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Sustainable Energy Technologies and Systems

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Mohamed EL-Shimy
Ain Shams University
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7HFKQRORJLHVDQG6\VWHPV

Mohamed EL-Shimy (Editor)


Professor of Electric Power Systems
Ain Shams University
Cairo, Egypt
2019
Preface

This book presents updated scientific issues, and future plans related to
energy production technologies, and energy systems. The book focuses on the
electrical energy. It includes selected topics that cover the following
sections:

1. Energy technologies and production studies,


2. Energy security and optimization,
3. Stability of electric energy systems,
4. Technological reliability studies,
5. Biofuels and bio-economy, and
6. Miscellaneous topics.

The book is therefore divided into six sections, each of which contains one of
these themes. The book considers the measures, and technologies for
counteracting the present environmental problems caused by the extensive
use of fossil resources in various energy applications. The secure and
sustainable design and operation of energy systems is among the main
targets of the book. Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the book, it is
beneficial for educational and research purposes in interdisciplinary
undergraduate and postgraduate curriculums. The book is also prepared for
facilitating self-study of independent students. It is also valuable for
engineers, economists, and decision makers for better understanding of the
current and future of the considered theme.

Sincerely,
M. EL-Shimy (editor)
June 11, 2019

2
List of contributers

The contributors ordered as they appear in the book are as follows.

M. EL-Shimy Electrical power and Machines department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain


(editor) Shams University, 11517, Cairo, Egypt. Emails:
mohamed_bekhet@eng.asu.eg, shimymb@yahoo.com,
shimymb@gmail.com. Mobile phone no. +2 01005639589. Skype:
shimymb

A. Sayed Electrical power and Machines department, the higher Institute of


(QJLQHHULQJ(O¶6KRURXN&LW\&DLUH(J\SW
eng_ahmed_sayed2010#yahoo.com

M. El- Electrical power and Machines department, Faculty of Engineering,


Metwally Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, mh_metwally@yahoo.com

M. El-Shahed Electrical power and Machines department, Faculty of Engineering,


Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, eng.m.elshahed@gmail.com

Polina Founder and CEO at HelioRec, France, Paris; email:


Vasilenko pvasilenko@heliorec.com

Nabil Nahas Faculty of Administration, University of Moncton, New Brunswick,


Canada, email: nabil.nahas@gmail.com

Mohammed School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of


Abouheaf Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada, email: mabouhea@uottawa.ca
Adel Sharaf SHARAF Energy Systems, Inc., Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada,
email: sharaf@unb.ca

Alaa Emad Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Egypt. Email:


alaaemad993@gmail.com

Ghada Electrical Power and Machines Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Benha


Mohamed University, Egypt.
Email: ghada.amer@bhit.bu.edu.eg; ghada.amer@astf.net

Mahmoud A. Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Ain Shams University,


Attia Cairo, Egypt; Mahmoud.Abdullah@eng.asu.edu.eg

A.N. Afandi Electrical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Jawa


Timur, Indonesia, an.afandi@um.ac.id
Smart Power and Advanced Energy Systems (SPAES) Research Center,
Batu Jawa Timur, Indonesia, an.afandi@ieee.org

Irham Fadlika Electrical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Jawa


3
Timur, Indonesia, irham.fadlika.ft@um.ac.id

Langlang Electrical Engineering, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Jawa


Gumilar Timur, Indonesia, langlang.gumilar.ft@um.ac.id

Farrel Candra Smart Power and Advanced Energy Systems (SPAES) Research Center,
W.A Batu Jawa Timur, Indonesia, farrel.candrawinata@gmail.com

Michiko Ryuu Smart Power and Advanced Energy Systems (SPAES) Research Center,
S.A. Batu Jawa Timur, Indonesia, michiko.ryuusakura@gmail.com

Takashi International Research Organization for Advanced Science and


Hiyama Technology (IROAST), Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan,
hiyama@cs.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

Goro Fujita Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Shibaura Institute of


Technology, Tokyo, Japan, gfujita@sic.shibaura-it.ac.jp

Nedim Tutkun Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Istanbul Aydin University,


Istanbul, Turkey, nedimtutkun@aydin.edu.tr

G. Hashem Electric Power and Machines Department, Ain Shams University,


Cairo, Egypt; gamalhashem@hotmail.com

Mohamed Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Ain Shams University,


Anwar Cairo, Egypt; m_an90@hotmail.com

Wail Gueaieb School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of


Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada, email: wgueaieb@uottawa.ca

Frank Lewis Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Texas at


Arlington, Arlington, Texas, USA, email: lewis@uta.edu

Khaled M. Centre for Distributed Power and Electronics Systems (CDPES),


Abo-Al-Ez Department of Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Cape Peninsula University
of Technology (CPUT), Bellville, 7435, Cape Town, South Africa, E-
mail: aboalezk@cput.ac.za

Mahmoud M. Department of Electrical Power and Machines, Ain Shams University,


El-Sharkawy Cairo, Egypt
Almoataz Y. Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Future University, Cairo, Egypt;
Abdelaziz almoatazabdelaziz@hotmail.com

A. EL- Electrical Projects Dept., Salah Shaaban consulting Office, Cairo,


Bassiouny Egypt, ahmad.a@shaabanconsult.com

R. Hamouda Energy Engineering, Faulty of Engineering, Heliopolis University,


Cairo, Egypt, rizk.hamouda@hu.edu.eg

Baseem Khan Hawassa University, Ethiopia, baseem.khan04@gmail.com

4
José G. University Center for economic and Managerial Sciences, University of
Vargas- Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco, México, jvargas2006@gmail.com,
Hernández +523337703340 ext. 25685; jvargas2006@gmail.com

Karina Pallagst IPS Department International Planning Systems. Faculty of Spatial and
Environmental Planning Pfaffenbergstr. 95 Technische Universität
Kaiserslautern, Germany, karina.pallagst@ru.uni-kl.de Tel. +49 (0)631-
205-5155

Ulises Fragoza University Center for economic and Managerial Sciences, University of
Sánchez Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco, México. ufnegocios@gmail.com

J. José Esparza Centro Universitario de Ciencias Económico Administrativas.


López Universidad de Guadalajara; juanjo-esparza@outlook.com

Jesús Iván University Center for economic and Managerial Sciences, University of
González Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco, México;
Ontiveros ivan_gonzalez9302@hotmail.com

Kada Unité de Recherche en Energies Renouvelables en Milieu Saharien,


Bouchouicha URERMS, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables,
CDER, 01000 Adrar, Algeria, k.bouchouicha@gmail.com

Nouar Aoun Unité de Recherche en Energies Renouvelables en Milieu Saharien,


URERMS, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables,
CDER, 01000 Adrar, Algeria

Nadjem Bailek Department of Material Sciences Tamanrasset university center


Tamanrasset, Algeria, nadjem.bailek@univ-sba.dz

Brahim Unité de Recherche en Energies Renouvelables en Milieu Saharien,


Oulimar URERMS, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables,
CDER, 01000 Adrar, Algeria

Abdelhak Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, BP 62


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5
‘–‡–•
Preface .............................................................................. 2
List of contributers ........................................................... 3

3DUW(QHUJ\WHFKQRORJLHVDQGSURGXFWLRQVWXGLHV .......... 18
Chapter 1: Overview for Practical Layouts of Solar-PV and Wind Energy
Conversion Systems ....................................................... 19
Abstract .......................................................................... 19
Keywords ....................................................................... 19
1. Introduction ................................................................ 19
2. Various layouts of renewable systems ....................... 22
3. Solar-PV systems ....................................................... 24
4 Wind energy conversion systems................................ 26
5. Standalone VRE systems with hydrogen storage ...... 29
5.1 Power to Hydrogen to Power (P2H2P) Systems ..... 30
5.2 Renewable Power-to-Hydrogen Conversion Systems with Assisted of Nuclear
Power ............................................................................. 32
5.3 Renewable Energy System Based on Conventional Energy Storage and
Hydrogen ........................................................................ 33
6. Conclusions or Summary ........................................... 35

Chapter 2: Net Energy Yield and Sizing of Solar Photovoltaic Generators for
Preliminary Studies ........................................................ 37
Abstract .......................................................................... 37
Keywords ....................................................................... 37
1 Introduction ................................................................. 37
2 Energy Production and Derating Factors of Solar-PV Generators 40
3 The Panel Generation Factor (PGF) ........................... 45
3.1 Fixed Daily Load Profile ......................................... 46
3.2 Monthly or Seasonally Variable Load Profile ......... 49
4. Conclusions ................................................................ 49

Chapter 3: Net Energy Yield and Sizing of Wind Farms for Preliminary Studies
........................................................................................ 50
Abstract .......................................................................... 50
Keywords ....................................................................... 51
6
1 Introduction .................................................................51
1.1 Layouts and grid-connection of wind farms ............51
1.2 Internal or infield connections in wind farms ..........56
1.3 Spacing requirements between turbines ...................56
2. Wind energy production and power curve models ....59
2.1 Exact and approximate models ................................59
2.2 Correction of the Weibull PDF parameters ..............65
3. Optimal site matching of WTGs and TGF ..............67
4. Conclusions .............................................................73

Chapter 4: The floating Solar Photovoltaic (Floatovoltaic) Power Plant with a Low
Carbon Footprint Approach ...........................................75
Abstract ................................................................................................................ 75
Keywords ............................................................................................................. 75
1. Electrical performance characteristics of solar-PV modules ........................ 76
1.1. Brief overview of solar-PV systems .......................................................... 76
1.2. Concepts, equivalent circuit, and theoretical characteristics ..................... 79
1.3. Measured characteristics under various conditions ................................... 85
1.4. Performance characteristics of water flooded solar-PV modules.............. 97
2. The floatovoltaic technology ........................................................................ 98
3. The material consideration using circular economy approach ................... 101
4. Manufacturing process of the floating structures from plastic materials .... 106
5. The main risks for the installation floating power plant on the sea ............ 107
5.1. Risk of corrosion of the material in the saltwater environment .............. 107
5.2. Challenges associated with deployment in the harsh-sea conditions ...... 108
5.3. Possible environmental impact on marine life ........................................ 110
6. Benefits of the floating solar power plant ................................................... 113
7. Conclusion .................................................................................................. 114
8. Acknowledgment ........................................................................................ 114

3DUW(QHUJ\VHFXULW\DQGRSWLPL]DWLRQ ........................116
Chapter 5: Non-Convex Economic Dispatch Solution Using Modified Fast Search
Algorithm .....................................................................117
Abstract ........................................................................117
Keywords .....................................................................117
1. Introduction ..............................................................118
2. Economic Dispatch Problem Formulation ...............121
7
2.1 The Non-Convex Generation Cost Functions ........ 122
2.1.1 Cost Function with Valve-Point Loading Effects123
2.1.2 The Cost Function with Multiple-Fuel Options .. 123
2.1.3 The Hybrid Cost Function .................................. 124
3. Simulated Annealing Algorithm (SA) ..................... 125
3.1 The SA Description................................................ 125
4. Great Deluge Algorithm (GDA) .............................. 125
5. Nonlinear Threshold Accepting Algorithm (NLTA)126
5.1 The NLTA Description .......................................... 127
6. Applying SA, GDA, and NLTA to the ED Problem128
6.1 Generation of the Feasible Solutions ..................... 128
6.2 Neighboring Solution ............................................. 129
7. Numerical Experiments............................................ 130
7.1 Experiment 1 .......................................................... 130
7.2 Experiment 2 .......................................................... 132
7.3 Investigating the behavior of the algorithms ......... 132
8. Conclusion ............................................................... 134
9. Appendix A .............................................................. 135

Chapter 6: Static Security Constrained Optimal Economic Dispatch (SSCOED) ±


An Overview ................................................................ 137
Abstract ........................................................................ 137
Keywords ..................................................................... 137
1. Introduction .............................................................. 137
2. Effect of load Uncertainty on Power System Operation148
3. Spinning Reserve Requirements .............................. 150
4. Formulation of the Static Security Constrained Optimal Economic Dispatch
(SSCOED) .................................................................... 151
5. Solution of the SSCOED ......................................... 155
6. Conclusions .............................................................. 158

Chapter 7: A Generalized Approach for Sizing of Single Source Variable


Renewable Energy Systems with Storage.................... 159
Abstract ........................................................................ 159
Keywords ..................................................................... 159
1. Introduction .............................................................. 160
2. The Deterministic Balance Method (DBM) ............ 162

8
3. Case study ................................................................167
3.1 Modes of operation.................................................168
3.2 Load profile ............................................................169
3.3 Study site and its meteorological conditions ..........170
3.4 Study month selection ............................................170
3.5 Sizing of the solar-PV system using the DBM ......171
3.6 Evaluation of the DBM results using the SAM .....171
4. Appendix 1: Operational Requirements of Power Grids 171
5. Conclusions ..............................................................175

Chapter 8: Artificial Salmon Tracking Algorithm .......177


Abstract ........................................................................177
Keywords .....................................................................178
1. Natural Inspiration....................................................178
2. Learning Migration ..................................................182
3 Programming Guidance.............................................185
4. Optimal Economic Dispatch ....................................187
5. Optimal Technical Performances .............................190
6. Summary ..................................................................198
7. Acknowledgment .....................................................199

3DUW6WDELOLW\RIHOHFWULFHQHUJ\V\VWHPV ......................200
Chapter 9: Dynamic Equivalence of Solar Photovoltaic (Solar-PV) Generators for
Stability-Based Grid Integration ..................................201
Abstract ........................................................................201
Keywords .....................................................................201
1. Introduction ..............................................................202
2. Reduced order dynamic models ...............................204
3. Application of the reduced order model in estimation of the maximum
penetration level ...........................................................217
4. Dynamic Results based on ETAP-software nonlinear simulation 225
5. Conclusions and extensions .....................................227

Chapter 10: Mathematical and Physical Simulations of DFIG-based Wind Turbine


Considering Various Disturbances and Operation Modes229
Abstract ........................................................................229
Keywords .....................................................................229

9
1. Introduction .............................................................. 229
2. Power control concepts ............................................ 236
3. Laboratory Model of wind turbine generator........... 236
4. Control concepts of the LUCAS-NÜLLE GmbH Model 243
4.1 Slip control ...................................................................................................243
4.2 Speed control ...............................................................................................243
5. Laboratory simulation results .................................. 244
5.1 Case study 1..................................................................................................244
5.2 Case study 2.................................................................................................252
Conclusions .................................................................. 255

Chapter 11: Innovative Machine Learning Approaches for Load Frequency


Regulation .................................................................... 257
Abstract ........................................................................ 257
Keywords ..................................................................... 257
1. Introduction .............................................................. 258
2. Load Frequency Regulation ..................................... 261
2.1 Dynamics of Load Frequency Regulation ............. 261
2.2 The Dynamics of Multi-Area Synchronization ..... 262
2.3 The Objectives of the Optimization Problem ........ 262
3 Model-Free Adaptive Learning Solutions ................ 263
3.1 Temporal Difference Equations ............................. 263
3.2 Value Iteration Solutions ....................................... 264
4 Adaptive Critics Implementations ............................ 266
4.1 Neural Network Implementation Value Iteration Process 1 266
4.2 Neural Network Implementation Value Iteration Process 2 268
5 Different Control Scenarios ...................................... 270
5.1 Case I: Single-Area Power System ........................ 270
5.2 Case II: Two-Area Power System.......................... 271
5.3 Case III: Fully Connected Four-Area Power System271
6 Simulation Cases and Analysis ................................. 272
6.1 Case I: Simulations for Single-Area Power System272
6.2 Case II: Simulation for Two-Area Power System . 275
6.3 Case III: Simulation for Fully Connected Four-Area Power System 278
7 Conclusions ............................................................... 280

10
CHAPTER 12: Smart Crowbar Protection for Low Voltage Ride Through
Connection Requirement of Wind Energy Production Systems 281
Abstract ........................................................................281
Keywords .....................................................................282
1. Introduction ..............................................................282
2. Mathematical Modeling of Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWT): 286
2.1 Main Segments of VSWT: .......................................................................... 286
2.2 Adjustable Power Extraction Controller for Normal Operation of WEPS . 289
3. Electromagnetic, Electrical and Power Electronics Models: 292
3.1 DFIG Electromagnetic Model: .................................................................... 293
3.2 Transformer Model ...................................................................................... 295
3.3 The back-to-back Power Electronics Converter System Model: ................ 295
4. Back-to-back Converter Control and Protection ......296
4.1 Proposed Internal Model Controllers of the back-to-back converter: ......... 297
4.2 Crowbar protection of the DFIG rotor: ....................................................... 301
5. Performance Analysis of the Proposed Models and Controllers 302
5.1 Description of the Test System Components and Parameters:.................... 302
5.2 Simulation Scenarios: .................................................................................. 303
6. Conclusions ..............................................................307

&KDSWHU'\QDPLF3HUIRUPDQFHRI39øQWHUIDFH6\VWHP 309
Abstract .............................................................................................................. 309
Keywords ........................................................................................................... 309
1. Introduction: .................................................................................................. 309
2 System under Study: ....................................................................................... 312
3 The proposed optimization techniques for PI controller: -............................. 314
4 Genetic Algorithm (GA): ............................................................................... 314
5 The Harmony Search (HS): ............................................................................ 314
6 GRAVITATIONAL SEARCH ALGORITHM (GSA): ................................. 315
7 Results: ........................................................................................................... 316
7.1 PI tuning: .................................................................................................. 316
7.2 Results under several irradiances: ............................................................ 318
7.3 Results under Dynamic irradiance: .......................................................... 319
7.4 Robustness test: ........................................................................................ 321
8 Conclusions: ................................................................................................... 325

11
Chapter 14: DFIG controller application ..................... 327
Abstract ..............................................................................................................327
Keywords............................................................................................................327
1. Introduction: ...................................................................................................327
2 Wind Speed Variability: ..................................................................................329
3 Pitch Angle Controller: - .................................................................................330
4 DFIG model implementation and Simulink results: .......................................332
5 Harmony Search Algorithm: ...........................................................................333
6 Whale Optimization Algorithm:......................................................................333
7 Objective function: ..........................................................................................334
8 PID controller type Simulation Results ...........................................................335
8.1 First Case Study: - .....................................................................................335
8.2 Second Case Study: -.................................................................................338
8.3 Third Case Study: - ...................................................................................341
9 Comparison between P& PID Simulation Results: - ......................................344
9.1 First Case Comparison: - ...........................................................................345
9.2 Second Case Comparison: - ......................................................................347
9.3 Third Case Comparison: - .........................................................................349
10 Practical Wind Speed Study ..........................................................................352
10.1 Winter: ........................................................................................................352
10.2 Summer: .....................................................................................................355
10.3 Autumn .......................................................................................................358
10.4 Spring .........................................................................................................361
11 Conclusion: - .................................................................................................364

3DUW7HFKQRORJLFDOUHOLDELOLW\VWXGLHV ......................... 366


Chapter 15: Holistic Reliability Evaluation of Various Solar-PV and Wind energy
conversion Systems ...................................................... 367
Abstract ........................................................................ 367
Keywords ..................................................................... 368
1. Introduction .............................................................. 368
2. Reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) Analysis 371
2.1 General concepts of RAM functions...................... 371
2.2 System decomposition ........................................... 372
2.3 Reliability modelling.............................................. 375
2.4 Reliability data collection ...................................... 375
12
2.5 RAM results for solar-PV systems .........................383
2.6 RAM results for wind energy systems ...................390
3. Availability importance measures ............................392
3.1 Availability importance measures for solar-PV system 394
3.2 Availability importance measures for WECS ........397
4. Appendix A ..............................................................401
5. Conclusions ..............................................................405

Chapter 16: Probabilistic analysis of the reliability performance and CIC of 220 kV
Power Transformers .....................................................407
Abstract ........................................................................407
Keywords .....................................................................407
1. Introduction ..............................................................407
2. Probability Distributions ..........................................409
3 Data Analysis and Estimation of Remaining Lifetime of the Transformers.
......................................................................................410
3.1 TBFs Calculations ..................................................410
3.2 Best Fit Distribution for Repair time, CIC and TBFs412
3.3 Estimating the remaining lifetime of the transformers regarding 220 kV
population .....................................................................416
3.4 Transformers Availability Evaluation ....................418
3.5 Results Discussion..................................................420
4. Subassemblies Data analysis ....................................420
4.1 Estimation of the remaining lifetime for the different subassemblies 421
4.2 Results Discussions ................................................424
5. CIC and Repair time Discussions ............................424
5.1 CIC per subassemblies ...........................................424
5.2 Repair time per subassemblies ...............................427
6. Summary ..................................................................428

3DUW%LRIXHOVDQGELRHFRQRP\ ..................................430
Chapter 17: Sustainable Bio-refineries for Waste Management and Development
......................................................................................431
Abstract ........................................................................431
Keywords .....................................................................431
1 Introduction ...............................................................431
1.1 Trends in energy sector ..........................................432

13
2. Background .............................................................. 433
2.1 Definitions .............................................................. 434
2.2 Supply chain ........................................................... 435
2.3 Life cycle................................................................ 435
2.4 Design in engineering ............................................ 436
3 Types of Bio-refinery Based on Design Strategies ... 436
3.1 Agriculture waste bio-refinery ............................... 437
3.2 Forestry waste bio-refinery .................................... 438
3.3 Industrial waste based bio-refinery ........................ 438
3.4 Food waste based bio-refinery ............................... 439
3.5 Animal waste based bio-refinery ........................... 440
3.6 Waste water based bio-refinery ............................. 441
3.7 Plastic waste based bio-refinery............................. 441
3.8 Algae based bio-refinery ........................................ 442
4 Sustainability of Bio refineries for Sustainable Development 443
4.1 Bio refinery Project Design Sustainability ............ 444
4.2 Economic sustainability ......................................... 445
4.3 Environmental sustainability ................................. 446
4.4 Social sustainability ............................................... 446
)XWXUH5HVHDUFK'ÕUHFWÕRQV ....................................... 447
6 ConcluVÕRQ ................................................................ 449
7 Acknowledgment ...................................................... 450

CHAPTER 18: Bio-economy at the Crossroads of Sustainable Development 451


Abstract ........................................................................ 451
Keywords ..................................................................... 451
1. Introduction ........................................................... 451
2. Conceptualization of bio-economy ....................... 452
3. Bio-economy as green economy ..................................................................454
4. Bio-economy as ecological economics ........................................................455
5. The deficiencies of neoclassical economics .......... 455
6. Bio-economy: A new economic epistemology paradigm ............................456
7. Principles of bio-economy .................................... 457
7.1 Circular economy .........................................................................................458
7.2 Sustainable development ..............................................................................458
7.3 Holistic approach ..........................................................................................459

14
7.4 Transdisciplinary approaches ...................................................................... 460
7.5 Innovation culture and capacity development ............................................. 461
7.6 Knowledge ± based economy ...................................................................... 463
7.8 Global ethics ................................................................................................ 467
8. Social capital and culture of peace ........................468
9. Bio-economy as a strategy.....................................470
10. Concluding remarks ...........................................475

Chapter 19: Opportunity for Potato Bioplastic Business in Northwest Mexico


......................................................................................477
Abstract ........................................................................477
Keywords .....................................................................477
1. Introduction ...........................................................477
2. Background and approach of the problem ............478
3. Delimitation of the problem ..................................482
4. Justification............................................................482
5. Theoretical conceptual review ...............................483
6. Review of empirical literature ...............................486
7. Contextual framework ...........................................488
8. Research methodology ..........................................489
9. Results ...................................................................489
10. Conclusions and recommendations ....................490

CHAPTER 20: Overview of the entrepreneurship of biodiesel companies in Mexico,


perspective based on the institutions ............................491
Abstract ........................................................................491
Keywords .....................................................................491
1. Introduction ...........................................................491
2. Background of the problem ......................................493
3. Delimitation of the problem .....................................493
4. Justification............................................................493
5. Theoretical assumption ..........................................495
6. Theoretical conceptual framework ........................495
6.1. Emergence of biodiesel ........................................................................... 495
6.2 Theories of entrepreneurship ....................................................................... 496
6.3 Theories of formal and informal institutions ............................................... 498
7. Contextual framework ...........................................500
15
8. Method .................................................................. 501
9. Analysis of results ................................................. 501
10. Conclusions and recommendations ................... 502

CHAPTER 21: Waste-to-Energy Business Model in Mexico: a Study of Three


Companies in the Country............................................ 503
Abstract ........................................................................ 503
Keywords ..................................................................... 503
1. Introduction .............................................................. 503
2. Background of the problem ..................................... 504
3. Justification ........................................................... 505
4. Theoretical-conceptual review ................................. 506
5. Review of the empirical literature ............................ 509
6. Contextual framework ........................................... 511
6.1 Bioenergy of Nuevo León, S.A. de C. V. (BENLESA) ...............................512
6.2 Ylem Energy Limited ...................................................................................513
6.3 Biogas of Juárez S. of C. V. .........................................................................514
7. Methods of research .............................................. 514
8. Results ................................................................... 514
8.1 Results from an industry-based view ...........................................................515
8.2 Results from a resource-based view .............................................................516
8.3 Results from Institution-based Vision ..........................................................516
9. Conclusions and recommendations ....................... 517

3DUW0LVFHOODQHRXVWRSLFV ........................................... 518


CHAPTER 22: Analysis of satellite derived solar irradiance in south region of
Algeria selecting Adrar as a case study ....................... 519
Abstract ........................................................................ 519
Keywords ..................................................................... 519
1. Introduction .............................................................. 519
2 Data Source ............................................................... 521
3. Method ..................................................................... 522
4. Results and Discussions ........................................... 523
4.1 Spatial distribution of global solar radiation ................................................528
4.2 Spatial classification of global solar radiation .............................................528
5. Conclusion ............................................................... 529
6. Acknowledgment ..................................................... 530
16
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