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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The vocational training opportunity we had at Indian oil corporation, PHBPL, HALDIA was a great
chance for learning and professional development. Therefore, I consider myself as a very lucky
individual as we were provided with an opportunity to be a part of it. We are also grateful for having a
chance to meet wonderful people and professionals who led us through this training period.

We hereby convey our sincere respect, thanks and deep gratitude to Mr. Joydeep Niyogi DGM (O),
PHBPL, Haldia who inspite of being extraordinarily busy with his duties took time out to hear and
guide us. Throughout this training period he delivered us abundant knowledge which helped us a lot.

It is our radiant sentiment to place on record my best regards, deepest sense of gratitude to Mr.
Basudev Maity(Chief Maintenance Manager) , Mr. Kamlesh K. Rajpoot(Operation and Maintenance
Engineer) , Mr. Vivek K. Deshmukh(Operation and Maintenance Engineer) , Mr. Santosh
Kumar(Inspection Engineer) for their unlisted encouragement, taking part in useful decision and giving
necessary advice and guidance and for their timely support and guidance which were extremely
valuable for our study both theoretically and practically.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION TO IOCL

2. IOCL PIPELINE DIVISION

2.1Advantage Of Pipeline Transport

3. EASTERN REGION PIPELINE DIVISION

3. 1 PHBPL HALDIA

3. 1. 1 Types of crude handling

3. 1. 2 Source of crude

3. 1. 3 Transportation

4. BASIC MECHANICAL FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT HALDIA

4.1 Pumping Units

4.2 Centrifuging System

4.3 Tank Farm

4.4 Booster Pump

4.5 Mainline Pump

4. 5.1 Motor Driven Pumps

4. 5.2 Engine Driven Pump

4.6 Different Important Parts of Engine

4. 6. 1 Connecting Rod

4. 6. 2 Piston

4. 6. 3 Piston rings

4. 6. 4 Cam shaft and Follower

4. 6. 5 Speed gearing box

4. 6. 6 Flywheel

4. 6. 7 Prime movers

4. 6. 8 Lubricating oil system

4. 6. 9 Cooling water system

4. 6. 10 Radiators

4. 6. 11 Turbochargers
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4.7 Air Compressor

4. 8 Pipelines

4.8.1 Valves

4. 9 Fire Fighting Facilities

4. 10 Flow Property Maintenance and Strategies

4. 10. 1 Pigging

4. 10. 2 DRA

4. 10. 3 Corrosion Inhibitor

5. REQUISITION LETTER
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Overview of IOCL
Indian oil Corporation Ltd. is an esteemed organization which deals with crude oil and
LPG. It is a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) and categorized as Maharatna. More than
50% of company is undertaken by the government. Being an Maharatna, it can Invest up
to Rs 5000 crores in its Projects, it is the topmost PSU of India ranked at 168 In ‘India
Fortune 500’ list in the year 2017.

What is lOCL doing?


Indian Oil India's flagship Maharatna national oil company with business Interests
straddling the entire hydrocarbon value chain from refining, pipeline transportation &
marketing, to exploration & production of crude oil & gas, petrochemicals, gas
marketing, alternative energy sources and globalization of downstream operations. it
also has global aspirations,, fulfilled to an extent by the formation of Subsidiaries in Sri
Lanka, Mauritius, the UAE, Sweden, USA and the Netherlands. It is pursuing diverse
business interests with the setting up of over 15 joint ventures with reputed business
partners from India and abroad to explore global opportunities.

Business-
 Refining - Indian Oil control 11 of India's 23 refineries. The group refining capacity
is 80.7 million metric tons per annum (MMTPA) - the largest share among refining
companies in India. It accounts for 35% share of national refining capacity.

 Pipelines- Indian oil Corporation Ltd operates a network of about 12,848 km long
crude oil, petroleum product and gas pipelines with a throughout capacity of 93.7
million metric tons per annum of oil and 9. 5 million metric standard cubic meter
per day gas, Cross country pipelines are globally recognized as the safest, cost -
effective, energy - efficient and environment - friendly mode for transportation of
crude oil and petroleum products.

 Marketing - Indian Oil 's wide marketing Infrastructure of petrol / diesel stations,
Indane (LPG) distributorships, SERVO lubricants and greases outlets and large
volume consumer pumps are backed by bulk storage terminals and installations,
inland depots, aviation fuel stations, lpg bottling plants and lube blending plants
amongst others.
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0verview of Pipelines:
There are five regions of IOCL - ERPL, SRPL, WRPL, NRPL, and SERPL, The Head Office
of Pipelines Division is located at Noida, as a pioneer in oil pipelines in the country,
managing one | Of the world's largest oil pipeline networks, Indian oil achieved the
highest - ever throughput of 79 8 million tons of the year 2015 - 16, which was about 5.5%
more than that of the previous year.

About 525 km of additional pipeline length was added during the year, as part of Indian
Oil's plans to continuously expand its network in the growth in business. Projects
currently under implementation will further increase the length of the pipelines network
from 11, 746 km to current to about 17, 000 km, and throughput capacity from 85.5 to 102
million tons per year.

With due emphasis on scaling up natural gas pipelines, the corporation is planning to lay
1, 167 km pipeline to reach LNG imported at Ennore to Nagapattinan, Tuticorin, Madurai
and Bengaluru. This pipeline, with three other upcoming Eas pipelines - Mallavaran -
Vijaipur, Mehsana - Bhatinda and Bhatinda - Srinagar pipelines will ensure a significant
presence of Indian oil in gas transmission business.

The 1302 km long crude oil pipeline from Paradip in Orissa to Barauni in Bihar has 328
km long. Paradip - Haldia and 498 km long Haldia - Baraun Sections. In addition, the
pipeline system included 20 km long offshore pipeline from Single Point Mooring System
to tank farm in Paradip.
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Advantage of Pipeline Transport


1. Pipelines can be laid through difficult terrains a s well as under water.
2. Reduction in cost of transportation is very significant as it involves very low energy
consumption.
3. Pipelines are safe, accident free and environmental friendly.
4. Supply through pipeline is very reliable. It is free from obstacles in road and rail
transport.
5. In case of underground pipelines, the land in which pipelines is laid can still be used
for agricultural use.
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EASTERN REGION PIPELINE DIVISION


Eastern region basically consist of three states namely- Oddisa, Bihar and West Bengal. The pipeline is
laid for transportation of crude oil between Haldia Refinery (W.B), Paradip Refinery (Oddisa) and
Barauni Refinery (Bihar). Crude oil of different types are always needed at these refineries for
producing different petroleum based product hence a constant supply must be maintained between
them. This is done mainly by underground crude oil pipeline of about 650 km called Paradip Haldia
Barauni oil Pipeline(PHBPL).

PHBPL, Haldia
The 1302 km long crude oil pipeline from Paradip in Oddisa to Bihar has 328 km long Paradip-Haldia
and 498 km long Haldia-Barauni sections. In addition ,the pipeline system include 20 km long offshore
pipeline from single point Mooring system to tank farm in Paradip.It has also a loop line of 437 km.

A total of 19 km dock line also connects the pipeline with two crude oil jetties at Haldia.The crude oil
requirement of Indian Oil’s refineries at Haldia, Barauni and Bongaigaon is transported through this
pipeline. This 328 km long mainline and 437 km long loopline of 30’ pipe has a transport capacity of 11
million metric tonnes per annum(MMTPA).

Types of crude handling


Mainly two types of crude is handled by PHBPL,Haldia.

Low sulfur or sweet crude petroleum with less than 0.42% sulfur are referred a ssweet. The term
originates from the fact that a low level of sulfur provides the oil with a mildly sweet taste and
pleasant smell. Sweet crude oil contains small amounts of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. High
quality, low sulfur crude oil is commonly used for processing into gasoline and is high demand,
particularly in the industrialized nations. Light sweet crude oil is the most sought after version of
crude oil as it contains a disproportionately large fraction that is directly processed(fractional) into
gasoline(naphtha), kerosene and high quality diesel(gas oil).

About 80% of the crude oil transport by PHBPL, Haldia are of low sulfur type.

High sulfur or sour crude sour crude oil is crude oil containing a high amount of the impurity sulfur. It
is common to get crude oil containing some impurities. When the total sulfur level in oil is more than
2% the oil is called "Sour", Sour oil can be toxic and corrosive, especially when the oil contains high
levels of hydrogen sulfide, which is a breathing hazard. At low concentration the gas gives the smell of
rotten eggs Requirements of high sulfur crude are comparatively low.
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Source of crude
 High sulfur: High sulfur crude are easily available and mainly transported from
countries like Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait.
 Low Sulfur: Although requirement and utility of sweet crude is high, this crude is
scarcely available. Indian oil buys this crude mainly from Nigeria, Angola,
Venezuela, Apart from these Bombay Hight of the cost of Maharashtra, Gujarat,
Rajasthan and in eastern Assam country within the of good source of sweet crude
inside the country , but crude of these places have high impurity and waxy type.

Transportation
Crude from other countries is transported through sea by tanker (ship). These Very
Large Crude Carrier ships are called VLCC. In case of a distance of 20 - 25 km from
Paradip and Haldia port oil tankers are received then these oil is unloaded from ships
using a long, flexible underwater pipes using a SPM system.

Single point mooring (SPM) is a floating buoy / jetty anchored offshore to allow handling
of liquid cargo such as petroleum products for tanker ships. Located at a distance of
several kilometers from the shore - facility and connected using sub - sea and sub - oil
pipelines, these single! Point mooring (SPM) facilities can also handle vessels of
massive capacity such as ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier).
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Fig. VLCC ship and rotating disc type SPM system available at Paradip jetty

At Paradip VLCC ship having dimension of 333M X 60M X 22M has a storage capacity of
270000 Metric ton crude oil. Then from SPM system oil was received at Haldia jetty and
similarly at Paradip Jetty. Then by underground pipeline along with some pumping unit's
oil is delivered to PHBPL Pipeline for further transportation to Haldia Refinery and
Barauni. PHBPL Pipeline Haldia is a station to pumping crude oil and for sending it to
Haldia refinery and Barauni refinery in accordance to their requirement For this some
basic facilities such as storage unit, pumping units and other mechanical requirements
for pipeline transport, it's safety and maintenance and other facilities are present in
PHBPL, Haldia.
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BASIC MECHANICAL FACILITIES AVALIABLE AT HALDIA


Pumping Units
Diesel and crude oil driven pumps are used for pumping crude oil to Barauni. These pumps were
basically of two types Engine driven and Motor driven(recently preferred).
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Centrifuging System:
A centrifuge is a piece of equipment that spins fluid samples at high speed around a
fixed axis (spins it in a circle), applying a potentially strong force perpendicular to the
axis of spin (outward). The centrifuge works using the Sedimentation principle, where the
centripetal acceleration causes causing the denser materials to travel towards the
bottom of the centrifuge tube more rapidly than they would under the force of normal
gravity. At the same time, objects that are less dense are displaced and move to the
center.

There are mainly three types of centrifuge used in industry namely microfuge (12000 -
13000 rpm), medium type (20000 rpm) and ultracentrifuge (70000 rpm). In this station
main function of centrifuge was used to separate denser impurities and water from the
crude oil, there were 3 centrifuge used at this station,

FIG. Centrifuge used at PHBPL Haldia


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Tank Farm
8 tanks were used for storing crude oil coming from Paradip and Haldia jetty. 6 of them
were used to store low sulfur crude while only 2 were used for storing high sulfur (sour)
crude. Each tank has diameter of 79 meters and height of 20 meters has a storage
capacity of 60000 kilolitres.

Each tank uses a double deck floating roof (DDFR) technology for storing crude oil. The
floating roof of a floating roof is a floating roof, floating up or down. There is a annular
space with seal gland between the floating roof and the tank wall, to separate air when
stored fluid float up or down on the roof, greatly reducing the evaporation loss in the
storage process. Compared with fixed roof tank, using a floating roof tank to store oil
product can reduce evaporation loss to 80% approximately.

Totally, floating roof tank can be divided into internal floating roof tank and external
floating roof tank. In this station external floating tanks are used as internal floating tank
has a capacity of less than 10000 kilolitres crude oil.

FIG. External Floating Roof Tank


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External floating roof tank is known as floating roof oil tank, it is an open floating roof
tank without vault, there is usually an external floating in it , which is the vertical foat up
and down. It is commonly used in steel open top tank large more than 20,000m^3 for
volatile oil products such as crude oil, gasoline, kerosene, etc., and the external floating
roof elevates or falls with liquid. There is a floating plate covers on the external floating
roof tank, which rises or falls with the liquid. As there is almost no gas space between
floating plate and oil surface, greatly reduced evaporation loss of the stored oil product.

Each external floating tank has reducing outer shell diameter with increase in height.
The two roofs are commonly referred as top deck and bottom deck. With the filling up of
oil top deck gradually rises as it is connected by a lever mechanism. While the bottom
deck is supported by a leg support at the bottom. To avoid rubbing contact between the
deck and the side wall of the annular space in - between have primary and secondary rim
shell made of rubber type material. For fighting fire this space is also equipped with foam
discharge nozzle, foam pipes, water, heat sensory device etc.

The top deck also has a radar or dip sensor for the current level of crude inside the tank.
Cooling rings, a number of leg supported gas vapour vents were present on the top deck.
Welding standard of ASME section 9 and API code are followed for building and tank
maintenance.
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Booster Pump
A booster pump is a machine which will increase the pressure of a fluid. They may be
used with liquids or gases, but the construction details will vary depending on the fluid.
There are 5 booster pumps in full running condition available at PHIBPL,Haldia.

A minimum pressure is always required for an entry of the main line pumping units that
is why the booster pump is needed for achieving this pressure so that it can be input to
the mainline pump for further rise. Other than this for sending crude oil to Haldia
refinery a very low pressure is needed only by using booster pumps oil 's can be
transferred. When oil is received from Paradip through 30 'pipe it has a minimum
pressure greater than minimum input pressure of booster pump and thus for short
distance travel sometime this crude is delivered directly to Haldia refinery. And in this
case storing unit and mainline pump are not needed.

FIG. Booster Pump For Crude Oil Transport


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Mainline Pump
In order to send crude oil to Barauni at a distance of 550km away from PHBPL, Haldia
three difficulties must be overcome by the oil. They are:

 Elevation - Barauni and Haldia have a elevation difference of about 50 - 60 meters


with respect to sea level. So energy is supplied to transport oil upto that elevation,
which is done by pump
 Head Loss - Since crude is transporting by two parallel line (main line and loop
line) for about 550 km after frictional head loss is generated following Darcy
Weisbuch equation:

hL=fLV2/(D2g)

Where hL = Headloss (m,ft.)

f=Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (unitless)

D= Pipe diameter (m,ft.)

L= Pipe length (m, ft.)

V= Flow velocity (m/s,ft./sec.)

g= Gravitational acceleration constant (m/s2,ft./sec2)



Exit Loss - crude received at Barauni has certain velocity means that the energy
which was wasted away and can not be recovered.

To overcome these three losses of energy, the input station i e, PHBPL Haldia This is
done by means of pump.
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A pump is a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into
three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift,
displacement, and gravity pumps, mechanical pump service in a wide range of
applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and
aeration, in the car industry for water cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry
for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. Mainly there are two
types of pumps.

Single stage pump - When in a casing only one impeller is revolving it is called
single stage pump.
 Double / Multi stage pump - When in a casing two or more than two impellers are
revolving then it is called double / multi stage pump.
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In PHBPL Haldia mainly two stage pumps used were used. Sometimes the
required operating conditions for a system is beyond the reach of a single,
standard pump, Two or more pumps can be connected in series or parallel
combination for serving different purpose.
Putting centrifugal pumps in the series, or connected along a single line, will add
the head from each together and meet your high head, low flow system
requirements. This is because the fluid pressure increases as the continuous flow
passes through each pump, much like how a multi stage pump works. For
example, if two of the same pumps are in series, the combined performance curve
would have been double the head of a given flow rate. For two different pumps,
the head will still be added together on the combined pump curve, but the curve is
most a piecewise discontinuity.
Putting pumps in parallel, or connected to any no. of line branches so that each
handles a division of the flow, helps to reach a low head, high flow operating point
that single purnp can not supply. Additionally, this system configuration allows
flexibility by permitting the switching of parallel pumps on or off in order to adjust
to Variable flow conditions.
The combined curve for parallel pumps created from the addition of the power
capacities of each pump. Two of the Same pumps will result in double the flow
while two different punps will result in the addition of the flows.

Fig. two pumps in series,Equal size and different size.


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Fig. Pumps in parallel, similar and different

There are two types of pumps used by PHBPL,Haldia for pumping crude oil to Barauni
and Haldia Refinery(HR) namely motor driven pump and engine driven pump.

Motor Driven pump


These types of pump were simply driven by electrical power. Hence through more
electrical power is consumed due to simplicity in design, low running and
maintenance cost they are preferred.

FIG. Motor driven pumping unit (1400kw,


6.6 kv, 2975 rpm)
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SPECIFICATION OF MAINLINE PUMP


• DESIGN NO: HALMPI

• ORDER NO&TYPE: ZMIP375/04*2

• LIQUID: CRUDE OILL

• DENSITY: 880kg /m3

• CAPACITY: 130 m3 / min

• SPEED: 2975 / min

• NPSH REQUIRES: 12.5m

•TEMPERATUTRE: t= 20 °

•TOTAL HEAD: 340 m

• PINPUT: 1247 KW

• SUCTION PRESSURE : MINIMUM 5.2 bar.

• DISCHARGE PRESSURE: MAXIMUM 91. 2bar

•MAWP: 125 bar AT 25 ° C

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION OF MAINLINE MOTOR DRIVEN PUMP


•MAKE: SCHORCH (RUHRPUMPEN) MD HAL 501 & 502

• TYPE: KR6531B - DC02 IMB] 20M

• Voltage RATING: 660 - 6600 Volts

• FREQUENCY: 50 - 500 Hz

• POWER RATING: 50 - 1400 Kw

• CURRENT RATING: 55 - 142A

• RPM: 291 - 2975 pm

• COS ¢ = 0. 90
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Engine driven pump –


An engine runs in order to supply power to the pump. At PHBPL, Haldia 6 cylinder
engine consist of different parts eg. connecting rod. piston, prime movers piston rings,
camshaft, follower, speed gearing box, turbochargers, bearing. Radiators, gudgeon pin
and many other components producing a large scale integration. There were two engines
driven mainline pump present at the station.

Fig. Engine driven pumping unit (2010 BHP,750 RPM)


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Different Important Parts Of Engine


Connecting Rod-

Between the piston and the crankpin of the


engine connecting with the detachable bottom cap were made of cast iron.

Piston- It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas - tight
by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer gas from the cylinder to the
crankshaft via a piston rod and / or connecting rod. The pistons are of 'nodular cast iron
with a cast in cooling chamber.

Fig. Piston

Piston Rings – A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove slot around the piston
provides a tight seal between the piston and the cylinder wall and thus prevents leakage,
piston rings are made of very hard and brittle cast iron.
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Fig. Piston Rings

Cam shaft and follower- A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a
cam forms an integral part. A cam follower, also known us a track follower, is a special
type of roller or needle bearing designed to follow cam lobe profiles The followers are
pressure lubricated via drilled passage from the camshaft bearing.

Speed gearing box- The Engine is coupled with a speed gering box which increases
speed in a ratio of1:4.14. Allen make these gears are force lubricated by gear shaft driven
positive displacement pump of capacity 59.1 litres per minute. It has gear pinion ratio of
26:108.
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Flywheel: It is a heavy revolving wheel, which is used to increase the machine’s


momentum and thereby provide greater stability or a reserve of available power. Here are
complete cycle of operation imparts high torque on the crankshaft may cause a change
in the velocity of shaft. Hence a wheel is attached to the output shaft.

Prime Movers- In diesel - electric locomotive, the prime mover is the diesel engine that
rotates the main generator to generate electricity to power the traction motors that are
geared to the drivers. The prime movers can also be a gas turbine instead of a diesel
engine.

Fig. Prime Movers

Lubricating oil system-


An automatic lubricating system is installed to different parts of the machine using a
small pipe. Lubricating oil is important as it cools down different parts for better running
and also reduces wear and tear between different parts subjected to friction. Eg. Piston,
crank , connecting rod.
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Fig. ELO filling point and piping for reacting lube oil to different parts of the engine

Cooling water system

Each mainline set is provided with a high temperature cooling water circuit which uses
an engine driven circulating pump to cool both charge air cooler and the engine jacket.
When engine is running a proportionate amount of cooling water is made available.
Engine inlet temperature valve is set to maintain a nominal minimum temperature of 32
°c.
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Radiators - Radiators are heatt exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one
medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. Each machine is equipped
with a large surface area so that the water passing downwards through it can be again
used in cooling water system.

Turbochargers - One way to improve an engine is to use a turbocharger a pair of fans


that harness waste exhaust power from the back of engine to cram more air into the
front. A turbocharger uses the exhaust gases to drive a Turbine directly connected by a
coaxial shaft to the rotary compressor in the air intake system.

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION OF MAINLINE ENGINE DRIVEN PUMP

• EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION MARK: MP - 1, MP - 2, MP - 3, MP-4


• ENGINE MAKE, MODEL: ALLEN 6S37G
• RATED RPM & RATED BHP: 750 RPM & 2010 BHP
• NUMBER OF CYLINDERS: 6 CYLINDERS IN LINE
* CYLINDER DIAMETER & STROKE: 325mm & 370 RPM
* ENGINE FIRING ORDER: 1 - 3 - 3 - 6 - 4 - 2
* ENGINE FUELCONSUMPTION: AT 100% LI0AD. 144. 8m / bhip / hr. 2 . 6 | : AT 75% LOAD
- 1493 gm / bhp / hr 6 6, 6
• TURBO CHARGER MAKE: NAPPIER
• MODEL ETG - 295
•COOLING WATER CAPACITY: PRIMARY - 1300 LITERS
: SECONDARY - 600 LITERS
•ENGINE GOVERNOR: WOODWARD HYDRAULIC PG - PL
• GEAR BOX MAKE: ALLEN GEARS
* MODEL: 40 HLA410, PARALLEL SHAFT
• SPEED NCREASING RATIO: 1: 4.14
• GEAR PINION RATIO: 26: 108
• MAINLINE PUMP MAKE:WEIR PUMPO
•TYPE: 8” - 10 "GSB (2 STAGE) SPLIT CASE H
• DIFFERENTIAL HEAD & FLOW: STAGE - 1> 455.5 M & 630 kl/hr
: STAGE -2> 428.5m 900 Kl / hr.
• ENGINE LUBE OIL TYPE & CAPACITY: SERVO MARINE - 1040 & 1140 litres
• GOV. LUBE OIL TYPE & CAPACITY: SERVO MARINE 1040, 1 LITER
• GEAR BOX LUBE OIL TYPE & CAPACITY: SERVO PRIME: 46T, 250 LTS
• PUMP BEARING LUBE OIL TYPE & CAPACITY: 46T, 2 LILS
• VALVE ACTUATER LUBE OIL SERVO GEAR HP 140 & 2. 5 liter.
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AIR COMPRESSOR
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Pipelines
1. Basic structures of pipelines consist of 36 inch lines coming frorn Paradip, HOJ I
& II & III (Haldia Oil Jetty).Then oil is received here and stored on the tanks or
directly send away to Haldia refinery (HR) or Barauni using two parallel 24 inch
line called mainline and loop line.

2. Within the station many more crude oil pipelines are there eg from tank to
boosting station, boosting station to mainline pump, mainline pump to pig
launching and receiving station, direct connection between paradip's line to HR
or barauni (using only booster pump), direct connection between HOJ (I & II, III) to
HR and Barauni (using only booster pump) are available.

3. All of the crude carrying pipes lying above ground are colored in white paint
while underground pipes are coloured with different types of corrosion protection.

4. Other than crude pipelines for fire fighting and safety issues water pipelines are
also present within this station. 28 inch and 14 inch water pipe are available in
battery and non - battery zones respectively.

5. All of these pipeline transports from one location to another within the station and
other stations are valve controlled. Different types of valves used are discussed
below.

Valves
A Valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids,
fluidized solids; or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various
passageways. At this station each Valves are simultaneously pressure controlled,
electrical motor controlled, electrical motor controlled and also can be operated
manually. Different types of valves used are-

a) Gate valve - The distinct feature of the gateway valve is the sealing surfaces
between the gate und seats are planar, so the gate valves are often used when a
straight line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate faces can
form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. A gate valve, also known as a sluice
valve. Different types of gate valve used here are PCV(Pressure controlled valve),
MOV(Motor Operated Valve).

1.PCV : Every pressure control valve switches (or controls) at _ a predetermined


pressure setting. The switching pressure is generally a variable setting on the
valve itself. A change in position of the control valve (open or closed) occurs
either gradually (by control) or by suddenly(by switch), the most common types of
pressure control valves are the pressure relief valve and the pressure reducing
valve. pressure control valves may be directly or pilot operated.
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Fig. Pressure controlled valve

2. MOV: Motor Operated Valve (MOV) is an important item of Plant & Piping
system These valves are usually large size and are used in different applications
such as Pump discharge etc. Motor Operated Valves are often called On Off
valves as the motors serve the purp0se of fully opening or fully closing valves in
pipelines. These valves are not used for throttling purposes as they serve mainly
On - Off service application. Motor operated Valvescan be of various typesGate /
Ball / Butterfly etc with actuator control An electric motor is the valve and the
geared to the valve will open or close. For this MOV, motor operated with actuator
control , from local panel or,from control room is required.
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Types of motor operated valves

• Open/close valves - used to open manual valves examples include, pump


discharge / suction valves, boiler feed water isolatiotn valves, drum vent valves,
product title Valves etc.

• Inching valves - used were some degree of control. Example a gradual opening
and closing is required, applications include, reflux lines, boiler start up vent,
boiler IBD valves, boiler main steam valves etc.

• Precision flow valves - this is a precision inching valve, in inching valve the
motor operates in steps configured in the controller, e.g 5%, 10% opening steps.

III. HOV: A manual actuator employs levers, gears, or wheels to move the valve
stem. Manual actuators Manual actuators are powered by hand. Manual actuators
are inexpensive, typically self - contained and easy to operate. They 're robust,
they have long Working - lives and they come in a broad range of dimensions and
models.

Fig. Hand operated valve

b) Globe Valve: A globe valve, different from ball valve, is a type of valve used for
regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk - type element and a
stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body. Globe valves are named for
their spherical body shape with the two halves of the body being separated by an
internal baffle. This has an opening that forms a seat on a movable plug screwed
in to close (or shut) the valve.
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c)Butterfly Valve: A butterfly valve is a valve which can be used for isolating or
regulating flow. The closing mechanism takes place in the form of a disk. Operation is
similar to that of a ball valve, which allows for quick shut off. Butterfly valves are usually
favored because they are lower in cost to other valve designs, as well as being lighter in
weight, meaning less support is required.

Fig. Butterfly valve.

Fire Fighting Facilities

* Station is equipped 7 fire fighting engines and 7 fire fighting pump of capacity 1000 kl /
hr. Fire fighting engines are 12 cylinders and 'V' type for reducing vibration. Rpm and
power ratings of fire fighting engines are 1500 rpm and 604/444 hp / kw.

* Along with them 2 jockey pump is there which acts to maintain pressure in the
sprinkler pipes. This is to ensure that if a fire - sprinkler is activated, there will be a
pressure drop, which will be sensed by the fire pump automatic controller, which will
cause the fire pump to start.

* There are 3 water tanks each of 10000 kilolitres capacity and 28 inch and 14 inch water
pipes to battery - Zone (tank, control room) and non-battery zones respectively.
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* HVLR (High volume long range) monitoring system of 12000 l/min is also available.

* The tank farm is equipped with modern foam fighting technology. In case of a fire AFFF
(Aqueous Film Forming Foam) from the foam vessel mixes with water subsequently
produces foam solution and foam.

* Foam helps to put off fire by cooling down the surface and cutting of oxygen contact
with the fuel. Water cannot be used because of crude oil is slightly lighter than water
(pwater = 1000 kg / m3 and pcrude = 880 kg / m3) hence if water is poured in a fired crudel
water will go downward and crude comes upward with a rising flame.

Flow Property Maintenance and Strategies

Crude Oil consists of different heavy particles and impurities. Even after the centrifuging
process some parts of impurities remains in the crude and during flow it gets
precipitated along the wall of the pipe. Hence after some period of time is effective inner
diameter of pipe gets reduced which affects the flow rate (Q). Apart from this, the drag
force of crude is quite high due to high viscosity which affects the flow rate. In order to
overcome these things some special techniques are followed, they are –

1. PIGGING:
Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using devices as
"pips" to perform various maintenance operations. This is done without stopping
the flow of the product in the pipeline.

Pips may be used in hydrostatic testing pipeline drying, internal cleaning, internal
coating, liquid management, batching, and inspection This is accomplished by
inserting the pig in a “pig launcher "(or" launching stiation”) an oversized section
in the pipeline, reducing to the normal diameter. The Iaunching station is then
closed and the pressure – driven flow of the product used in the pipeline is used
to push the pig along down the pipe until it reaches the receiving trap or the “pig
catcher”(or ”receiving station”).

Pigging Systems are designed so that the pig is loaded into the launcher, which
is pressured to launch the pig into the pipeline through a kicker line. Then the pig
is removed from the pipeline via the receiver at the end of each run. Generally at a
gap of 2 - 3 months pigging is done at PHBPL crude pipelines.
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Pigs are basically a metal body with polyurethane cups or other components
attached. Pigs could be produced as a single mold,

Pig Launching

1. Close Valves A and C

2. Drain the launching trap by opening drain valve D and allow air to displace the
liquid by opening vent valve E

3. When the trap is completely drain (0 psig) with Valves E and D still open, open
the closure door and insert the pig so the first cup forms a tight fit in the
reducer it point X.

4. Close and secure the closure door. Close drain valve D and leave Vent valve E
open. Slowly fill the trap through Valve C by Venting the air through Valve E.
When filling is completed close vent valve E to allow pressure to equalize then
close Valve C

5. Open Valve A first and then open Valve C. The Pig is now ready for launching.

6. Partially Close Valve B. This will increase the flow of liquid through Valve C
and behind the pig. Continue to close Valve B until the pig moves out of the
trap into mainline stream as signaled by the PIG - SIG indicator.

7. When the pig leaves the trap and enters the mainline, open Valve B fully.
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Pig Receiving
1. Close drain valve D. Slowly fill the trap by opening Valve C venting through Valve
E.

2. Close vent Valve E to allow trap pressure to equalize through Valve C.

3. With valve C open, open valve A. Trap is now ready to receive pig.

4. When the pig arrives it may stop between trap Valve A and the tee (point X).

5. Partially Close Valve B. This will force the pig into the trap due to increasing flow
through Valve C.

6. When the pig is in the trap as signaled by the PIG - SIG Indicator, open Valve B
completely and Close Valves A and C.

7. Open drain valve D and vent valve E and drain the trap.

8. After the trap is completely drained (0 psig) with Valves D and E still open, open
the closure door and remove the pig.

9. Close and secure the closure door.


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Intelligent Pigging: Modern intelligent or “smart” pigs are highly sophisticated


instruments that include electronics and sensors that collect various forms of data
during their trip through the pipeline. The change in technology and complexity depends
on the intended use and the manufacturer. This is mainly launched on yearly basis to
detect the reduction in internal diameter, problem in a particular location of the pipeline
and also for improving performance of flow.

DRA: As the flow rate increases in a pipe so are turbulence, the flow rate near the pipe
wall exceeds the liquids ability to slip past itself. Eddies spin off and swirl through the
flow producing turbulence and inefficient pipeline flow and a waste of energy. At higher
flow rate grater turbulence causes higher operating pressure.

Flow improvers, also known as drag reducing agents {DRA) or drag-reducing polymers,
are injected in pipeline fluids to reduce turbulence and therefore allowing the oil to flow
more efficiently.

DRA polymer molecules stretch out , acting as shock absorber, decreasing the overall
level of turbulence in the pipe. Using just a few parts per million of the drag - reducer
helps to reduce the turbulence inside the pipe. Thus with the use of DRA oil can be
transported at same flow rate with a lower pressure. Thus it saves energy and also cost
efficient.

Corrosion Inhibitor: A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a


liquid or gas, decreases the rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy. Some of the
water particles present in the crude with H2S and some acids may produce internal
corrosion during of the pipe material. Corrosion inhibitors basically forms a very thin
boundary layer between metal surface and the outer layer of crude oil i.e., detaching
direct contact and thus reduce internal corrosion of pipes.
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REQUISITION LETTER
WE HAVE COMPLETED OUR TRAINING AT PHBPL, IOCL , HALDIA. SO KINDLY PROVIDE
REMARKS FOR A CERTIFICATE TO BE ISSUED.

NAME DESIGNATION SIGNATURE


MR. JOYDEEP NIYOGI DGM (O)

MR. BASUDEB MAITY CMNM

MR. KAMLESH K. RAJPOOT O/M ENGG.

MR. VIVEK K. DESHMUKH O/M ENGG.

MR. SANTOSH KUMAR INSPECTION ENGG.


36

A VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT ON PUMPING STATION


PHBPL, IOCL, HALDIA

SUBMITTED BY:
MANISH KUMAR
AND
KISHLAY KUMAR
DEPT: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
HIT, HALDIA
UNDER SUPERVISION OF:
37

MR. JOYDEEP NIYOGI (DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER(O)-


PHBPL, IOCL, HALDIA)
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 06/02/2019