerous other minorities are also at
risk.

Recommendation 2
Civil society and media organisations have so far underestimated the extent to which far-right
parties such as the British Ukip, the Dutch PVV and the French NF constitute nodes within an
emerging trans-Atlantic reconstructed-Nazi movement. This has led to insufficiently critical
examination of their Nazi heritage, alliances and inconsistent policies, permitting them to
publicly distance themselves from their own core animating pro-Nazi sympathies with a degree
of credibility.

Further research and investigative journalism is urgently required to unearth the nature of these
political parties, their origins and goals, and their increasing interest in trans-Atlantic tactical
coordination.

This information also needs to be widely communicated in order to galvanise an informed public
debate on the risk this emerging movement poses to social cohesion and national security.

Recommendation 3
Governments and mainstream political parties have been all too willing to sacrifice their
professed principles by forging alliances with far-right parties operating as nodes in the trans-
Atlantic reconstructed-Nazi movement. While this strategy may or may not pay off in the short-
term in terms of public outreach, the toxifying impact on public discourse and the increasing
legitimacy and credibility thus granted to individual nodes (specific national political parties) in
the reconstructed-Nazi movement gives, empowers the wider movement’s ideological reach.

In the long-run this fatally undermines the mainstream voter support-base of the mainstream
parties, paving the way for future far-right political victories at the expense of incumbent
parties. Efforts to capture public votes by mainstream parties tactically shifting further to the

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


16 | P a g e

right will simply backfire increasingly by lending further credence to the reconstructed-
Nazi ideology and demonstrating the need for the mainstream to make effective concessions to
the far-right simply to survive.

Therefore, governments and mainstream political parties, especially conservative and right-wing
parties being courted by the far-right, must pursue countervailing strategies to root out and
condemn sympathisers of reconstructed-Nazi extremism in their own ranks. While remaining
true to their own political principles, they must communicate to their own members,
constituencies and to the wider public that these principles are fundamentally at odds with the
animating principles, ideology and values of the trans-Atlantic reconstructed-Nazi movement.

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY


17 | P a g e

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
https://www.britannica.com/event/National-Socialism

https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/nazi-party

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/8843158/Why-Hitler-hated-being-
called-a-Nazi-and-whats-really-in-humble-pie-origins-of-words-and-phrases-revealed.html

http://www.euronews.com/2015/05/05/how-world-war-ii-shaped-modern-germany

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY