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using MATLAB

## Working Paper · April 2016

DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3115.5606/1

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Emre Yılmaz
Turkish National Police
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A Simple Way for Estimating Mechanical Properties from Stress-Strain Diagram
using MATLAB

E. Yılmaz1
April 2016
1 Cankaya University, Department Of Material Science and Engineering, Yukariyurtcu Mahallesi, Mimar Sinan Cad. No:4, 06790,
Etimesgut/ANKARA Tel:+903122331501 e-mail:emreyilmaz@cankaya.edu.tr

Abstract
In this paper, mechanical properties of materials, e.g. ultimate tensile strength, yield stress, elastic modulus, ductility,
resilience, toughness, etc., are calculated using MATLAB programming language and stress-strain data of any alloy.
Keywords: Mechanical Properties, MATLAB, Stress-Strain Diagram, Trapezoidal Rule

## 1. Introduction where l0 is the initial length of the specimen and ∆l is the

Stress-Strain diagrams can be generated using tensile Young’s modulus of elasticity can be defined as,
test subjects to any material with a standard shaped. Dog-
bone shaped material is thicker at the both end to endure ∆σ
E= (3)
high stresses without any deformations so that thinner part ∆
called gauge, in the middle, shows characteristic defor- where ∆σ is the difference in stress value of any data pair
mation according to type of the material. Data can be col- of stress-strain in the elastic region.
lected using electromechanical test systems. Those test Ductility as elongated length is,
systems grip the thicker ends with crossheads and pull
the material to deform with direction of the loading axis. l f − l0 ∆l
%EL = × 100 = × 100 =  f × 100 (4)
Strain rate is controlled with computer programs. Stress- l0 l0
Strain diagrams are very important diagrams for mechani- where l f and  f are the final length of the specimen and
cal investigation of the materials since very wide range of final strain value after fracture.
properties can be calculated using the diagram via some Resilience, by the definition, is the total area under
equations and definitions below. elastic region of the curve.
Stress is, Z y
F F
σ = =  2 (1) Ur = σd. (5)
A π d0 0
2

where F is the tensile load, A is the initial cross sectional We know that, theoretically, at elastic region is stress
area of the gauge and d0 is the initial diameter of the cross and strain are linearly dependent to each other. There-
section. fore, modulus of resilience becomes the area of a trian-
Strain is, gle whom corners are stress-strain pairs of (0,0), (y ,0),
∆l (y ,σy ) where σy and y are stress value and strain value at
= × 100 (2) yield point, respectively.
l0
to calculate toughness it is necessary to extract elastic re-
1 1 σy σ2y covery from the total area under the curve that plotted
Ur = σy y = σy = . (6)
2 2 y 2E from the given data. Elastic recovery is, simply, the de-
crease in strain value after loaded stress is released. The
Calculating the toughness is more tricky. Toughness is
decrease is linearly dependent to the decrease in the stress
the total area under whole the stress-strain curve.
Z f value with elastic modulus and it can be formulated as,
UT = σd (7) σf ∆σ σ f
0 ar = br − =⇒ ∆ = = (11)
E E E
There might be analytical approaches to calculating where ar , br and σ f are the values of strain after release,
toughness as an area from the curve, the solution can be before release and stress value that fracture occurs.
achieved by numerical approaches since all pair of stress- Under the area of the right triangle cornered with the
strain data is digitally accessible through data given by strain-stress values of (ar , 0), (br , 0) and (br , σ f ), is not
electromechanical test systems. belong the modulus toughness. The area can be calcu-
Using trapezoidal rule, integration of a function f (x) on lated, simply, multiplication of vertical edges as
the interval of [a,b] becomes,
σ2f
f (b) + f (a)
Z b
∆ σ f = (12)
y= f (x)dx ≈ (b − a) (8) E
a 2
Therefore, modulus of toughness becomes,
Error of the calculation using trapezoidal rule is, obvi-
σi+1 + σi  σ f
ously, huge if the concavity of the function is very high. N−1 
X 2

## However, concavity becomes irrelevant when the calcu- UT ≈ (i+1 − i ) − (13)

i=1
2 E
lation is done at infinitesimal interval of x-axis. From
that idea, composite trapezoidal rule is emerged as divid-
ing the interval of the integration into N parts and apply 2. Experimental Procedure
the rule to all parts, individually. Sum of the integrations
would be equal to real value of the integration as N goes Tensile test is conducted using MTS Criterion Se-
to infinity. ries 40 Electromechanical Universal Test Systems (Model
Assuming stress-strain curve, function of 45) with MTS TestSuite software platform. A standard
stress on sequence of intervals strain values, i.e. shaped alloy is subjected to tension with rate of 0.002
(,σ)={(1 ,σ1 ),(2 ,σ2 )(3 ,σ3 ), ... (N ,σN )} where N is the mm/s at room temperature, until failure occurs.
total number of data which gathered from the test system.
So that, using composite trapezoidal rule, the equation 7 3. Computations and Results
becomes,
Before calculations data must be initialized first. In this
Z N N−1 Z
X i+1 example, the file named out L0 d0 F deltaL.m, is
UT = σd = σd (9) used to initialized data. Then another file, named main.m,
1 i=1 i
is used to do calculations and plotting stress-strain curve.
From the equation 8, we can transform the integration See Apendix. Resulted image is at the figure 1.
into closed-form expression for numerical computation as We can use data cursor from MATLAB figure tools, so
follows, that we can extract the exact values of data pairs from
N−1  the curve, so that ultimate tensile stress(tensile strength),
X σi+1 + σi 
UT ≈ (i+1 − i ) (10) σUT S , final stress and strain values when fracture occurs,
2
i=1 σ f and  f are equal to 591.7 MPa, 364.4 MPa and 0.2135.
Since test system cannot measure elastic recovery due Since we know the fracture point, (σ f , f ), we can calcu-
to releasing the specimen from tensile stress after fracture, late ductility (%EL) using equation 4 as 21.35%.

2
distritbuted on that interval. For this purpose, in MAT-
LAB, linspace command is used.
After plotting the line and the points, we can see at the
figure 2 intersection occurs at the data pair strain value of
0.064 to stress value of 550.7 MPa.

## We can change axes limits for better resolution at elas-

tic region. Then evaluate Young’s modulus of elasticity,
using the equation 3. Figure 2: The line with slope of elastic modulus, shifted with 0.002 off-
One of the chosen data pairs is for strain value of 0.046 set, intersects with Stress-Strain Curve. The intersection is yield point.
to stress value of 401.5 MPa, while the second is 0.034
to 295.3 MPa, respectively. From the equation 3, elas- From the equation 6, we know that to calculate re-
tic modulus is 8.85 GPa (E = 401.5−295.3
0.046−0.034 = 8850MPa)
silience we only need elastic modulus and yield stress;
Even though yield point phenomenon is occurred in the so that modulus of resilience is equal to 17.1 MPa (Ur =
diagram, it is not necessary to use ’0.002 offset rule’, it σ2y 2
E= 2×8850
550.7
).
might be needed to apply on any other diagrams. From To find toughness, we have to write a function for trape-
the ’0.002 offset rule’, we have to draw a shifted line from zoidal rule. Functions in MATLAB, have to be written in
the pair which strain value of 0.02 to stress value of 0 MPa another file, with the original name of the function, in our
with slope of elastic modulus which 8850 MPa. Then we example named as trapez.m.
can find a second point which the line would pass through After writing the function, we can call on the com-
that point and intersects with the stress-strain curve, i.e. mand window to get the total area under the curve as
strain value of 0.02 (shifted value is = 0.02 + 0.002) to trapez(strain,stress). That gives the resulted to-
stress value of 177 MPa (= 0.02 × 8850). Or, simply we tal area under the curve as 98.641 MPa. Now, we have to
can draw a line can formulated using line equation as, extract the area for the elastic recovery using the equation
13. So that modulus of toughness is equal to 83.6368 MPa
y = ax + b =⇒ σ = E (14) (98.641 − 364.42 ).
8850

## and shifting the line on x-axis with an offset of 0.002

points. 4. Conclusion
In MATLAB, to draw extra plots on the current figure Ultimate tensile stress (tensile strength, σUT S ), fracture
we use hold on command. point (σ f , f ), and the other points on the curve to calcu-
Since, our interval on x-axis from 0 to 0.08 at the figure late elastic modulus are found using data cursor from fig-
2, we can evaluate the line choosing a vector of X linearly ure tools of the MATLAB. Elastic modulus is calculated

3
using the equation 3. Then, yield point (σy ,y ) could be File trapez.m
calculated using 0.002 offset rule. Ductility is computed function integ = trapez (x,y)
using fracture point and using the equation 4. Modulus integ=0;
of resilience is calculated using yield point and the equa- for i=1:length(x)-1
tion 6. Finally, modulus of toughness is calculated using sumi=(x(i+1)-x(i))*(y(i+1)+y(i))/2;
the function written on MATLAB using trapezoidal rule integ=integ+sumi;
of integration and the equation 13. end
end
Appendix
References
File main.m
out__L0__d0__F_deltaL;  Callister, W.D. & Rethwisch, D.G. (2009). Mate-
% The file which data is initialized. rials Science and Engineering: An Introduction(8th ed.).
A0=pi*(d0/2)^2; USA:John Wiley and Sons.
stress=F_deltaL(:,1)*1000/A0;
% units: kN*1000/mm^2 -> MPa
strain=F_deltaL(:,2)/L0;
figure(1)
plot(strain,stress,'LineWidth',2)
grid on
xl=xlabel('strain, \epsilon (%)');
yl=ylabel('stress, \sigma (MPa)');
ti=title('Stress-Strain Curve');
set(xl,'fontsize',14,'fontweight','bold')
set(yl,'fontsize',14,'fontweight','bold')
set(ti,'fontsize',14,'fontweight','bold')
axis([0 0.25 0 650]) % Axis limits
figure(3)
plot(strain,stress,'LineWidth',2)
grid on
xl=xlabel('strain, \epsilon (%)');
yl=ylabel('stress, \sigma (MPa)');
ti=title('Stress-Strain Curve');
set(xl,'fontsize',14,'fontweight','bold')
set(yl,'fontsize',14,'fontweight','bold')
set(ti,'fontsize',14,'fontweight','bold')
axis([0 0.1 0 650]) % Axis limits
hold on
plot(0.002,0,'d','MarkerFaceColor','b')
plot(0.022,177,'d','MarkerFaceColor','b')
X=linspace(0,0.08,100);
E=8850;
Y=X*E;
plot((X+0.002),Y,'r')
plot(0.064,550.7,'o','MarkerFaceColor','b')