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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS

From day to day, in modern society, unconventional energy sources are constantly
expanding due to the growing demand for the use of petroleum products as follows petrol,
kerosene diesel and white gasoline. India imports over 70% of oil based goods from different
nations. That is the reason you have to locate an elective fuel. Biodiesel is viewed as a
satisfactory option in contrast to diesel. Nonetheless, it has less oxidation security. In this
manner, we discovered added substances for reasonable powers that can be included with
bio-diesel. Bio-diesel, a substitute for fuel acquired from an collection of fats, oils and fats, is
important to ra nchers for a few reasons: it be able to offer an extra promote to vegetable oils
& creature fats, be able to enable ranchers develop fuel it requirements for farming hardware,
and can diminish the country's reliance on import oil, since the fuel crude material can
develop in the nation. It is a sustainable power source that can be help limit ozone depleting
substances outflowing and reducesagriculture's carbon impressions. It is contributes least to
an Earth-wide temperature boost in light of the fact that can carbon in fuel has been expelled
on from the a air by the plants crude material.
Concerns identified with absence of diesel oil and debasement of ecological. It very
well may be delivered by inexhaustible sources, which are creature fats or vegetable oils, and
it has properties exceptionally near diesel. Nonetheless, it was discovered that bio-diesel is
definitely more destructive to car motor parts than diesel. It is almost certain, this is because
of the nearness of oxygen flotsam and jetsam, self-oxidation, greater extremity of bio-diesel
and its hygroscopic nature. A few analysts have contemplated the erosion conduct of different
metals, which are as per the following copper, metal, bronze, cast iron, carbon steel, and so
forth in diesel and bio-diesel.
The creation procedure is a significant potential cause of solidness issues and
procedure to control first line of safeguard to accomplish and to controls the strength of bio-
diesel.Fuel mixing techniques and fuel added substances are presently increasing more
significance to satisfy the market needs for imperative powers containing bio-diesel mixes.
Fuel added substances are profitably frequently being utilized to redesign operability by
decreasing warm debasement and oxidation of B100 and bio-diesel mixes.

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At times B100 a created in as broken procedure by transisterification of a methanol


with in triglycerides, which otherwise called as glycerol unsaturated fats, within the sight of
scathing substances. The "level of fulfillment" of the response to supplant glycerol with a
liquor, for example, methanol has been perceived as incredible for fuel quality toward the
start of bio-diesel advancement. The response is done at high temperatures from 120 ° to 150
° F to finish the response. The blend is then killed with a corrosive and washed to evacuate
abundance methanol, salts and free glycerol. Powerful balance is required to expel antacid
metals from the oil stage. On the off chance that washing isn't powerful, salts and glycerol
can stay in B100. Glycerol levels must be limited to guarantee B100 generation quality.
Expanding the level of fulfillment of the esterification response limits free unsaturated fats
which can add to insecurity. Likewise, the expulsion of soluble base metal salts from the
procedure and drying is critical to satisfy the quality guideline of the completed item B100.
To accomplish quality gauges, process checks and quality tests are required.
The debasement results can be insoluble in diesel blends and cause the channel to
end up stopped up in the fuel frameworks. The impediment of the fuel channel and the
development of stores in the motor chamber might be identified with the arrangement of "all
out insoluble", however B100 does not create critical insoluble on the off chance that it is
exposed to capacity security tests. This might be because of the solvency of polar corruption
results in rather polar B100, however these side-effects may end up in-soluble as when bi-
odiesel is a blended with non-polar of diesel fills. Insoluble items are as required to turn into
an increasingly noteworthy issue as ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), which is considerably
progressively polar, is acquainted with the market. Power framework issues, including
channel stopping up; have been archived in the United States, alongside fuel channel tops in
vehicles utilizing mixes of B100 or biodiesel. As per a review by the Minnesota Trucking
Association, 62% of the 90 armadas said they had tried the fuel channel cap.
Operational issues increment support expenses and abatement the dependability of
the gear. Thusly, issues identified with the utilization of biodiesel could avoid the
development and selection of biodiesel in the fuel showcase. In this way, forestalling
operability issues improves the practicality of biodiesel as a fuel. The solidness of biodiesel
can be estimated utilizing diverse expository methodology.

A generally refered to issue in the writing is that the steadiness of biodiesel can be
constrained by various instruments and no investigative test can anticipate the genuine
exhibition in motor frameworks.

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The administrators of biodiesel treatment plants that have the capacity of planting
various crude materials have an upper hand over others, since their plant can work with an
assortment of crude materials effectively accessible on the neighborhood advertise.
The administrators of multi-feed offices are less delicate to value vacillations since they can
browse a scope of promptly accessible crude materials used to create biodiesel. A success win
circumstance is one in which all members can profit somehow. For instance, here the
biodiesel maker and ranchers can make a benefit and keep on working in an effective market
with the adaptability of the crude material. In this manner, it prompts winning the
circumstance for all members in the area.
The ozone improvement potential (fumes cloud) of bi-odiesel hydro-carbons is
lower than that of diesel. The ozone course of action capacity of the ordinary hydrocarbon
radiations is half lower than that intentional for diesel. As Sulfur releases are essentially
negated with unadulterated biodiesel. The vapor releases, for instance, sulfur oxides and
sulfates (basic role behind destructive deluge) from biodiesel are significantly finished when
appeared differently in relation to diesel. Essential toxic substances are lessened by using
biodiesel. Studies shows that the use of a bio-diesel in as diesel engines incorporates critical
reductions in a with out burning hydrocarbons, CO and particulates. Releases of NOXproceed
as in the past or increase to some degree. Carbon monoxide; Emissions of a CO (a poisonous
gas) from biodiesel are all things considered 48 Percentage lower than the carbon monoxide
releases of diesel. Particles: respiratory particles have been exhibited to be a hazard to human
prosperity. The exhaust surges of biodiesel particles are about 47 percentage lower than the
full scale diesel particulate spreads. Hydrocarbons, the vapor outpourings of full scale
hydrocarbons (a factor that adds to the confined course of action of darker fog and ozone) are
all things considered 67 percentage lower for a bio-diesel than for diesel.
Nitrogen oxides, NOx emissions from a biodiesel increment or abatement
relying upon the motor family and test strategies. The NOx discharges (a factor that adds to
the confined development of exhaust cloud and ozone) of unadulterated biodiesel (100%)
expansion overall by 10%. In any case, the absence of sulfur in biodiesel permits the
utilization of NOx control advances that can't be utilized with traditional diesel.

Moreover, a few organizations contain effectively formed adding substance to


lessen NOx discharges of biodiesel mixes. Biodiesel lessens the wellbeing dangers related
with diesel. Biodiesel outflows show diminished degrees of polycyclic fragrant

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hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic sweet-smelling hydrocarbons nitrates (nPAH), which


have been recognized as conceivable malignancy causing mixes.

In wellbeing impacts tests, PAH mixes were diminished by 75-85%, except for
benzo (an) anthracene, which was decreased by about half.

Directed nPAH mixes were definitely diminished with biodiesel, with 2-


nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene decreased by 90 percentage and the remainder of the nPAH
mixes were diminished to follow levels only.Natural biodiesel can likewise be utilized as an
oil/enhancer in numerous applications. It is especially valuable in marine applications where
water pollution with greasing up specialists can cause issues. With the guideline of low
sulfur fuel of things to come, biodiesel can be utilized as a grease added substance. A 1-2%
biodiesel added to diesel fuel can expand diesel grease by 65%. Biodiesel can likewise be
utilized as an added substance for diesel so as to keep injectors, siphons and other ignition
segments clean. A blend of 1-2% ought to be adequate for this reason.

The advancement and advertising of fuel added substances is in charge of the


specialized and business improvement of elite synthetic substances connected to oil and
petrochemical items, just as to biofuels. Our first target is the improvement of added
substances that address the issues of the market as far as execution, quality and productivity.
To this end, we work in close coordinated effort with our clients, figuring, when vital,
modified items and ensuring nonstop specialized and systematic help, including explicit
observing and guaging devices. With more than 40 years of involvement in this area, we
have presented creative substance items available that are one of a kind in their field of use.
Meeting our new and developing business sector needs has consistently been our principle
objective. We have as of late centered around improving wellbeing.

1.2 ADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL

The advantages are as follows

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 Produced from Renewable Resources:


Bio-diesel is a substitute source from other oil based items will be evaporate
in the coming years. as it is created utilizing animals & vegetable fat, it might be
conveyed on intrigue and besides causing less polluting than the oil diesel.
 Can be used in Existing Diesel Engines:
One of a guideline inclinations of using a bio-diesel is that it might be a used
in existing diesel fuel engines with a insignificant or no modifications and can
override oil based commodity to transform into the favored fundamental vehicle
essentialness source. Biodiesel can be used 100 percent (B100) or in mixes with oil
gas oil.
 Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (for example, B20 reduces CO2 by
15%):
Consumed non-renewable energy sources discharge ozone depleting
substances, for example, co2 in the air expands the heat and affect a dangerous
atmospheric devation. To shield the earth from further warming, numerous individuals
have received the utilization of biofuels. Specialists accept that the utilization of
biodiesel rather than diesel can lessen ozone depleting substances by up to 78%.
 Biodegradable and Non-toxic:
Right when a biofuels are burned, they produce inside and out less the
carbon and less contaminants.Contrasted with oil diesel, biodiesel creates less
sediment (particles), carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and sulfur dioxide.
The blaze purpose of biodiesel is over 150 ° C, while it is around 52 ° C for oil diesel,
which makes it less burnable. Along these lines, it is sheltered to deal with, store and
transport.
 Improved Fuel Economy:
Biodiesel motors achieve 30% fuel financial savings in comparison to
petroleum-based totally diesel engines, which means that they tour less at petrol
stations and journey more kilometres consistent with gallon.

 Reduction of Dependence on Foreign oil:


With regionally produced by biofuels, many nations have decreased their
dependence on fossil of fuels. it could no longer clear up all the problems at the same
time, but a country can store billions through decreasing its use of foreign oil.
 More Health Benefits:
Air pollutants causes extra deaths and illnesses than every other shape of
pollutants. pollution in gas engines when released into the air shape smog and make

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thousands of human beings ill every yr. Biodiesel produces fewer poisonous pollutants
than different petroleum merchandise.

1.3 DISADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL

 Change in Biodiesel Quality:


Bio-diesel is made from a selection of biofuel vegetation.when the oil is
extracted and converted into gas via a chemical system, the result can range in the
capability to produce electricity. In summary, not all biofuel vegetation are the same,
as the quantity of vegetable oil can range.
 It is not Suitable for use at Low Temperatures:
Biodiesel gel in bloodless atmospheres, anyway that the temperature at
which it will gel will depend upon fat used to give them. The decent method to apply
biodiesel over the span of the colder of months is to be blend it with frigid climate
diesel gas.
 Blockage in the Motor:
The biodiesel cleans the soil from the motor. This demonstrates to be a
favorable position of biofuels, anyway the issue is this soil develops inside the fuel
channel out and obstructs it.
 Water Shortage:
The usage of a water to supply greater plants can placed pressure on a
neighborhood communities of water sources. areas where there may be water scarcity,
crop manufacturing of biofuels, isn't always an awesome idea.

 Fuel Distribution:
Biodiesel is not disbursed like diesel. The infrastructure requires even
greater momentum to be followed because the maximum preferred by way to run the
engines.
 Use of Petroleum Diesel to Produce Biodiesel:
It calls for a number of energy to provide biodiesel gasoline from soya
plants, as it requires energy to plant, fertilize and harvest plants. similarly, the raw
material should be transported by means of vans that can eat a touch extra fuel.
 Slight Increase in Nitrogen Oxide Emissions:
Bio-diesel has approximately 10% more nitrogen oxide at (NOx) than other
oil merchandise.Nitric oxide is a one of the gases used to the formation of a smog and
ozone. as soon as it dissolves in a atmospheric moisturing, it may cause the acid rain.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The paper depicts the responses and detachments conditions for a transesterification
of rapeseed oil by butanol under potassium hydroxide as an impetus. The item is a total of
butyl esters of higher unsaturated fats, which can be utilized as gas (biodiesel) for ignition
motors. The effect of the picked response circumstances (free variablesthe response
temperature and time, the amount of impetus, the molar proportion of butanol to oil and the
technique for oil expansion to butanol) at the bioanalysis methodology changed into
examined. The deliberate data was broke down by methods for multi-direct relapse and the
factual designs depict the reliance of glycerides (organized factors) on the fair factors. The
transesterification was halted by balance of the impetus with each a strong and powerless
corrosive been acquainted with whole response total. The increase of durable corrosive is a
totally quick partition and a 0 content material of potassium and detached glycerol, however
an over the top corrosive amount (1.7–4.five mg kg−1). inside the instance of powerless
corrosive (gas carbon dioxide), the corrosive amount is under zero.5 mg kg−1, however the
division takes longer. additionally, the division become accelerated with the guide of the
option of a limited quantity of water to the response blend after the response and evacuation
of butanol. Along these lines likewise diminished the substance of potassium (multiple times)
and free glycerol (four occurrences) inside the ester segment look at to the division without

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water. moreover, the association between the flashpoint and the substance of butanol in butyl
ester transformed into depicted, which permits the commitment handiest the butanol content
and the estimation of the flashpoint or the other way around [1].

This paper makes a claim to fame of the readiness and portrayal of CaO, MgO
and ZnO, each mass and upheld on γ-Al2O3 and their reactant action in the transesterification
of a soybean oil and castor oil with the methanol and butanol as an approach to create
biodiesel. XRD, SEM, CO2-adsorption saw with the guide of TGA and N2 adsorption had
been contracted to symbolize the readied impetuses. In upheld impetuses, the nearness of γ-
Al2O3 improves liquor separation at the shallow essential sites. stage one of the reaction
system is then supported (hydrogen reflection). inside the transesterification of a castor oil
with butanol, MgO/γ - Al2O3 and ZnO/γ-Al2O3 impetuses affirmed significant returns to
FABE (Fatty Acid Butyl Ester) (ninety seven% and eighty five%, individually) [2].

Worked at the microbial biomass present in enacted slime conveys lipidic


exacerbates that might be utilized as biodiesel feedstock. in this view, the assembling of
biodiesel from enacted slime from Tuscaloosa, AL become upgraded principally dependent
on the yield of fattyacid methyl esters (FAMEs). Intransesterification changed into utilized
with sulfuric corrosive as impetus. A favored factorial design of four × 6 × five for
temperature, methanol to ooze proportion and impetus focus, separately, changed into mulled
over for streamlining.Biodiesel yield can be fittingly depicted through the quadratic reaction
floor model with R2 of 0.843 and measurably unimportant loss of suit (p = 0.152). Numerical
advancement affirmed that a best biodiesel yield of four.88% can be gotten at 55 °C, 25
methanol to slop proportion and four% volume sulfuric corrosive. The highest point of the
line exploratory biodiesel yield changed into in reality got at that condition yet with an
expense of four.79 ± zero.02%. the best mix-ups was 2.30% which shows genuine settlement
between the form and the trial actualities [3].

Work on the on this work, standard diesel, neat biodiesel, biodiesel (85%)-
methanol (15%) (B85M15) and biodiesel (85%)-ethanol (15%) (B85E15) fuels are tested.
Experiments are performed the use of a -cylinder, 4-cycle, direct injected, water-cooled diesel
engine at 5 loads between no load and a full load of 3000 rpm. performance and emission
traits of the engine fueled with biodiesel-ethanol and biodiesel-methanol blends had been as
compared to neat biodiesel and preferred diesel fuel because the baseline fuels. ordinary,
biodiesel-alcohol blends, as compared to diesel, reduce NO emissions at the same time as

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increasing CO and HC emissions, at underneath 70% masses. it is also shown that biodiesel-
ethanol mixture is greater effective than biodiesel-methanol for emission discount and overall
engine performance [4].

Al works of art on the biodiesel, this take a gander at examines the impact of
differing manufactured phenolic cell reinforcements on the oxidation offset of biodiesel
mixes with the work of the adjusted Rancimat approach. The trial impacts uncovered that an
improvement in oxidation dependability will be done with all cancer prevention agents tried.
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Butylated Hydroxy Anisol (BHA) showed the base
adequacy in slick biodiesel, while their utilization in biodiesel mixes affirmed an all the more
balancing out potential. Propyl gallate (PG) and pyrogallol (PA) added substances
demonstrated the most dominant adequacy in both the flawless biodiesel and the biodiesel
mixes. at some phase in a clearly developing old arrangement of the biodiesel mixes which
was performed for a time of 10 weeks, tests were taken every 2 weeks to degree the oxidation
dependability, kinematic consistency and corrosive charge. This framework was structured in
such way to recreate the becoming more seasoned of a vehicle biofuel put away in the fuel
tank of a car [5].

Worked on the biofuel. A biofuel combo mandate might also boom or lower
customer gasoline charges with endogenous oil costs, depending on relative deliver
elasticities. Biofuel tax credits usually lessen gasoline expenses. Tax credit result in lower
gasoline prices than beneath a mandate for the same stage of biofuel manufacturing. If tax
credits are implemented alongside mandates, then tax credit subsidize gasoline intake rather
than biofuels. This contradicts electricity coverage goals by means of increasing oil
dependency, CO2emissions, and site visitors congestion, even as offering little gain to both
corn or ethanol manufacturers. those social charges will be enormous with tax credit costing
taxpayers $28.7 billion annually with the aid of 2022 [6].

Worked on the biodiesel concerning an experimental investigation has been


completed to evaluate the impact of the use of diethyl ether as additive to biodiesel on the
combustion, overall performance and emission traits in an unmodified diesel engine at
different masses and regular engine velocity. The results suggest that top cylinder stress and
warmth launch fee is higher for BD5 (5% (with the aid of vol.) diethyl ether blended
biodiesel) than the ones of neat biodiesel. The carbon monoxide emissions mainly at full load
and smoke emissions at almost all engine loads decrease at the same time as oxides of

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nitrogen and hydrocarbon emissions growth for BD5 than those of neat biodiesel at almost all
engine hundreds. The brake thermal efficiency of BD5 is higher in comparison to biodiesel
[7].

Work at the outflow patterns of biodiesel. diesel motors are definitely utilized for
their low fuel admission and higher in general execution. An examinations was finished with
a solitary chamber diesel motor to set up the outcomes of alumina nanoparticle consolidation
into the Canola biodiesel (BD) emulsion fuel. The Canola BD ended up molded from the
Canola oil with the valuable asset of transesterification contraption, and later the Canola BD
emulsion fuel become sorted out inside the portion of eighty three% of Canola BD, 15% of
water, and multiple% of surfactants (by utilizing degree).

The alumina nanoparticles were joined with the Canola BD emulsion fuel at
unmistakable proportions methodicallly. The entire look at have moved toward becoming
done inside the diesel motor the utilization of the three powers, especially, perfect BD,
Canola BD emulsion gas, and alumina nanoparticle blended Canola emulsion powers
sequentially [8].

The most important technical problem facing biodiesel is its susceptibility to


oxidation upon exposure to oxygen in ambient air. This susceptibility is because of its content
material of unsaturated fatty acid chains. He reported that the oxidation of fatty acid chains is
a complicated system that proceeds with the aid of a selection of mechanisms. they also
observed that the fatty acid ethyl esters from brassica carinata oil were very strong. Francielle
et al evaluated the (a) Honge (b) Honge Seed susceptibility to bio-deterioration of biodiesel,
diesel, and diesel containing five, 10, and 20% biodiesel the use of fungi isolated from
infected oil structures. They said that the yeasts had the highest prices of deterioration,
especially candida silvicola, with a hundred% degradation of all esters. They mentioned that,
compared with unoxidized biodiesel, oxidized biodiesel produced 15 and sixteen% decrease
exhaust CO and HC emissions respectively and determined no significant difference in
smoke and NOx emissions of the oxidized and unoxidized biodiesel [9].

The biodiesel best is harmed by means of the oxidation merchandise, except


increasing the biodiesel viscosity. From the literature overview, it is observed that the
biodiesel is susceptible to oxidation and for this reason storage of biodiesel over a long time

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period is an vital difficulty to be addressed. therefore on this paintings, storage stability of the
honge biodiesel changed into studied. Biodiesel can be constituted of honge oil with the aid
of -step transesterification using a biodiesel plant. The homes of the honge biodiesel satisfy
the biodiesel gas standards. The honge oil includes more than 50% unsaturated fatty acids
which makes them susceptible to oxidation. all through the storage duration of six month, the
acid fee and viscosity of the honge biodiesel had been accelerated however the iodine fee
reduced. From the look at it's far determined that the secure storage length of the honge
biodiesel is four weeks [10].

CHAPTER 3

OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this project work are as follows

1. To study about the biodiesel, their properties and best selection of commercially
available Pongamia(Honge)biodiesel.
2. Production of Honge biodiesel by Transesterification process for maximum yield.
3. Determination of Pongamia biodiesel properties.
4. Preparation of biodiesel blends by adding naturally available additives.
5. Determination of properties biodiesel mixed with additives.
6. Study the consequence of additives on the performance and emissions of the diesel
engine.
7. Comparison engine emissions of biodiesel and bio-diesel added with the additives and
conventional diesel.

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CHAPTER 4

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY


4.1 MATERIALS

 Alternative fuels: Honge biodiesel

 Natural additives: Black Seed oil, Turmeric oil, Clove oil + Propyl Gallate

 Mixing ratio: 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm with the biodiesel

 Determination of fuel properties: As per ASTM Procedures

 Engine test setup: Diesel engine experimental setup

 Engine Exhaust Emission Analyzer: AVL Exhaust Gas Analyzer

 Engine Exhaust smoke Analyzer: Smoke meter test setup.

4.2METHODOLOGY

4.2.1 PREPERATION OF PONGAMIA OIL

Biodiesel manufacturing is the method of manufacturing biofuels, biodiesel,


through chemical reactions of at transesterification and a esterification. includes vegetable or
animal fat and oils that react with short chain alcohols (generally methanol or ethanol). The
alcohols used want to be of low molecular weight, with ethanol being the maximum used due
to the low rate. however, it is viable to acquire higher conversions in biodiesel using
methanol. although the transisterification response which may be catalyzed through using the
use of acids or bases, the most commonlyused approach of producing is catalyzed
transesterification. This path has decrease reaction times and catalyst expenses than those
presented via manner of acid catalysis. however, alkaline catalysis it has a first-rate drawback
of fairly sensitivity, which is observed in both water and loose fatty acids gift within the oils.
a primary constituent of glyceroides tri the use of anhydrous alcohol within the presence of a
base chain together with a sodium hydroxide as catalyst produces the monoalkyl fatty acid

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ester (reputation), this is known as biodiesel and glycerin as a derivative, as shown in 4.2.

4.2.2 OIL EXTRACTION

The honge seeds are overwhelmed in a screwdriver to extract the oil. The crude oil
turned into then filtered and used for biodiesel production. The productions of a bio-diesel
from waste vegetable oils offers a 3-sided, financial, nature and waste management solution.

The time period "used vegetable oil" (WVO) refers to vegetable oil that has been
utilized in meals manufacturing and is not usable for its intended use. India's biodiesel
processing capacity is predicted at six hundred,000 lots regular with 12 months. Used
cooking oil (WCO) is a residue of a ramification of assets, which includes consuming places,
commercial corporation or domestic elements, which no longer handiest harm human fitness,
but also cause environmental troubles. But, OMA can be used as a uncooked cloth for
biodiesel production. On this manner, the producing of biodiesel from OMA to partly update
petroleum diesel is an opportunity way of protective the environment and electricity
protection. The american Society for testing and materials (ASTM) defines biodiesel gas as
monoalkyl esters of prolonged chain fatty acids in derived from a renewable lipid uncooked
cloth, along with vegetable oil or animal fat. Determine 4.2.2 shows the steps worried in
getting prepared the Honge oil.

The types of biodiesel can be a classified according to their origin and the production process,
as follows:

1. Esterificated oils

2. Non-esterificated oils

3. Waste vegetable oils

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Honge Tree Honge Seeds

Biodiesel
Figure: 4.2.2Steps involved in biodiesel production

4.2.3 PRE-TREATMENT FOR HIGH FFA OILS

The oils are glycerol esters of fatty acids, glycerine molecules and oily acids. these
triglycerides a oxidized to unfastened acids (FFA) in the course of storage. these free oily
acids form soap throughout the transesterification process. If the FFA exceeds three%,
biodiesel restoration is appreciably reduced. consequently, an acid remedy is administered at
some stage in which the FFA are transformed to biodiesel with the aid of acidification of the
acid. Vegetable oils that have a low content material of loose fatty acids (less than 3%) can be
converted to biodiesel through direct transesterification. The acidification of the acid changed

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into done the usage of focused sulfuric acid as catalyst and FFA40:1.The volumeof H2SO4
(ml) asked changed into decided through

(FFA weight * zero.05) / H2SO4 density)

the burden of FFA in a liter changed into determined primarily based at the acid variety.
The methanol-H2SO4 mixture was introduced slowly and allowed to react for 1 hour. After
the reaction turned into completed, the aggregate was stored for an hour, forming a skinny
layer wealthy in better acid. The top level became discarded and the lower level become
analyzed to decide the FFA content material.

The decrease layer changed into then subjected to a transesterification manner.


determine four.2.3 indicates the biodiesel and glycerine layers. The required amount of
catalyst became decided through titration as shown in figure 4.2.3.

Figure: 4.2.3 Biodiesel and glycerin layer

4.2.4 TITRATION TESTING

The amount of NaOH required to neutralize the FFA gift in the oil was determined
with the aid of titration checking out the usage of known awareness NaOH solution.
generally, the oil without FFA requires three.5gNaOH for transesterification. more quantity of
NaOH need to be brought to neutralize FFA which consequently shaped into cleaning soap.
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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

The total amount of catalyst (NaOH) required for the reaction was calculated by using
the formula

Amount ofNaOH required Amount of NaOH required

Transesterification of + for neutralization of FFA

Triglyceroids (3.5 g ) (titration)

The biodiesel was then dried by heating at 110’C till the humidity content be removed
wholly. It was frozen and clean, then subjected for further analysis. Figure: 4.2.4 shows the
biodiesel washing with water and drying of Biodiesel using heating

Washing Drying

Figure: 4.2.4 Washing of biodiesel with water and Drying.

Oil +Fats

Methanol + Pretreatment
Catalyst
Transesterification Separation

Washing
Drying

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Biodiesel Glycerin

4.3 ADDITIVES

1. Black seed oil:


The Black Seed oil has good antioxidant properties and hence it will be used as
additive in this work.Itcontains thymoquinone, which is an anti-inflammatory
compound,antioxidantand hence it has better antioxidant activity. Figure 4.3.1 shows
theBlack seed oil.

Figure:
Figure:4.2 stages involved in biodiesel 4.3.1Black
production. Theseed oil
byproduct of biodiesel is glycerin
which has demand in the market for cosmetic applications.
2. Turmeric oil:

The Turmeric oil has good antioxidant properties and hence it will be used as
additives in this work. The data indicated the presence of twenty-five compounds in turmeric
oil. Aromatic in turmerone, a-zingiberene, ß-(Z)- farnesene, aromatic curcumene, turmerone
and the Curlone are the major compounds as in turmeric oil. Figure 4.3.2 shows theTurmeric
oil.

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Figure: 4.3.2Turmericoil

3. Clove oil +Pyrogallol:

Clove oil is a mixture of different compounds, with the three main active
ingredients being eugenol, eugenyl acetate and caryophyllene. Figure 4.3.3 shows the Clove
oil. It has essential oil content about 87%, which can be used as a natural additive.

Figure: 4.3.3 Clove oil

4.4 Sample Preparation


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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

1. Pure Honge Bio-Diesel

Figure: 4.4.1Pure Honge Bio-Diesel

2. Honge Bio-Diesel with Black Seed Oil

Black Seed Oil of 0.5, 1 & 1.5 ml was added in Honge Bio-Diesel of 800 ml
which was named as BS500, BS1000 & BS1500 respectively.

Figure: 4.4.2Honge Bio-Diesel with Black Seed Oil


3. Honge Bio-Diesel with Turmeric Oil

Turmeric Oil of 0.5, 1 & 1.5 ml was added in Honge Bio-Diesel of 800 ml which
was named as TO500, TO1000 & TO1500 respectively.

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Figure: 4.4.3Honge Bio-Diesel with Turmeric Oil

4. Honge Bio-Diesel with Clove Oil and Pg


Clove Oil of 0.25, 0.5 &0.75 ml &0.25, 0.5 &0.75 mg of Pg was added in Honge
Bio-Diesel of 800 ml which was named as CPY500, CPY1000 & CPY1500
respectively.

Figure: 4.4.4Honge Bio-Diesel with Clove Oil & Pg

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

4.5 CLEVELAND OPEN CUP FLASH AND FIRE TEST

The Cleveland open-cup strategy is thought about one in everything about vital
systems in science for recognizing the glimmer part of an oil based commodity the use of a
Cleveland open-cup device, furthermore alluded to as a Cleveland open-cup analyzer. To
begin with, the check cup of the contraption (for the most part metal) is packed to an over the
top pleasant stage with a piece of the item. At that point, the temperature of this synthetic is
broadened quickly and afterward at a steady, regular expense since it procedures the
hypothetical blaze issue. The development in temperature will rationale the substance to start
to create combustible vapor in developing segments and thickness. The base temperature at
which a little check fire ignoring the floor of the fluid reasons the vapor to light is
contemplated the concoction's blaze segment. Figure 4.4 demonstrates the Cleveland open
cup hardware. This hardware can likewise be utilized to decide the compound's hearth trouble
that is contemplated to had been come to while the utility of the test fire delivers as a base 5
relentless seconds of start. Temperature assortment of this machine is 100 twenty five° to
250°C as proposes in demonstrated four.Five.

Figure: 4.5 Cleveland Open Cup Apparatus

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

4.6 REDWOOD VISCOMETER


Those viscometers are intended for thickness tests of oil based commodities.
They assert to necessities of IP 70. Adaption of ruby wood viscometer are accessible No. 1
for fluids having red wood float 20 seconds to 2000 seconds and No. II for drinks whose
oblige the stream time surpasses 2000 seconds. The whole outfit comprises of hardened steel
tub with electric warming game plan fitting to perform at 220 Volts AC Mains with tap, silver
plated oil cup with exactness chrome steel fly, cup spread, ball valve, and thermometer-cut.
Stirrer and M.S. Sheet remain with leveling fastens as recommends choose in decide 4.6.

Main Features

 Electrically Heated with the Energy Regulatoring controlling.


 Gas is heated with a gas burner
 Electrically Heated Model with a Voltage warier
 Electronic digital indicator and controller & FHP motor stirrer

Figure: 4.6 Redwood Viscometer

4.7BOMB CALORIMETER
A bomb calorimeter is a type of
regular amount calorimeter connected in estimating
the glow of ignition of a particular response. Bomb
calorimeters should oppose the huge strain inside the
calorimeter on the grounds that the response is being
estimated. Electrical power is utilized to touch off the
gas; on the grounds that the fuel is consuming, it'll
warmth up the encompassing air, which extends and escapes through a cylinder that leads the
let some circulation into of the calorimeter. At the point when the air is getting away through
the copper tube it'll in addition warmth up the water outside the cylinder. The trade in
temperature of the water grants for ascertaining calorie content material of the fuel as shows
in decide four.7.

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Figure: 4.7 Bomb Calorimeter

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

4.8 ENGINE EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Engine setup which includes four-stroke, a single cylinder engine and it's far linked
to eddy current to start engine loading. This setup has stand-by myself form of independent
panel discipline which includes virtual tachometer, virtual thermometer, air problem, gasoline
tank, manometer and gas measuring device. at Engine jacket has water cooling inlet and
outlet, calorimeter, temperature price is a displayed on temperature indicator in the setup.
Rotameters are furnished for cooling cause and calorimeter is used to glide size. The engine
setup permits to study of engine collectively with follows brake power, bmep, brake thermal
overall performance, volumetric overall performance, particular gasoline consumption, l ratio
of air gas ratio and warmth balance. It is furnished to Engine widespread overall performance
assessment with MS Excel software. Assessment as indicates in determine four.8.

ASTM PROCEDURE:

 Ensure that all the nut electrical discharges, dynamometer, propeller shaft, base casing
are appropriately fixed.

 Ensure that adequate oil is available in the motor sump tank. This can be checked by
stamping on the level stick (Use SAE20W40 or comparable make any organization
showcase accessible).

 Ensure adequate fuel in fuel tank. Expel air in fuel line, assuming any.

 Switch on electric supply and guarantee that RPM Marker, Burden pointer,
Temperature Pointer are exchanged on.

 Start water siphon. Change the stream rate of "Rotameter (Motor)" to 200-300 LPH
and "Rotameter (Calorimeter)" to 75-100 LPH by controlling particular globe valves
gave at the rotameter channel. Guarantee that water is coursing through dynamometer
at a weight of @ 1 to 2.5 Kg/cm2.

 Keep the dynamometer Stacking Wheel at least position.

 Start the motor by hand turning and enable it to keep running at lingering condition
for 4-5 minutes.

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

 Adjust dynamometer Stacking Haggle set 0 kg burden on Burden Pointer. Sit tight for
3 mins. Guarantee that heap is consistent/Temperature is relentless state during this
period. Change the Fuel chicken position from "Tank" to "Estimating".

 Note the time required for 20 ml fuel in seconds by utilizing stopwatch. Divert fuel
chicken from "Estimating" to "Tank".

 Note all temperatures, load, speed, manometer perusing and Rotameter stream rates.

 Repeat perceptions for different burdens for example 4, 8 &12 kg.

 After completing every one of the perceptions decline the heap on the motor by
dynamometer Stacking Wheel stop the motor by squeezing motor stop switch. Enable
the water to flow for around 5 minutes for motor cooling and afterward stop the
siphon.

 Fill up the perceptions in forbidden section and ascertain required parameter and
execution plots.

APPARATUS USED:

Components Details
Engine Build Kirloskar, Model Television one, Type Single
cylinder, four stroke Diesel, H2O cooled, power 5.2 Killo
Watt (7 BHP) at 1500 revolution per minute, stroke 110
mm, bore dia. 87.5 mm. compression ratio 17.5:1, capacity
661 cubic centimeter.
Dynamo- meter Build Technomech, Pune, Model TM15, Type Hydraulic
with instruction manual
Propeller- shaft Formulate Hindustan Hardy Spicer, Model no. 1260, kind
A
Mano –meter Formulte Apex, Model no.MX-104, Range of 100-0-100
mm, Type U tube, Conn. 1/4`` BSP hose back side,
Mounting panel
Fuel measuring device Formulate Apex, Glass, Model no. FF0.012
Temperature- sensor Formulate Radix Type K, Ungrounded, Sheath
Dia.6mmX110mmL, SS316, Connection 1/4"BSP (M)
adjustable compression fitting

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Temperature- indicator Formulate ESD, Model ESD 9043, 6 channel, Input


thermocouple, K type, Range of 0-1000 Deg C
Speed indicator Formulate Selectron, Model RC100A, Range of 6000,
Input Photoelectric sensor M18 x 80, NPN (5-30-volt DC)
Load- sensor Formulate Sensotronics-Sanmar Ltd., Model 60001, kind S
beam, Universal, Capacity 0-50 kg
Load -indicator Build ABUS, model no.SV8-DC10 series, 85 to 270VAC,
i/p 0-50mVDC, retransmission o/p 4-20 mA, Sensor
provide 12/24VDC
Rotameter -Type 1 Model PG 5, Range 25-250 lph, Connection ½” BSP
vertical, screwed, Packing neoprene (for calorimeter)
Rotameter -Type 2 Build Eureka Model no. PG 6, Range 40-400 lph,
Connection ¾” BSP vertical, screwed, Packing neoprene
(for Engine)
Pump Build Kirloskar, Model no.Mini 18S, HP 0.5, Size 1” x 1”,
One phase 230 Voltage Alternate current.

Figure: 4.8 Engine experimental setu

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Experimental Engine

Figure: 4.8.1Experimental Engine

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

SYSTEM CONSTANT:

Orifice diameter (m) = 0.02


Dynamometer arm length (m) = 0.2
Coefficient of discharge for orifice, Cd = 0.6
Ambient temperature (0C) = 30
Fuel density (kg/m3) = 830
Cylinder diameter (m), D = 0.0875
Stroke (m), L = 0.11
Number of cylinders = 1
Number of revolution / cycles = 2
Sp. heat of exhausting (kJ/kg0K) = 1.1
Fuel calorific value (kJ/kg) = 42000
Air density (kg/m3) = 1.16

FORMULAE:

Brake power (kW):

2 πNT
BP =
60 × 1000
2 πN (W × R)
=
60000
0.785× RPM × ( W ×9.82 ) × armlength
=
60000

Brake mean effective pressure (bar):

BP ×60
BMEP = π N
4
× D2× L ×
n ( )
× No. ofcyl × 100
n = 2 for 4 strokes
n = 1 for 2 strokes

Fuel flow (kg/h):

10 × S × 3600
=
1000 ×t

Brake sp. fuel consumption (kg/kWh):

Fuelfloeinkg/h
BSFC =
BP

Brake thermal efficiency (%):


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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

BP∗3600∗10 0
BTE = kg
Fuelflowin ×cal . val .
h

Air flow (kg/h):

Air flow = C d ×
π
4 √ ρ
( )
× d 2 × 2 gh × w × 3600× ρair
ρ air

Volumetric efficiency:

Airflow ×100
Vol. Eff =
Theoreticalairflow

Airflow ×100
= π N
4
× D 2 × stroke× ( )
n
×60 × No . ofcyl × ρw

Air fuel ratio:

Airflow
A/F =
Fuelflow

ENGINE SPECIFICATION:

Table: 4.8 Shows Engine Specifications

Table: 4.8 Engine Specifications

Engine Specification
No. of cylinders 1
No. of stokes 4
Fuel H.S Diesel
Rated power 5.2 Killo watt
Rated speed 1500 Revulution per minute
Cylinder diameter 87.5mili meter
Stroke length 110mili meter
Compression ratio 17.5:1

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

4.9 EMISSION TEST


An emission screening cycle, it is a protocol and it accommodate in an emission
general to permit new release and parallel measurement of exhaust emissions for one-of-a-
kind vehicles. Vehicle is operated while cycles specify the specific situations below which the
engine sooner or later of the emission check. There are numerous methods to test series
issued by means of the usage of diverse national and international governments and operating
organizations. Particular parameters in a test cycle, itincludes a variety of pace, load and
working temperature. Theoritically those are particular as to mainly and nearly represents the
variety of situations underneath which ther engine may be operated in actual use. Due to the
fact it's far unrealistic to check an engine or vehicle below each practicable aggregate of pace,
load, and temperature, this could no longer literally be the case. Car and engine producers
may capitalize the restricted range of take a look at new release situations within the cycle via
the usage of programming their engine management systems to control emissions to regulated
ranges on the suitable test factors contained in the cycle, but generate a splendid deal more
pollution under situations completed in real operation but now not represented in the check
technology. The ones consequences in real emissions higher than the requirements are
imagined to allow, reduces the necessities and public health as shows in figure 4.9.

ASTM PROCEDURE:

heat up time: 7min.

Operating- temperature: 5 to 45OC

Relative- Humidity :< 95 percentage

Interface: RS232C, pickup, oil- temperature probe.

Figure: 4.9 AVL Gas Analyzer

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

4.9.1 SMOKEMETER TEST


Smoke capacity units degree the optical homes of diesel smoke, introducing a
slanted method to quantify diesel particulate discharges. There are organizations of units:
darkness meters, which assess smoke in fumes gases, and smoke assortment meters, which
optically check the sediment assembled in paper channels. Connections were progressed to
evaluate PM mass outflows essentially dependent on obscurity estimate.Second-generation
opacity meters based totally absolutely actually at the diffusion of laser mild are masses extra
sensitive and appear promising for utility to extra moderen engines with an lousy lot lower
particle emissions. Diesel Exhaust Smoke meters, additionally known as opacity meters,
discover and measure the quantity of moderate blocked in a pattern of smoke emitted through
diesel engines from automobiles, cars, ships, buses, motorcycles, locomotives and massive
stacks from commercial operations. The smoke meter readout shows the smoke density
giving a diploma of the performance of combustion. This makes the smoke meter an terrific
diagnostic device to make certain proper protection of diesel engines for stepped forward fuel
financial system and protection of the surroundings.

Partial drift non-stop gasoline sampling blended with a heated and temperature-
controlled smoke chamber compensates for adjustments in strain and check situations to
provide you the most accurate readings possible.

All cutting-edge Diesel Exhaust Smoke Meters need to diploma diesel emissions
(darkish smoke) in Opacity (N) and/or Smoke Density (ok) in line with SAEJ1667.

There become quite some misconception approximately the Diesel Exhaust


monitoring and size in recent times all constant with the sector's requirement to lessen CO2
emissions.This is why the government introduced a by way of manner of-regulation-model
for adoption via the one of a kind municipalities in SA as an smooth manual as indicates
indicates in figure 4.9.1.

Figure: 4.9.1 Smoke Meter

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


5.1 FUEL PROPERTIES
The oil properties correspond to the bio-diesel blends as for ASTM procedures
of finding out Fire & Flash point, Density, Viscosity& Calorific values are shows in the table
5.1.

Table: 5.1 Properties of fuel


Proper Diesel BS BS BS BS TO TO TO CP CP CP
ty 10 50 1000 1500 500 1000 1500 Y Y Y
0 0 500 1000 1500
Flash 65 17 18 175 168 175 178 178 175 177 180
point 8 5
(˚C)
Fire 59 18 19 185 178 185 188 185 183 186 191
point((̊C 8 5
)
Density 845 79 78 820 829 796 814 795 824 816 841
(kg/m³) 0 4
Viscosit 2.5*e- 3.5 3.5 3.70 3.74* 3.72* 3.68* 3.79 3.59 3.67 3.58
y 6 6* 3* *e-6 e-6 e-6 e-6 *e-6 *e-6 *e-6 *e-6
(m²/s) e-6 e-6
Calorifi 42.04 35. 33. 33.5 33.67 32.41 32.36 32.5 34.2 34.1 34.8
c value 36 51 3 6 3 1 9
(MJ/kg
)

5.2 ENGINE TEST DETAILS


Table:5.2 shows the different values of engine performance encountered in IC engine.
SL. SAMPLES LOAD BP BMEP BSFC BTE VOL.ῆ AIR
NO (%) (KW) (bar) (KW) (%) (%) FUEL
RATIO
1. DIESEL 0 0 0 0 0 81.58 36.83
25 1.29 0.742 0.687 12.4 80.57 24.03
50 2.54 1.488 0.455 4 78.94 17.74
75 3.72 2.231 0.387 18.7 77.65 13.68
[DIESEL] 9
22.0
9
2. PURE HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 81.07 31.82
BIODIESEL 25 1.29 0.741 0.638 15.9 81.44 26.21
50 2.51 1.492 0.484 5 81.16 17.05
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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

75 3.72 2.233 0.421 20.9 79.29 13.51


[B100] 5
24.1
4
3. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 84.86 32.93
BIODIESEL+B 25 1.28 0.740 0.695 15.4 82.45 24.39
LACK SEED 50 2.52 1.481 0.512 5 79.54 15.89
OIL(500ppm) 75 3.72 2.232 0.454 20.9 79.83 11.99
5
[BS500] 23.6
5
4. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 86.53 37.67
BIODIESEL+B 25 1.28 0.743 0.704 15.2 86.57 25.16
LACK SEED 50 2.53 1.491 0.530 3 84.99 17.06
OIL(1000ppm) 75 3.71 2.234 0.522 21.0 80.10 10.45
[ 2
BS1000] 22.5
5

5. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 85.26 36.24


BIODIESEL+ 25 1.29 0.744 0.680 15.7 85.96 25.85
BLACK SEED 50 2.51 1.491 0.514 0 81.10 16.10
OIL (1500ppm) 75 3.73 2.236 0.452 20.7 79.73 11.99
[BS1 7
500] 23.6
1
6. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 84.60 37.09
BIODIESEL+T 25 1.28 0.740 0.676 16.4 85.83 26.06
URMERIC 50 2.54 1.489 0.518 0 85.51 16.86
OIL (500ppm) 75 3.71 2.236 0.467 21.4 80.69 11.76
1
[ TO500] 23.7
7
7. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 84.60 35.02
BIODIESEL+ 25 1.28 0.741 0.804 13.8 86.35 22.06
TURMERIC 50 2.52 1.488 0.512 3 85.15 17.16
OIL (1000ppm) 75 3.73 2.237 0.441 21.7 80.32 12.38
0
[ TO1000] 24.1
9
8. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 86.66 38.19
BIODIESEL+ 25 1.29 0.745 0.709 15.5 86.59 24.96
TURMERIC 50 2.52 1.490 0.512 9 82.38 16.40
OIL (1500ppm) 75 3.71 2.237 0.467 21.5 81.29 11.84
7
[ TO1500] 23.6
6
9. HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 81.05 36.22
BIODIESEL+ 25 1.28 0.742 0.635 16.5 82.66 26.69

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

CLOVE OIL + 50 2.51 1.491 0.504 5 83.66 16.93


Pg(500ppm) 75 3.71 2.237 0.467 20.8 83.91 12.22
3
[CPY500] 22.5
0
10 HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 83.32 37.24
BIODIESEL+ 25 1.28 0.744 0.695 15.1 82.87 24.39
CLOVE OIL + 50 2.53 1.491 0.520 8 81.50 15.98
Pg (1000ppm) 75 3.72 2.237 0.478 20.2 81.06 11.53
6
[CPY1000] 22.0
5
11 HONGE 0 0 0 0 0 84.39 37.44
BIODIESEL+ 25 1.27 0.746 0.797 12.9 83.28 21.31
CLOVE OIL + 50 2.52 1.492 0.512 3 82.89 16.51
Pg (1500ppm) 75 3.71 2.237 0.386 20.1 80.74 14.24
3
[CPY1500] 24.9
8

5.2.1 LOAD V/S CO

From the table 5.2.1, it has observed that the adding of the additives affects the CO
emission of the engine. As Clove Oil + Pg improvise the oxidization properties the blends
prepared out of basil additive is showing a lower CO emission.

load Diese B10 TO50 TO100 TO150 BS50 BS100 BS150 CPY50 CPY100 CPY150
l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03
25 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01
50 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0
75 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01

Table 5.2.1 Load v/s CO

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

0.04
0.03

CO ( % Vol)
0.03
0.02 Diesel
0.02 B100
0.01 TO500
0.01 TO1000
0 TO1500
0 25 50 75
Load (%)

0.04
0.03
0.03
CO ( % Vol)

0.02 Diesel
0.02 B100
0.01 BS500
0.01 BS1000
BS1500
0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

0.04
0.03
CO ( % Vol)

0.03
0.02 Diesel
0.02 B100
0.01 CPY500
0.01 CPY1000
0 CPY1500
0 25 50 75
Load (%)

Figure 5.2.1: Load v/s CO

Figure 5.2.1 shows version of CO emission at distinct engine loads and with
exceptional fuels and additives. From the figure, it's miles found that the version in CO
emission is low at low loads. However, the version is full-size at higher hundreds because of
consumption of huge amount of fuel. The diesel gasoline consequences in better CO emission
in comparison to biodiesel. The biodiesel is brought with components because of in
decreasing CO emission.

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

5.2.2LOAD V/S HYDROCARBONS (HC’s)

From the table5.2.2, it has observed that the adding of additive affects the HC’s
emission of the engine. The HC’S emission could find lower in the addition of black seed and
clove oil + PG additive to the biodiesel.

load Diese B10 TO50 TO100 TO150 BS50 BS100 BS150 CPY50 CPY100 CPY150
l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 3 2 5 6 5 0 6 1 2 7
25 1 10 1 6 7 1 1 1 0 2 2
50 1 8 3 6 6 1 1 2 1 4 3
75 2 11 1 1 7 5 7 6 7 6 4

Table 5.2.2: Load v/s HC

12

10

8
HC (ppm)

Diesel
6
B100
TO500
4
TO1000
2 TO1500

0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

12

10

8
HC (ppm)

Diesel
6
B100
4 BS500
BS1000
2 BS1500

0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

12

10

HC (ppm)
Diesel
6
B100
CPY500
4
CPY1000
2 CPY1500

0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

Figure: 5.2.2 Load v/s HC’s

Figure 5.2.2 shows variation of HC’s emission at different engine loads and with
different fuels and additives. From the figure, it is observed that the variation in HC’s
emission is low at low loads. However, the variation is significant at higher loads due to
consumption of large amount of fuel. The diesel fuel results in higher HC’s emission as
compared to biodiesel.The biodiesel is added with additives due to in lower HC’s emission.

5.2.3LOAD V/S NOx

load Diese B10 TO50 TO100 TO150 BS50 BS100 BS150 CPY50 CPY100 CPY150
l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 113 98 87 68 81 88 71 91 87 85 73
25 168 169 159 167 185 189 174 178 126 179 158
50 274 234 213 219 270 289 237 214 271 273 240
75 300 297 273 304 300 391 368 368 289 306 283
From the table 5.2.3, it has observed that the adding of additives affects the nox
emission of the engine. As the clove oil + Pg and Turmeric oil added to the biodiesel
increases then the reduction in NOx constantly takes place.

Table5.2.3: Load v/s NOx

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Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

350
300
250

NOx (ppm)
200 Diesel
150 B100
100 TO500
50 TO1000
0 TO1500
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

450
400
350
NOx (ppm)

300
250 Diesel
200 B100
150 BS500
100
50 BS1000
0 BS1500
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

350
300
250
NOx (ppm)

200 Diesel
150 B100
100 CPY500
50 CPY1000
CPY1500
0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

Figure: 5.2.3 Load v/s NOx

Figure 5.2.3 shows variation of NOx emission at different engine loads and with
different fuels and additives. From the figure, it is observed that the variation in NOx
emission is low at low loads. However, the variation is significant at higher loads due to
consumption of large amount of fuel. The diesel fuel results in higher NO X emission as
compared to biodiesel.The biodiesel is added with additives due to in lower NOX emission.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Bengaluru 38


Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

5.2.4LOAD V/S CO2

From the table 5.2.4, it has observed that the adding of a additives which affects
the CO2 emission of engine. As the higher amount of clove oil +and black, turmeric oil added
to the biodiesel increases, and then the reduction of carbon dioxide content in air takes place.

loa Diesel B10 TO50 TO100 TO150 BS50 BS100 BS150 CPY50 CPY100 CPY150
d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1
25 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.4 1 1.4 1.2
50 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.6 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.45
75 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.6 2.1 2 1.9 1.8 2 1.6

Table 5.2.4: Load v/s CO2

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
Co2 ( % Vol)

1 diesel
0.8 B100
0.6 TO500
0.4 TO1000
0.2 TO1500
0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

2.5

2
Co2 ( % Vol)

1.5
diesel
B100
1
BS500
BS1000
0.5
BS1500
0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Bengaluru 39


Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

2.5

Co2 ( % Vol)
1.5
diesel
B100
1 CPY500
CPY1000
0.5 CPY1500

0
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

Figure: 5.2.4 Load v/s CO2

Figure 5.2.4shows variation of CO2 emission at different engine loads and with
different fuels and additives. From the figure, it is observed that the variation in CO2
emission is low at low loads. However, the variation is significant at higher loads due to
consumption of large amount of fuel. The diesel fuel results in higher O 2 emission as
compared to biodiesel.The biodiesel is added with additives due to in lower O2 emission.

5.2.5 LOAD V/S O2

From the table 5.2.5, it has observed that the adding of a additive affects the O2
emission of the engine. As the natural oxidants added as additive to the biodiesel, the
maximum amount of black seed and clove oil + Pg additive blends are giving maximum
oxygen content in the emissions over the conventional diesel used for engine performance.

loa Diese B10 TO50 TO100 TO150 BS50 BS100 BS150 CPY500 CPY100 CPY150
d l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 19.32 19.3 19.33 19.64 19.63 19.35 19.65 19.32 19.49 19.47 19.4
9
25 19.26 19.0 19.35 19.26 19.22 18.36 19.35 19.16 19.2 19.49 19.2
8
50 19.07 19.1 19.36 19.45 19.16 18.63 19.46 19.38 19.2 19.84 19.06
1
75 18.65 18.8 18.93 19.98 19.11 18.05 18.5 18.54 18.87 19.11 18.96
9

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Bengaluru 40


Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

Table 5.2.5: LOAD V/S O2


20.5
20
19.5

O2 ( % Vol)
19 Diesel
B100
18.5
TO500
18 TO1000
17.5 TO1500
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

20
19.5
19
O2 ( % Vol)

Diesel
18.5
B100
18 BS500
17.5 BS1000
17 BS1500
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

20
19.8
19.6
19.4
O2 ( % Vol)

19.2 Diesel
19
18.8 B100
18.6 CPY500
18.4 CPY1000
18.2
CPY1500
18
0 25 50 75

Load (%)

Figure.5.2.5 Load v/s O2

Figure 5.2.5 shows varying of O2 emission at different engine loads and with
different fuels and additives. it is observed that the variation in O 2 emission is low at low
loads. However, the variation is significant at higher loads due to consumption of large
amount of fuel. The diesel fuel results in higher O2 emission as compared to bio-diesel.The
biodiesel is added with additives due to in lower O2 emission.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Bengaluru 41


Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

CONCLUSIONS
The biodiesel is a renewable alternative to the fossil diesel as the properties of
the bio-diesel is like to the fossil diesel. However, the bio-diesel have lower volatility and has
lower oxidation stability. Hence, in this work we have chosen the Black seedoil, clove oil +
Pg and turmeric oil as a natural additive for the honge biodiesel. Anti-oxidative properties
and stability of ethanolic extracts of Black seed oil, clove oil + Pg and turmeric oil is studied.
Along with that constituent’s black seed,turmeric oil and clove oil+ accounting a 90% of
essential oil content which preferred as additive to the biodiesel. Also, we calculated the
effect of these additives on the fuel properties of the bio-diesel and its impact on compression
ignition thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. The additive concentration ratio of binary
anti-oxidants is the key factor to get best synergy for greatest stabilization. In an engine,
temperature has reaction completeness is the most critical fuel quality parameter as well as
engines’ durability and reliability. By adding natural additives to the biodiesel, as the amount
of concentration increases it led to reduction in hazardous emissions through engine exhaust
like NOx, CO2, HC’s, CO decreases. But the O2 content increases in a engine exhaust. All
these emissions are as compared with conventional diesel which gives the best results for
lowering the environmental pollution.As the proper qualities of biodiesel blends met by
adding these naturally available additives, these biodiesel blends can be used in most modern
engines.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagarjuna College of Engineering and Technology, Bengaluru 42


Consequence of Additives on the Performance of a Bio-diesel fuel Diesel Engine 2019

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