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# International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)

## Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org

Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

OF PATH & CYCLERELATED GRAPHS
1
StephenJohn.B, 2JovitVinishMelma.G
1 2
Associate Professor & Research Scholar(Reg.No.: 19113012092002), P.G and Research Department of
Mathematics,AnnaiVelankanniCollege (Tholayavattam, KanniyakumariDistrict, 629157), Affiliated By
ManonmaniamSundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli-627012, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract: In 2001 Gray Chartrand introduced the notation of radio labeling [1]. The application of radio labeling is
usedin computer science, cell biology, radiology (cancer treatment) and networking. In this paper our aim is to label the
vertices and edges of a complement related graphs. Our special interest is to find a general formula to label the vertices and
edges of the graph.

Introduction:
The graph labeling problem is one of the recent developing area in graph theory. Alex Rosa first introduced this
problem in 1967 [6]. Radio labeling is motivated by the channel assignment problem introduced by W.K. Hale in 1980
[2].Liu and Zhu first determined the radio number in 2005 [5].
Radio Labeling is use for X-ray crystallography, coding theory, network security, network addressing, channel
assignment process, social network analysis such as connectivity, scalability, routing, computing and cell biology etc.
Definition: 1.1
A graph G is an ordered pair (V(G),E(G)) consisting of a non-empty set V(G) of vertices and a set E(G), disjoint
from V(G), of edges, together with an incidence function that associate with each edge of G is an unordered pair of
vertices of G.
Definition: 1.2
Walk is an alternating sequence of vertices and edges starting and ending with vertices. A walk in which all
the vertices are distinct is called a path. A closed path is called a cycle.
Definition: 1.3
The complement or inverse of a graph G is a graph H on the same vertices such that two distinct vertices of H are
adjacent if and only if they are not adjacent in G. Which is denoted by H=Gc.
Definition: 1.4
The sum of graphs G and H is each vertices of G is adjacent with every vertex of H and it is denoted by G+H.
Definition: 1.5
A labeling or valuation of a graph G is an assignment f of labels to the vertices of G that induces for each edge xy a
label depending on the vertex labels f(x) and f(y).
Definition: 1.6
Thedistance between any two vertices u and v denoted by d(u,v) is the length of a shortest u-v path.
Definition: 1.22
Let G be a graph and v be a vertex of G. The eccentricity of the vertex v is the maximum distance from v to any
other vertex of G.
That is .
Definition: 1.7
The diameter of G is the maximum eccentricity among the vertices of G. Which is denoted by
.
Definition: 1.8
The span of f is defined as max{
Definition: 1.9
A radio labelingf of G is an assignment of nonnegative integers to the vertices of G satisfying,
. The radio number denoted by is the
minimum span of a radio labeling for G.

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 64

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Theorem: 2.1
Let where be a complete graph with m vertices and be a complement of
a complete graph with n vertices then
.
Proof:
Given, where be a complete graph with m vertices and be a complement
of a complete graph with n vertices Therefore,
and The graph G is represent in (figure:1) as below.

(figure:1)
The vertex set of G is where and . Choose
any pair of vertices
 …………. (1)
Choose any pair of vertices (x,y) which has distance greater than one.That is . Where
. The pair of vertices is the neighbourhood of vi.
Therefore, …………. (2)
…………. (3)
By equations (1) to (3), .
Define

## By the above labeling, is minimum and is maximum for any value of

i and j. Therefore, is maximum for any value of i and j.
Therefore,

## Hence the proof.

Theorem: 2.2
Let be a connected complement of path with n vertices then .
Proof:
Given, be a connected complement of path with n vertices and edges. The
graph G is represent in (figure:2) as below.

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 65

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

(figure:2)
vi is a neighborhood vj where and .
Therefore, …………. (4)
Choose any pair of vertices which has distance greater than one. That is vi
and vjare passing through the same vertex .
Therefore, …………. (5)
By equations (4) and (5), .
Define

##  is minimum and is maximum for any value of i.

Hence proved
Theorem: 2.3
Let be a complement of cycle with n vertices then .
Proof:
Given, be a complement of cycle with n vertices and edges. The graph
G is represent in (figure:3) as below.

(figure:3)

## The vertices vi is a neighborhood vj where

and n – 1.
Therefore, and n – 1. …………. (6)
Choose any pair of vertices which has distance greater than one. That is and
n – 1. The vertices viand vjare passing through the same vertex .
Therefore, and n - 1 …………. (7)
By equations (6) and (7), .
Define

Hence the proof.
Corollary: 2.4

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 66

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

## Let where be a compliment of path with n vertices and be a complement

of cycle with n vertices. If the radio labeling of is same as the radio labeling of then .
Proof:
By theorem 2.2 and 2.3
then .
Theorem: 2.5
Let and n > 1 where be a complement of path with m vertices and Pn be a path
of order n then

Proof:
Given, and n > 1 where be a complement of path graph with m vertices andPn
be a path of order n then vertices. and is represent
in (figure:4) as below.

(figure:4)

where and .
Choose any pair of vertices ,
 …………. (8)
Also passing through the same vertex
 …………. (9)

 …………. (10)
 and …………. (11)
By equations (69) and (72), .
Define

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 67

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

## By the above labeling, is minimum and either is and is

maximum respectively on and forany value of i and j.

Therefore,

## Hence the proof.

Theorem: 2.6
Let and n > 1 where be a complement of cycle with m vertices and Pn be a path
of order n then

Proof:
Given, and n > 1 where be a complement of cycle with m vertices and Pn be a
path of order n. and
is represent in (figure:5) as below.

(figure:5)

where and .

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 68

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

## Choose any pair of vertices . The vertices ui is a neighborhood of uj such that

and n -1.
Therefore …………. (12)
Choose any pair of vertices such that and n -1. That is
 and n - 1.
The vertices passing through the same vertex
Therefore, and n - 1 …………. (13)
Choose

 …………. (14)
 and …………. (15)
By equations (12)to (15), .
Define

## By the above labeling, is minimum and either is and is

maximum respectively on and for any value of i and j.

Therefore,

## Hence the proof.

Corollary: 2.7
Let and n > 1 where be a compliment of path graph
with m vertices be a complement of cycle with m vertices and be a path of order n. If the radio labeling of
is same as the radio labeling of then .
Proof:
By theorem 2.5 and 2.6,
.
Theorem: 2.8
Let where be a complement of path graph with m vertices and Cn be a cycle
with n vertices then

Proof:

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 69

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

## Given, where be a complement of path graph with m vertices and Cn be a

cyclewith n vertices and
is represent in (figure:6) as below.

(figure:6)
where and .
Choose any pair of vertices

 …………. (16)
Since passing through the same vertex
 …………. (17)
and n 1.
 and n 1. …………. (18)
The vertices
 and and n 1. …………. (19)
By equations (16)to (19), .
Define

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 70

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

## By the above labeling, is minimum and either , and

is maximum respectively on and for any value of i and j.

Therefore,

## Hence the proof.

Theorem: 2.9
Let where be a complement of cycle with m vertices and Cn be a cycle with n
vertices then

Proof:
Given, where be a complement of cycle with m vertices and Cn be a cycle
of order n. and
is represent in (figure:7) as below.

(figure:7)
where and .
Choose any pair of vertices . The vertices is a neighbourhood of such that
and n-1.
 and n-1 …………. (20)
Choose any pair of vertices . such that and . That is
and . The vertices passing through the same vertex
Therefore, and …………. (21)
and
 and . …………. (22)
 and
and . …………. (23)

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 71

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Define

## By the above labeling, is minimum and either , and

is maximum respectively on and for any value of i and j.

Therefore,

## Hence the proof.

Corollary: 2.10
Let where be a complement of cycle with m
vertices, be a path of order n and Cn be a cycle with n vertices. If the radio labeling of is same as the radio
labeling of then .
Proof:
By theorem 2.8 and 2.9
.
Theorem: 2.11
Let where be a complement of path with m vertices and be a complement
of cycle with n vertices then
Proof:
Given, where be a complement of path with m vertices and be a cycle
with n vertices. and is represent in
(figure:8) as below.

(figure:8)
The vertex set of G is which is denoted by

## Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 Page 72

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org
Volume 8, Issue 7, July 2019 ISSN 2319 - 4847

where and .
Choose any pair of vertices .
…………. (24)
Choose any pair of vertices .
and n-1. …………. (25)
…………. (26)

…………. (27)
and and n-1.

Define

## By the above labeling, is minimum and either , is maximum for any

value of i and j.

Hence the proof.

REFERENCE:
[1] Chartrand. G, Erwin. D, Zhang.P and Harary. F, Radio Labeling of Graphs, Bull,Inst.Combin.Appl.33(2001), 77-
85.
[2]Hale. W.K., Frequency assignment: theory and applications, proc.IEEE, 68(1980), 1947-1514.
[3]Jayapriya. J, Thirusangu. K, O-Edge Magic Labeling For Some Class of Graphs, Indian Journal of Computer
Science And Engineering, Vol.3, No.3,Jun-Jul 2012.
[4]Joseph.A.Gallian, A Dynamic Survey of Graph Labeling. The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, (2013).
[5]Liu.D and Zhu.X, Multi-level distance labeling for paths and cycles, SIAM J. Discrete Math., Vol.19(3), 610-
621,2005.
[6]Rosa. A, On Certain Valuations of The Vertices of A Graph Theory of Graphs (Internet, Symposium, Rome, July
1966), Gordon and Dunod Paris (1967).
[7] Stephen John.B and JovitVinishMelma.G, Arithmetic Labeling Of W4 X Pn And Km,n, International Journal Of
Current Advanced Research ,Volume 7, Issue 3(J), March 2018.
[8] Stephen John.B and JovitVinishMelma.G, Arithmetic Labeling Of Cm X Pn And Pm X Pn, International Journal
Of Mathematical Archive,9(4),2018.
[9] Stephen John.B and JovitVinishMelma.G, Arithmetic Labeling Of Pm X Pn And P3 X Sk, International Journal Of
Recent scientific Research, Vol.9,Issue 4(L), April 2018.
[10] Stephen John.B and JovitVinishMelma.G, Some Labeling Parameters of D (vK_(1,n)), International Journal of
Research and Analytical reviews, Vol.6, Issue 1,Jan.–March ( 2019).
[11] Stephen John.B and JovitVinishMelma.G, Radio Labeling To The Transformation of Path, Universal Reviews,
Vol. 6 ,Issue 2, April 2019.
[12] Stephen John.B and JovitVinishMelma.G, Radio Labeling To Transformation of Path And Cycle, International
Journal of Research and Analytical reviews, Vol.6, Issue 1, May ( 2019).
[13]Nilanjan De, F-Index of Total Transformation Graphs, Contemporary Studiesin Discrete Mathematics, Vol.2,
No.2, 2018, PP.1-10.
[14]Vaidya. S.K and Bantva. D.D, Radio Number For Total Graph Of Path, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, ISRN
Combinatorics, Volume 2013, Article ID 326038.
[15]Yogalakshmi. S, B. Sooryanatayana, Ramya, Radio Number of Transformation Graphs of A Path J. Appl. Math. &
Informatics, Vol.35(2017), No.1-2, PP.59-74.