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FINALTERM EXAMINATION Marks: 60


FALL 2007 Time: 150min
STA630 - RESEARCH METHODS (Session - 4 )

StudentID/LoginID:

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

Exam Date: Wednesday, March 12, 2008

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any question:
ƒ All questions are compulsory.
ƒ This exam consists of 15 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) carrying 1 mark each; 5
True/False statements carrying 1 mark each; 5 Fill in the Blanks carrying 1 mark each; 5
Short Questions carrying 5 marks each; and 1 descriptive question –carrying 10 marks.
ƒ For each MCQ, read the available choices carefully and select the most appropriate choice
which you consider is the correct answer.
ƒ To answer fill in the blanks questions, write the word which you think is the most suitable by
comprehending the whole phrase. More than one answer will be marked zero.
ƒ Remember not to spend too much time on any one objective type question since all objective
type questions carry equal marks; it is important to manage your time according to the marks
allocated to each question.
ƒ Save your answer before proceeding to the next question.
ƒ Do not click the “Finish” button while solving your paper. Once you clicked the “Finish”
button, you will not be able to access your paper again. Click it at the end of your paper. That
means you have submitted your complete paper.
ƒ A clock is given in the exam software. Software will automatically close at the end of given
time.
ƒ Use of mobile phone is strictly prohibited. Switch off your mobile phone during the exam.
ƒ Failure to comply with the Supervisor’s directions will result in your test being cancelled.
Please comply with supervisor’s directions to avoid any unpleasant event.

For Teacher's use only


Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks
Question 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Marks
Question 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Marks
Question 31
Marks

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

An experiment has high if one has confidence that the experimental


treatment has been the source of change in the dependent variable.

► Internal validity

► External validity

► Internal and external validity

► Internal and external reliability

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

is the arbitrary and subjective.

► Probability sampling

► Non- Probability sampling

► Cluster sampling

► All of the given options


Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following is NOT included in the stages of interviewing?

► Asking questions

► Recording the responses

► Probing

► Coding the data

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Critical decision areas in questionnaire construction are

► Question content

► Question wording

► Response strategy
► All of the given options

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

is based on the concept of random sampling.

► Non- probability sampling

► Probability sampling

► Random sampling

► Multiple sampling

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

A sampling design in which the elements in the population do NOT have a known
or predetermined chance of being selected as sample subject is:

► Convenience sampling

► Stratified sampling

► Non-Probability sampling

► Probability sampling
Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

is the population for which results are required.

► Finite population

► Infinite population

► Target population

► None of the given options

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following technique yields a simple random sample?

► Choosing volunteers from an introductory psychology class to participate

► Listing the individuals by ethnic group and choosing a proportion from within
each ethnic group at random

► Numbering all the elements of a sampling frame and then using a random
number table to pick cases from the table

► Randomly selecting schools, and then sampling everyone within the school

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following designs permits a comparison of pretest scores to


determine the initial equivalence of groups on the pretest before the treatment
variable is introduced into the research setting.

► (a) One-group pretest-posttest design

► (b) Pretest-posttest control group design

► (c) Posttest-only design with nonequivalent groups

► Both b and c

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Where do you provide a step-by-step account of what the researcher and


participants did during the research study?

► Introduction

► Abstract

► Procedure

► Design
Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following has high response rate?

► Mail interviewing

► Telephone interviewing

► Personal interviewing

► None of the given options

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Observation studies are also known as research.

► Experimental

► Field
► Quantitative

► None of the given options

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Open-ended questions provide primarily data.

► Unprocessed data

► Qualitative data

► All of the given options

► None of the given options

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which one of the following is NOT a major method of data collection:

► Questionnaires

► Interviews

► Focus groups

► All of the given options are methods of data collection

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following statement is incorrect?

► In non participant observation the observer is just an observer.

► In participant observation, the data accuracy is high.

► Participant observation is also referred to as field research.

► None of the given options


Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

If the subjects are given a pretest it will not affect their performance in the posttest.

► True

► False

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one


In non- reactive research the subjects do not have knowledge that they are being
studied.

► True

► False

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In experimental group the subjects do not under go any treatment; however in


control group the subjects are given the treatment.

► True

► False
Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

When multiple questions are asked in one question, it leads to ambiguous answers
provided by the respondents.

► True

► False
Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

An advantage of communication analysis is that it provides access to the


inaccessible subjects.

► True

► False

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 )

Pretest is the phase when the variable is measured prior to the introduction
of treatment.

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 )

If the percentages are calculated column wise in a table, then we will make
comparison between the variables in a .

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 )

In order to make two identical groups for experiment, the procedures to be


undertaken are randomization and .

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 )


The main advantage of questionnaire is that a wide geographical area can
be covered in the survey.

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 )

A type of bias in questions occurs when they are phrased in an emotionally


charged manner, they are described as questions.

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 5 )

Make one hypothesis for each of the following types of hypotheses. (1 mark each)
i. If-then hypothesis
ii. Directional hypothesis
iii. Non directional hypothesis
iv. Null hypothesis
v. Alternative hypothesis

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 5 )

Which is the most powerful scale among Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio scale,
and why?

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 5 )

A manager finds that off-the-job classroom training has a great impact on the
productivity of the employees in her department. However, she also observes that
employees over 60 years of age do not seem to derive much benefit and do not
improve with such training.

i. Identify the independent, dependent and moderating variables in the given


scenario. (3)
ii. How the moderating variable you identified in part (i) is affecting the
independent-dependent variable relationship in the scenario? (2)

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 5 )

The accounts executive has established a new accounting system that utilizes
maximum computer technology. Before making further changes, he would like to
get a feel for how the accounting clerks react to the new system by acting as if he
has no doubts about their acceptability of the new system. He may then casually
talk to the first five accounting personnel that walk into his office, trying to gauge
their reactions.
i. Describe the type of sampling the director should use in the given scenario,
probability or non probability? (1)
ii. What type of sampling technique is being used and why? Explain. (2)
iii. Give two characteristics of the type of sampling technique that you selected in
part (ii). (2)

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 5 )

You are doing research on “how to increase the efficiency level of labor”. For the
research purpose you have conducted an interview with the supervisor.
Give two structured and two unstructured questions that you may ask related to
your research. (2.5+2.5)

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 10 )

What is meant by validity and reliability? Describe the situations in which validity
and reliability problems occur.
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MIDTERM EXAMINATION Marks: 40


FALL 2007 Time: 120min
STA630 - RESEARCH METHODS (Session - 5 )

StudentID/LoginID:

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

Exam Date: Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any question:
ƒ All questions are compulsory.
ƒ This exam consists of 10 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) carrying 1 mark each; 5 Fill in
the Blanks carrying 1 mark each; 3 Short Questions carrying 5 marks each; and 1 descriptive
question –carrying 10 marks.
ƒ For each MCQ, read the available choices carefully and select the most appropriate choice
which you consider is the correct answer.
ƒ To answer fill in the blanks questions, write the word which you think is the most suitable by
comprehending the whole phrase. More than one answer will be marked zero.
ƒ Remember not to spend too much time on any one objective type question since all objective
type questions carry equal marks; it is important to manage your time according to the marks
allocated to each question.
ƒ Save your answer before proceeding to the next question.
ƒ Do not click the “Finish” button while solving your paper. Once you clicked the “Finish”
button, you will not be able to access your paper again. Click it at the end of your paper. That
means you have submitted your complete paper.
ƒ A clock is given in the exam software. Software will automatically close at the end of given
time.
ƒ Use of mobile phone is strictly prohibited. Switch off your mobile phone during the exam.
ƒ Failure to comply with the Supervisor’s directions will result in your test being cancelled.
Please comply with supervisor’s directions to avoid any unpleasant event.

For Teacher's use only


Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks
Question 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Marks
Question
Marks

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following includes examples of quantitative variable?

► (a) Age, temperature, income, height.

► (b) Grade point average, anxiety level, reading performance

► (c) Gender, religion, ethnic group

► (d) Both (a) and (b)

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Research method is not applicable in the field of:

► Health care

► Business

► Government offices

► None of the given options

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Exploratory research addresses the question.

► Why

► How

► What

► If

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

meanings attached to a concept create problems of measurements.

► Unambiguous

► Vague
► Clear

► Dictionary

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The correlation between savings and expenditure is:

► Positive

► Negative

► Perfect

► They are not correlated

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The first step in the research process is:

► Preliminary data collection

► Problem definition

► Theoretical framework

► Define broad problem area

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following can be achieved by a longitudinal research design?

► Mapping of change in an organization.

► The change in employment relations over a number of years.

► The experiences of employees who begin work on the same day.

► All of the given options

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In the statement 'an examination of the effects of discretionary behavior on employee


performance' discretionary behavior is the:

► Independent variable

► Dependent variable
► Extraneous variable

► Causal variable

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Which of the following terms best describes data that were originally collected at an earlier
time by a different person for a different purpose?

► Primary data

► Secondary data

► Experimental data

► Field notes

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Internal scale measures

► Order of the object

► Magnitude of the object

► Categorize the object

► All of the given options

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 )

Exploratory researchers frequently use data.

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 )

researchers primarily want to apply and tailor knowledge to address a specific


practical issue.

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 )

An interviewee has a right to refuse to answer any question in the interview. This is called his
.

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 )

After identifying the appropriate variables, the next step is to discover between
them.

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 )


The relationship between the and the theoretical framework is that the former
provides a solid foundation for developing the later.

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 5 )

What are some goals of the literature review?

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 5 )

A sociology student was conducting an observation study of waiters in a restaurant to


monitor their behaviors. During the research project, the field site i.e. the restaurant burnt
down and it was suspected that someone from inside (staff) fired the restaurant. Local legal
authorities requested the research notes and wanted to interrogate the researcher about the
activity in the restaurant. The researcher had a dilemma. He could cooperate with the
investigation and violate the trust, confidentiality and integrity of the ethical research or he
could up hold the confidentiality and protect his subjects but face contempt of court and
difficulty of justice penalties including fines and jail.

i. What type of ethical dilemma it is; confidentiality and right to privacy or deception?
Justify your opinion. (2.5)
ii. Give your suggestions to the researcher what should he do in such a situation? (2.5)

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 5 )

The head-nurse in a hospital would like to have a profile of the patients that come to her
ward.
i. What would be the nature of the study that would be designed? Exploratory, descriptive,
or explanatory? Give reasons for your answer. (2.5)
ii. Would it be a longitudinal or cross-sectional study? How would you explain your answer?
(2.5)

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 10 )

What are some characteristics of a testable hypothesis?