Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

TOEFL ITP PREP COURSE

LESSON 07

Purpose &
Inference

Teachers Brenda Tonetto, Douglas Freitas and


Rovena Naumann
Purpose and Inference
The TOEFL test will include certain questions

testing your ability to read between the lines

of a text and pick out more understated

information from the passage.

(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)


Purpose
These questions will test your ability to understand why a

certain idea or argument has been used in the text. They will

ask you to draw conclusions about information that has been

stated in the passage.

"Why does the author mention X?"


The author mentions (X) for which of the following
reasons?
(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)
Purpose
To answer this type of question, you need to understand the main point

of the paragraph and how the referenced information is related to the

main point of the paragraph.

Let's take a look at the following example. First, let's read the question.

Then, let's reread the paragraph until we come across the place where

the author mentions the subject of the question.

(Adapted from: https://www.bestmytest.com/blog/toefl/toefl-reading-question-type-rhetorical-purpose-question)


Purpose

(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)


Purpose

(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)


Purpose
1) Read the question carefully and understand what you are being asked.

2) Make sure you understand the whole paragraph, consider the big

picture .   The question can be related to the big picture of what the

paragraph is trying to present.

3) Look for transition words.

4) If you're not sure about the answer, use the process of elimination.

(Adapted from: https://www.bestmytest.com/blog/toefl/toefl-reading-question-type-rhetorical-purpose-question)


Purpose
Do exercise 1 from handout
Inference
An inference is a conclusion you draw based on evidence.

It's not a blind guess—it's using what you read to come to a

logical conclusion.

For example, if you read: "The boy used sign language to

talk to his teachers," you can infer that either the boy or his

teachers are deaf.

(Adapted from: https://pt-br.verbling.com/articles/post/master-the-inference-questions-on-the-toefl-ibt-reading-561d51f4f069d8fe38cebba3)


Inference
This section of the exam will test your ability to understand the

reading passage as a whole and all the concepts within it. Like

in Purpose questions, you will need to recognize the underlying

meanings of a paragraph or idea.

"Which of the following can be inferred about...?"


"The author implies that ..."
"It can be inferred from the passage that ..."

(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)


Inference
Let's take a look at the following example. First, let's read

the question. Then, let's reread the paragraph until we come

across the place where the author mentions the subject of

the question.
Inference

(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)


Inference

(Adapted from: https://global-exam.com/en/blog/toefl-ibt/tips-skills/purpose-inference-questions)


Inference
EXTRA EXAMPLE

Let's carefully take a look at the following example. First,

let's read the question. Then, let's reread the paragraph until

we come across the place where the author mentions the

subject of the question.

(Adapted from: https://pt-br.verbling.com/articles/post/master-the-inference-questions-on-the-toefl-ibt-reading-561d51f4f069d8fe38cebba3)


"In 1914, Henry Ford introduced the assembly line to produce automobiles.

An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added as

the semi-finished product moves from workstation to workstation, where

parts are added in sequence until the project is complete. The assembly

line had a revolutionary impact on society. It allowed for a fast and

continuous flow of work that cut production time for an entire automobile

from 12 hours to 93 minutes. This change allowed Ford to increase his

profit margin and lower the cost of the vehicle to consumers. The cost of

the Model T, Ford's innovative automobile, would eventually drop to $260,

the equivalent of approximately $3,500 today. Suddenly, owning an

automobile went from being a luxury of the rich to being affordable for

the average family."

(Adapted from: https://pt-br.verbling.com/articles/post/master-the-inference-questions-on-the-toefl-ibt-reading-561d51f4f069d8fe38cebba3)


Inference
EXTRA EXAMPLE

1. It can be inferred from the passage that before 1914:


A) Nobody owned an automobile

B) Henry Ford had not yet thought of the assembly line

C) Automobiles were mostly owned by the wealthy

D) The assembly line was introduced as a process with workstations to

speed up production

(Adapted from: https://pt-br.verbling.com/articles/post/master-the-inference-questions-on-the-toefl-ibt-reading-561d51f4f069d8fe38cebba3)


Inference
THE ANSWER IS INCORRECT IF

It is beyond the scope of the information in the passage. You can't


really make this inference based only on the passage, it goes too far. You

must be able to show a friend where you found your answer.

It could be true. It means the answer gives you something that is possible,
but you can't infer it from the information in the passage alone. For

instance, we can't infer the boy in the previous example goes to a special

school for deaf children.

(Adapted from: https://pt-br.verbling.com/articles/post/master-the-inference-questions-on-the-toefl-ibt-reading-561d51f4f069d8fe38cebba3)


Inference
THE ANSWER IS INCORRECT IF

It only repeats words from the passage but doesn't answer the
question. These answers look appealing because they contain technical
words that you saw in the passage. But, if you read them carefully, they

aren't correct!

It contains extreme language (usually). Some words such as always,


never, etc. are used as traps. Also, be careful of extreme phrases such as

"this is the only (x)," or "this is the limit of (y)," and so on. These answers

are sometimes correct but only if the passage supports them.

(Adapted from: https://pt-br.verbling.com/articles/post/master-the-inference-questions-on-the-toefl-ibt-reading-561d51f4f069d8fe38cebba3)


Inference
Do exercise 2 from handout