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INTRODUCTION OF

MICROPROCESSOR AND
MICROCONTROLLER
(DR. DALIA NANDI)
Introduction
 A computer is a programmable machine that
receives input, stores and manipulates
data//information, and provides output in a
useful format.
1.1 DIAGRAM OF A COMPUTER
SYSTEM
A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and
manipulates data//information, and provides output in a useful format.

Diagram Of A Computer System


BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A BASIC
COMPUTER SYSTEM
Basic computer system consist of a Central processing unit (CPU),
memory (RAM and ROM), input/output (I/O) unit.

Address bus

ROM RAM I/O I/O


CPU interface devices

Data bus Control


bus

Block diagram of a basic computer system 4


WHAT IS MICROPROCESSOR?
CPU - Central Processing Unit
 Control Unit- Coordinates the activity of different blocks of
Computer
 Arithmetic Logic Unit- performs arithmetic and logical
operations
 CPU fabricated in single IC chip is called Processor
 Execution time of an instruction is in microsecond order-
Microprocessor

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EVOLUTION OF MICROPROCESSOR

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FETCHING & EXECUTION CYCLES
 Fetching Cycles
 The fetch cycle takes the instruction required
from memory, stores it in the instruction
register, and
 moves the program counter on one so that it
points to the next instruction.
 Execute cycle

 The actual actions which occur during the


execute cycle of an instruction.
 depend on both the instruction itself and the
addressing mode specified to be used to access 7
the data that may be required.
INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND BASIC
OPERATION OF MICROPROCESSOR

Address bus
ALU Register
Section
Data bus

Control and timing


section Control bus

Block diagram of a microprocessor 8


DATA BUS
 The data bus is 'bi-directional'
 data or instruction codes from memory or
input/output.are transferred into the
microprocessor
 the result of an operation or computation is sent
out from the microprocessor to the memory or
input/output.
 For
8085 microprocessor, the data bus can
handle 8 bit data at a time.

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ADDRESS BUS
 The address bus is 'unidirectional', over which
the microprocessor sends an address code to the
memory or input/output.
 The size (width) of the address bus is specified by
the number of bits it can handle.
 A 16 bit address bus is capable of addressing
65,536 (64K) addresses.

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CONTROL BUS
 The control bus is used by the microprocessor to
send out or receive timing and control signals in
order to coordinate and regulate its operation and
to communicate with other devices, i.e. memory
or input/output.

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MICROCONTROLLER VERSUS GENERAL-
PURPOSE MICROPROCESSOR
In 1981, Intel Corporation
introduced an 8-bit
microcontroller called the
8051.
COMPARISON OF THE 8051 FAMILY MEMBERS
 ROM type
 8031 no ROM
 80xx mask ROM
 87xx EPROM
 89xx Flash EEPROM
 89xx
 8951
 8952
 8953
 8955
 898252
 891051
 892051
 Example (AT89C51,AT89LV51)
 AT= ATMEL(Manufacture)
 C = CMOS technology
 LV= Low Power(3.0v)
EMBEDDED SYSTEM

 What is Embedded System?


An embedded system is a product
that has one or more microprocessor
or microcontroller embedded within
it, which exercise primarily a control
function.

 An embedded product uses a microprocessor or microcontroller to do one


task only
An
There is onlysystem
embedded one application softwarewith
is closely integrated that the
is typically burned into ROM
main system
REFERENCES:
Microprocessor architecture, programming and applications
with the 8085 - Ramesh Gaonkar

Microcontroller :Theory and Applications - Ajay V Deshmukh

Programming Arduino :Getting started with sketch - Simon Monk

Raspberry Pi Cookbook-Simon Monk