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2014

Paul Jorel R. Santos

MATHEMATICS 101 1

Set

4

 1.1 Definition and Representation 4 1.2 Cardinality 5 1.3 Subset 6 1.4 Operations on Set 8

2 Numbers

12

 2.1 Real Numbers 12 2.2 Properties of Real Numbers 13
 3 Integer Exponents 15 4 Algebraic Expressions 18
 4.1 Variable and Constant 18 4.2 Polynomial 19
 5 Special Products 25 6 Binomial Expansion 28
 6.1 Binomial Theorem 28 6.2 Pascal’s Triangle 31

7

Factoring

34

1 Set 1.1 Definition and Representation

Definition 1.1.1 A Set is a collection of well-defined objects. An object of a set is called an element. A set may be named by a capital letter or not and its objects are enclosed with braces { and }. Examples 1.1.1

}

Since a is an object in set E, then a is an element of E, denoted by . Since b is not an object in set G, then b is not an element G, denoted by . There are two ways of writing a set. The first is called the Roster Method; this method is the usual way of writing a set. Elements are listed and separated by commas. The second is called the Set-builder Notation (Rule Method), in this method a variable that represent an element of a set is written, followed by either of the two symbols | or : (such that), and a true statement about the elements. It is usually on the form

Definition 1.1.2 A Venn Euler diagram is a pictorial way to illustrate sets and relationship among sets. Circles, polygons, and closed curves are the usual figures that are used in Venn Euler diagram. Example 1.1.2   1.2 Cardinality

Definition 1.2.1 The Cardinality of A, denoted by of A. Examples 1.2.1

, is the number of distinct elements

Definition 1.2.2 Let A be a set. A is said to be Empty / Null, denoted by Illustration 1.2.2

Based on examples 1.2.1, Since

, hence T is an empty set.

Definition 1.2.3 Let A be a set. A is said to be Singleton if Illustration 1.2.3

.

Based on examples 1.2.1, Since

, hence Q is a singleton.

if

Definition 1.2.4 Let A be a set. A is said to be Finite if Illustration 1.2.4 Moreover, a set is said to be finite if the elements of a set can be counted. This goes to show that the examples in 1.1.1 are all finite sets.

.

.

Definition 1.2.5 Let A be a set. A is said to be Infinite if it is not finite. Some examples of infinite sets will be discussed in Chapter 2 (p.12)

Definition 1.2.6 Let A and B be sets. A and B are said to be Equivalent, denoted by

.

Illustration 1.2.6

, if

 Since , , and , thus, .

Theorem 1.2 If A and B are singleton sets, then A is equivalent to B. Proof: Let A and B be singleton sets. Show . Since A and B are singleton sets, hence,

and

1.3 Subset

. This goes to show that

, hence .

Definition 1.3.1 Let A and B be sets. A is said to be a Subset of B, denoted by

element of A is in B. Example 1.3.1

.

, if every

Q is a subset of itself and L. Since 7, which is the only element of Q, is also an element of itself and L. F and G are subsets of O. Since every element of F and G is consonant, thus, every element is also in O, which is the set of all consonants.

Let

and

. Since 1,2, and 3 which are elements of Y, are in J, then

. The same with 9 and 10, which are elements of Z, are in L, thus

.

Definition 1.3.2 Let A and B be sets. A and B are said to be Equal, denoted by

element of A is in B, and every

equal to B Example 1.3.2 If

and every element of K is in A, thus A and K are equal. Even though B and Q are equivalent, since an element of B is not in Q and an element of Q is not in B, thus B is not equal to Q.

, if every

, otherwise, A is not

element of B is in A,

.

and

, then

. Since every element of A is in K, Theorem 1.3 If A is a set, then A is equal to A. Proof: Let A be a set and suppose , thus one can say that if , then . Since set is a well defined collection of objects, thus only one of the statement and must be Since the assumption leads to contradiction, the assumption is false and

the conclusion is true.

Definition 1.3.3 Let A and B be sets. B is said to be a Proper Subset of A, denoted by every element of B is in A, and there is an element of A not in B.

Example 1.3.3

, if

Since every element of {a,e} is in E, and there is an element of E not in {a,e}. Thus, {a,e} is a proper subset of E. Since every element of G is in O, which is the set of consonants, and there exists an element of O, i.e. not in G, thus G is a proper subset of O. Definition 1.3.4 Let A be a set, the Power Set of A, denoted by P(A), is the set of all subsets of A. Example 1.3.4

Definition

1.3.5

Let

cardinality

,is two raised to the cardinality of A.

A

be

a

set.

The

of

the

power

set

of

A,

denoted

by

Example 1.3.5

The cardinality of the power set of G is 16. If n(G) will be substituted by its value, then it

will be

show that the cardinality of the power set of T is 1. The cardinality of the power set of Q is two

raised to the cardinality of Q cardinality of the power set of Q is 2.

. This goes to

. Since

, hence,

. Hence,

,

and

shows that the

1.4 Operations on Set

Definition 1.4.1 Let A and B be sets. The Intersection of A and B is the set of all elements that is

both in A and in B, denoted by Illustration 1.4.1

.

The intersection of E and J is an empty set, for there is no element of E, at the same time element of J. Q is the intersection of K and L, since Q is the singleton that contains 7, which is the only element of K and at the same time element of L.

Theorem 1.4.1 If A and B are sets, then and Proof: Suppose A and B are sets. Show that

the definition of intersection, and by simplification

and

. By simplification, . Hence,

. By . By commutativity, and

Definition 1.4.2 Let A and B be sets. The Difference of A and B is the set of all elements of A, but

not in B, denoted by Illustration 1.4.2

.

The difference of Q and T is Q, since subtracting nothing (T) to Q will still be Q. The difference of K and L is the set of 5 and 6, because {5,6} contains the elements of K, that are not in L.

Definition 1.4.3 Let A and B be sets. The Union of A and B is the set of all elements of A or all

elements of B, denoted by Illustration 1.4.3

. If

, then z will be written once.

The union of R and S is the set of 1, 2, … ,19, for all elements of R and S are in that set.

is the set

The union of M and O is defined as of vowels (M) or consonants (O).

, since this set

Theorem 1.4.3 If A and B are sets, then

.

Definition 1.4.4 Let A and B be sets. The Symmetric Difference of A and B is the set of all elements of the union of the difference of A and B, and the difference of B and A, denoted by

 The symmetric difference of F and G is the set of b, c, d, f, j and k, since , Thus . Since , hence .    Definition 1.4.5 Let C and D be two nonempty sets. C and D are said to be:

 i.) Joint if ii.) Disjoint if

Example 1.4.5

 Joint Disjoint K and L M and E M and O R and S I and O F and G J and K H and I

K and L are Joint, because the cardinality of the intersection of K and L is 1 i.e. greater than 0. M and O are Disjoint, because the cardinality of the

intersection of M and O ) is 0. Definition 1.4.6 Let

the set of all elements of S that are not elements of A.

be a subset of

, the Complement of A with respect to S, denoted by A’, is

.

Theorem 1.4.6 If A’ is a complement of A with respect to S, then

i.

ii.

Example 1.4.6

Let

a subset D, thus the complement of C with respect to D, denoted by C’, is the set of all elements of D that are not

in C

subset of D, thus the complement of E with respect to D, denoted by E’, is the of all elements of D that are not in E

i.e.

It is also obvious that E is a

.

, it is obvious that C is Exercises 1

1. Use the roster method to illustrate the set containing the lowercase letters of the English

alphabet. (name it A)

2. Draw a Venn Euler diagram of A.

3. Determine the cardinality of A.

4. Is A finite set? Explain.

5. Create a subset of A whose elements are the first 3 letters in English alphabet. (Use the Roster method and name it X)

For nos. 6 10. Let

 6. 7. Determine the power set of Y and its cardinality. 8. Write the ff. in roster method: a. b. c. d. X’ e. f. g. h. Z’ 9. Determine if the ff. pair of set is joint or disjoint. a. X and Z b. X and Y c. Y and Z d. A and Z 10. Explain each of your answer in #9.

2 Numbers 2.1 Real Numbers

Definition 2.1.1 A Natural or Counting number is the number 1 or any number obtained by adding 1 to it one or more times. A set of all natural numbers is denoted by . )

Remarks: The three dots “

called ellipsis means “and so on” or “up to”.

Definition 2.1.2 The union of numbers, denoted by . and the singleton that contains zero is called the set of Whole

. A number x is said to be whole if

.

Definition 2.1.3 An additive inverse is a number that when added to a given number gives zero, e.g. the additive inverse of 7 is 7, while the additive inverse of 4 is 4. The set of Integers,

denoted by

x is said to be an integer if .

is the union of

and the set of all additive inverses of natural numbers. A number or

Definition 2.1.4 The set of Rational numbers is the set of all numbers that can be expressed as a quotient of p and q, such that p and q are elements of integers, but q is not 0, denoted by

.A rational number when express in decimal will either be

terminating or repeating, e.g.

Definition 2.1.5 A number is said to be Irrational if it is neither repeating nor terminating decimal, or a number that cannot be expressed as a quotient of two integers. The set of irrational numbers is denoted by . Example 2.1.5

and 0.010010001000010000010000001…

Definition 2.1.6 A number is said to be Real if it is a rational or irrational number. The set of Real numbers is the union of the set of rational numbers and irrational numbers.

2.2 Properties of Real Numbers

The following are true for all

 1 Commutative Property of Addition 2 Commutative Property of Multiplication 3 Associative Property of Addition 4 Associative Property of Multiplication 5 Distributive Property 6 Existence of Additive Identity 7 Existence of Multiplicative Identity 8 Existence of Additive Inverse 9 Existence of Multiplicative Inverse 10 Addition Property of Equality 11 Multiplication Property of Equality 12 Multiplication Property of Zero 13 Division Property of Zero 14 Division by Zero is Undefined 15 Multiplication by 16 Placement of Minus Sign 17 Product of Two Additive Inverses Exercises 2

1. Write Q if the number is rational, and I if the number is irrational. If the number is

rational, write Z if the number is integer.

2.

3.

a.

b.

c.

d.

True or False

a.

e.

i.

l.

o.

e.

f.

g.

h.

b.

f.

j.

m.

p.  i.

j.

k.

l.

Name the property used to justify the statement.

a.

c.

e.

g.

i.

k.

m.

4. joint or disjoint? Why?

5. joint? If yes, what is

Is

Is

?

b.

d.

f.

h.

j.

l.

c.

g.

k.

n.

q.

m.

n.

o.

d.

h.

3 Integer Exponents

Definition 3.1.1 Let product of n factors of a i.e.

. The expression

, read as a raised to n, represents the

, where a is called the base and n is called the

exponent. From this statement, one can deduce that . Example 3.1.1.a

Example 3.1.1.b Simplify the following expression,

a.

d.  b.

e.

Solution :  ):
c.

f.  a)
b)
c)

Definition 3.1.1

Associative

Definition 3.1.1

Definition 3.1.1

Definition 3.1.1

Associative

Definition 3.1.1

Definition 3.1.1

Definition 3.1.1

Associative

Commutative

Associative

Definition 3.1.1

d)  e)

f)    Theorem 3.1.2 Laws of Exponents: If

1. Product Rule

2. Quotient Rule

3. Power Rule

4. Power of Products

5. Power of Quotient

Definition 3.1.1

A number a (i.e. not zero)

when divided to itself is equal to 1.

Definition 3.1.1

Definition 3.1.1

A number a (i.e. not zero)

when divided to itself is equal to 1. Definition 3.1.1

Definition 3.1.1

Associative

Definition 3.1.1

and

, then    Definition 3.1.3 A Multiplicative Inverse of number , except 0 and denoted by , is a number when multiplied to n, the product will be 1, e.g. the multiplicative inverse of 3 is , since its

product is 1, or

.

Definition 3.1.4 Let a be a nonzero real number and n be a natural number, then

Definition 3.1.5 If a is a real number and a is not zero, then .

Exercise 3 Simplify the following expression.

a)

c)

e)   b)

d)   .

4 Algebraic Expressions 4.1 Variable and Constant

Definition 4.1.1 A Variable is a letter or symbol that represents a set of values. A Constant is a symbol that does not change its value. An example of a constant is a number. Example 4.1.1 - Letters of the English alphabet may be a variable. - A Greek letter may also be a variable

or even a heart, circle, square, or star.

Definition 4.1.2 An Algebraic expression is a result when adding, multiplying or taking roots on any combination of constants and variables. Example 4.1.2

 1 2 6 7 3.

8.  4.

9.  5.

10.  Definition 4.1.3 A Term is a combination of constants and one or more variables raised to exponent. Two or more terms are said to be Similar if:

 1) those terms have the same variable(s); and 2) the exponents of the same variables are equal. If at least one condition is violated, then the terms are called Dissimilar The following are examples of similar and dissimilar terms:
 Similar terms Dissimilar terms             and are similar terms because those terms have the same variable and the

exponents of the same variables are equal.

and  are similar terms because those terms have the same variables

and the exponents of the same variables are equal.

, hence the two terms are

dissimilar. and are dissimilar terms because the exponents of x and y in the Since the second condition was violated in   and

first term are not equal to the exponents of x and y in the second term respectively. Remarks: The constant of a term is called the numerical coefficient of that term.

4.2 Polynomial

Definition 4.2.1 A term of the form is a monomial in x if:

1) 2) .

A set of all Monomials in variable x may be defined as Example 4.2.1 Definition 4.2.2 A Binomial in x is a sum of two monomials in x with different variables’ exponents. A Trinomial in x is a sum of three monomials in x with different variables’ exponents. Example 4.2.2

 Binomial Trinomial        Definition 4.2.3 Let expression of the form is called the leading coefficient and the number  . A Polynomial in x of degree n is an

. The number

, where is called the constant term. A monomial, binomial, trinomial or an expression with more than three terms of polynomial are polynomials

Definition 4.2.4 The degree of a monomial in x is the exponent of x. In case that a monomial has more than one variable, then the degree of that monomial is the sum of the exponents of all its variables. The degree of a polynomial is the degree of its highest-degree monomial. Illustration 4.2.4

Polynomial      Degree

0

2

1

3

7

4

4.2.5 Evaluating Polynomials There are no specific or particular procedure to evaluate polynomials, but one may write first the given and replace the variable of the polynomial by its value, then one may apply one’s own knowledge on arithmetic to simplify the expression. Example 4.2.5

1. Find the value of .

2. Find the value of

when

Given Given Replace x by its value Definition 3.1.1 Multiplication Addition Given Given Replace x by its value Multiplication

Multiplication

Definition 3.1.1

4.2.6 Operations on Polynomials There are times that addition and subtraction of polynomial are the same with combining similar terms. For example, based on Definition 4.1.3, and are similar terms. Hence, the sum of and is ; and the difference of and is . Since dissimilar terms cannot be combined, there are times that terms of a polynomial can neither be added nor subtracted. For example, according to Definition 4.1.3 and are dissimilar terms. Hence, the sum of and is simply ; and the difference of and is

.

 Illustration 4.2.6 The sum of and is . The difference of and is .

Solution:

Given Distributive Commutative Combine similar terms

Given Distributive Commutative Combine similar terms

Multiplication of real numbers, distribution and application of the laws of exponents are

the usual procedures that are used to multiply polynomials. Consider the monomials

to multiply monomials with same variables; multiply the numerical coefficient of the terms and

apply the product rule in Theorem 3.1.2. Hence, the product of

Consider the polynomials

and

and

.

is

.

and

,

,

,

 a) The product of and is . b) The product of and is .
 c) The product of and is . d) The product of and is .
 Solution (a): Given Distributive Multiplication Theorem 3.1.2 Solution (b): Given Distributive Multiplication Theorem 3.1.2 Solution (c): Given Distributive Distributive Multiplication Theorem 3.1.2 Distributive Combine similar terms Solution (d):

Given Distributive Distributive Multiplication Theorem 3.1.2 Distributive Combine similar terms

One should remember when dealing with dividing polynomials, the addition of similar

 fraction, e.g. and whenever applicable one may use the Quotient Rule in Theorem 3.1.2.

Consider the polynomial

and the monomial

. The quotient of the said polynomial and monomial is
.
Solution:
Given
Division
Theorem 3.1.2

When dividing a polynomial by another polynomial one must take note that polynomials (dividend) can only be divided by a polynomial (divisor) whose degree is less than the degree of

the dividend. Consider the polynomials

and

.

Solution:

Exercises 4

1)

2)

3)

Determine each of the following if it is a variable or a constant.

a)

 b) c) d) g) h) i)

b)

c)

c)

d)

f)

Determine if the given pair of terms similar or dissimilar.

a)

State whether the given term a monomial or not.

a)

b)

d)

4)

Determine the degree of the following polynomials:

 a) b) d) e) Find when . What is the sum of the polynomials and

Find the product when

is multiplied by

What is the product of the polynomials

Find the quotient when

is divided to

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10) What is the quotient when

?

.

and

c)

f)

?

. is divided by

e)

j)

e)

?

5 Special Products

Variables usually represent numbers, but the concept of representation is also applicable to a term. For example, suppose , thus . In this section, a term of a polynomial is usually represented by a variable.

Theorem 5.1 If a and b represents terms, then the following statements are true:

1. Square of a Binomial

2. Cube of a Binomial

3. Product of Sum and Difference of Two numbers

4. Square of a Trinomial

Proof (1) Square of a Binomial:

(2) Cube of a Binomial:

Given Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Definition 3.1.1 Associative Property of Addition Combining similar terms

Given Definition 3.1.1 Theorem 5.1.1 Distributive Property

) Distributive Property Theorem 3.1.2 Combining similar terms

(3) Product of Sum and Difference of Two numbers:

(4) Square of a Trinomial:

Given Distributive Property Distributive Property Distributive Property Definition 3.1.1 Combining similar terms

Given Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Definition 3.1.1 Commutative Property of Addition Combining similar terms

Examples 5.1

a)

b)

c)

Solution (a):

Given Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Combining similar terms Another way to obtain the answer is to use the Theorem 5.1.1.

Let a be equal to

and b be equal to

. Hence,

Theorem 5.1.1

Solution (b):

Substitution Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1

Given Definition 3.1.1 Theorem 5.1.1 Distributive Property Distributive Property Multiplication/Theorem 3.1.2 Combining similar terms

Another way of solving is to use the Theorem 5.1.2.

Let a be equal to x and b be equal to

Solution (c):

. Hence,

Theorem 5.1.2

Substitution Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1

Given Distributive Property Distributive Property Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1 Distributive Property Combining similar terms

Another way to obtain the product is to us the Theorem 5.1.3.

Let a be equal to

and b be equal to

. Hence,

Theorem 5.1.3

Substitution Multiplication/Definition 3.1.1

6 Binomial Expansion 6.1 Binomial Theorem

There are two ways to expand a binomial that is raised to a whole number exponent. The first one is through the binomial theorem. Theorem 6.1.1 Binomial Theorem

Illustration 6.1.1 The symbol,

where This implies that

Illustration 6.1.2 The symbol

polynomials Example 6.1.2 Suppose,

, from

Example 6.1.3 Suppose,

(Greek letter “sigma”) represents the sum of the up to n. , the sigma notation

.

, the sigma notation

Illustration 6.1.3 The expanded form of the binomial

, when it is raised to Binomial Theorem

, is

Substitution

The expanded form of the binomial

Simplifying Sigma notation

Illustration 6.1.1/Definition 3.1.5

, when it is raised to

Multiplication

, is

. Binomial Theorem

Substitution

Simplifying Sigma notation

Illustration 6.1.1/Definition 3.1.5

The expanded form of the binomial

, when it is raised to

is

Multiplication

.

.

 The expanded form of the binomial , when it is raised to , is The expanded form of the binomial , when it is raised to , is

6.2 Pascal’s Triangle

Another way to expand a binomial is through the Pascal’s Triangle. The uppermost portion of this triangle is a triangulation of 1.

The side of this triangle is always above it.

and the number in between is the sum of the two numbers

This shows the coefficient of the binomial when raised to a whole number exponent. The

uppermost number

the numerical coefficients of the binomial

numerical coefficients of the binomial

After knowing the coefficients of the expanded form, the literal coefficient of the first term i.e. the term with 1 as numerical coefficient, will be the first term of the binomial raised to . The literal coefficient of the second term will be the first term of the binomial raised to

. The next row represents

is the result when a binomial

is raised to

when raised to

. The third row shows the

when raised to

, and so on.

multiply to the second term of the binomial raised to 1. The literal coefficient of the third term

will be the first term of the binomial raised to

raised to 2. The literal coefficient of the fourth term will be the first term of the binomial raised

to

as the exponent of the first term decreases, the exponent of the second term increases.

multiply to the second term of the binomial

multiply to the second term of the binomial raised to 3; or in other words, in each term,

Exercises 5

1. Find the product of the following:

2. Evaluate the following combinations:

3. Evaluate the following sigma notations:

7 Factoring

In multiplication of polynomials, the given are the factors and the result will be the product, while in factoring, the product is given and one must find its factors. Definition 7.1.1 According to Baccay, Canlas, Dioquino, Salvacion and Diaz (2003),”Factors are two or more numbers whose product is a given number”.

Bibliography

Alferez, M. S., Duro, M. C., & Tupaz, K. K. (2008). MSA ADVANCED ALGEBRA. Quezon City, Philippines: MSA Publishing House. Alfrez, M. S., & Duro, M. C. (2006). MSA STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY. Cainta, Philippines: MSA Publishing House. Baccay, E. S., Canlas, M. F., Dioquino, A. D., Salvacion, M. M., & Diaz, R. V. (2003). COLLEGE ALGEBRA: Learning Mathematics the Easy Way. Manila: PNU Printing Press. Fraleigh, J. B. (1999). A First Course in ABSTRACT ALGEBRA (6th ed.). Boston: Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Leithold, L. (1989). COLLEGE ALGEBRA AND TRIGONOMETRY. Boston: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Rosen, K. H. (2012). Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications (7th ed.). New York City:

McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Stewart, J., Redlin, L., & Watson, S. (2007). Algebra and Trigonometry (2nd ed.). Singapore:

Brooks/Cole.