2014
Paul Jorel R. Santos
MATHEMATICS 101
2
Table of Contents
1
Set
4
1.1 Definition and Representation 
4 
1.2 Cardinality 
5 
1.3 Subset 
6 
1.4 Operations on Set 
8 
2 Numbers
12
2.1 Real Numbers 
12 
2.2 Properties of Real Numbers 
13 
3 Integer Exponents 
15 
4 Algebraic Expressions 
18 
4.1 Variable and Constant 
18 
4.2 Polynomial 
19 
5 Special Products 
25 
6 Binomial Expansion 
28 
6.1 
Binomial Theorem 
28 
6.2 
Pascal’s Triangle 
31 
7
Factoring
34
3
1 Set 1.1 Definition and Representation
Definition 1.1.1 A Set is a collection of welldefined objects. An object of a set is called an element. A set may be named by a capital letter or not and its objects are enclosed with braces { and }. Examples 1.1.1
}
Since a is an object in set E, then a is an element of E, denoted by . Since b is not an object in set G, then b is not an element G, denoted by . There are two ways of writing a set. The first is called the Roster Method; this method is the usual way of writing a set. Elements are listed and separated by commas. The second is called the Setbuilder Notation (Rule Method), in this method a variable that represent an element of a set is written, followed by either of the two symbols  or : (such that), and a true statement about the elements. It is usually on the form
Definition 1.1.2 A Venn – Euler diagram is a pictorial way to illustrate sets and relationship among sets. Circles, polygons, and closed curves are the usual figures that are used in Venn – Euler diagram. Example 1.1.2
4
1.2 Cardinality
Definition 1.2.1 The Cardinality of A, denoted by of A. Examples 1.2.1
, is the number of distinct elements
Definition 1.2.2 Let A be a set. A is said to be Empty / Null, denoted by Illustration 1.2.2
Based on examples 1.2.1, Since
, hence T is an empty set.
Definition 1.2.3 Let A be a set. A is said to be Singleton if Illustration 1.2.3
.
Based on examples 1.2.1, Since
, hence Q is a singleton.
if
Definition 1.2.4 Let A be a set. A is said to be Finite if Illustration 1.2.4 Moreover, a set is said to be finite if the elements of a set can be counted. This goes to show that the examples in 1.1.1 are all finite sets.
.
.
Definition 1.2.5 Let A be a set. A is said to be Infinite if it is not finite. Some examples of infinite sets will be discussed in Chapter 2 (p.12)
Definition 1.2.6 Let A and B be sets. A and B are said to be Equivalent, denoted by
.
Illustration 1.2.6
, if
Since 
, 
, 
and 
, thus, 
. 
5
Theorem 1.2 If A and B are singleton sets, then A is equivalent to B. Proof: Let A and B be singleton sets. Show . Since A and B are singleton sets, hence,
and
1.3 Subset
. This goes to show that
, hence
Definition 1.3.1 Let A and B be sets. A is said to be a Subset of B, denoted by
element of A is in B. Example 1.3.1
.
, if every
Q is a subset of itself and L. Since 7, which is the only element of Q, is also an element of itself and L. F and G are subsets of O. Since every element of F and G is consonant, thus, every element is also in O, which is the set of all consonants.
Let
and
. Since 1,2, and 3 which are elements of Y, are in J, then
. The same with 9 and 10, which are elements of Z, are in L, thus
.
Definition 1.3.2 Let A and B be sets. A and B are said to be Equal, denoted by
element of A is in B, and every
equal to B Example 1.3.2 If
and every element of K is in A, thus A and K are equal. Even though B and Q are equivalent, since an element of B is not in Q and an element of Q is not in B, thus B is not equal to Q.
, if every
, otherwise, A is not
element of B is in A,
.
and
, then
. Since every element of A is in K,
6
Theorem 1.3 If A is a set, then A is equal to A. Proof: Let A be a set and suppose , thus one can say that if , then . Since set is a well – defined collection of objects, thus only one of the statement and must be Since the assumption leads to contradiction, the assumption is false and
the conclusion is true.
Definition 1.3.3 Let A and B be sets. B is said to be a Proper Subset of A, denoted by every element of B is in A, and there is an element of A not in B.
Example 1.3.3
, if
Since every element of {a,e} is in E, and there is an element of E not in {a,e}. Thus, {a,e} is a proper subset of E. Since every element of G is in O, which is the set of consonants, and there exists an element of O, i.e. not in G, thus G is a proper subset of O.
Definition 1.3.4 Let A be a set, the Power Set of A, denoted by P(A), is the set of all subsets of A. Example 1.3.4
Definition
1.3.5
Let
cardinality
,is two raised to the cardinality of A.
A
be
a
set.
The
of
the
power
set
of
A,
denoted
by
7
Example 1.3.5
The cardinality of the power set of G is 16. If n(G) will be substituted by its value, then it
will be
show that the cardinality of the power set of T is 1. The cardinality of the power set of Q is two
raised to the cardinality of Q cardinality of the power set of Q is 2.
. This goes to
. Since
, hence,
. Hence,
,
and
shows that the
1.4 Operations on Set
Definition 1.4.1 Let A and B be sets. The Intersection of A and B is the set of all elements that is
both in A and in B, denoted by Illustration 1.4.1
.
The intersection of E and J is an empty set, for there is no element of E, at the same time element of J. Q is the intersection of K and L, since Q is the singleton that contains 7, which is the only element of K and at the same time element of L.
Theorem 1.4.1 If A and B are sets, then and Proof: Suppose A and B are sets. Show that
the definition of intersection, and by simplification
and
. By simplification, . Hence,
. By . By commutativity, and
Definition 1.4.2 Let A and B be sets. The Difference of A and B is the set of all elements of A, but
not in B, denoted by Illustration 1.4.2
.
8
The difference of Q and T is Q, since subtracting nothing (T) to Q will still be Q. The difference of K and L is the set of 5 and 6, because {5,6} contains the elements of K, that are not in L.
Definition 1.4.3 Let A and B be sets. The Union of A and B is the set of all elements of A or all
elements of B, denoted by Illustration 1.4.3
. If
, then z will be written once.
The union of R and S is the set of 1, 2, … ,19, for all elements of R and S are in that set.
is the set
The union of M and O is defined as of vowels (M) or consonants (O).
, since this set
Theorem 1.4.3 If A and B are sets, then
.
Definition 1.4.4 Let A and B be sets. The Symmetric Difference of A and B is the set of all elements of the union of the difference of A and B, and the difference of B and A, denoted by
The symmetric difference of F and G is the set of b, c, d, f, j and k, since 

, 
Thus 
. 
Since 

, hence 
. 
Definition 1.4.5 Let C and D be two nonempty sets. C and D are said to be:
i.) 
Joint if 
ii.) 
Disjoint if 
9
Example 1.4.5
Joint 
Disjoint 

K and L 
M and E 
M and O 
R and S 
I and O 
F and G 
J and K 
H and I 
K and L are Joint, because the cardinality of the intersection of K and L is 1 i.e. greater than 0. M and O are Disjoint, because the cardinality of the
intersection of M and O
) is 0.
Definition 1.4.6 Let
the set of all elements of S that are not elements of A.
be a subset of
, the Complement of A with respect to S, denoted by A’, is
.
Theorem 1.4.6 If A’ is a complement of A with respect to S, then
i.
ii.
Example 1.4.6
Let
a subset D, thus the complement of C with respect to D, denoted by C’, is the set of all elements of D that are not
in C
subset of D, thus the complement of E with respect to D, denoted by E’, is the of all elements of D that are not in E
i.e.
It is also obvious that E is a
.
, it is obvious that C is
10
Exercises 1
1. Use the roster method to illustrate the set containing the lowercase letters of the English
alphabet. (name it A)
2. Draw a Venn – Euler diagram of A.
3. Determine the cardinality of A.
4. Is A finite set? Explain.
5. Create a subset of A whose elements are the first 3 letters in English alphabet. (Use the Roster method and name it X)
For nos. 6 – 10. Let
6. 

7. 
Determine the power set of Y and its cardinality. 

8. 
Write the ff. in roster method: 

a. 
b. 
c. 
d. 
X’ 

e. 
f. 
g. 
h. 
Z’ 

9. 
Determine if the ff. pair of set is joint or disjoint. 

a. 
X and Z 
b. 
X and Y 
c. 
Y and Z 
d. 
A and Z 

10. 
Explain each of your answer in #9. 
11
2 Numbers 2.1 Real Numbers
Definition 2.1.1 A Natural or Counting number is the number 1 or any number obtained by adding 1 to it one or more times. A set of all natural numbers is denoted by . )
Remarks: The three dots “
” called ellipsis means “and so on” or “up to”.
Definition 2.1.2 The union of numbers, denoted by .
and the singleton that contains zero is called the set of Whole
. A number x is said to be whole if
.
Definition 2.1.3 An additive inverse is a number that when added to a given number gives zero, e.g. the additive inverse of 7 is – 7, while the additive inverse of – 4 is 4. The set of Integers,
denoted by
x is said to be an integer if .
is the union of
and the set of all additive inverses of natural numbers. A number or
Definition 2.1.4 The set of Rational numbers is the set of all numbers that can be expressed as a quotient of p and q, such that p and q are elements of integers, but q is not 0, denoted by
.A rational number when express in decimal will either be
terminating or repeating, e.g.
Definition 2.1.5 A number is said to be Irrational if it is neither repeating nor terminating decimal, or a number that cannot be expressed as a quotient of two integers. The set of irrational numbers is denoted by . Example 2.1.5
and 0.010010001000010000010000001…
Definition 2.1.6 A number is said to be Real if it is a rational or irrational number. The set of Real numbers is the union of the set of rational numbers and irrational numbers.
12
2.2 Properties of Real Numbers
The following are true for all
1. 
Commutative Property of Addition 
2. 
Commutative Property of Multiplication 
3. 
Associative Property of Addition 
4. 
Associative Property of Multiplication 
5. 
Distributive Property 
6. 
Existence of Additive Identity 
7. 
Existence of Multiplicative Identity 
8. 
Existence of Additive Inverse 
9. 
Existence of Multiplicative Inverse 
10. 
Addition Property of Equality 
11. 
Multiplication Property of Equality 
12. 
Multiplication Property of Zero 
13. 
Division Property of Zero 
14. 
Division by Zero is Undefined 
15. 
Multiplication by 
16. 
Placement of Minus Sign 
17. 
Product of Two Additive Inverses 
13
Exercises 2
1. Write Q if the number is rational, and I if the number is irrational. If the number is
rational, write Z if the number is integer.
2.
3.
a.
b.
c.
d.
True or False
a.
e.
i.
l.
_{o}_{.}
e.
f.
_{g}_{.}
h.
_{b}_{.}
f.
j.
_{m}_{.}
p.
i.
_{j}_{.}
k.
l.
Name the property used to justify the statement.
a.
c.
e.
g.
i.
k.
m.
4. joint or disjoint? Why?
5. joint? If yes, what is
Is
Is
?
–
b.
d.
f.
^{h}^{.}
j.
l.
c.
g.
k.
n.
q.
m.
n.
o.
_{d}_{.}
_{h}_{.}
14
3 Integer Exponents
Definition 3.1.1 Let product of n factors of a i.e.
. The expression
, read as a raised to n, represents the
, where a is called the base and n is called the
exponent. From this statement, one can deduce that . Example 3.1.1.a
Example 3.1.1.b Simplify the following expression,
a.
d.
b.
e.
Solution :
_{f}_{.}
Definition 3.1.1
Associative
Definition 3.1.1
Definition 3.1.1
Definition 3.1.1
Associative
Definition 3.1.1
Definition 3.1.1
Definition 3.1.1
Associative
Commutative
Associative
Definition 3.1.1
15
d)
e)
f)
Theorem 3.1.2 Laws of Exponents: If
1. Product Rule
2. Quotient Rule
3. Power Rule
4. Power of Products
5. Power of Quotient
Definition 3.1.1
A number a (i.e. not zero)
when divided to itself is equal to 1.
Definition 3.1.1
Definition 3.1.1
A number a (i.e. not zero)
when divided to itself is equal to 1. Definition 3.1.1
Definition 3.1.1
Associative
Definition 3.1.1
and
, then
16
Definition 3.1.3 A Multiplicative Inverse of number , except 0 and denoted by , is a number
when multiplied to n, the product will be 1, e.g. the multiplicative inverse of 3 is , since its
product is 1, or
.
Definition 3.1.4 Let a be a nonzero real number and n be a natural number, then
Definition 3.1.5 If a is a real number and a is not zero, then
Exercise 3 Simplify the following expression.
^{a}^{)}
c)
e)
b)
d)
17
4 Algebraic Expressions 4.1 Variable and Constant
Definition 4.1.1 A Variable is a letter or symbol that represents a set of values. A Constant is a symbol that does not change its value. An example of a constant is a number. Example 4.1.1
 Letters of the English alphabet may be a variable.  A Greek letter may also be a variable
or even a heart, circle, square, or star.
Definition 4.1.2 An Algebraic expression is a result when adding, multiplying or taking roots on any combination of constants and variables. Example 4.1.2
1. 

2. 
6. 

7. 
_{3}_{.}
8.
_{4}_{.}
9.
10.
Definition 4.1.3 A Term is a combination of constants and one or more variables raised to exponent. Two or more terms are said to be Similar if:
1) 
those terms have the same variable(s); and 
2) 
the exponents of the same variables are equal. If at least one condition is violated, then the terms are called Dissimilar The following are examples of similar and dissimilar terms: 
Similar terms 
Dissimilar terms 

















and 

are similar terms because those terms have the same variable and the 
exponents of the same variables are equal.
18
and
are similar terms because those terms have the same variables
and the exponents of the same variables are equal.
, hence the two terms are
dissimilar. and are dissimilar terms because the exponents of x and y in the
Since the second condition was violated in
and
first term are not equal to the exponents of x and y in the second term respectively. Remarks: The constant of a term is called the numerical coefficient of that term.
4.2 Polynomial
Definition 4.2.1 A term of the form
is a monomial in x if:
1)
2)
A set of all Monomials in variable x may be defined as Example 4.2.1
Definition 4.2.2 A Binomial in x is a sum of two monomials in x with different variables’ exponents. A Trinomial in x is a sum of three monomials in x with different variables’ exponents. Example 4.2.2
Binomial 
Trinomial 









Definition 4.2.3 Let expression of the form is called the leading coefficient and the number
. A Polynomial in x of degree n is an
. The number
, where is called the constant term.
A monomial, binomial, trinomial or an expression with more than three terms of polynomial are polynomials
19
Definition 4.2.4 The degree of a monomial in x is the exponent of x. In case that a monomial has more than one variable, then the degree of that monomial is the sum of the exponents of all its variables. The degree of a polynomial is the degree of its highestdegree monomial. Illustration 4.2.4
Polynomial
Degree
0
2
1
3
7
4
4.2.5 Evaluating Polynomials There are no specific or particular procedure to evaluate polynomials, but one may write first the given and replace the variable of the polynomial by its value, then one may apply one’s own knowledge on arithmetic to simplify the expression. Example 4.2.5
1. Find the value of
2. Find the value of
when
Given Given Replace x by its value Definition 3.1.1 Multiplication Addition
Given Given Replace x by its value
20
Multiplication
Multiplication
Definition 3.1.1
Addition
4.2.6 Operations on Polynomials There are times that addition and subtraction of polynomial are the same with combining similar terms. For example, based on Definition 4.1.3, and are similar terms. Hence, the sum of and is ; and the difference of and is . Since dissimilar terms cannot be combined, there are times that terms of a polynomial can neither be added nor subtracted. For example, according to Definition 4.1.3 and are dissimilar terms. Hence, the sum of and is simply ; and the difference of and is
.
Illustration 4.2.6 The sum of 
and 
is 
. The difference of 

and 
is 
. 
Solution:
Given Distributive Commutative Combine similar terms
Given Distributive Commutative Combine similar terms
Multiplication of real numbers, distribution and application of the laws of exponents are
the usual procedures that are used to multiply polynomials. Consider the monomials
to multiply monomials with same variables; multiply the numerical coefficient of the terms and
apply the product rule in Theorem 3.1.2. Hence, the product of
Consider the polynomials
and
and
.
is
.
and
,
,
,
21
a) The product of 
and 
is 
. 

b) The product of 
and 
is 
. 
c) The product of 
and 
is 
. 

d) The product of 
and 
is 
. 
Solution (a): 

Given 

Distributive 

Multiplication 

Theorem 3.1.2 

Solution (b): 

Given 

Distributive 

Multiplication 

Theorem 3.1.2 

Solution (c): 

Given Distributive Distributive Multiplication Theorem 3.1.2 Distributive Combine similar terms 

Solution (d): 
Given Distributive Distributive Multiplication Theorem 3.1.2 Distributive Combine similar terms
22
One should remember when dealing with dividing polynomials, the addition of similar
fraction, e.g. 
and whenever applicable one may use the Quotient Rule in 
Theorem 3.1.2. 
Consider the polynomial
and the monomial
. The quotient of
When dividing a polynomial by another polynomial one must take note that polynomials (dividend) can only be divided by a polynomial (divisor) whose degree is less than the degree of
the dividend. Consider the polynomials
and
.
Solution:
23
Exercises 4
1)
2)
3)
Determine each of the following if it is a variable or a constant.
a)
b) 
c) 
d) 
g) 
h) 
i) 
^{b}^{)}
c)
c)
d)
_{f}_{)}
Determine if the given pair of terms similar or dissimilar.
a)
State whether the given term a monomial or not.
a)
b)
d)
4)
Determine the degree of the following polynomials:
a) 
b) 

_{d}_{)} 
e) 

Find 
when 
. 

What is the sum of the polynomials 
and 
Find the product when
is multiplied by
What is the product of the polynomials
Find the quotient when
is divided to
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10) What is the quotient when
?
.
and
c)
f)
?
. is divided by
_{e}_{)}
j)
e)
?
24
5 Special Products
Variables usually represent numbers, but the concept of representation is also applicable to a term. For example, suppose , thus . In this section, a term of a polynomial is usually represented by a variable.
Theorem 5.1 If a and b represents terms, then the following statements are true:
1. Square of a Binomial
2. Cube of a Binomial
3. Product of Sum and Difference of Two numbers
4. Square of a Trinomial
Proof (1) Square of a Binomial:
(2) Cube of a Binomial:
Given Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Definition 3.1.1 Associative Property of Addition Combining similar terms
Given Definition 3.1.1 Theorem 5.1.1 Distributive Property
_{)} Distributive Property Theorem 3.1.2 Combining similar terms
25
(3) Product of Sum and Difference of Two numbers:
(4) Square of a Trinomial:
Given Distributive Property Distributive Property Distributive Property Definition 3.1.1 Combining similar terms
Given Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Definition 3.1.1 Commutative Property of Addition Combining similar terms
Examples 5.1
a)
b)
c)
Solution (a):
Given Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Combining similar terms Another way to obtain the answer is to use the Theorem 5.1.1.
Let a be equal to
and b be equal to
. Hence,
Theorem 5.1.1
26
Solution (b):
Substitution Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1
Given Definition 3.1.1 Theorem 5.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Multiplication/Theorem 3.1.2 Combining similar terms
Another way of solving is to use the Theorem 5.1.2.
Let a be equal to x and b be equal to
Solution (c):
. Hence,
Theorem 5.1.2
Substitution Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1
Given Distributive Property Distributive Property Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Combining similar terms
Another way to obtain the product is to us the Theorem 5.1.3.
Let a be equal to
and b be equal to
. Hence,
Theorem 5.1.3
Substitution Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1
27
6 Binomial Expansion 6.1 Binomial Theorem
There are two ways to expand a binomial that is raised to a whole number exponent. The first one is through the binomial theorem. Theorem 6.1.1 Binomial Theorem
Illustration 6.1.1 The symbol,
where This implies that
Illustration 6.1.2 The symbol
polynomials Example 6.1.2 Suppose,
, from
Example 6.1.3 Suppose,
read as “n factorial”.
(Greek letter “sigma”) represents the sum of the up to n. , the sigma notation
.
, the sigma notation
28
Illustration 6.1.3 The expanded form of the binomial
, when it is raised to Binomial Theorem
, is
Substitution
The expanded form of the binomial
Simplifying Sigma notation
Illustration 6.1.1/Definition 3.1.5
, when it is raised to
Multiplication
, is
. Binomial Theorem
Substitution
Simplifying Sigma notation
Illustration 6.1.1/Definition 3.1.5
The expanded form of the binomial
, when it is raised to
is
Multiplication
.
.
29
The expanded form of the binomial 
, when it is raised to 
, is 
The expanded form of the binomial 
, when it is raised to 
, is 
30
6.2 Pascal’s Triangle
Another way to expand a binomial is through the Pascal’s Triangle. The uppermost portion of this triangle is a triangulation of 1.
The side of this triangle is always above it.
and the number in between is the sum of the two numbers
This shows the coefficient of the binomial when raised to a whole number exponent. The
uppermost number
the numerical coefficients of the binomial
numerical coefficients of the binomial
After knowing the coefficients of the expanded form, the literal coefficient of the first term i.e. the term with 1 as numerical coefficient, will be the first term of the binomial raised to . The literal coefficient of the second term will be the first term of the binomial raised to
. The next row represents
is the result when a binomial
is raised to
when raised to
. The third row shows the
when raised to
, and so on.
31
multiply to the second term of the binomial raised to 1. The literal coefficient of the third term
will be the first term of the binomial raised to
raised to 2. The literal coefficient of the fourth term will be the first term of the binomial raised
to
as the exponent of the first term decreases, the exponent of the second term increases.
multiply to the second term of the binomial
multiply to the second term of the binomial raised to 3; or in other words, in each term,
32
Exercises 5
1. Find the product of the following:
2. Evaluate the following combinations:
3. Evaluate the following sigma notations:
33
7 Factoring
In multiplication of polynomials, the given are the factors and the result will be the product, while in factoring, the product is given and one must find its factors. Definition 7.1.1 According to Baccay, Canlas, Dioquino, Salvacion and Diaz (2003),”Factors are two or more numbers whose product is a given number”.
34
Bibliography
Alferez, M. S., Duro, M. C., & Tupaz, K. K. (2008). MSA ADVANCED ALGEBRA. Quezon City, Philippines: MSA Publishing House. Alfrez, M. S., & Duro, M. C. (2006). MSA STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY. Cainta, Philippines: MSA Publishing House. Baccay, E. S., Canlas, M. F., Dioquino, A. D., Salvacion, M. M., & Diaz, R. V. (2003). COLLEGE ALGEBRA: Learning Mathematics the Easy Way. Manila: PNU Printing Press. Fraleigh, J. B. (1999). A First Course in ABSTRACT ALGEBRA (6th ed.). Boston: Addison Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Leithold, L. (1989). COLLEGE ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY. Boston: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc. Rosen, K. H. (2012). Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications (7th ed.). New York City:
McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Stewart, J., Redlin, L., & Watson, S. (2007). Algebra and Trigonometry (2nd ed.). Singapore:
Brooks/Cole.
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