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an artificial satelliete placed at a height of 2248 miles directly above the

equator would orbit the globe at the same speed with which the earth was

rotating. This belt along the equator is known as the Clarke Belt or

Geostationary orbit. If the radius of the earth is 4000 miles and assume

g = 32.2 fps, determine the length of the Geostationary orbit.

Solution:

C = 2πR

R = 2248 + 4000 = 26248

C = 2π(26248) = 164921

Problem 64 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The revenue R from selling x number of computer boards is given as R =

60x and the cost C of producing them is given by C = 50x + 5000. Find

how many boards must be sold to break-even and how much money is

needed to produce the breakeven number of boards.

Solution:

60x = 50x + 5000 C = 50(500) + 5000

x = 500 C = 30,000

Problem 65 – Mathematics (Algebra)

During the 2016 Major League Baseball season, the number of wins for

the Toronto Blue Jays, the New York Yankees and the Milwaukee

Brewers were three consecutive integers. Of these 3 teams, the Yankees

had the most wins and the Brewers has the least wins. The total number

of wins by these 3 teams was 249. How many wins did the Yankees have

in the 2016 season?

Solution:

Brewers = x Toronto Jays = x + 1 Yankees = x + 2

x + x +1 + x + 2 = 249

3x = 246

x = 82

No. of wins for the Yankees = 82 + 2 = 84

Problem 66 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A serving of yogurt contains 120 calories, 21 grams of carbohydrates and

5 grams of protein. How much fat is provided by this serving of yogurt?

Solution:

C = 4h + 9f + 4p

120 = 4(21) + 9f + 4(5)

f = 1.78 grams

Problem 67 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A local coffee shop (Bo’s Coffee) is serving raisins which contains 130

calories and 31 grams of carbohydrates. If the raisins are fat-free food,

how much protein is provided by this serving of raisins?

Solution:

C = 4h + 9f + 4p

130 = 4(31) + 0 + 4p

p = 1.5 grams

Problem 68 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Christian de Angelo has scores of 68, 65, 75 and 78 on his algebra test.

Use a compound in equality to find the scores he can make on his final

exam to receive a C in the course. The final exam counts and a C is

received if the final course average is from 70 to 79.

a) 67 ≤ final score ≤ 94 c) 71 ≤ final score ≤ 93

b) 69 ≤ final score ≤ 90 d) 72 ≤ final score ≤ 92

Problem 69 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Carol Trump would like to pay cash for a car when she graduates from

college and estimates that she can afford a car that costs between $4000

and $8000. She has saved $500 so far and plans to earn the rest of the

money by working the next two summers. If Carol plans to the same

amount each summer, use a compound inequality to find the range of

money she must save each summer to buy the car.

a) $1750 ≤ $3750 c) 1950 ≤ $3650

b) $1850 ≤ $3870 d) 1650 ≤ $3560

Problem 70 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A car rental company charges $19.95 per day for a compact car plus 12

cents per mile for every mile over 100 miles driven each day. If Mr. Okada

bill for 2 days use is $46.86, find how many miles he drove.

Solution:

[19.95 + 0.12(x – 100)] 2 = 46.86

7.95 + 0.12x = 23.43

x = 129 miles/day

No. of miles he drove = 129(2) = 258

The Las Vegas area was hit hard after the housing crash in 2009. In the

fourth quarter of 2009, there were 15,710 home sales, and in the fourth

quarter of 2014, there were 12,680 home sales. Predict the number of

home sales in the fourth quarter of 2020.

Solution:

y = mx + b

x y 15710 = m(2009) + b

2009 15710 15710 = 2009m + b

2014 12680 12680 = 2014m + b

2020 ? 15710 = 2009m + b

- 3030 = + 5 m

m = - 606

15710 = - 606(2009) + b

b = 1233164

y = - 606(2020) + 1233164

y = 9044 homes

Problem 72 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The Whammo Co. has learned that by pricing a newly released Frisbee at $6, sales will

reach 2000 per day. Raising the price to $8 will cause the sales to fall to 1500 per day.

Assume that the ratio of change in price to charge in daily sales is constant and let x be the

price of the Frisbee and y the number of sales, estimate the daily sales of Frisbees if the

price is set at $7.50.

Solution:

x y y = mx + b

6 2000 2000 = 6x + b

8 1500 1500 = 8x + b

7.50 ? 500 = - 2x

x = - 250

1500 = 8(- 250) + b

b = 3500

y = mx + b

y = - 250(7.5) + 3500

y = 1625

Problem 73 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The number of McDonals restaurants worldwide in 2014 was 36,258. In 2009, there were

32,478 McDonalds restaurant worldwide. Let y be the number of McDonald restaurants in

the year x, where x = 0 represents in the year x, where x = 0 represents the year 2009.

Determine the number of McDonalds restaurants worldwide in 2018.

Solution:

x y y = mx + b

0 32478 32478 = m(0) + b

5 36528 b = 32478

9 ? 36258 = m(5) + + 32478

m = 756

y = mx + b

y = 756(9) + 32478

y = 39282

Problem 74 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The amount of U.S. Federal Gov’t. income y (in trillions of dollars) for fiscal year x

from 2012 to 2015, (x = 0 represents 2012) can be modeled by the linear equation

y = 0.36x + 5.04. The amount of U.S. Federal Gov’t. expenditures y (in trillions of

dollars) for the same period can be modeled by y = 0.03x + 6.03. Based on the

data from the U.S. Dept. of Treasury, in what year will the expenditures will be

equal to the income?

Solution:

y = 0.03x + 6.03 (expenditures)

y = 0.36x + 5.04 (income)

0.03x + 6.03 = 0.36x + 5.04

0.33x = 0.99

x = 3 years

They will be equal in 2012 + 3 = 2015

Problem 75 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Find the equation y = ax2 + bx + c if it has ordered pair solutions (1, 6), (-1, -2) and

(0, 1), respectively.

Solution:

6 = a(1)2 + b(1) + c

- 2 = a(-1)2 – b + c

-1=0+0+c

Solve for a = 3

y = 3x2 + 4x - 1

Problem 76 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Keith Robinson is a chemistry teacher who needs 1 liter of a solution of 5% hydrocloric acid

(HCl) to carry out an experiment. If he only has a stock solution of 99% HCl, how much water

0% acid must be mixed to get 1 liter of 5% solution?

Solution:

0% 99% 5%

x y = x+y

x+y=1

0(x) + 99y = 5(1)

y = 0.05

x = 1 - 0.05

x = 0.95 liter of water

Problem 77 – Mathematics (Algebra)

During the 2013-2014 regular NBA season, the top-scoring player was Kevin Durant of the

Oklahama City Thunder. Durant scored a total of 2593 points during the regular season. The

number of free throws (each worth one point) he made was 127 more than 3 times the

number of three point field goals he made. The number of 2 points field goals he made was

46 less than the number of free throws he made. How many three-point field goals did Kevin

Durant make during the 2013-2014 NBA season?

Solution:

x = no. of free throws

y = no. of 2-point field goals

z = no. of 3-point field goals

y = x – 46 35 + 6z + 2x = 2593

x + 2y + 3z = 2593 35 + 6z + 2(127 + 3z) = 2593

12z + 289 = 2593

z = 192

Problem 78 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Rabbits in a lab are to be kept on a strict daily deit that includes 30 grams

of protein, 16 grams of fat and 24 grams of carbohydrates. The scientist

has only three food mixes available with the following grams of nutrients

per unit.

Mix A 4 6 3

Mix B 6 1 2

Mix C 4 1 12

How many units of mix B are needed daily to meet each rabbit’s deitary

need?

Solution:

4A + 6B + 4C = 30

6A + B + C = 16

3A + 2B + 12C = 24

Solve for B = 3

Problem 79 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Gerry Gundersen mixes different solutions with concentrations of 25%, 40% and

50% to get 200 liters of a 32% solution. If he uses twice as much of the 25%

solution as of the 40% solution, find how many liters of 40% solution he uses.

Solution:

25% 40% 50% 32%

+ + =

x y z 200

x = 2y

x

y=

2

y = 0.5

x + 0.5x + z = 200

1.5x + z = 200

0.25x + 0.40y + 0.50z = 0.32(200)

0.25x + 0.40(0.5x) + 0.50z = 64

0.45x + 0.50z = 64

1.5x + z = 200

0.75x + 0.50z = 100

0.45x + 0.50z = 64

0.30x = 36

x = 120

x

y=

2

120

y= = 60 liters

2

Problem 80 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The revenue equation for a Samsonite backpack is y = 32x where x is the

number of backpacks sold and y is the income in dollars for selling x

backpacks. The cost equation for these units is y = 15x + 25500, where x

is the number of backpacks manufactured and y is the cost in dollars for

manufacturing x backpacks. Find the number of units to be sold for the

company to break even.

Solution:

y = 32x

y = 15x + 2550

32x = 15x + 2550

x = 1500

Problem 81 – Mathematics (Algebra)

An F-100 plane and a Toyota truck leave the same town at sunrise and

head for a town 450 miles. The speed of the plane is three times the

speed of the truck and the plane arrives 6 hours ahead of the truck. Find

the speed of the truck.

Solution:

450 450 3V

= -6 V

3V V

450 = 450(3) - 3V(6)

450 miles

V = 50 mph

Problem 1 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Find three numbers such that the second number is 3 more than twice the

first number, and the third number is four times the first number. The sum

of the three numbers is 164.

Solution:

x + (2x + 3) + 4x = 164

x = 23

2x + 3 = 49

4x = 92

Problem 2 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Suppose that a computer store just announced an 8% decrease in the

price of a particular computer model. If this computer sells for $2162 after

the decrease, find the original price of this computer.

Solution:

x – 0.08x = 2162

x = 2350

Problem 3 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A pennant in the shape of an isosceles triangle is to be constructed for the Slidell

High School Athletic Club and sold at a fund-raiser. The company manufacturing

the pennant charges according to perimeter, and the athletic club has determined

that a perimeter of 149 centimeters should make a nice profit. If each equal side of

the triangle is twice the length of the third side, increased by 12 centimeters, find

the lengths of the sides of the triangle pennant.

Solution:

(2x + 12) + (2x + 12) + x = 149

x = 25

2x + 12 = 62

Therefore, the length of the sides of the triangle are 25, 62, 62.

Problem 4 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Kelsey Ohleger was helping her friend Benji Burnstine studey for an algebra exam.

Kelsey told Benji that her three latest art history quiz scores are three consecutive

even integers whose sum is 264. Help Benji find the scores.

Solution:

x + (x + 2) + (x + 4) = 264

x = 86

x + 2 = 88

x + 4 = 90

Problem 5 – Mathematics (Algebra)

In 2010, 8476 earthquakes occurred in the United States. Of these, 91.4% were

minor tremors with magnitudes of 3.9 or less on the Richter scale. How many

minor earthquakes occur in the United States in 2010? Round to the nearest

whole number.

Solution:

8476(0.914) = 7747

Problem 6 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Karen Estes just received an inheritance of $10,000 and plans to place all the

money in a savings account that pays 5% compounded quarterly to help her son

go to college in 3 years. How much money will be in the account in 3 years?

Solution:

12

⎛ 0.05 ⎞

A = 10000 ⎜ 1 + = 11,607.55

⎝ 4 ⎟⎠

Problem 7 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The fastest average speed by a cyclist across the continental United States is 15.4

mph, by Pete Penseyres. If he traveled a total distance of about 3107.5 miles at

this speed find his time cycling in days, hours and minutes.

Solution:

3107.5 = 15.4t

201.79 = t

t = 8 days, 9 hours, 50 minutes

Problem 8 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A serving of cashew contains 14 grams of fat, 7 grams of carbohydrate,

and 6 grams of protein. How many calories are in this serving of

cashews?

Solution:

C = 4h + 9f + 4p

h = number of grams of carbohydrate

f = number of grams of fat

p = number of grams of protein

C = 4(7) + 9(14) + 4(6)

C = 178 calories

Problem 9 – Mathematics (Algebra)

In the United States, the annual consumption of cigarettes is declining.

The consumption c in billions of cigarettes per year since the year 2000

can be approximated by the formula c = - 9.4t + 431 where t is the number

of years after 2000. Use this formula to predict the years that the

consumption of cigarettes will be less than 200 billion per year.

Solution:

c = - 9.4(20) + 431 = 243

- 9.4t + 431 < 200

9.4t = 231

t = 24.6 say 25

2025.

Problem 10 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The cost C of producing x number of scientific calculators is given by

C = 4.50x + 3000, and the revenue R from selling them is given by R = 16.50x.

Find the number of calculators that must be sold to break even.

Solution:

C = 4.50x + 3000

R = 16.50x

4.50x + 3000 = 16.50x

x = 250 calculators

Chine, the United States, and France are predicted to be the top tourist

destinations by 2020. In this year, the United States is predicted to have 9 million

more tourists than France, and China is predicted to have 44 million more tourists

than France. If the total number of tourist predicted for these three countries is 332

million, find the number predicted for each country in 2020.

Solution:

C = no. of tourist in China

F = no. of tourist in France

U = no. of tourist in United States

U=9+F

C = F + 44

C + F + U = 332

F + F + 44 + 9 + F = 332

3F = 279

F = 93

C = 93 + 44 = 137

U = 9 + 93 = 102

Problem 12 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Th number of cars manufactured on an assembly line at a General Motors

plant varies jointly as the number of workers and the time they work. If 200

workers can produce 60 cars in 2 hours, find how many cars 240 workers

should be able to make in 3 hours?

Solution:

60 = K(200)(2)

60

K=

400

60

N= (240)(3) = 108

400

Problem 13 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Boyle’s law says that if the temperature stays the same, the pressure P of

a gas is inversely proportional to the volume V. If a cylinder in a steam

engine has a pressure of 960 kilopascals when the volume is 1.4 cubic

meters, find the pressure when the volume increases to 2.5 cubic meters.

Solution:

k 1344

P= P= = 537.6 kPa

V 2.5

k

960 =

1.4

1344 = k

Problem 14 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Hooke’s law states that the distance a spring stretches is directly

proportional to the weight attached to the spring. If a 40-pound weight

attached to the spring stretches the spring 5 inches, find the distance that

a 65-pound weight attached to the spring stretches the spring.

Solution:

d = kw

5 = k(40)

1

=k

8

1

d = (65) = 8.125

8

Problem 15 – Mathematics (Algebra)

If a certain number is subtracted from the numerator and added to the

denominator of 9/19, the new fraction is equivalent to 1/3. Find the

number.

Solution:

9-n 1

=

19 + n 3

3(9 - n) = 19 + n

27 - 3n = 19 + n

n=2

Problem 16 – Mathematics (Algebra)

If the cost, C(x), for manufacturing x units of a certain product is given by

C(x) = x2 – 15x + 50, find the number of units manufactured at a cost of

$9500.

Solution:

C(x) = x2 – 15x + 50

9500 = x2 – 15x + 50

x2 – 15x – 9450 = 0

x = 105

Problem 17 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The world’s highest bridge, the Millau Viaduct in France, is 1125 feet

above the River Tarn. An object is dropped from the top of this bridge.

Neglecting air resistance, the height of the object at time t seconds is

given by the polynomial function P(t) = - 16t2 + 1125. Find the height of

the object when t = 8 seconds.

Solution:

P(t) = - 16t2 + 1125

P(8) = - 16(8)2 + 1125

P(8) = 101

Problem 18 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A company that manufactures boxes recently purchased $2000 worth of

new equipment to offer gift boxes to its customers. The cost of producing

a package of gift boxes is $1.50 and it is sold for $4.00. Find the number

of packages that must be sold for the company to break even.

Solution:

2000 + 1.50x = 4x

2.50x = 2000

x = 800

Problem 19 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Mr.s Laser agrees to give her son Mark an allowance of $0.1 on the first

day of his 14-day vacation, $0.20 on the second day, $0.40 on the third

day, and so on. Write an equation of a sequence whose terms correspond

to Mark’s allowance. Find the allowance Mark will receive on the last day

of his vacation.

Solution:

0.20

r= =2

0.1

a n = a1 r n−1

a n = 0.1(2)n−1

a14 = 819.20

Problem 20 – Mathematics (Algebra)

If the third term of an arithmetic sequence is 23 and the eighth term is 63.

Find the sixth term.

Solution:

an = a1 + (n – 1)d Solving for a1 = 7, d = 8

23 = a1 + (3 – 1)d Therefore the sixth term is

23 = a1 + 2d a6 = 7 + (6 – 1)(8)

a6 = 47

63 = a1 + (8 – 1)d

63 = a1 + 7d

Find the first four terms of a geometric sequence whose first term is 8 and

whose common ratio is – 3.

Solution:

an = a1 rn-1

a1 = 8

a2 = - 24

a3 = 8(-3)3-1

a3 = 72

Problem 22 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The research department of a company that manufactures children’s fruit

drinks is experimenting with a new flavor. A 17.5% fructose solution is

needed but only 10% and 20% solutions are available. How many gallons

of the 10% fructose solution should be mixed with the 20% solution to

obtain 20 gallons of a 17.5% fructose solution?

Solution:

x y 20

10% 20% 17.5%

+ =

90% 80% 82.5%

90x + 80y = 20(82.5)

Solving for:

x = 5 gallons of 10% fructose solution

y = 15 gallons of 20% fructose solution

Problem 23 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A motel in New Orleans charges $90 per day for double occupancy and

$80 per day for single occupancy during off-season. If 80 rooms are

occupied for a total of $6930, how many rooms of each kind are

occupied?

Solution:

Let x = no. of double room

80 – x = no. of single room

x = 53 double rooms

80 – x = 27 single rooms

Problem 24 – Mathematics (Algebra)

An endangered species of sparrow had an estimated population of 800 in

2000 and scientists predicted that its population would decrease by half

each year. Estimate the population in 2004.

Solution:

an = a1 rn-1

r = 0.5

n=5

a1 = 800

an = 800(0.5)5-1

an = 50 sparrows

Problem 25 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The number of cases of new infectious disease is doubling every year such that

the number of cases is modeled by a sequence whose general term is

an = 75(2)n-1, where n is the number of the year just beginning. Find how many

cases there will be at the beginning of the sixth year. Find how many cases there

were at the beginning of the first year.

Solution:

No. of cases at the beginning of the sixth year:

an = 75(2)n-1, n=6

an = 75(2)6-1

an = 2,400 cases

an = 75(2)n-1, n=1

an = 75(2)1-1

an = 75 cases

Problem 25 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Keith Robinson bought two Siamese fighting fish. But when he got home, he found

he only had one rectangular tank that was 12 in. long, 7 in. wide, and 5 in. deep.

Since the fish must be kept separated, he

12 in 7 in

needed to insert a plastic divider in the diagonal

of the tank. He already has a piece that is 5 in. in

5 in

one dimension but how long must it be to fit

corner to corner in the tank?

Solution:

x2 = (7)2 + (12)2 5 in

x = 13.89 in.

x

Problem 26 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The value of an automobile bought in 2012 continues to decrease as time

passes. Two years after the car was bought, it was worth $20600; four

years after, it was bought, it was worth $14600.

2012 and the value of the car is linear, write an equation describing

this relationship. Hint: Use ordered pairs of the form (year past 2012,

value of the automobile).

Solution:

an = a1 + (n – 1)d

20600 = a1 + (2 – 1)d 14600 = a1 + (4 – 1)d

20600 = a1 + d 14600 = a1 + 3d

Solving for:

a1 = 23600

d = - 3000

General equation:

an = 23600 + (n – 1)(- 3000)

an = 26600 – 3000n

Solution:

At 2018, n = 6

a6 = 26600 – 3000(6)

a6 = $8600

Problem 27 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A starting salary for a consulting company is $57000 per year with

guaranteed annual increase of $2200 for the next 4 years. Write the

general term for the arithmetic sequence that models the potential annual

salaries and find the salary for the third year.

Solution:

an = a1 + (n – 1)d an = 54,800 + 2200n

an = 57000 + (n – 1)(2200) when n = 3

an = 57000 + n(2200) – 2200 an = 54,800 + 2200(3)

an = 54,800 + 2200n an = $61,400

Problem 28 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Find the earthquake’s magnitude on the Richter scale if a recording

station measures an amplitude of 300 micrometers and 2.5 seconds

between waves. Assume that B is 4.2. Approximate the solution to the

nearest tenth.

Solution:

⎛ a⎞

R = log ⎜ ⎟ + B

⎝ T⎠

⎛ 300 ⎞

R = log ⎜ ⎟ + 4.2

⎝ 2.5 ⎠

R = log(120) + 4.2

R = 6.3

Problem 29 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The Rogun Dam in Tajikistan (part of the former USSR) is the tallest dam

in the world at 1100 feet. How long would it take an object to fall from the

top to the base of the dam?

Solution:

S = Vot + ½ at2

S = - 1100 ft.

a = - 32 ft/sec2

Vo = 0

- 1100 = 0 + ½ (- 32)t2

t = 8.29 seconds

Problem 30 – Mathematics (Algebra)

After applying a test antibiotic, the population of a bacterial culture is

reduced by one-half every day. Predict how large the culture will be at the

start of day 7 if it measures 4800 units at the beginning of day 1.

Solution:

an = a1 rn-1

r = 0.5

n=7

a1 = 4800

an = 4800(0.5)7-1

an = 75 units

Problem 31 – Mathematics (Algebra)

If a radioactive element has a half-life of 3 hours, then x grams of element

dwindles to x/2 grams after 3 hours. If a nuclear reactor has 400 grams of that

radioactive element, find the amount of radioactive material after 12 hours.

Solution:

an = a1 rn-1

r = 0.5 or ½

n=5

a1 = 400

an = 400(1/2)5-1

an = 25 grams

Problem 32 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A ball is dropped from a height of 20 feet and repeatedly rebounds to a height that

is 4/5 of its previous height. Find the total distance the ball covers before it comes

to rest.

Solution:

Consider the problem as

infinite geometric sequence.

20 ft

4

r= a1 = 20 ft.

5

a 20

S= 1 = = 100

1 - r 1 - 4/5

Due to rebounding, double the distance minus the initial.

T = 2(100) - 20 = 180 ft.

Problem 33 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The sum of three numbers is 40. The first number is five more than the

second number. It is also twice the third. Find the numbers.

Solution:

x = 1st no.

y = 2nd no.

z = 3rd no.

x + y + z = 40 (1)

x=y+5 (2)

x = 2z (3)

x=y+5

y=x–5

x = 27

x

z= (5)

2

Substitute (4) and (5) to eqn. (1)

⎡ x ⎤

⎢ x + (x - 5) + = 40 ⎥ 2

⎣ 2 ⎦

2x + 2x - 10 + x = 80

5x = 90

x = 18

y = 13

z=9

Problem 34 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The number of baby gorillas born at the San Diego Zoo is a sequence defined by

an = n(n – 1), where n is the number of years the zoo has owned gorillas. Find the

total number of baby gorillas bonr in the first 4 years.

Solution:

4

S4 = ∑ i(i - 1)

i =1

S4 = 20

Problem 35 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A company’s cost per tee shirt for silk screening x tee shirts is given by the rational

3.2x + 400

function C(x) = . Find the cost per tee shirt.

x

➀ For printing 1000 tee shirts

Solution:

3.2x + 400

C(x) = ; x = 1000

x

3.2(1000) + 400

=

1000

C = $3.60

➀ For printing 100 tee shirts

Solution:

3.2x + 400

C(x) = ; x = 100

x

3.2(100) + 400

=

100

C = $7.20

Problem 36 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Mark Keaton’s workout consists of jogging for 3 miles and then riding his

bike for 5 miles at a speed 4 miles per hour faster than he jogs. If his total

workout time is 1 hour, find his jogging speed and his biking speed.

Solution:

x = speed in jogging t1 = time in jogging

x + 4 = speed in biking t2 = time in biking

d

v= t1 + t 2 = 1 x = 6 mph jogging speed

t

d 3 5

t= + =1 x + 4 = 10 mph biking speed

v x x +4

Problem 37 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Suppose that an open box is to be made from a square sheet of

cardboard by cutting out squares from each corner as shown and then

folded along the dotted lines. If the box is to have a volume of 128 cubic

inches, find the original dimensions of the sheet of cardboard.

Solution:

Assume cut-out of 2 in. by 2 in.

V=l x w x h

128 = (x – 4)(x – 4)(2)

x = 12 in.

Problem 38 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A sprinkler that sprays water in a circular pattern is to be used to water a

square garden. If the area of the garden is 920 square feet, find the

smallest whole number radius that the sprinkler can be adjusted to so that

the entire garden is watered.

Solution:

r

920 = x 2

x = 30.33 ft.

2 2

2 ⎛ x⎞ ⎛ x⎞ Sprinkler

r =⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟

⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠

r = 21.45 ≈ 22 ft. x

Problem 39 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Gary Marcus and Tony Alva work at Lombardo’s Pipe and Concrete.

Mr. Lombardo is preparing an estimate for a customer. He knows that

Gary can lay 4 slab of concrete in 6 hours. Tony can lay the same size

slab in 4 hours. If both work on the job and the cost of labor is $45.00 per

hour, determine what the labor estimate should be.

Solution:

⎛ 1 1⎞

⎜⎝ 6 + 4 ⎟⎠ t = 1

t = 2.4 hours

Labor estimate = 2.4(45) = $108

Problem 40 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The average speed of the winner Meb Keflezighi during the 2014 Boston

Marathon was 1.46 kilometers per hour faster than the first female to

cross the finish line, Rita Jeptoo. If Keflezighi ran 29.52 kilometers in the

time that Jeptoo ran 27.33 kilometers, find the speed of Jeptoo, rounded

to the nearest tenth.

Solution:

x = Rita’s speed t1 = time of Meb

x + 1.46 = Meb’s speed t2 = time of Rita

d

v= t1 = t 2

t

d 29.52 27.33

t= =

v x + 1.46 x

x = 18.22 = 18.2 km / hr

Hertz Car Rental Agency charges $25 daily plus 10 cents per mile. Budget

charges $20 daily plus 25 cents per mile. Find the daily mileage for which

the Budget charge for the day is twice that of the Hertz charge for the day.

Solution:

2(25 + 0.10x) = (20 + 0.25x)

5x = 30

x = 600 mi.

Problem 42 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The maximum weight that a rectangular beam can support varies jointly as its

width and the square of its height and inversely as its length. If a beam ½ foot

wide, 1/3 foot high and 10 feet long can support 12 tons. Find 2/3 foot wide, ½ foot

high, and 16 feet long.

Solution:

Let W = weight D = height

B = width L = length

2 ( 1 )2

BD2 3 2

W =K W = 2160 • = 22.5 tons

L 16

WL 12(10)

K= = 1 1 2 = 2160

BD2 2(3)

Problem 43 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The intensity of light (in foot-candles) varies inveresely as the square of x, the

distance in feet from the light source. The intensity of light 2 feet from the source is

80-foot candles. How far away is the source if the intensity of light is 5 foot

candles?

Solution:

Let I = intensity of light

x = distance in feet from the light source

k

I= 2

x

k = I x 2 = 80(2)2 = 320

320

5= 2

x

x = 8 feet

Problem 44 – Mathematics (Algebra)

In 2010, 9 out of 20 top grossing movies were rated PG-13. At this rate,

how many movies in a year with 599 releases would you predict to be

rated PG-13? Round to the nearest whole movie.

Solution:

9

Rate of PG-13 movies =

20

9

No. of PG-13 movies in a year = (599) = 269.55

20

Problem 45 – Mathematics (Algebra)

If the voltage V in an electric circuit is held constant, the current I is inversely

proportional to the resistance R. If the current is 20 amperes when the resistance

is 20 ohms, find the current when the resistance is 150 ohms.

Solution:

⎛ 1⎞

I = V⎜ ⎟

⎝ R⎠

V = IR

If V is held constant,

I1 R1 = I2 R 2

20(20) = I2 (150)

8

I2 =

3

Problem 46 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Smith Engineering is in the process of reviewing the salaries of their surveyors.

During this review, the company found that an experienced surveyor can survey a

roadbed in 4 hours. An apprentice surveyor needs 5 hours to survey the same

stretch of road. If the two work together, find how long it takes them to complete

the job.

Solution:

Rate Time Spent Part of work done

Experienced ¼ t t/4

Apprentice 1/5 t t/5

Total work done = 1

t t

+ =1

4 5

t = 2.22 hours

Problem 47 – Mathematics (Algebra)

An experienced brick layer can construct a small wall in 3 hours. An apprentice

can complete the job in 6 hours. Find how long it takes if they work together.

Solution:

Rate Time Spent Part of work done

Experienced 1/3 t t/3

Apprentice 1/6 t t/6

Total work done = 1

t t

+ =1

3 6

t = 2 hours

Problem 48 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The speed of Lazy River’s current is 5 mph. If a boat travels 20 miles downstream

in the same time that it takes to travel 10 miles upstream, find the speed of the

boat in still water.

Solution:

D = Vt

Vdownstream = Vstill + 5 mph

Vupstream = Vstill - 5 mph

Going downstream: ( )

20 miles = Vstill + 5 mph (t 1 )

Going upstream: ( )

10 miles = Vstill - 5 mph (t 2 )

t1 = t 2

20 10

=

Vstill + 5 Vstill - 5

Vstill = 15 mph

Problem 49 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The sum of the reciprocals of two consecutive integers is 75/56. Find the two

integers.

Solution:

x = first integer

x + 1 = second integer

1 1 - 15

+ =

x x + 1 56

x = -8

x + 1 = -7

Problem 50 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Two trains going in opposite directions leave at the same time. One train travels

15 mph faster than the other. In 6 hours, the trains are 630 miles apart. Find the

speed of each.

Solution:

V1 = speed of first train

V2 = V1 + 15 = speed of second train

t = 6 hours

D1 = distance traveled by the first train

D2 = 630 – D1 = distance by the second train

D1 = V1 (6) --- ➀

D2 = V2 (6)

630 – D1 = (V1 + 15)(6) ---➁

630 - V1 (6) = (V1 + 15)(6)

V1 = 45 mph

V2 = V1 + 15 = 60 mph

Problem 51 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A giant tortoise can travel 0.17 miles in 1 hour. At this rate, how long would it take

the tortoise to travel 1 mile? (Round to the nearest tenth of an hour)

Solution:

D = Vt

D 0.17

V= = = 0.17 miles/hour

t 1

Time it takes to travel 1 mile

D 1 mile

t= = = 5.88 hours

V 0.17 mile/hour

Problem 52 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A local dairy has three machines to fill half-gallon milk cartons. The machines can

fill the daily quota in 5 hours, 6 hours and 7.5 hours, respectively. Find how long it

takes to fill the daily quota if all three machines are running.

Solution:

Rate Time Spent Part of work done

1 1/5 x x/5

2 1/6 x x/6

3 1/7.5 x x/7.5

Total work done = 1

x x x

+ + =1

5 6 7.5

x = 2 hours

Problem 53 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A denominator of a fraction is 1 more than the numerator. If both the numerator

and the denominator are decreased by 3, the resulting fraction is equivalent to 4/5.

Find the fraction.

Solution:

x = numerator

x + 1 = denominator

(x) - 3 4

=

(x + 1) - 3 5

x =7

x+1=8

x 7

=

x +1 8

Problem 54 – Mathematics (Algebra)

In 2 minutes, a conveyor belt can move 300 pounds of recyclable aluminum from

the delivery truck to a storage area. A smaller belt can move the same quantity of

cans the same distance in 6 minutes. If both belts are used, find how long it takes

to move the cans to the storage area.

Solution:

300 pounds

Rate of big = = 150 pounds/min.

2 minutes

300 pounds

Rate of small = = 50 pounds/min.

6 minutes

150t + 50t = 300

t = 1.5 minutes

Problem 55 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A plane flies 465 miles with the wind and 345 miles against the wind in the same

length of time. If the speed of the wind is 20 mph, find the speed of the plane in

still air.

Solution:

D1 = Dwith the wind = 465 miles at time t

D2 = Dagainst the wind = 345 miles at time t

D1 = V1 t D2 = V2 t

V1 = Vst + 20 V2 = Vst - 20

D1 D2

=

V1 V2

465 345

=

Vst + 20 Vst - 20

Vst = 135 mph

Problem 56 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Two joggers, one averaging 8 mph and one averaging 6 mph, start from a

designated initial point. The slower jogger arrives at the end of the run a

half-hour after the jogger. Find the distance of the run.

Solution:

First jogger: Second jogger:

D1 = distance for 1st jogger D2 = distance for 2nd jogger

V1 = 8 mph for 1st jogger V2 = 6 mph for 2nd jogger

t1 = time for 1st jogger t2 = time for 2nd jogger

t2 = t1 + ½

D1 = V1 t1 = 8t1 D2 = V2 t2 = 6(t1 + ½)

Equate D1 = D2

8t1 = 6(t1 + ½)

t1 = 1.5 hours

D = 8(1.5) = 12 miles

Problem 57 – Mathematics (Algebra)

The initial size of a virus culture is 6 munits and it triples its size every day.

Find the general term of the geometric sequence that models the culture’s

size.

Solution:

an = a1 rn-1

an = 6(3)n-1

Problem 58 – Mathematics (Algebra)

Jose takes a job that offers a monthly salary of P4000 and guarantees him a

monthly raise of P125 during his first year of training. Find the general term of the

arithmetic sequence and his monthly salary at the end of his training.

Solution:

an = a1 + (n – 1)d

an = 4000 + (n – 1)(125)

an = 3875 + 125n

Salary at the end of his training:

an = 4000 + (12 – 1)(125)

an = P5375

Problem 59 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A triangular display of cans in a grocery store has 20 cans in the first row, 17 cans

in the second row and so on, in an arithmetic sequence.

➀ Find the number of cans in the 5th row.

Solution:

a1 = 20

d = 17 – 20 = - 3

a5 = a1 + 4d

a5 = 20 + 4(- 3) = 8 cans

➁ Find the number of cans in the 5th row.

Solution:

an = 2 a1 = 20 d=-3

an = a1 + (n – 1)d

2 = 20 + (n – 1)(- 3)

0 = 18 – 3n + 3

3n = 21

n = 7 rows

➂ No. of cans in the top row = 2

Problem 60 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A rubber ball is dropped from a height of 486 ft., and it continues to

bounce one-third the height from which it last fell. Find the general term

for this geometric sequence. Find how many bounces it takes for the ball

to rebound less than 1 foot?

Solution:

486

a2 = = 162 a1 = 486

3

162

a3 = = 54

3

54 1

r= =

162 3

No. of bounces = 6

486

when n = 6

a n = a1 r n−1

162 54 18 2/3 < 1

5 6

⎛ 1⎞ 2

a n = 486 ⎜ ⎟ = 2

⎝ 3⎠ 1 2 3 4 5 6

n=7

6

⎛ 1⎞

a n = 486 ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 3⎠

2

an =

3

Use n = 6 bounces

Problem 61 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A small theater has 10 rows with 12 seats in the first row, 15 seats in the

second row, 18 seats in the 3rd row and so on. Write an equation whose

term corresponds to the seats in each row.

Solution:

a1 = 12 a2 = 15 a3 = 18 a4 = 21

a5 = 24 a6 = 27 a7 = 30 a8 = 33 (check)

d = 15 – 12 = 3

an = a1 + (n – 1)d

an = 12 + (n – 1)(3)

an = 9 + 3n

an = 9 + 3(8) = 33

Problem 62 – Mathematics (Algebra)

A grant from an alumnus to a university specified that the university was to

receive $800,000 during the first year and 75% of the preceding years

donation during each of the following 5 years. Find the total amount

donated during the 6 years.

Solution:

a1 = 800000 r = 0.75 n=6

a(1 - r n )

S=

1- r

800000 ⎡⎣1 - (0.75)6 ⎤⎦

S= = $2,630,468.75

1 - 0.75

Problem 1 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A hunter wished to take his one-piece rifle on a train . . . .

Answer: Put it diagonally in a cubical box 1 yard on a side

Problem 2 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Stations A and B are 120 miles apart on a single-track railroad. . . .

Problem 3 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A man walks one mile south, one mile west, then one mile north, ending

where he began. . .

Answer: Infinite

Problem 4 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A bricklayer has 8 bricks, seven of the bricks . . .

Answer: 3, 3, 2

Problem 5 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Maynard’s grandfather clock is driven by two weights. . . .

Problem 6 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Dr. Furbisher LaRouche, the noted mathematician. . . .

Answer: 10 cents/number

Problem 7 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Assuming the sun rises at 6:00 a.m. and sets at 6:00 p.m….

Problem 8 – Mathematics (Statistics)

The numbers are divided into three groups as follows…

17 in the 2nd group

Problem 9 – Mathematics (Statistics)

In a fast Major Legue baseball game, pitcher Hi N…

Answer: 25 pitches

Problem 10 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Determine the next three terms of the sequence 12, 1, 1, 1. . . .

Answer: 2, 1, 3

Problem 11 – Mathematics (Statistics)

The least number of links that must be disengaged from a 23-link chain…

Problem 12 – Mathematics (Statistics)

State University won their first football game of the season 17 to 0…

Answer: 0, 3, 6, 8

Problem 13 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A chemist has three large test tubes and a beaker with 54 cc of elixir...

Answer: 50

Problem 14 – Mathematics (Statistics)

How many colors are necessary for the squares of a chessboard…

Answer: 8 colors

Problem 15 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A neat computer programmer wears a clean shirt every day…

Answer: 15 shirts

Problem 16 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Passenger on an excursion bus consisted of 14 married couples…

Problem 17 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Very few people are aware of the growth pattern of Jack’s beanstalk…

Problem 18 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Six boys on a hockey team pick a captain by forming a circle…

Answer: 10

Problem 19 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A jig-saw puzzle contains 100 pieces…

Answer: 99

Problem 20 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A novice librarian shelved a twelve volume set of encyclopedias ….

Problem 21 – Mathematics (Statistics)

“Four” in English, “Cinco” in Spanish…

Answer: Each of these numbers is equal to the number of letters in

its name

Problem 22 – Mathematics (Statistics)

What operation can be performed three successive times on a solid

cube…

Answer: Turning

Problem 23 – Mathematics (Statistics)

The simple substitution cipher message was worked out o a blackboard

and accidentally erased…

Answer: ASYLU

Problem 24 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A safe has 3 dials shown above. It will open only when a three-letter

word…

Answer: PYX

Problem 25 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A lighthouse shows successive one-second flashes of red, white, green,

green, white, red…

Answer: 1/6

Problem 26 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Four players played a hand of hearts at $1 a point…

Answer: 4

Problem 27 – Mathematics (Statistics)

In a memorable game with the Podunk Polecasts…

Answer: 30

Problem 28 – Mathematics (Statistics)

Mary Ann Moore’s father has a yatch and so has each of his 4 friends…

Answer: Downing

Problem 29 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A Solid State Physicist gives a small stag party…

Problem 30 – Mathematics (Statistics)

A rich farmer had 15 childern by his first wife and 15 by his second wife…

Fifty Challenging Problems in Probability

1. A drawer contains red socks and black socks. When two socks 7. The game of craps, played with two dice, is one of America’s

are drawn at random, the probability that both are red is ½. fastest and most popular gambling games. Calculating the odds

associated with it is an instructive exercise.

a) How small can the number of socks in the drawer be? The rules are these. Only totals for the two dice count. The player

Answer: 4 throws the dice and wins at once if the total for the first throw is 7

or 11, loses at once if it is 2, 3, or 12. Any other throw is called his

b) How small if the number of black socks is even? “point”. If the first throw is a point, the player throws the dice

Answer: 21 repeatedly until he either wins by throwing his point again or

loses by throwing 7. What is the player’s chance to win?

2. A three-man jury has two members each of whom independently Answer: 8/36

has probability p of making the correct decision and a third

member who flips a coin for each decision (majority rules). A

one-man jury has probability p of making the correct decision. 8. An urn contains 10 black balls and 10 white balls, identical

Which jury has the better probability of making the correct except for color. You choose “black” or “white”. One ball is

decision? drawn at random, and if its color matches your choice, you get

$10, otherwise nothing. Write down the maximum amount you are

Answer: The 2 juries have identical probability willing to pay to play the game. The game will be played just

once.

Answer: What we cans ay is that you should be willing to pay at

3. In a common carnival game, a player tosses a penny from a least as much to play the second game as the first.

distance of about 5 feet onto the surface of a table ruled in 1-inch

squares. If the penny (3/4 inch in diameter) falls entirely inside a

square, the player receives 5 cents but does not get his penny

9. Two strangers are separately asked to choose one of the positive

back; otherwise he loses his penny. If the penny lands on the

whole numbers and advised that if they both choose the same

table, what is his chance to win?

number, they both get a prize. If you were one of these people,

what number would you choose?

Answer: 1/16

Answer: 1

gambling houses. A player may bet on any one of the numbers 1,

10. Two strangers who have a private recognition signal agree to

2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Three dice are rolled. If the player’s number appears

meet on a certain Thursday at 12 noon in New York City, a town

on one, two or three of the dice, he receives respectively one,

familiar to neither, to discus an important business deal, but later

two, or three times his original stake plus his own money back;

they discover that they have not chosen a meeting place, and

otherwise he loses his stake. What is the player’s expected loss

neither can reach the other because both have embarked on

per unit stake? (Actually the player may distribute stakes on

trips.

several numbers, but each such stake can be regarded as a

separate bet.) Answer: Empire State Building

Answer: 8%/day

11. Three prisoners, A, B, and C, with apparently equally good

records have applied for parole. The parole board has decided to

5. Mr. Brown always bets a dollar on the number 13 at roulette release two of the three, and the prisoners know this but not

against the advice of Kind Friend. To help cure Mr. Brown of which two. A warder friend of prisoner A knows who are to be

playing roulette, Kind Friend always bets Brown $20 at even released. Prisoner A realizes that it would be unethical to as the

money that Brown will be behind at the end of 36 plays. How is warder if he, A, is to be released, but thinks of asking for the

the cure working? name of the one prisoner other than himself who is to be

(Most American roulette wheels have 38 equally likely numbers. If released. He thinks that before he asks, his chances of release

the player’s number comes up, he is paid 35 times his stake and are 2/3. He thinks that if the warder says “B” will be released,” his

gets his original stake back; otherwise he loses his stake.) own chances have now gone down to ½, because neither A and B

or B and C are to be released. And so A decides not to reduce

Answer: Kind Friend will be cured first. his chances by asking. However, A is mistaken in his

calculations. Explain.

Answer: Prob. of A’s release = 2/3

6. We often read of someone who has been dealt 13 spades at

bridge. With a well-shuffled pack of cards, what is the chance

that you are dealt a perfect hand (13 of one suit)? (Bridge is

played with an ordinary pack of 52 cards, 13 in each of 4 suits, 12. Coupons in cereal boxes are numbered 1 to 5, and a set of one of

and each of 4 players is dealt 13.) each is required for a prize. With one coupon per box, how many

boxes on the average are required to make a complete set?

Answer: 52 x 12! Answer: 11.42

Fifty Challenging Problems in Probability

13. Eight eligible bachelors and seven beautiful models happen 20. If a chord is selected at random on a fixed circle, what is the

randomly to have purchased single seats in the same 15-seat row probability that its length exceeds the radius of the circle?

of a theater. On the average, how many pairs of adjacent seats

are ticketed for marriageable couples? a) Assume that the distance of the chord from the center of the

circle is evenly (uniformly) distributed from 0 to r.

Answer: 7 7/15 Answer: 0.866

14. A tennis tournament has 8 players. The number a player draws the interior of the circle.

from a hat decides his first-round rung in the tournament ladder. Answer: 0.75

Suppose that the best player always defeats the next best and

that the latter always defeats all the rest. The loser of the finals c) Assume that the chord is determined by two points chosen so

gets the runner-up cup. What is the chance that the second-best that their positions are independently evenly distributed over the

player wins the runner-up cup? circumference of the original circle.

Answer: 2/3

Answer: 4/7

21. Duels in the town of Discretion are rarely fatal. There, each

15. Suppose King Arthur holds a jousting tournament where the contestant comes at a random moment between 5 a.m. and 6 a.m.

jousts are in pairs as in a tennis tournament. The 8 knights in the on the appointed day and leaves exactly 5 minutes later, honor

tournament are evenly matched, and they include the twin served, unless his opponent arrives within the time interval and

knights Balin and Balan. What is the chance that the wins meet in then they fight. What fraction of duels lead to violence?

a match during the tournament?

Answer: 1/4 Answer: 1/6

16. When 100 coins are tossed, what is the probability that exactly 50 22. The king’s minter boxes his coins 100 to a box. In each box he

are heads? puts 1 false coin. The king suspects the minter and from each of

100 boxes draws a random coin and has it tested. What is the

Answer: 0.08 chance the minter’s peculations go undetected?

Answer: 0.366

17. A, B, and C are to fight a three-cornered pistol duel. All know that

A’s chance of hitting his target is 0.3, C’s is 0.5, and B never

misses. They are to fire at their choice of target in succession in 23. The king’s minter boxes his coins n to a box. Each box contains

the order A, B, C, cyclically (but a hit man loses further turns and m false coins. The king suspects the minter and randomly draws

is no longer shot at) until only one man is left unhit. What should 1 coin from each of n boxes and has these tested. What is the

A’s strategy be? chance that the sample of n coins contains exactly r false ones?

Answer: So A fires his first shot into the ground and then tries to e - mmr

hit B with his next shot. Answer:

r!

18. Two urns contain red and black balls, all alike except for color.

24. Airborne spores produce tiny mold colonies on gelatin plates in a

Urn A has 2 reds and 1 black, and Urn B has 101 reds and 100

laboratory. The many plates average 3 colonies per plate. What

blacks. An urn is chosen at random, and you win a prize if you

fraction of plates has exactly 3 colonies? If the average is a large

correctly name the urn on the basis of the evidence of two balls

integer m, what fraction of plate has exactly m colonies?

drawn from it. After the first ball is drawn and its color reported,

you can decide whether or not the ball shall be replaced before

Answer: 0.224

the second drawing. How do you order the second drawing and

how do you decide on the urn?

Answer: Therefore if red is drawn first replace it before drawing 25. A bread salesman sells on the average 20 cakes on a round of his

again. route. What is the chance that he sells an even number of cakes?

(We assume the sales follow the Poisson distribution.)

Answer: 0.568

19. In an election, two candidates, Albert and Benjamin, have in a

ballot box a and b votes respectively, a > b, for example, 3 and 2.

If ballots are randomly drawn and tallied, what is the chance that

at least once after the first tally the candidates have the same

number of tallies?

Answer: 0.08

Fifty Challenging Problems in Probability

26. What is the least number of persons required if the probability 33. You have looked a 5 locomotives and the largest number

1 observed is 60. Guess how many locomotives the company has.

exceeds that two or more of them have the same birthday?

2

Answer: 78

(Year of birth need not match.)

Answer: 23

34. If a stick is broken in two at random what is the average length of

the smaller piece? What is the average ratio of the smaller length

to the larger?

27. You want to find someone whose birthday matches yours. What

is the least number of strangers whose birthdays you need to ask

about to have a 50-50 chance? 1

Answer: of its length, ratio is .386

4

Answer: 253

28. If r persons compare birthdays in the pairings problem, the or your opponents scores a point, you with probability p (less

probability is PR that at least to have the same birthday. What 1

should be in the personal birth problem to make your probability than ) he with probability 1-p. The number of plays is to be

2

of success approximately PR?

even -2 or 4 or 6 and so on. To win the game you must get more

than half the points. You know p say 0.45, and you get a price if

r(r −1) you win. You get to choose in advance the number of plays. How

Answer:

2 many do you choose?

Answer: 10

29. At Las Vegas, a man with 20 dollars needs 40 dollars, but he is

too embarrassed to wire his wife for more money. He decides to

invest in roulette(which he doesn’t enjoy playing) and is 36. From a shuffled deck cards are laid out on the table one at a time,

considering two strategies :bet the 20dollars on ‘evens’ all at face up from left to right, and then another deck is laid out so that

once and quit if he wins or loses or bet on evens one dollar at a each of its cards is beneath a card of the first deck. What is the

time until he has won or lost 20 dollars .Compare the merits of average number of matches of the card above and the card below

the strategies. in repetitions of this experiment ?

Answer: if he beats 20 dollars at once and quits gives him the Answer: 1

probability of 0.474

If he beats 1dollar at a time until he has won 20 dollars gives him

the probability of 0.11 37. The king to test a candidate for the position of wise man, offers

him a chance to marry the young lady in the court with the

largest dowry. The amounts of the dowries are written on slips of

1 paper and mixed. A slip is drawn at random and the wise man

30. How thick should a coin be to have chance of landing on must decide whether that is the largest dowry or not, If he

3

decides it is, he gets the lady and her dowry if he is correct;

edge?

otherwise he gets nothing. If he decides against the amount

written on the first slip, he must choose or refuse the next slip,

Answer : 35% as thick as the diameter of coin

and so until he chooses one or else the slips are exhausted. In

all, 100 attractive young ladies participates, each with a different

dowry how should the wise man make his decision.

31. Shuffle an ordinary deck of 52 playing cards containing four

aces. Then turn up cards from the top until the first ace appears. Answer: The king draw the slips to the wise man only the rank of

On the average, How many cards are required to produce the first a slip among those drawn thus far. Only a slip that has the

ace? largest dowry thus far is worth considering, call such a dowry a

candidate

Answer: 10.6th card

1 step north or 1 step south, and also a 50-50 chance of moving

32. A railroad numbers its locomotives in order, 1,2,….N. One day one step east or 1 step west. After the step is taken, the move is

you see a locomotive and its number is 60. Guess how many repeated from the new position and so on indefinitely. What is

locomotives the company has? the chance that the particle returns to the origin?

Fifty Challenging Problems in Probability

39. As in the two dimensional walk, a particle starts at an origin 0 in

three space. Think of the origin as centered in a cube 2 units on a

side. One move in this walk sends the particle with equal

likelihood to one of the eight corners of the cube. Thus, at every

move the particle has a 50-50 chance of moving one unit up or

down, one unit east or west, and one unit north or south if the

walk continues forever , find the fraction of particles that returns

to the origin.

Answer 0.239

both horizontal and vertical rulings spaced one unit apart. What

is the mean number of lines the needle crosses?(I have dropped

2a for the spacing because we might as well think of the length of

the needle as measured in units of spacing.)

Answer: 1.27

41. Two urns contain the same total numbers of balls, some blacks

( )

and some whites in each. From each urn are drawn n >3 balls

with replacement. Find the number of drawings and the

composition of the two urns so that the probability that all white

balls are drawn from the first urn is equal to the probability that

the drawing from the second is either all whites or all blacks.

Answer: zn = xn + yn

Where z = the number of white balls in the first urn and x = the

number of whites and y = the numbers of blacks in the second.

Problem 1 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

Towers A and B stand on a level ground. From the top of tower A which is

30 m. high the angle of elevation of the top of tower B is 48˚. From the

same point the angle of depression of the foot of tower B is 26˚. What is

the height of tower B in meters?

48˚

Solution: D

30 42˚ 48˚ 74˚

Sin 26˚ = BC C

BC = 68.435 26˚

h

h 68.435 30

=

Sin 74˚ Sin 42˚

64˚

h = 98.3 m. 26˚

B A

Problem 2 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

From the top of a building, the angles of depression of points A and B are

21˚ and 32˚ respectively. Points A and B are 100 m. apart and are of the

same elevation as the foot of the building. How high is the building.

Solution: C

21˚ 32˚

100 BC

=

Sin 11˚ Sin 21˚ 11˚

BC = 187.82 m. h

h = 187.82 Sin 32˚

h = 99.5 m.

21˚ 32˚

A B

100

Problem 3 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

A car travels from point C northward for one hour then eastward for half

an hour, the shifted N. 30˚ E. If the constant speed of the car is 40 kph,

how far directly from point C will it be after 2 hours?

F

F

Solution: 20t

20 sin 60˚

(CF)2 = (30)2 + (57.32)2 30˚ =17.32

CF = 64.7 km. 57.32

20 60˚

D

E

C

30 G 40

20 cos 60º=10

C

G

Problem 4 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

A building and a tower stands 80 m. apart on a horizontal. At a point

midway between them, the angles of elevation of the top of the building

and the tower are complimentary. If the tower is 60 m. high, what is the

height of the building?

Solution:

h θ

tan θ = 40

60m

40 h

tan θ =

60

θ 90-θ

h 40

=

40 60

40 40

h = 26.7 m.

Problem 5 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The angles of elevation of the top of a tower at two points 30 m. and 80

m. from the foot of the tower, on a horizontal line, are complimentary.

What is the height of the tower?

Solution:

h θ

tan θ =

80

h

30

tan θ = h

h 30 θ 90-θ

=

80 h

h = 49 m. 50 30

Problem 6 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

A ship sailed in the direction of S. 42˚ W. at a speed of 15 nautical miles

per hours. Two hours later another ship left the same port in the

direction of N.60˚W. at a speed of 18 nautical miles per hour. After how

many hours will the second ship be directly North of the first ship?

Solution: 18

t

18

t

15 t + 30 18 t 60˚ 60˚ 60˚ 60˚

Sin 60˚ = Sin 42˚

10.04 t + 20.07 = 15.59 t 78˚ 78˚

t = 3.62 hrs.

t

42˚ 42˚

30

)=

(2

15

5t

+1

42˚ 42˚

30

t

15

Problem 7 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

A triangle has two known sides, namely AB = 40 m, AC = 60 m. Point D is

on line AB such that AD = 25 m. Point E is on the line AC such that the

area ADE is one third of the area of ABC. How far is E from A?

Solution: B

40

40 (60) Sin θ 1 25 x Sin θ

( ) = D

2 3 2

25

x = 32 cm. from A. θ

A x E C

60

Problem 8 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The perimeter of triangle ABC = 180 m. A = 46.567˚, B = 104.478˚, what is

the dimension of the side opposite the biggest angle?

Solution: B

P Sin B

b = Sin A + Sin B + Sin C

180 Sin 104.478˚ 104.478˚

b=

Sin 46.567˚ + Sin 104.478˚ + Sin 28.955˚ c a

b = 80 m.

46.567˚ 28.955˚

A C

b

Problem 9 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

In triangle ABC, AB = 15 m, BC = 18 m, and CA = 24 m. How far is the

point of intersection of the angular bisectors from vertex C?

Solution:

a+b+c

S= 2

18 + 24 + 15 B

S=

2

S = 28.5

c=15

S - a = 10.5

r a=18

S - b = 4.5 r

o

S - c = 13.5

A r

A = S (S - a)(S - b)(S - c) θ

A = 28.5 (10.5)(4.5)(13.5) b=24 θ

A = 134.83 m2 C

A=rS

134.83 = r (28.5)

r = 4.73

Using Cosine Law:

(15)2 = (18)2 + (24)2 - 2(18)(24) Cos C

C = 38.62˚

2θ = 38.62˚

θ = 19.31˚

r

Sin 19.31 = OC

4.73

OC = Sin 19.31˚

OC = 14.30 m.

Problem 10 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The sum of two angles is 1600 mils and their difference is 40

grads. Find the value of the bigger angle in degrees.

Solution:

6400 mils = 360˚

400 grds = 360˚

40 grds = 36˚

1600 mils = 90˚

x + y = 90

x - y = 36

2x = 126

x = 63˚

Problem 11 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The sum of interior angles of a pentagon is _____.

Solution:

Sum = (n - 2) 180

Sum = (5 - 2) 180

Sum = 540˚

Problem 12 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The angles of elevation of the top of a tower were observed from

points A and B which lie on a horizontal line passing through the

foot of the tower. B is 5 m. away from the tower. A and B are 8

m. apart. The angle at B is twice as much as that at A. How high

is the tower?

Solution:

h

tan θ = 13 θ

h

h

tan 2θ = 5

A θ B 2θ

2 tan θ C

tan 2θ =

1 - tan2 θ 8m 5m

h

h (2) (13)

5 = h 2

1 - (13)

h

(2) 13 (13)2

h

5 = (13)2 - h2

1 2(13)

=

5 (13)2 - h2

130 = 169 - h2

h = 6.24

Problem 13 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

In the spherical triangle ABC, A = 116˚19', B = 55˚30' and

C = 80˚37'. Find the values of a.

Solution:

Cos A = -Cos B Cos C+Sin B Sin C Cos a

Cos 116˚19' = - Cos 55˚30' Cos 80˚37' + Sin 55˚30' Sin 80˚37' Cos a

a = 115.57˚

Problem 14 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

Determine the area of the spherical triangle ABC if A = 140˚,

B = 75˚, C = 86˚ and r = 40 m.

Solution:

E = A + B + C - 180

E = 140 + 75 + 86 - 180

E = 121˚

π r2 E

Area = 180

π (40)2 (121)

Area = 180

Area = 3379 m2

Problem 15 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

In triangle ABC, AB = 30 m, BC = 36 m, and AC = 48 m. The perpendicular

bisectors of the sides intersect at point P. How far is P from side BC?

Solution:

a+b+c

S= 2 B

36 + 48 + 30

S= 2 15 18

S = 57 r

c=30 a=36

d1 d2

S - a = 21 15 P

18

r d3 r

S-b=9

S - c = 27 A C

24 b=48 24

A = S (S - a)(S - b)(S - c)

A = 57 (21)(9)(27)

2

A = 539.32 m

abc

A = 4r

36 (48)(30)

539.32 =

4r

r = 24.03

2 2 2

d1 = (24.03) - (18)

d1 = 15.92 m. from side BC

Problem 16 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

A right triangle is inscribed in a circle of radius 7.5 cm. One of its sides is

15 cm. long and its area is 54 sq.cm. The length of one side is _____ .

Solution:

xy

A= 2

xy B

54 =

2

xy = 108 y x

x2 + y2 = (15)2

x2 + y2 = 225

A C

x2 + ( 108

x ) 2

= 225

15

x4 + 11664 = 225 x2

x4 - 225x2 + 11664 = 225x2

x4 - 225x2 + 11664 = 0

Let a = x2

a2 = x4

a2 - 225a + 11664 = 0

a = 144

144 = x2

x = 12

108

y = 12

y=9

Problem 17 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The area of an isosceles triangle is 86 sq.cm. The interior angle between

equal sides is 32˚. Find the length of the shortest side.

B

Solution:

b2 Sin A Sin C

Area = 2 Sin B

32˚

86 = 2 Sin 32˚

c=a a=c

b = 9.93 m.

74˚ 74˚

A C

b

Problem 18 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

In triangle BCD, BC = 25 m. and CD = 10 m. Compute the perimeter of

the triangle. D

Solution:

10

BD = 34 < 35

Perimeter = 34 + 25 + 10 C

Perimeter = 69 25

B

Problem 19 – Mathematics (Trigonometry & Plane Geometry)

The interior angles of a triangle are A, B and C.

If tan A tan B tan C = 12, find the value of tan A + tan B + tan C.

Solution:

tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A tan B tan C

tan A + tan B + tan C = 12

Problem 18 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Find the value of xo prescribe in Rolles theorem for f(x) = x3 – 12x on the interval

0≤x≤2 3 .

Solution:

f(x) = x3 – 12x

y = x3 – 12x

y’ = 3x2 – 12 = 0

x=±2

Then xo = 2

Problem 19 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Find the value of xo prescribed by the law of the mean given f(x) = 3x2 + 4x – 3,

a = 1, b = 3.

Solution:

From the law of mean:

f(b) - f(a) f '(x o ) when g(x o ) = x 12 this becomes the law of mean

=

g(b) - g(a) g'(x o ) g'(x) = 1

f(a) = f(1) = 3(1)2 + 4(1) - 3 36 - 4 6x o + 4

f(a) = 4 =

3-1 1

f(b) = f(3) = 3(3)2 + 4(3) - 3 32 6x o + 4

=

f(b) = 36 2 1

f '(x o ) = 6x o + 4 6x o + 4 = 16

g'(x o ) = 1 6x o = 12

g(b) - g(a) = 3 - 1 = 2 xo = 2

Problem 20 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A circular hole 4 in. in diameter and 1 ft. deep in a metal block is rebored

to increase the diameter to 4.12 in. Estimate the amount of metal

removed.

Solution:

Let x = radius of circular hole

V = 12π x 2

f(x) = 12π x 2 f '(x) = 24πx o

b = 2.06 in.

a = 2.0 in.

b - a = 0.6

f(2.06) - f(2)

= 24πx o

2.06 - 2

2 < x o < 2.06 take x o = 2

f(2.06) - f(2)

= 24πx o

2.06 - 2.0

= 24π (2)

f(2.06) - f(2) = 0.06(24)π(2)

f(2.06) - f(2) = 2.88 π

Problem 21 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Find the value of xo as prescribed by the generalized law of the mean,

given f(x) = 3x + 2, g(x) = x2 + 1, 1 ≤ x ≤ 4.

Solution:

f(b) - f(a) f '(x o )

=

g(b) - g(a) g'(x o )

f(b) = f(4)

f(b) - f(a) f '(x o )

f(4) = 3(4) + 2 = 14 =

g(b) - g(a) g'(x o )

f(a) = f(1)

14 - 5 3

f(1) = 3(1) + 2 = 5 =

17 - 2 2x o

g(b) = (4)2 + 1 = 17 9 3

=

g(a) = (1)2 + 1 = 2 15 2x o

f(x) = 3x + 2 3 3

=

f '(x o ) = 3 5 2x o

g(x) = x 2 + 1 5

xo =

2

g '(x) = 2x

Problem 1 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A rocket is fired into the air, and its height in meters at any given time t

can be calculated using the formula h(t) = 1600 + 196t – 4.9t2. Find the

maximum height of the rocket and the time at which it occurs.

Solution:

h(20) = 1600 + 196t – 4.9t 2

dh

= 196 - 9.8t

dt

t = 20 sec.

h = 3560 m.

Problem 2 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Max wants to make a box with no lid from a rectangular sheet of

cardboard that is 18 inches by 24 inches. The box is to be made by cutting

a square of side x from each corner of the sheet and folding up the sides.

Find the value of x that maximizes the volume of the box.

Solution:

18-2x 18

x

x 24-2x x

24

V = 4x 3 - 84x 2 + 432x

dV

= 12x 2 - 168x + 432 = 0

dx

x = 3.4

Problem 3 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Find the absolute maximum and minimum values of y = x3 – x on the

interval [- 3, 3].

Solution:

y = x3 - x

dy

= 3x 2 - 1 = 0

dx

1

x=±

3

At x = - 3 y = - 24

x=3 y = 24

1

The function has a local min. at x = and absolute min. when x = - 3.

3

1

The function has a local min. at x = - and absolute max. at x = 3

3

Ans: absolute max. at x = 3

Absolute min. at x = - 3

Problem 4 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A rectangle is to be inscribed in a semicircle with radius 4, with one side

on the semicircle’s diameter. What is the largest area this rectangle can

have?

y

Solution: x2+y2=16

y = 16 - x 2

A = 2xy y

A = 2x 16 - x 2 x x x

A1 = xy

A = 2x 16 - x 2

dA x(- 2x)

= + 16 - x 2 (1) = 0 Area = 2A

dx 16 - x 2

2(4) 32

2x 2 = 16 - x 2 Area =

3 3

3x 2 = 16

2(4) (16)(2)

2 16 Area =

x = 3

3

4 2(4)(4) 2

x= Area =

3

3

Area = 15.08 say 16

16

y = 16 -

3

32

y=

3

Problem 5 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A poster is to contain 100 square inches of picture surrounded by a 4-inch

margin at the top and bottom and a 2-inch margin on each side. Find the

overall dimensions that will minimize the total area of the poster.

Solution:

xy = 100 x

2 2

A = (x +4)(y + 8)

A = xy + 4y + 8x + 32 4

x(100) 4(100)

A= + + 8x + 32

x x

400 y

A = 100 + + 8x + 32

x

400

A = 132 + + 8x

x

dA 400 4

=0- 2 +8=0

dx x

8x 2 = 400

x = 50

100 50

y= •

50 50

100

y= 50

50

y = 2 50

Ans : 4 + 50 by 2 50 + 8

Problem 6 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A circular pool of water is expanding at the rate of 16π in2/sec. At

what rate is the radius expanding when the radius is 4 inches?

Solution:

A = π r2

dA dr

= π 2r

dt dt

dr

16π = 2π(4)

dt

dr

= 2 in / sec.

dt

Problem 7 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A 25-foot long ladder is leaning against a wall and sliding toward the floor.

If the foot ladder is sliding away from the base of the wall at a rate of

15 ft/sec, how fast is the top of the ladder sliding down the wall when the

top of the ladder is 7 feet from the ground?

Solution:

Bldg.

25

y=7 dy/dt

dx/dt

x 2 + y 2 = (25)2

when y = 7

dx dy

2x + 2y =0 x 2 = (25)2 - (7)2

dt dt

⎛ dy ⎞ x = 24

24(15) + 7 ⎜ ⎟ = 0

⎝ dt ⎠

dy 360

=- = - 51.43

dt 7

Problem 8 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A spherical balloon is expanding at a rate of 60π in3/sec. How fast is the

surface area of the balloon expanding when the radius of the balloon is 4

inches?

Solution:

4

V = π r3

3

S = 4π r 2

dV 4 2 dr

r

= π (3)r

dt 3 dt

2 dr

60π = 4π(4)

dt

dr 15

=

dt 16

dS dr

= 4π(2)(4)

dt dt

dS 8π(15)

= (4) = 30 π in2 / sec.

dt 16

Problem 9 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

An underground conical tank, standing on its vertex, is being filled with

water at the rate of 18π ft3/min. If the tank has a height of 30 ft. and a

radius of 15 ft., how fast is the water level rising when the water is 12 ft.

deep in feet/min?

Solution:

2

15

⎛ y⎞ r

π⎜ ⎟ y

⎝ 2⎠

V=

3

π 3

V= y

12

h=30

π r2 h

V= y=12

3

y 30

=

r 15

y = 2r

y

r=

2

dV π 2 dy

= 3y

dt 2 dt

π dy

18π = (3)(12)2

12 dt

dy

= 0.5 ft / min.

dt

Problem 10 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A circle is increasing in area at the rate of 16π in2/sec. How

fast is the radius increasing when the radius is 2 inches?

Solution:

A = π r2

dA dr

= π 2r

dt dt

dr

16π = π(2)(2)

dt

dr

= 4 in / sec.

dt

Problem 11 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

A rocket is rising vertically at a rate of 5,400 miles per hour. An observer

on the ground is standing 20 miles from the rocket’s launch point. How

fast (in radians per second) is the angle of elevation between the ground

and the observer’s line of sight of the rocket increasing when the rocket is

at an elevation of 40 miles?

Solution:

h

tan θ =

20

dθ 1 dh

sec 2 θ =

dt 20 dt h

dh 5400

= = 1.5 m/sec.

dt 3600

20

40

tan θ =

20

tan θ = 2

dθ dh / dt

sec θ

2

=

dt 20

sec 2 θ = 1 + tan2θ

sec 2 θ = 1 + (2)2 = 5

dθ 1.5

5 =

dt 20

dθ 3

= rad / sec.

dt 200

Problem 12 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

If the position of a particle at a time t is given by the equation

x(t) = t3 – 11t2 + 24t, find the velocity and the acceleration of the

particle at time t = 5.

Solution:

x(t) = t 3 - 11t 2 + 24t

dx

= 3t 2 - 22t + 24

dt

V = 3(5)2 - 22(5) + 24

V = - 11

a = 6t - 22

a = 6(5) - 22

a=8

Problem 13 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

If the position of a particle is given by x(t) = t3 – 12t2 + 36t + 18,

where t > 0, find the point at which the particle changes direction.

Solution:

It changes direction when the velocity is zero.

x(t) = t 3 - 12t 2 + 36t + 18

dx

= 3t 2 - 24t + 36 = 0

dt

t 2 - 8t + 12 = 0

t = 2 and t = 6

Problem 14 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

How far does a particle travel between the eighth and tenth seconds if its

position function is x(t) = t2 – 6t?

Solution:

x(t) = t2 – 6t

V(t) = 2t – 6

Velocity is negative if t < 3 and positive if t > 3.

Compute the absolute value of the distance traveled from t = 2 to t = 3 and

add to the absolute value of the distance traveled from t = 3 to t = 4.

x(t) = t2 – 6t

From t = 2 to t = 3

S1 = [(3)2 – 6(3)] – [(2)2 – 6(2)]

S1 = (9 – 18) – (4 – 12)

S1 = - 9 + 8 = - 1

From t = 3 to t = 4

S2 = |(4)2 – 6(4)| - |(3)2 – 6(3)|

S2 = (16 – 24) – (9 – 18)

S2 = - 8 + 9 = 1

Total distance = S1 + S2 (but absolute values)

S=1+1=2

Problem 15 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Find the velocity and acceleration of a particle whose

position function is x(t) = 2t3 – 21t2 + 60t + 3 for t > 0.

Solution:

a(t) = 12t - 42

Problem 16 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Find the time when the particles speed increasing if it has a position function

x(t) = 2t3 – 21t2 + 60t + 3.

Solution:

V(t) = 6t2 – 42t + 60

Set V = 0 (when it will stop)

6t2 – 42t + 60 = 0

t2 – 7t + 10 = 0

(t – 2)(t – 5) = 0

t=2 t=5

Set acceleration a = 0

a(t) = 12t – 42 = 0

t = 7/2

Note: When the velocity and

when 2 < t < 7/2 acceleration will have opposite signs,

t=3 the particles speed is decreasing.

V = 6t2 – 42t + 60 When the velocity and acceleration

V = 6(3)2 – 42(3) + 60 have the same signs, the particles

V = - 12 (negative) speed is increasing.

Therefore, the time interval where the

a = 12t – 42 velocity is increasing is 2 < t < 7/2

a = 12(3) – 42 and t > 5.

a = - 6 (negative)

when t > 5

t=6

V = 6t2 – 42t + 60

V = 6(6)2 – 42(6) + 60

V = + 24 (positive)

a = 12t – 42

a = 12(6) – 42 = + 3 (positive)

Problem 17 – Mathematics (Differential Calculus)

Given that the position of a particle is found by x(t) = t3 – 6t2 + 1, t > 0, find

the distance that the particle travels from t = 2 to t = 5.

Solution:

x(t) = t3 – 6t2 + 1

V(t) = 3t2 – 12t

Set V = 0 and find critical values.

3t2 – 12t = 0

t=0 t=4

Because the particle changes direction after 4 sec., we have to figure out

two time intervals separately from t = 2 to t = 4 and from t = 4 to t = 5 and

add the absolute values of the distances.

t = 4 and 2

S1 = [(4)3 – 6(4)2 + 1] – [(2)3 – 6(2)2 + 1]

S1 = - 31 + 15 = 16

S2 = - 24 + 31 = 7

Exercises

y = e x3

dy/dx = ex3 (3x2)

y = etan x

dy/dx = etan x sec2 x

y = e x2

dy/dx = ex2 2x

y’ = 2x ex2

y” = 2[(x)ex2 (2x) + ex2 (1)]

y” = 4x2 ex2 + 2 ex2

ln x

loga x =

ln a

1

log10 x =

x ln 10

1

y' =

x ln a

Exercises

y = log 8 (x 2 + x)

ln x

y' =

ln a

2x + 1

y' = 2

(x + x) log8

1 1

y' = =

x ln e x

Note :

1

loga x =

x ln a

1

loga u =

u ln a

2x + 1

y' = 2

(x + x) log8

Note: y = ax

y' = ax ln a dy/dx

y = au

y’ = au ln a du/dx

Exercises

➀ f(x) = 3x

Find y’ = ?

y = 3x

y’ = 3x ln 3

➁ y = 84x5

y’ = 84x5 ln 8 (20x4)

➂ y = πSin x

y’ = πSin x Cos x ln π

➀ Find y’ if y = xx

y = ex ln x

x ln x = x(1/x) + ln x (1)

x ln x = 1 + ln x

y = ex ln x (1 + ln x)

y = xx (1 + ln x)

Problem 1 – Mathematics (Integral Calculus)

Solution:

y = x2

1 4

Average value =

4 -2 ∫

2

x 2 dx

4

1 ⎡x ⎤ 3

Average value = ⎢ ⎥

2 ⎣ 3 ⎦2

1 56 28

⎡ 3 3

⎤

Average value = ⎣(4) - (2) ⎦ = =

6 6 3

Problem 2 – Mathematics (Integral Calculus)

Solution:

1 π

Average value =

π-0 ∫0

Sin x dx

1 4

Average value = ⎡⎣ - Cos x ⎤⎦

π 2

1

Average value = [ -Cos π + Cos 0] = 2

π π

Problem 3 – Mathematics (Integral Calculus)

Find the area of the region between the curve y = Sin x and

y = Cos x from 0 to π/2.

Solution:

y y=cosx

0.414

0.414

0.586

x

π/4 π/2 π 1.5π 2π

A = 0.414(2) = 0.828

Problem 4 – Mathematics (Integral Calculus)

Find the area of the region between the curve x = y2 and the curve

x = y + 6 from y = 0 to y = 3

Solution:

y2 = y + 6

x2 x1-x2

y2 - y - 6 = 0

(9, 3)

(y - 3)(y + 2) = 0

dy

y=3 y=-2

x=3+6=9 x1

(6, 0)

3

A = ∫ (x1 - x 2 )dy

0

3

A = ∫ (y + 6 - y 2 )dy

0 x=y + 6

3

⎡ y2 y3 ⎤

A= ⎢ + 6y - ⎥

⎣2 3 ⎦0

⎡ (3)2 (3)3 ⎤

A= ⎢ + 6(3) - ⎥ -0

⎣ 2 3 ⎦

9

A= + 18 - 9

2

9 27

A= +9=

2 2

Simple Interest:

I = P r t

Ex. Terms of sales:

P90000 payable in 120 days

P85500 payable in 45 days

Find the equivalent annual rate of simple interest if paid in 120 days.

Solution:

Interest = 90000 - 85500

75 days

Interest = 4500

I = Prt 0 45 120

⎛ 75 ⎞

4500 = 85500 r ⎜

⎝ 360 ⎟⎠ 85500 90000

r = 0.2526

r = 25.26%

Simple Interest:

I = P r t

What is the annual rate of simple interest if P265 is earned in four months on an

investment of P15000?

Solution:

I=Prt

⎛ 4⎞

265 = 15000(r) ⎜ ⎟

⎝ 12 ⎠

265 = 5000 r

r = 0.053

r = 5.3%

Determine the principal that would have to be invested to provide P200 of simple

interest income at the end of 2 years if the annual interest is 9%.

Solution:

I=Prt

200 = P(0.09)(2)

P = P1111.11

Compound Interest:

0 n

P

F

n

F = P(1 + i)

Suppose that the interest rate is 10% per year, compounded annually.

What is the minimum amount of money that would have to be invested for

a two-year period in order to earn P300 in interest?

Solution:

F = P(1 + i)n

Interest = F – P = 300

300 = P(1 + i)n – P

300 = P(1.10)2 – P

P = P1428.57

Problem 5 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Suppose that a man lends P1000 for 4 years at 12% per year simple

interest. At the end of 4 years, he invests the entire amount which he then

has for 10 year at 8% interest per year compounded annually. How much

money will he have at the end of the 14 year period?

Solution:

0 12% n

F1 = P + Prt

F1 = 1000 + 1000(0.12)(4) P1= P1000

F1 = 1480

F1=1480

F2 = P2 (1 + i)n 0 8% n

F2 = 1480(1.08)10

F2 = P3195.21

P2= P1480

F2

Problem 6 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Compare the interest earned from an investment of P1000 for 15 years

per annum simple interest with the amount of interest that could be earned

if these funds were invested for 15 years at 10% per year, compounded

annually.

Solution:

For simple interest:

I = Prt

I = 1000(0.10)(15)

I = 1500

For compounded interest:

F = P(1 + i)n

I + P = P(1 + i)n

I + 1000 = 1000(1.10)15

I = 3177.25

interest.

The ABC Co. deposited P100,000 in a bank account on June 15 and

withdrew a total of P115000 exactly one year later. Compute the annual

interest rate which the company has paid.

Solution:

I = Prt

15000 = 100000(r)(1)

r = 0.15 = 15% per year

Interest Compounded Continuously

0 n

P

F

rn

F = Pe where er n = compound amount factor if compounded continuously

I = F – P (interest)

r

Effective annual interest rate: Ie = e – 1

Compute the interest for an amount of P200,000 for a period of 8 years if

the rate was 16% compounded continuously.

Solution:

F = P er n

F = 200,000e0.16(8)

F = P719,328

I=F–P

I = 719,328 – 200,000

I = P519,328

Deffered Annuity

a) Future Worth 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

n =10

10

A ⎡⎣(1 + i)n - 1⎤⎦

F1 = A A A A A

i

F1

n

F2 = F1 (1 + i) 1

n 1=5

F2

b) Present Worth

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

A ⎡(1 + i) 1 - 1⎤

n

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

F= ⎣ ⎦

i A A A A A A

F F

A[(1+i)n1-i] n 1=5

P= n = 10 F= i

n P

(1 + i)

Problem 9 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Find the value after 20 years in pesos of an annuity of P120,000 payable

annually for 8 years, with the first payment at the end of 2 years if money

is worth 5%.

Solution:

11

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 17 18 19 20

A A A A A A A A

F1

F2

F1 =

i

20000 ⎡⎣(1.05)8 - 1⎤⎦

F1 = = P190,982.16

0.05

F2 = F1 (1 + i)n

F2 = 190,982.16(1.05)11 = P326,644.33

Problem 10 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Find the present value of an annuity of P25000 payable annually for 8

years with the first payment at the end of 10 years if money is worth 5%.

Solution:

8

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

A A A A A A A A

F1

A ⎡(1 + i) 1 - 1⎤

n

F1 = ⎣ ⎦

i

25000 ⎡⎣(1.05)8 - 1⎤⎦

F1 =

0.05

F1 = P238,727.22

F

P=

(1 + i)n

238,727.22

P=

(1.05)17

P = P104,156.11

Future Worth of Annuity Due

(payments at the beginning of the period)

0 1 2 3 4 5 n

A A A A A A A

F= + A(1 + i)n

i

Mr. Franklin wants to save for a new sportscar that he expects will cost

$3800 4 years from now. How much money will he have to save each

year and deposit in a savings account at the beginning of each year that

pays 6.25% per year compounded annually to buy the car in 4 years.

Solution: 0 1 2 3 4

F= + A(1 + i)n A A A A A

i

F

A ⎡⎣(1.0625)4 - 1⎤⎦

38000 = + A(1.0625)4

0.0625

A = P6707.38

Difference between sums of annuity due and

an ordinary annuity:

n

Difference = A [(1 + i) - 1]

What is the difference between the sums of an annuity due and an

ordinary annuity for the following data?

Periodic payment = P150,000

Terms = 20 years

Payment interval = 1 year

Interest rate = 12% compounded annually

Solution:

Difference = A [(1 + i)n - 1]

Difference = 150,000[(1.12)20 - 1]

Difference = P1,296,943.96

Depreciation: Declining Balance Method

Problem 14 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Original cost = P150,000 Economic life = 8 years

Salvage value = P9000

Determine the depreciation in the first year using declining balance

method.

Solution:

Dep. = (F.C.)(1 – K)m – 1 K

SV = FC(1 – K)n

9000 = 150000(1 – K)8

(1 – K)8 = 0.06

1 – K = (0.06)0.125 = 0.70351

K = 0.29649

Dep = FC(1 – K)m – 1 K

Dep = (FC)(1 – K)0 K

Dep = FC(K)

Dep = 150,000(0.29649)

Dep = P44,474

Depreciation: MARCS Method (Modified

Accelerated Cost Recovery System Method)

Problem 15 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Original cost = P5000

Salvage value = P500

Life n = 5

Compute the depreciation of the equipment on the 3rd year only using

MARCS Method.

Solution:

1 ⎡2 ⎤

1st year dep = ⎢ (5000) ⎥ = 1000

2 ⎣5 ⎦

2

2nd year dep = (5000 - 1000) = 1600

5

2

3rd year dep = (5000 - 1000 - 1600) = P960

5

Depreciation using Straight Line Method

Problem 16 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Original cost = P120,000

Salvage value = P10,000

Life n = 10 years

Find the book value after 5 years.

Solution:

(FC - SV)

Total Dep = (5)

n

(120000 - 10000)

Total Dep = (5) = P55000

10

Solution:

Sunk cost = 55000 – 30000 = P25,000

Depreciation using Sum of Years Digit Method

Problem 17 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

First cost = P900,000

Salvage value = P450,000

Life n = 5 years

Find the sum of the depreciation cost in the first 2 years.

Solution:

n

Sum of years = (1 + n)

2

5

Sum of years = (1 + 5) = 15

2

(FC - SV)(5 + 4)

Total dep after 2 years =

15

(900000 - 450000)(9)

Total dep after 2 years =

15

Total dep after 2 years = P270,000

Depreciation using Sinking Fund Method

Problem 18 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

First cost = P100,000

Salvage value = P20,000

Life n = 8 years

Rate of interest = 6%

Find the depreciation at the end of the 6th year using Sinking Fund

Method.

Solution:

(FC - SV)i

Annual dep =

(1 + i)n - 1

(100000 - 20000)(0.06)

Annual dep = 8

= P8082.88

(1.06) - 1

Dep. at the 6th year = P8082.88 (equal for every year)

Capital Recovery Factor for a Uniform Series

(Annuity)

0 1 2 3 4 n

A ⎡⎣(1 + i)n - 1⎤⎦

P=

(1 + i)n i A A A A A A

n

A (1 + i) i

=

P (1 + i)n - 1 P

⎛A ⎞

⎜⎝ P , i%, n⎟⎠ (capital recovery factor)

Problem 19 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

A certain engineer who is about to retire has accumulated P50,000 in a savings

account that pays 6% per year, compounded annually. Suppose that the engineer

wishes to withdraw a fixed sum of money at the end of each year for 10 years,

what is the amount that can be withdrawn?

Solution:

⎛A ⎞

⎜⎝ P , 6%, 10 ⎟⎠ = 0.1359

P=

(1 + i)n i

A (1 + i)n i

=

P (1 + i)n - 1

A (1.06)10 (0.06)

=

P (1.06)10 - 1 A

= 0.1359

A 50000

= 0.1359 A = P6795

P

Present Worth Factor (Uniform Series) Annuity

P=

(1 + i)n i

P (1 + i)n - 1 A A A A A

= (present worth factor)

A n

(1 + i) i

P

⎛P ⎞

⎜⎝ A , i%, n⎟⎠ (present worth factor)

Problem 20 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

An engineer is planning his retirement has decided that he will have to withdraw

P10,000 from his savings account at the end of each year. How much money must

the engineer have in the bank at the start of his retirement if his money earns 6%

per year, compounded annually and he is planning a 12 year retirement (12

annual withdrawals)?

Solution:

(P / A, 6%, 12) = 8.3839

A ⎡⎣(1 + i)n - 1⎤⎦

P=

(1 + i)n i

P (1 + i)n - 1

=

A (1 + i)n i

P (1.06)12 - 1

= = 8.3839

A (1.06)12 (0.06)

P

= 8.3839

A

P

= 8.3839

10000

P = P83839

Sinking Fund Method (Uniform Series, Annuity)

0 1 2 3 n

A ⎡⎣(1 + i)n - 1⎤⎦

F=

i A A A A

A i

= (sinking fund factor)

F (1 + i)n - 1 F

Problem 21 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Suppose that a fixed sum of money A will be deposited in a savings account at the

end of each year for 20 years. If the bank pays 6% per year, compounded

annually, find A such that a total of P50,000 will be accumulated at the end of the

20 year period.

Solution: 0 1 2 3 4 20

(A / F, 6%, 20) = 0.02718

A ⎡⎣(1 + i)n - 1⎤⎦ A A A A A

F=

i

A i F=50000

=

F (1 + i)n - 1

A 0.06

= (sinking fund factor)

F (1.06)20 - 1

A

= 0.02718

F

A

= 0.02718

50000

A = P1359

Gredient Series Factor

5G

4G

A 1 n 3G

= - (gredient series factor) 2G

G i (1 + i)n - 1

G

0 1 2 3 4 5 n

Convert to a uniform series:

A A A A A A

0 1 2 3 4 5 n

Problem 22 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

Dr. Anderson plans to make a series of gradient-type withdrawals from his savings

account over a 10 year period, beginning at the end of the second year. What

equal annual withdrawals would be equivalent to a withdrawal of P1000 at the end

of the second year, P2000 at the end of the 3rd year . . . . P9000 at the end of the

10th year, if the bank pays 9% per year compounded annually?

Solution: 9000

8000 (A/G, 9%, 10)=3.7978

A 1 n 4000

= - 3000

G i (1 + i)n - 1 2000

1000

A 1 10

= -

G 0.09 (1.09)10 - 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 9 10

A

= 3.7978

G

A A A A A A A

A

= 3.7978

1000

0 1 2 3 4 5 9 10

A = P3797.80

Problem 23 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

The ABD Company is building a new plant, whose equipment maintenance costs are

expected to be P500 the first year, P150 the second year, P200 the third year, $250 the

fourth year, etc., increasing by P50 per year through the 10th year. The plant is expected to

have a 10-year life. Assuming the interest rate is 8%, compounded annually, how much

should the company plan to set aside now in order to pay for the maintenance?

Solution: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

G ⎡ (1 + i) - 1

n

n ⎤

P1 = ⎢ - ⎥

i ⎣ (1 + i)n i (1 + i)n ⎦ 550 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

50 ⎡ (1.08)10 - 1 10 ⎤

P1 = ⎢ - ⎥

0.08 ⎣ (1.08)10 (0.08) (1.08)10 ⎦

100 150

200

P1 = P1298.84 250

300

350

400

450

500

n 550

A[(1 + i) - 1]

P2 = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

(1 + i)n i

⎡(1.08)10 - 1⎤

P2 = 100 ⎣ 10

⎦ = P671 400

(1.08) (0.08)

400 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

P3 =

(1.08)1

P3 = P370.37 A A A A A A A A A A=100

F2

Total P = P1 + P2 + P3

Total P = 1298.84 + 671 + 370.37

Total P = P2340.21

Problem 24 – Mathematics (Engineering Economics)

A mine is for sale. A mining engineer estimates that, at current production

levels, the mine will yield an annual net income of P80,000 for 15 years,

after which the mineral will be exhausted. If an investor’s MARR is 15%,

what is the maximum amount he can bid on this property?

(MARR = min. attractive rate of return)

Solution:

0 1 2 3 4 15

A[(1 + i)n - 1]

P=

(1 + i)n i A A A A A

P=

(1.15)15 (0.15) P

P = P467,789.61

P = 80000(5.8474)

P = P467,789.61

Problem 1 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Find the distance from the point (5, - 3) to the line 7x - 4y - 28 = 0.

Solution: y

Ax1 + By1 + C1

d=

A2 + B2

7x-4y-28=0

(-) (7x1 - 4y1 + 28) x

d = (-)

(7)2 + (4)2

d

7(5) - 4(- 3) - 28 (5,-3)

d=

65

d = 2.36

Problem 2 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Find the area bounded by the line 2x - y + 10 = 0 and the coordinate axes.

Solution:

y

2x - y + 10 = 0

when x = 0 y=0 2x-y+10=0

y = 10 x = - 5

5 (10)

A= 2 10

A = 25

x

-5

Problem 3 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Find the slope of the line whose parametric equations

are x = 4 t + 6 and y = t - 1.

Solution:

t=x+1

y = 2 (x + 1)

y = 2x + 2

y = mx + b

m=2

Problem 4 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

A line has a slope of 3 and a y-intercept of 8. It

passes through point (-2, y). Find the value of y.

Solution:

y = mx + b

y = 3x + 8

y = 3 (-2) + 8

y=2

Problem 5 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Determine the length of the tangent to the circle

x2 + y2 - 4x - 5 = 0 from (8, -2).

y

Solution:

x2 - 4x + 4 + y2 - 5 = 4

(x - 2)2 + (y - 0)2 = 0

t

t2 = x2 + y2 - 4x - 5 x

(2,0)

t2 = (8)2 + (-2)2 - 4 (8) - 5

(8,-2)

t = 5.57

Problem 6 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Determine the equation of the radical axis of the circles x2 + y2 -

18x - 14y + 121 = 0 and x2 + y2 - 6x + 6y + 14 = 0.

Solution:

x2 + y2 - 18x - 14y + 121 = 0

x2 + y2 - 6x + 6y + 14 = 0

- 12x - 20y + 107 = 0

12x + 20y - 107 = 0

Problem 7 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Determine the length of the latus rectum of the parabola

x2 - 6x - 12y - 51 = 0.

y

Solution:

x2 - 6x + 9 = 12y + 51 + 9

(x - 3)2 = 12y + 60 x

(0,0)

(x - 3)2 = 12 (y + 5)

latus rectum = 12

(3,-5)

Problem 8 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Find the length of the latus rectum of the curve 9x2 + 25y2 = 225.

Solution:

9x2 + 25y2 = 225 y

x2 y2

25 + 9 = 1

a a

a2 = 25 b=3

a=5 x V c c F’

V’

F

b2 = 9

b=3

2 b2 a=5 a=5

L= a

2 (9)

L = 5 = 3.6

Problem 9 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

What is the angle in degrees, between an asymptote of the hyperbola

x2 - 4y2 - 2x - 63 = 0 and the x-axis?

Solution:

x2 - 2x + 1 - 4y2 - 63 = 1 y asymptote

(x - 2)2 - 4 (y - 0)2 = 64

(x - 2)2 (y - 0)2

64 - 16 =1

b

a2 = 64 θ x

a

a=8

b2 = 16 a

b=4

b

tan θ = a

4

tan θ = 8

θ = 26.6˚

Problem 10 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Find the length of the latus rectum of the curve r Sin2 θ = Cos θ.

y

Solution:

r Sin2 θ = Cos θ (r,θ)

r (yr ) 2=x

r r y

y2 x

= θ

r r x

y2 = x x

4a = 1 (latus rectum)

Problem 11 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

The vertices of a triangle have polar coordinates of (0, 0˚), (6, 30˚) and

(9, 70˚). Find the area and perimeter of the triangle.

B

(9, 70ß)

Solution: y

9 (6) Sin 40˚

Area = 2

9

Area = 17.36 sq.units

(BC)2 = (9)2 + (6)2 - 2 (9)(6) Cos 40˚ (6, 30ß)

C

BC = 5.85 40ß

6

70ß

A 30ß

x

Perimeter = 9 + 6 + 5.85 (0, 0)

Problem 12 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

The distance between the foci of an ellipse is 5. If its eccentricity is 0.5,

what is the distance between the directrices?

Solution: Directrix

2c = 5 y

c = 2.5

e = 0.5

a b a

c=ae V V’

x

2.5 = a (0.5) F c c F’

a=5

a

d=e a a

d=a/e d=a/e

5

d=

0.5

d = 10

Distance between directrices = 2 (10) = 20

Problem 13 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

Using polar coordinates, a point is at (7, 38˚). Find its rectangular

coordinates.

y

Solution:

x = r Cos θ (r,θ)

x = 7 Cos 38˚

x = 5.56 r y

y = 7 Sin 38˚

y = 4.3 θ

x

Rectangular coordinates (5.5, 4.3) x

Problem 14 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

2x4

Find the horizontal asymptote of the curve y = 4

x - 3x2 - 1

Solution:

2x4

y= 4

x - 3x2 - 1

2

y= 3 1

1- 2- 4

x x

when x = α

2

y= 3 1

1- -

α α

2

y=1-0-0

y=2

y - 2 = 0 (horizontal asymptote)

Problem 15 – Mathematics (Analytic Geometry)

The equation of a given conics is x2 + y2 = 25. Find the

length of the sub-tangent at (-3, 4).

Solution:

y

normal

tangent

4 θ

θ C

x

D 3

AD = sub-tangent

4 3

AD = 4

AD = 5.33

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