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classroom, an open-

ended problem, and

a what-how-who

structure can build

students’ reasoning

skills and allow

teachers to recognize

all classroom

contributions.

Kelley Buchheister,

Christa Jackson, and

Cynthia E. Taylor

What, How,

202 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019

FOCUS ISSUE

numbers and letters in four rectangles

(see fig. 1). They point to differ-

ent areas, share what they notice,

and—without prompting from their

seventh-grade teacher, Ms. Boyana—

make conjectures about what their

observations mean.

numbers. All the others have

letters and numbers.

Jamea: Maybe it means there is just

one. But, there is a 1 next to the

N in the other square.

Kyra: Maybe because it has other

letters and numbers in it?

Jamea: Maybe Q means “questions”

because we do questions in here

and P means “people.” Do we

have 25 people?

Who:

Kyra: [Counting] No, we only have 19.

Jamea: Maybe it’s days for D and

nights for N. Like one of these is

2 days and 1 night and another one

is 6 nights.

Developing

Kyra: But that doesn’t make sense.

Q doesn’t fit. What other things

start with Q? Queen? Quiz?

Jamea: Wait! Quarter? A quarter is

25 cents! But, that doesn’t fit.

Discourse There’s no C.

Kyra: [Takes the paper] Cents are

pennies, so maybe the P is pennies.

Do you think the other ones are

money, too?

Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 203

Copyright © 2019 The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. www.nctm.org.

All rights reserved. This material may not be copied or distributed electronically or in any other format without written permission from NCTM.

Fig. 1 Students were asked to analyze to share ideas, clarify understandings, the what-how-who structure while

these numbers and letters in the first develop convincing arguments, and giving students opportunities to make

“What Do You Notice?” task. advance the mathematical learning of sense of mathematical ideas within a

the entire class” (Smith, Steele, and social context.

2D

Raith 2017, p. 123). In other words,

teachers must carefully consider what WHAT TASKS STIMULATE

Q tasks provide meaningful opportuni- MEANINGFUL DISCOURSE?

1N ties to explore ideas, generate hypoth-

eses, and promote questions within

One of the greatest contributions to

students’ opportunity to learn is the

a collaborative environment. Then, selection of tasks (Lappan and Briars

teachers need to consider how to struc- 1995). Mathematics teachers must

sions and incorporate responses that

analyze the standards to determine

what content to teach and identify

contribute to understanding specific which tasks embody the desired con-

mathematical objectives. Additionally, tent and skills because different tasks

teachers must select who will speak to promote different kinds of thinking

With an increased focus on using “advance the mathematical storyline (Stein et al. 2000). Thus, to provide a

social discourse to enhance students’ of the lesson” (NCTM 2014, p. 30). strong foundation for what mathemat-

mathematical thinking and reason- By intentionally focusing on these ics students will learn (Hiebert et al.

ing (NCTM 2014, Staples and King elements in mathematics instruction, 1997), it is imperative that teachers

2017), teachers are looking for discus- middle-grades teachers can develop a intentionally identify what tasks

sion strategies that encourage middle- classroom culture that not only em- (a) provide relevant connections to

IMAGE ON PREVIOUS PAGE BY STÍGUR MÁR KARLSSON /HEIMSMYNDIR, GETTY IMAGES; CLASS, MONKEYBUSINESSIMAGES, ISTOCK / GETTY IMAGES PLUS

level students to make sense of mathe- phasizes sense making but also values students’ funds of knowledge,

matical concepts. However, structuring the intellectual capacity that students (b) stimulate meaningful opportunities

these valuable discussions is complex. bring to the classroom (Gutiérrez to explore mathematical situations,

“Mathematical discourse should build 2013; Lemons-Smith 2008). In this (c) encourage students to generate

on and honor student thinking, and article, we describe how teachers can questions, and (d) promote sense mak-

provide students with opportunities promote meaningful discussions using ing through collaborative discussions.

An open-ended task, such as “What

Do You Notice?” discussed in the

opening vignette, is a logical format for

removing barriers (Sullivan 2003). By

providing multiple entry points, each

and every student can gain access to

and engage in discussions of math-

ematical content. The task, adapted

from Danielson’s (2016) book Which

One Doesn’t Belong? prompts students

to investigate the similarities and dif-

ferences among each representation

and discuss their observations in a so-

cial context. For example, after making

several observations and hypotheses to

make sense of the letters and numbers,

Kyra and Jamea concluded that the

initials related to money: Q repre-

sented quarters, P symbolized pennies,

and the N and D represented nickels

and dimes. Finding this connection

204 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019

FOCUS ISSUE

Fig. 2 In this second “What Do You variables represent quantities; and to HOW DO WE STRUCTURE

Notice?” task, only numbers appeared. solve simple equations (CCSSI 2010). TASKS TO ENCOURAGE

This example can also be extended DISCOURSE?

into problem-solving explorations The variable nature of open-ended

that can last the entire class period. tasks can stimulate mathematical

9 16 “What Do You Notice?” can be

extended to (a) justify an “imposter”

conversations and allow students

to negotiate a shared meaning and

by identifying which representation understanding of the mathemat-

does not belong (Danielson 2016; ics. However, it is the teacher who

Wyborney 2015) and (b) create takes an active role in purposefully

new problems containing multiple facilitating activities to promote social

25 43 “imposters.” When Boyana inte-

grated an extension with her seventh

discourse. Applying the “wonder”

component to open-ended problems

graders using the numbers-only task like “What Do You Notice?” serves

(see fig. 2), new conversations and as a pedagogical strategy. It can pique

mathematical discussions emerged. students’ curiosity and encourage new

prompted the students to generate Students discovered that there could questions and inquiries as students

additional observations: “All the coins be multiple reasons why different make sense of representations with-

make 25 cents except this one; it’s numbers did not belong. During out risk of failure. For example, when

30” (i.e., 6N represented 6 nickels, or small-group discussions, she encour- Boyana gave her students figure 2,

$0.30), “the quarter is the one that aged continuing investigations, such she overheard them ask their partners:

makes 25 cents with the least number as identifying how each number “Are these numbers supposed to all fit

of coins,” and “6 nickels is the only one could be the “imposter,” which then together?” “I wonder why they are all

with an even number of coins and an generated additional questions refer- together. Do they follow a pattern?”

even number of cents.” Not all students ring to mathematical relationships She then asked her students to take

identified that the letters represented (e.g., “Does 25 not fit because it’s the two to three minutes to examine the

coins and their values. Some students only number that can be represented four numbers closely and write down

speculated that the letters were ab- with a single coin?” “Is it because 25 as many observations as they could.

breviations, whereas others argued that is the only number in the set that is a Once time was up, she asked the stu-

they were variables. Some students factor of 100?”). Structuring class- dents to turn and share with a part-

also noted the lack of numbers in the room activities using open-ended ner. Some students noticed that 9 was

Q frame or noticed the color of the tasks provides a flexible foundation the only single-digit number and the

coins—“pennies are the only [coins] that can positively contribute to only number with digits not totaling

that are not silver.” developing discussions that enhance 7. They also noticed that 16 was the

Such open-ended tasks not only students’ mathematical reasoning. only even number. As students shared

provide access for a diverse group of their observations, they clarified their

students to engage in conversation thinking and generated questions to

but also offer flexibility to teachers to negotiate meaning of the mathematics

adapt them to a range of mathematical Teachers must embedded in the task.

concepts, such as number sense (see consider what tasks Presenting tasks by first asking

fig. 2) and geometry, and use them at provide meaningful students to make individual observa-

different times. Implementing a task tions allows them time to make sense

during the initial phase of a lesson

opportunities to of the representations. Following

can also serve as a formative assess- explore ideas, generate the individual reflection, students

ment, review, or introduction to a new hypotheses, and can discuss their observations with

concept. For example, the opening promote questions. partners or in small groups. Students

task could be used to introduce the in Boyana’s class willingly shared

differences among coefficients, ab- their observations. By first prompting

breviations, and variables; to show how students to record what they noticed

Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 205

highest levels of mathematical success observations, such as “there are four

Fig. 3 A student generated this “What

Do You Notice?” task.

(NCTM 2014). Thus, teachers must numbers and they are all different,”

be cognizant of who answers questions, allowed students to feel more com-

solves tasks, or shares mathematical fortable in the social setting because

strategies while implementing instruc- each response was valued. Boyana not

tional decisions that recognize a variety only valued students’ voices but also

of students’ contributions. empowered students by exploring

The design of the problem allows student-generated questions. As the

students to take risks because they class continued to share, one student

recognize that all contributions are noticed the equations 3 × 3 = 9,

valued and that each and every voice 4 × 4 = 16, and 5 × 5 = 25 on a peer’s

is heard. While listening to her stu- paper. She exclaimed, “I did that,

dents’ conversations during the num- too! Three squared, four squared, and

ber-only version of “What Do You five squared are all perfect squares!

Notice?” Boyana heard one student I wonder if 43 is a perfect square,

share that 16 was the age of her sister, too?” Boyana encouraged students

and another student commented that to work in small groups to explore

25 was his favorite number. At the this question. Michalla stated, “Well,

other end of the room, she overheard 6 × 6 is 36 and 7 × 7 is 49, so no.

another student wondering about the Forty-three can’t be a perfect square.”

about the numbers in the task, she relationships among the numbers as Boyana asked Stefan if he agreed with

provided a safe environment in which he noticed characteristics such as 43 Michalla’s conjecture. Stefan said yes.

students were more comfortable shar- being the only prime number and She continued to push Stefan’s think-

ing their thoughts without extensive 16 being the only even number. She ing and asked why he agreed. Stefan

KALI9/ ISTOCK

pressure on identifying a solution. asked each student to share one obser- replied, “Well, 43 is between 36 and

Approaching tasks by first mak- vation with the class. Sharing simple 49, and those numbers are perfect

ing observations, then sharing what

questions emerge encourages students

to construct mathematical knowl-

edge through social interactions with

meaningful problems.

WHO IS SPEAKING?

Such tasks as “What Do You Notice?”

allow teachers to engage students in

meaningful conversations that “develop

language to express ideas, represent

evidence, and clarify their reasoning”

(Staples and King 2017, p. 38). There-

fore, it is critical that each and every

student is given an opportunity to en-

gage in the classroom’s social discourse.

Without explicitly and purposefully

attending to whose voice is represented

in classroom conversations or valu-

ing the out-of-school knowledge that

students bring, teachers are not giving

students the support, confidence, or

opportunities necessary to reach their

206 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019

FOCUS ISSUE

task to share with the class to further by 3 because then people will

She not only encourage and validate each and every really have to wonder where we

valued students’ student’s voice. got this number.

voices but also Christy: Oooo, that sounds so good.

empowered students J. T.: Remember when all of the digits OK, so, the last number would be

added to 7? What if we make a 81.2791827135 [see fig. 3].

by exploring grid where the digits add to a Trevon: Awesome. Ms. Boyana, we

student-generated different number, like 9? are ready!

questions. Christy: OK, what numbers will

work? I like 18, 27, 63, and 90. Although this student-generated

But in the first problem, we did example demonstrated creativity us-

not have any three-digit numbers. ing single-digit multiplication, it also

What if we add 108? caused confusion because students

squares. But, you would have to square assumed the pattern followed the

a number between 6 and 7 to get 43.” The group initially decided to use the traditional multiplication algorithm.

By first identifying and sharing what numbers 5, 18, 45, and 63 but were Because the example stumped the

students noticed, and then explor- not satisfied with the task they created. entire class, Boyana chose to discuss

ing the questions students generated, Trevon commented, “This will be way this task more in depth and asked

Boyana provided valuable opportuni- too easy for them because they just did students to analyze and make sense of

ties for students to negotiate meaning the other problem.” The group finally the underlying mathematics.

as they analyzed the reasonableness decided to use pi because they thought Allowing students an opportunity

of different mathematical arguments it would be more challenging for their to create their task can elicit richer

(Staples and King 2017). peers to figure out the pattern. conversations. Developing this culture

Finally, Boyana extended the of learning enhances sense making

activity by asking students to create J. T.: So, pi is 3.14, right? and motivates each and every student

their own “What Do You Notice?” Christy: Remember, we should use to remain engaged in creative brain-

3.1415 [erases boxes and records]. storming while discussing similarities,

Trevon: OK, what if for the number differences, and relationships among

in the next box we multiply pi by the observations.

3?

Christy: No, let’s make it harder. Let’s FINAL THOUGHTS

multiply each digit by 3. “Mathematical discourse is a criti-

J.T.: I don’t get it. What do you mean cal practice through which students

each digit? develop mathematical communication

Christy: Well, if we take 3 × 3, that is and argumentation skills and

9. Then 1 × 3 is 3; 4 × 3 is 12; the ability to critique the reasoning

1 × 3 is 3; and 5 × 3 is 15. So, the of others” (Staples and King 2017,

next number would be [Christy p. 37). Boyana developed a culture of

writes and reads] 9.312315. discourse using the what-how-who

Trevon: That’s cool. So, if we take 3 structure by attending to “what” tasks

times each digit in that number she selected, “how” she structured the

Christy just said, we would get classroom conversations, and “whose”

something like 27.936945. voice was heard during the discussion.

J. T.: [Looks at Trevon’s paper] I don’t Open-ended tasks, similar to “What

see how you got 45 at the end be- Do You Notice?” allow teachers to

cause 1 × 3 is 3, and 5 × 3 is 15; so, facilitate mathematical discourse us-

shouldn’t it be 27.9369315? ing the what-how-who structure and

Trevon: No, I like it where we take the empower students to explore math-

last two digits and multiply them ematical content within a social

Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 207

FOCUS ISSUE

context. By integrating this structure Olivier, and Piet Human. 1997. Meaningful Mathematical Discourse.”

into mathematical activities, middle- Making Sense: Teaching and Learn- In Enhancing Classroom Practice with

level teachers can build a classroom ing Mathematics with Understanding. Research behind Principles to Actions,

culture that not only emphasizes sense Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. edited by Denise A. Spangler and

making but also recognizes the intel- Lappan, Glenda, and Diane Briars. Jeffrey J. Wanko, pp. 37–48. Reston,

lectual capacity that all students bring 1995. “How Should Mathematics Be VA: National Council of Teachers of

to the classroom (Gutiérrez 2013, Taught?” In Prospects for School Math- Mathematics.

Lemons-Smith 2008). ematics, edited by Iris M. Carl, Stein, Mary Kay, Margaret S. Smith,

pp. 131–56. Reston, VA: National Marjorie A. Henningsen, and Edward

REFERENCES Council of Teachers of Mathematics. A. Silver. 2000. Implementing Standards-

Common Core State Standards Initiative Lemons-Smith, Shonda. 2008. “Dr. Asa Based Mathematics Instruction: A Case-

(CCSSI). 2010. Common Core State G. Hilliard III: Trumpeter for the book for Professional Development. New

Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Academic and Cultural Excellence of York: Teachers College Press.

Washington, DC: National Governors African American Children.” Review Sullivan, Peter. 2003. “The Potential of

Association Center for Best Practices of Educational Research 78 (December): Open-Ended Mathematics Tasks for

and the Council of Chief State School 908–20. Overcoming Barriers to Learning.”

Officers. http://www.corestandards National Council of Teachers of Math- In Mathematics Education Research:

.org/wp-content/uploads/Math_ ematics (NCTM). 2014. Principles to Innovation, Networking, and Oppor-

Standards.pdf Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success tunity, edited by Leicha Bragg, Coral

Danielson, Christopher. 2016. Which One for All. Reston, VA: NCTM. Campbell, Georgina Herbert, and

Doesn’t Belong? Portland, ME: Smith, Margaret S., Michael D. Steele, and Judith Mousley. Proceedings of the

Stenhouse Publishers. Mary Lynn Raith. 2017. Taking Action: 26th Annual Conference of the Math-

Gutiérrez, Rochelle. 2013. “The Sociopo- Implementing Effective Mathematics ematics Education Research Group

litical Turn in Mathematics Educa- Teaching Practices. Reston, VA: National of Australasia, pp. 813–16. Deeakin

tion.” Journal for Research in Math- Council of Teachers of Mathematics. University, Australia: MERGA.

ematics Education 44 ( January): 37–68. Staples, Megan, and Sherryl King. 2017. Wyborney, Steve. 2015. “Steve

Hiebert, James, Thomas P. Carpenter, “Eliciting, Supporting, and Guid- Wyborney’s Blog: I’m on a Learning

Elizabeth Fennema, Karen Fuson, ing the Math: Three Key Functions Mission.” http://www.steve

Diana Wearne, Hanlie Murray, Alwyn of the Teacher’s Role in Facilitating wyborney.com/?p=169

Kelley Buchheister,

kbuchheister2@unl.edu,

Let’s Chat about Developing is an assistant professor at

Mathematical Discourse the University of Nebraska

in Lincoln. Christa

Jackson, jacksonc@

On Wednesday, January 16, 2019, iastate.edu, is an associ-

ate professor in math-

at 9:00 p.m. ET, we will expand on

ematics education at Iowa

“What, How, Who: Developing State University in Ames.

Mathematical Discourse” (pp. 202–8), Cynthia E. Taylor, cynthia.

by Kelley Buchheister, Christa Jackson, taylor@millersville.edu, is

and Cynthia E. Taylor. an associate professor at

Join us at #MTMSchat. Millersville University of

Pennsylvania. They are former classroom

Our monthly chats fall on the teachers who are interested in fostering

third Wednesday of the month. equitable classroom environments that

encourage each and every student to

engage in mathematical discourse.

208 MATHEMATICS TEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOL Vol. 24, No. 4, January/February 2019

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