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Chapter 3 - Automatic Wind Loads

ρV 2
q= (TS 498 Section 11.3)
2g

where,

Vb = Basic wind speed in m/sec as input by the user

ρ = The air density. The programs use 1.25 kg/m3 for this item.

The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.

p = q Cr [Cp-winward + Cp-leeward] (TS 498 Section11.2.3)

where,

q = Velocity pressure.

Cr = Dynamic factor as input by the user.

Cp-windward = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input


by the user.

Cp-leeward = External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by


the user.

The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.

3.29 1995 TCVN 2737 Wind Loads


3.29.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Five wind coefficients are input for 1995 TCVN wind loads. They are the
basic wind pressure, w0, in kN/m2, terrain category, dynamic coefficient (ζ),
pulse pressure factor or gust factor (ξ), and the spatial correlation factor (ν).

The basic wind pressure, w0, in kN/m2 can be obtained from 1995 TCVN from
section 6.

The terrain category can be obtained from 1995 TCVN from section 6.4.5. The
dynamic coefficient (ζ), pulse pressure factor (ξ), and the spatial correlation

Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 121


Lateral Loads

factor (ν) coefficient of dynamic, Cr, are discussed in 1995 TCVN from section
6.13. Any positive value is allowed.

3.29.2 Algorithm for 1995 TCVN 2737 Wind Loads


3.29.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for 1995 TCVN 2737 are based on Section 6 of the 1995
TCVN 2737.

Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical
projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the
input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind
loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To
include those vertical wind loads in the load pattern, the user must include
them manually.

The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, w(z), at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in Newton per square me-
ter (N/m2).

=
w( z ) wm ( z ) + w p ( z ) (TCVN 2737 Section 3.3)

where,

wm ( z ) = Static part (the mean component) of wind load at level z, deter-


mined in accordance with section 6.3

w p ( z ) = Dynamic part (the mean component) of wind load at level z, de-


termined in accordance with section 6.13

The following equation is used to determine the static part of wind loads,
wm ( z ) , at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.

wm ( z ) = w0 k ( z ) [Cp-windward + Cp-leeward] (TCVN 2737 Section 6.3)

where,

w0 = Basic wind pressure as input by user

k ( z ) = Wind pressure coefficient at level z

3 - 122 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms


Chapter 3 - Automatic Wind Loads

z = Height under consideration

and

 z 
k ( z ) = k10   from Table 6 of TCVN 2737
 10 

Values of parameters are defined as:

Terrain Category k10 α ζ10

A 1.18 0.07 0.303

B 1.0 0.09 0.486

C 0.66 0.14 0.684

According 1995 TCVN 2737, the dynamic part of load is considered when the
building height is greater than 40 m for terrain category A, B and for building
height smaller than 40 m or greater than 40 m for C terrain category.

z
w p ( z ) = 1.4 ξ  wm ( h ) ζ ( h ) ν  [Cp-windward + Cp-leeward](TCVN 2737 Section 6.13)
h

Dynamic wind pressure factor at level z is determine by:


−α
 z 
ζ(z) =
ζ10  
 10 

where,

z = Height under consideration

h = Building height

ξ = Pulse (gust) factor

wm ( h ) = Static pressure at top of the building (z = h)

ζ ( h ) = Dynamic pressure factor at top of the building (z = h)

Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 123


Lateral Loads

ν = Spatial-correlation coefficient

Cp-windward = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input


by the user.

Cp-leeward = External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by


the user.

The pressures, w(z), are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area
to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis, as shown in Figure 3-1.

3.29.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects


Automatic wind loads for 1995 TCVN 2737 are based on Section 6 of the 1995
TCVN 2737.

Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical
projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the
input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind
loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To
include those vertical wind loads in the load pattern, the user must include
them manually.

The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, w(z), at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in Newton per square me-
ter (N/m2).

=
w( z ) wm ( z ) + w p ( z ) (TCVN 2737 Section 3.3)

where,

wm ( z ) = Static part (the mean component) of wind load at level z, deter-


mined in accordance with section 6.3

w p ( z ) = Dynamic part (the mean component) of wind load at level z, de-


termined in accordance with section 6.13

The following equation is used to determine the static part of wind loads,
wm ( z ) , at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.

wm ( z ) = w0 k ( z ) [Cp-windward + Cp-leeward] (TCVN 2737 Section 6.3)

3 - 124 Exposure from Area Objects


Chapter 3 - Automatic Wind Loads

where,

w0 = Basic wind pressure as input by user

k ( z ) = Wind pressure coefficient at level z

z = Height under consideration

and

 z 
k ( z ) = k10   from Table 6 of TCVN 2737
 10 

Values of parameters are defined as:

Terrain Category k10 α ζ10

A 1.18 0.07 0.303

B 1.0 0.09 0.486

C 0.66 0.14 0.684

According 1995 TCVN 2737, the dynamic part of load is considered when the
building height is greater than 40 m for terrain category A, B and for building
height smaller than 40 m or greater than 40 m for C terrain category.

z
w p ( z ) = 1.4 ξ  wm ( h ) ζ ( h ) ν  [Cp-windward + Cp-leeward](TCVN 2737 Section 6.13)
h

Dynamic wind pressure factor at level z is determine by:


−α
 z 
ζ(z) =
ζ10  
 10 

where,

z = Height under consideration

Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 125


Lateral Loads

h = Building height

ξ = Pulse (gust) factor

wm ( h ) = Static pressure at top of the building (z = h)

ζ ( h ) = Dynamic pressure factor at top of the building (z = h)

ν = Spatial-correlation coefficient

Cp-windward = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input


by the user.

Cp-leeward = External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by


the user.

The programs distribute the pressures, w(z), on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects

3.30 User-Defined Wind Loads


For user-defined loads, define the magnitude of the wind load force in the X-
and Y-directions, the torsional moment, and the location of the wind load force
to each diaphragm at each story level. On the basis of these data, a point object
is automatically created at the location of the applied load.

3 - 126 Exposure from Area Objects