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5.

3 Cantilever Walls – Simplified


Limiting Pressure Approach

5.3 - 1
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method

active

Ka
passive Kp

O
Ka Kp passive
active

• Similar to Idealized Limiting Pressure Approach as shown above, but


involves a simplified soil pressure profile without pressure reversal.
• Assume that the difference between the _______
passive resistance at
the back of the wall and the ______
active pressure at the front acts
as a ___________________
concentrated force R near the toe.
below the point O is
• This implies that the net passive resistance ________________
represented by a concentrated force R acting at a point C, slightly
_______.
below O
5.3 - 2
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method

Simplified Soil
h Pressure Profile

Ka
Kp
do
O
R
C
• Similar to Idealized Limiting Pressure Approach as shown above, but
involves a simplified soil pressure profile without pressure reversal..
• Assume that the difference between the _______
passive resistance at
the back of the wall and the ______
active pressure at the front acts
as a ___________________
concentrated force R near the toe.
below the point O is
• This implies that the net passive resistance ________________
represented by a concentrated force R acting at a point C, slightly
_______.
below O
5.3 - 3
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method

Simplified Soil
h Pressure Profile

Ka
Kp
do

R
C
depth do corresponding to the line of action of R can be found
• The ________
by equating moments about C to zero.
• First find the lateral thrust (or force) due to Ka and Kp , and their
___________________
lines of action.

5.3 - 4
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method

Ka

Kp
do Pa

Pp (h+do)/3
do/3
R
C
depth do corresponding to the line of action of R can be found
• The ________
by equating moments about C to zero.
lateral thrusts (or forces) Pa and Pp , due to
• First find the _______________________,
Ka and Kp , and their lines of action. (see next slide)

5.3 - 5
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method

Ka

Kp
do Pa

Pp
R
C
Equating moments about C,

Pa (h + do ) = Pp do
1 1
Forces 3 3 3
 h + do  K
K a γ (h + do ) = K p γdo ⇒ 
1 1
Pa = 0.5 Ka γ (h + do )2 ⇒ 3 3
 = p

6 6  do  Ka
Pp = 0.5 Kp γ do2 h
⇒ do = where Kr = Kp / Ka
R = Pp – Pa 3 K −1
5.3 - 6 r
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method

Ka

Kp
do Pa

Pp
R
C
Equating moments about C,

Pa (h + do ) = Pp do
1 1
Forces 3 3 3
 h + do  K
K a γ (h + do ) = K p γdo ⇒ 
1 1
Pa = 0.5 Ka γ (h + do )2 ⇒ 3 3
 = p

6 6  do  Ka
Pp = 0.5 Kp γ do2 h
⇒ do = where Kr = Kp / Ka
R = Pp – Pa 3 K −1
5.3 - 7 r
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method : Example Problem

h=5m Sand
γ = 18 kN/m3
φ = 30°

d
What is required wall
embedment d?

Assume Rankine Conditions


1 − sin φ
Ka = = 0.333 Can use other Ka and
1 + sin φ Kp values for non-
1 + sin φ planar surfaces, if
Kp = =3
1 − sin φ required, to account
for wall friction
5.3 - 8
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method : Example Problem

h=5m Sand
γ = 18 kN/m3
φ = 30°

do

K r = K p / Ka = 9
C
h 5
do = = = 4.63 m (smaller than d from full method)
3 Kr − 1 3
9 −1
Typically we increase do by about 20% ⇒ ∆do = 0.2 do
Total penetration = do + ∆do = 1.2 do = 5.6 m
Check that the increased embedment (∆do) can mobilize passive
(behind wall) and active (in front of wall) pressures whose net value
is at least equal to the concentrated force R calculated as Pp – Pa.
5.3 - 9
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method : Example Problem

h=5m Sand
γ = 18 kN/m3
φ = 30°

do

K r = K p / Ka = 9
C
h 5
do = = = 4.63 m (smaller than d from full method)
3 Kr − 1 3
9 −1
Typically we increase do by about 20% ⇒ ∆do = 0.2 do
Total penetration d = do + ∆do = 1.2 do = 5.6 m
Check that the increased embedment (∆do) can mobilize passive
(behind wall) and active (in front of wall) pressures whose net value
is at least equal to the concentrated force R calculated as Pp – Pa.
5.3 - 10
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method : Example Problem
Check that Pp (zone 2) – Pa (zone 4) > R

active

Ka
passive do Kp 1
3
C
0.2do Ka 4 Kp passive
active 2

Area of 1 Area of 2

K a γ (h + do ) + K p γ (h + do + 0.2do ) − K p γ (h + do ) =
1 2 1 2 1 2 Eq. (1)
2 2 2
K p γ (do ) + K a γ (do + 0.2do ) − K a γ (do )
1 2 1 2 1 2

Horizontal Force Equilibrium 2 2 2

5.3 - 11 Area of 3 Area of 4


Simplified Limiting Pressure Method : Summary of Key Points

• Approach is very straightforward, suitable for hand calculations.

• Pressure diagrams behind and in front of the wall may appear more
‘complicated’ (i.e. more piecewise linear components) if the soil
profile has more layers, and/if there is groundwater present.

• However, the basic concepts of dealing with the problem are the same!
0

γd = 17 kN/m3

φ = 20° 4m 1

22.67
33.32
γd = 18 kN/m3
3m 2
φ = 30° 3 40.67
0 0 18 46.36 0

γsat = 17.8 kN/m3


φ = 27° 5m 4

7
8
5 6

61.56 49
49 106.4 46.36 15.2
5.3 - 12
Simplified Limiting Pressure Method : Summary of Key Points

• The value of do is ____________


slightly less than the value of d obtained from
the full method, and is more likely to be nearer to _______.
d–½z
• Hence, we compensate for this smaller value of do by __________
increasing do
by a small amount (about _____).
~20%
• This _____ simplification
~20% increase in do is to account for the ____________
involved in this approach. It is not a _____________.
factor of safety

Simplified Soil
h Pressure Profile h

active

Ka
Kp Ka
do passive Kp
d
O
R z Ka Kp passive
active

5.3 - 13