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Haematinics , coagulants and

anticoagulants
Dr. Jibachha Sah
M.V.Sc (Pharmacology)
College of Veterinary Science, NPI,
Bhojard,Chitwan
Haematinics

HAEMATINICS are the agents used for formation of blood to treat various types of
anaemia's. These include: Iron, Vitamin B and Folic Acid.

Deficiency in hematinics can lead to anaemia.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis, which can also


be given as a medicine to increase the hemoglobin content of the blood, but EPO
is not classified as a hematinic as it is not considered a nutrient, but a hormone.
(Hypo- refers to less, and chromic
means color.)
large red blood cells.

the average size and hemoglobin content of the red blood cells are within normal
limits are called normocytic normochromic anemias.
Classification of Haematinics
Haematinics include iron, folic acid, vitamin B 12, erythropoietin,
myeloid growth factors and megakaryocytic growth factors

Iron
Oral
•Iron gluconate
•Iron sulphate
•Iron fumarate

Parenteral
•Iron dextran (Imferon)
•Sodium ferric gluconate complex
•Iron sucrose (Venofer)
Folic Acid

●Reduced 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate (Leucovorin/citrovorum)

Vitamin B12
Endogenous
● Methyl cobalamine
● 5-deoxy adenosyl cobalamine
Exogenous
● Cyanocobalamine
● Hydroxycobalamine
Erythropoietin
● Recombinant –apoprotein
● Glycosylated –Darbipoietin alpha
Myeloid Growth Factors

● G-CSF –Filgrastim, Peg Filgrastim

● GM-CSF –Sargramostim

Megakaryocytic Growth Factor

● Interleukin II

● Operlvekin

● Thrombopoietin
The main treatment for hemophilia is called replacement therapy. Concentrates of
clotting factor VIII (for hemophilia A) or clotting factor IX (for hemophilia B) are
slowly dripped or injected into a vein. These infusions help replace the clotting
factor that's missing or low.

Weibel–Palade bodies (WPBs) are the storage granules of endothelial cells, the cells that form
the inner lining of the blood vessels and heart. They store and release two principal molecules,
von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, and thus play a dual role in hemostasis and inflammation.
Fibrinogen (Soluble) Converted to Fibrin (Insoluble):

In turn, thrombin converts fibrinogen (which is also a plasma protein synthesized in the
liver) into fibrin. Fibrin is insoluble and forms the threads that bind the clot
mechanism of coagulation

The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets, as


well as deposition and maturation of fibrin.
There are two pathways that lead to the conversion of prothrombin
to thrombin:

i. Intrinsic System:
This is initiated by liquid blood making contact with a foreign surface, i. e. something that is not
part of the body; or

These coagulation factors have individual names but are often referred to by a standardised set
of Roman Numerals, e.g. Factor VIII (anti-haemophilic factor), Factor IX (Christmas factor).

ii. Extrinsic System:


This is initiated by liquid blood making contact with damage tissue.

Prothrombinase (formed in stage 1.) converts prothrombin, which is a plasma protein that
is formed in the liver, into the enzyme thrombin
Anticoagulants

Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that


prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Blood clotting factor and
drug affect them