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# G17 12 -

Fleming
Reyes, Reinna Julienne A. Dr. Jonas
Domingo

1. WHAT IS HYPOTHESIS?
A research hypothesis is the statement created by researchers when they speculate
upon the outcome of a research or experiment. A hypothesis must be testable, but must also
be falsifiable for its acceptance as true science. A hypothesis should be written in clear,
concise language, and have both an independent and dependent variable.

2. TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
a. Alternative Hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis states that there is a relationship between the two
variables being studied (one variable has an effect on the other). It states that the results
are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the theory being
investigated.
b. Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the two variables
being studied (one variable does not affect the other). It states results are due to chance
and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.
c. Nondirectional Hypothesis
A two-tailed non-directional hypothesis predicts that the independent variable will
have an effect on the dependent variable, but the direction of the effect is not specified.
d. Directional Hypothesis
A one-tailed directional hypothesis predicts the nature of the effect of the
independent variable on the dependent variable.

## 3. ERRORS IN HYPOTHESIS TESTING

Type I error
When the null hypothesis is true and you reject it, you make a type I error. The
probability of making a type I error is α, which is the level of significance you set for your
hypothesis test. An α of 0.05 indicates that you are willing to accept a 5% chance that you
are wrong when you reject the null hypothesis. To lower this risk, you must use a lower value
for α. However, using a lower value for alpha means that you will be less likely to detect a
true difference if one really exists.
Type II error
When the null hypothesis is false and you fail to reject it, you make a type II error.
The probability of making a type II error is β, which depends on the power of the test. You
can decrease your risk of committing a type II error by ensuring your test has enough power.
You can do this by ensuring your sample size is large enough to detect a practical difference
when one truly exists.

REFERENCES:
• Shuttleworth, M., Wilson, T. (2008). Research Hypothesis. Retrieved from
https://explorable.com/research-hypothesis
• McLeod, S. A. (2018). What is a hypothesis?. Retrieved from
https://www.simplypsychology.org/what-is-a-hypotheses.html
• Minitab 18 Support. (n.d.). What are type I and type II errors? Retrieved from
https://support.minitab.com/en-us/minitab/18/help-and-how-to/statistics/basic-
statistics/supporting-topics/basics/type-i-and-type-ii-error/