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16d.

Colls Orals Preparation


1: Practical Orals Questions & AMSA orals criteria ...... 2
2: Administration . ....................................................................... 5
3: Cargo.......................................................................................... 51
4: Cargo & Securing ................................................................. 63
5: LSA & FFE & Safety & Heli ................................................ 69
6: WX ............................................................................................... 78
7: Charts & Passage Plans . ................................................... 82
8: Ship Handling......................................................................... 87
9: Radio ......................................................................................... 91
10: BRM & Watchkeeping ...................................................... 93
11:COLREGS ................................................................................ 99
12: Bridge equipment ............................................................104
13: Stability ...............................................................................111
14: Dry Dock .............................................................................123
15: Tonnages list.....................................................................126
16: Other questions................................................................127
17: Newcastle port Ship procedure ................................128

1
Practical Part of Orals:
Radar Plot (relative?) With rule 19.
RADAR PLOT
North up relative motion
Plot own vessels T.C from centre of sheet
Plot other vessels range and bearing 3 times i.e. every 3 mins (0.1 = 6min)
6 mins (0.2 =12min)
First range and bearing being O and the third A
O-A is combined speed and relative course of both vessels
Combined speed = O-A (distance NM) .
O-A (time mins/60 ie.0.2)
Extend the line O-A towards the centre of plot to find closest point of approach (90 to own T.C)
Time to CPA = A-CPA (distanceNM)
Combined speed (knots)
Plot own vessels T.C ‘away’ from O (reciprocal to T.C)
Plot own vessel distance traveled along this line for the plot time period to make W
O-W (distanceNM) = speed (own vessel) x time (plot time period i.e. 0.2)
Plot W-A, this is other vessels T.C and speed = W-A (distanceNM)
Time (plot time period)
Extend the line W-A
Draw a line from centre of plot to A
The angle between these two lines is the aspect of the other vessel (what side light of his
you will see red or green)

ALTER COURSE FOR A SAFE CPA


Determine the distance of the CPA and Draw a radius/circle from the centre of the plot
From A (Along the O-A line) towards the centre, plot the position of the A/C
A/C position (distance) = combined speed x time (mins/60)
This position becomes A1
Plot a line from A1 to the edge of the radius/circle (tangent) remember ROR side to pass
Parallel and plot this line away from A
Set the compass on the W-O distance
From W with this distance, scribe an arc along the paralleled line
This becomes W-O1
W-O1 is own vessels new T.C for the new CPA
Own vessel has to be on the new course at A1 so remember the wheel over distance for
your vessel
For the resumption of original course, position and time, parallel original O-A to the edge of CPA
radius/circle and intersect the A1-new CPA line
This point is called the point of resumption (remember wheel over distance for vessel)
Time of resumption = A1-point of resumption (distance
New combined speed
New combined speed = O1-A (distance)
Time (plot period

2
FWA / DWA questions
A vessel has a summer freeboard 1.194m
FWA 184mm
TPC 23.1
Present freeboard 1.308
Tropical marks are 178mm above the Summer load line
It is required to load to tropical marks in SG 1.008
Calculate:
1. DWA
2. Sinkage to tropical marks allowing for DWA
3. Cargo to load

Draw a diagram.

2. Keep a vessel at same draft in different RD:


Keep same underwater volume i.e.
Displ/rd = underwater volume
UVolume X new RD = apparent Uvolume in that RD
Original displacement – 2nd UV = cargo to un/load

Stability calculations: Derrett Pages: 29 / 119 / 212


Homo Log 1m3 floats level in FW if SG of log is 0.6, What is the GM?
Draft/Depth = SG Log/SG of water
Draft = Depth x SG Log/SG water Draft = 1 x 0.6/1 Draft = 0.6m

BM = I/V I = L x b3/12 V = L x b x draft x Cb


V = 1 x 1 x 0.6 x 1 V = 0.6
I = 1 x 1/12 I = 0.08333
BM = 0.08333/0.6 BM = 0.13888

Draw a box boat, label:


K – B – G – M – draft
B = ½ x draft (triangle = 2/3 x draft) B = ½ x 0.6 B = 0.3

KM = KB + BM KM = 0.3 + 0.13888 KM = 0.43888

KG = ½ depth KG = ½ x 1 KG = 0.5

GM = KM – KG GM = 0.43888 -0.5 GM = -0.061


Angle of loll
AOL = TanQ = Sqaure root of (2 x GM / BM)
Tan Q = SQroot x (-0.12224 / 0.1388)
TanQ = SQroot -0.8801
AOL = 41 degrees
Chart Symbols: BA 5011 (especially Part I&K)
Find compass error
Remember:
Note of Protest cargo
Cans in left hand IALA A & B

3
Marine Notices
Vessel Traffic Services - Responsibilities of Authorities
2013/15
providing VTS
2013/14 Ensuring adequate waste reception facilities
Concentrated Inspection Campaign on Propulsion and
2013/13
Auxiliary Machinery
Evaluation and replacement of lifeboat release and retrieval
2013/12
systems
2013/11 Fatality resulting from air reservoir drainage operation
2013/10 Transition to MASTREP
2013/09 Application of the Navigation Act 2012
Foreign flagged vessels operating in Australian near-coastal
2013/08
waters
Reporting of interference-related problems observed with
2013/06
Global Navigation Satellite System receivers
2013/05 Area to be avoided off Ningaloo
2013/04 Coastal Pilotage
Update of Information regarding Port State Control in
2013/03
Australia
2013/02 Validity and Revalidation of Certificates
2013/01 Summary of Marine Notices
2012/20 Pilot transfer arrangements
2012/19 Guidelines for Revised Garbage Discharge Regulations
2012/18 Sound Navigational Practices
Changes to the format and renewal of AMSA Certificates of
2012/16
Safety Training (CoST)
2012/15 Shipping Fairways off the north-west coast of Australia
Introduction of Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas
2012/13
Emissions from International Shipping
Disabling the automatic channel switching function on VHF
2012/12
marine radios with Digital Selective Calling (DSC) capability
2012/11 Guidance on ECDIS for ships calling at Australian ports
2012/09 Fitness for Duty
2012/08 Transfer Operations at Sea and in Coastal Waters
2012/06 Revised Garbage Discharge Regulations for Ships
2012/05 Collision risks to offshore yachts
2012/04 Safety of Fishing Vessels
Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait Coastal Pilotage Passage
2012/03
Plan Model available on AMSA website

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1. ADMINISTRATION:
What are your responsibilities as Master?

Nav act 2012 Part I Definitions: Master means a person having command or in charge
of a ship

The vessel’s Master has the overriding authority and responsibility for the safety,
pollution prevention and operation of the vessel, beyond statutory rules and
requirements. In certain circumstances, this may require a departure from documented
procedures.

Implement the:
ISM
Company’s Safety / Environment Policy’s/ All policies

Audit & review & maintain the IMS & report to office
Monitor & control Ship Documents & Certificates
Organise Inspections & surveys
Clear, concise Communications (Standing /Bridge/Night Order Book)
Motivating crew
Appraising and co-ordinating onboard training
Review SOP & Checklists
Reporting Non-conformities & Observations
Purchase / order stores & requisitions
Assisting the Ship Manager with budgets
Carry out or delegate the duties of the Ship Security Officer under the ISPS code as
described in the Ship Security Plan
All functions as specified in Table A-II/2 of STCW ’95 for Navigation; Cargo handling and
stowage;
Controlling the operation of the ship and care for persons on board at the Management
level

Conduct & control of the ship


You are a representative of the company
You are a representative of the crew

In all matters which affect, or may affect the safe operation of the vessel or protection of
the environment, the Master shall report, in the first instance, directly to the duty
person for the relevant department.

With regards to executing the charter/contract, the Master should under normal
operations, act upon instructions from the Charterer's representative or Company’s
Chartering Department.

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You join the ship in Singapore & about to sail to Oz, what would you expect to find in
the Masters Cabin?
Taking command of a vessel:
Certificates
Handover notes
Chart correction log – up to date
Publications - Up to date
Audit – Non conformities & observations
Logbooks:
Official log -sign off
Deck log
Oil record book
Material handling equipment register
Cargo record book – NLS
Survey register
Ship Cargo safety equipment logbook
Garbage Record book
Stability booklet

Articles of agreements
Check contents of safe
Status of Masters Cash
Crew’s certificates & medicals
Passports
Consult with C/E & C/O about bunkers / cargo supplies
Consult Cook about stores
Consult with agent about quarantine / customs / Pilot
Get familiar with General arrangement plan / LSA & FFE
Induction
ISPS & safe access to ship

Satisfied with this where do you go know and what do you look for?
Bridge:
Bridge equipment – radar blind sectors etc
Manoeuvring diagram
Emergency SOP
Start up and control / emergency steering / NON follow up
Check Master standing orders
Bridge checklists
Fire alarm system & isolation

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Draw and label a Manoeuvring diagram & where do you find one?
Lady Kari – Ann
Crash stop: 2 ship lengths
Speed: 10 knots
Azimuth angle: 90
Advance: 60m: The distance along the original course to 90
Transfer: 45m The Distance gained at right angles to original course
Tactical diameter: 40m The distance gained when the vessel has done a 180
Final Diameter: distance between 180 & 360 of the turn

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What certificates are on board?

CERTIFICATE IMO Reference OZ Ref. Vessel Type Survey


Int. Tonnage ITC 69 MO 19 >24m Annual
Load Line ILLC 88 MO 16 >24m Annual
Intact Stability Booklet SOLAS Reg II/ILLC 88 MO 12 >24m / Passenger ship Initial
Damage Control booklet SOLAS Reg II MO 31 Cargo / Passenger ship Initial
Cargo Ship Safety Construction SOLAS Reg 1/2 MO 31 Cargo >500 5/A/I/R
Cargo Ship Safety Equipment SOLAS Reg 1/2 MO 31 Cargo>500 5/A/P/R
Cargo Ship Safety Radio SOLAS Reg 1/2 MO 31 Cargo>500 5/A/P/R
Cargo Ship Safety (3 combined) SOLAS Reg 1/2 MO 31 Cargo>500 5/A/P/R
Passenger Ship Safety SOLAS Reg 1/2 MO 31 Passenger Annual
Exemption Certificates SOLAS Reg 1/2 For Above Certificates
International Ship Security SOLAS Reg XI / ISPScode Cargo>500/ Passenger ship
SMC Safety Management Certificate SOLAS IX / ISM Code MO 58 Cargo>500/ Passenger ship A/I/R
DOC Document of compliance SOLAS IX / ISM Code MO 58 Cargo>500/ Passenger ship Annual
Minimum Safe Manning SOLAS V14 Cargo>500/ Passenger ship
Cargo Securing Manual SOLAS V1 V2 / MSC MO 32 All types
Crew Certificates STCW MO 3

IOPPC Int. Oil Pollution Prevention MARPOL I MO 91 >400 / >150 Tankers 5/A/I
Oil Record book MARPOL I MO 91 >400 / >150 Tanker
Oil Record book Part B(ballast/cargo) MARPOL I MO 91 >150 Tanker
SOPEP MARPOL I MO 91 >400 / >150 Tanker
Oil Discharge monitoring control MARPOL I MO 91 >150 Tanker
P&I Cert. Certificate of Entry CLC 69 >2000t oil Cargo

IPPCNLS Noxious Liquid substances MARPOL II MO 93 NLS in Bulk 5/A/I


SMPEP Marine MARPOL II MO 93 >150 NLS
Cargo Regord Book MARPOL II MO 93 Ships apply to MARPOL II
P&A Procedures & Arrangements MARPOL II MO 93 Ships apply to MARPOL II

Cert. of Fitness OSV (NLS) MARPOL II MO 93 Offshore Support Vessel


Cert. of fitness Chemicals in bulk MARPOL II MO 17 Chemical Tankers
Cert. of fitness Liquid Gases in bulk MARPOL II MO 17 Gas Carriers
Cert. of fitness Nuclear Radioactive SOLAS VIII Nuclear / Radioactive Ships

Garbage Management Plan MARPOL V MO 95 >400 / 15 POB A


Garbage Record book MARPOL V MO 95 >400 / 15 POB A

IAPP Int. Air Pollution MARPOL VI MO 96 >400 / Rigs 5 A/I


Engine IAPP (NOx) MARPOL VI MO 96 MarineDieselEngine
>130kw

ISPP Int. Sewage Pollution MARPOL IV MO 96 >400 / 15 POB 5 A/I

DOC carrying DG’s SOLAS MO 41 DG ships 5


DG Manifest or Stowage Plan SOLAS VII / MARPOL III MO 41 DG Ships

DOC Authorisation Carrying Grain SOLAS VI MO 33 Grain Ships

Enhanced Survey Report MARPOL I / SOLAS XI Bulkies / Tankers


Bulk Carrier Booklet SOLAS / BLU code MO 34 Bulkies (ship stress)

High Speed Craft Safety Cert. SOLAS X / HSC code MO 49

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Permit to Operate High Speed Craft SOLAS X / HSC code MO 49

Noise Survey Report All Ships

CERTIFICATE IMO Reference OZ Ref. Vessel Type Survey


De – Ratting Certificate

Ship Radio Licence


ShoreBasedMaintenanceAgreement GMDSS GMDSS Annual
Certificate of Nationality Innitial

Compass Certificate Innitial


Compass Adjustment certificate All Ships As Req

BA & Fire Extinguisher certificate Annual

DP certificate

Log book section:


Garbage Record Book
Oil Record Book Parts I & II
Cargo Log Book
Stability Book
Official Log / Articles of agreement
Deck Log
Material Handling Equipment Register
Cargo securing Manual
Compass adjustment certificate
Crews seatime logbooks

Misc:
De-Rating Certificate or Exemption (sanitation certificate)
Charter Party
Continuous synoptic report
Crew certificates
Company IMS
Radio Station Licence
Annual Radio Maintenance agreement (AWA)
P & I Certificate: Cargo / Wreck removal / Pollution insurance
Certificate of Entry: Civil liability for Oil Pollution
H&M insurance
Enhanced survey Report for bulkies & tankers
Bulk carrier booklet: Loading stresses
Record of oil discharge & monitoring for last voyage
Noise survey ship
Muster list
Survey reports Folder: Flag / Class / Company / internal
Company Circulars / Notices / correspondence
Marine notice
Chart correction folder

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Classification Certs: (DNV for Lady Kari-Ann)
Planned Maintenance for Machinery
Certificate for Motor machinery
Class certificate Appendix
Class cert for Dead man Alarm / off course alarm
Certificate of Compliance: A60 bulkhead for control room for Carriage of DG’s On deck

What are SOLAS requirements for certificates?


It is specified in SOLAS Ch I that an administration (flag State) May empower someone
(surveyor) To survey the ship and/or order repairs to that ship if need be.

SOLAS ch I Regulation 15 Certificates & records of equipment be made up of that


specified in the appendix & annex of Solas.

So all certificates & documents listed in:


The APPENDIX: certificates
ANNEX 2 Certs & documents to be kept onboard in the back of SOLAS

The load line certificate has expired & you are about to sail, what would you do?
Firstly, this kind of thing does not happen anymore due to the ISM, DPA & most
companies have someone in their office looking after certification & all certificates
should be inserted into your ISM system on your ship to prompt you when a certificate
is due.

I would contact the ship manager / office / DPA / Class & Flag to see what could be done
about getting an extension or a Condition of Class until next port call.
If not, I would walk back down the Gangway & go for a surf then a beer.

10 year imprisonment / 6000 penalty units for taking a ship (regulated or foreign) to
seawithout a certificate not in force

You join ship in PNG as Master to bring back to Brisbane, there is damage to one of
the bulkheads, can you sail?
Firstly, I would inform the DPA & also the ship Manager to arrange an Inspection by The
Class surveyor & also to inform the Flag state.
Depending on the extent of the damage, you may get a condition of Class to sail or you
may have to repair the bulkhead or it may be OK.
Your vessel has to be Seaworthy to sail, don’t but your ship, crew, marine property or
environment at risk.

10 year imprisonment / 6000 penalty units for taking a ship (regulated or foreign) to
sea that is unseaworthy.

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What is involved in a load line survey?
(i) Look at the Loadline Certificate and look at the conditions of assignment.
(ii) Check all of the conditions / most of these should be in your IMS or planned
maintenance
(iii) Remember to log and use the official log to record the test on W/T doors etc
(iv) Check the following:
-Sills 380mm above the freeboard deck
-Vents / Breathers 750mm high (FO 760mm) (Check the certificate)
-Load Lines
-Draft marks
-Wx / Water tight doors/ hatches- Chalk/light/water test.
-Flaps / dampeners / opening & closings
- Hull Plating around the Waterline.
- Valve conditions
-Maintenance records
-Check port holes & deadlights
-Scuppers / freeing ports / down pipes

Load lines what are they all about ie explain A & B type?
(i) International Load line Certificate issued by Class Society on behalf of the Flag State.
Freeboard is the vertical distance between the uppermost continuous deck (shearstake
/ freeboard deck) to the loadline / Plimsoll line.

(ii) Valid for 5 years subject to the following surveys:


1. Initial
2. Annual
3. Renewal

(iii) Condition of Assignment:

1. Reserve Buoyancy (is the volume of the watertight hull above the Loadline)
2. Stability
3. Hull Stresses

(iv) Surveyor looks at some of the following:


1. Prevention of water on deck
2. Escape of water on deck
3. Crew protection / safe access
4. Adequate strength
5. Intended Operations
6. No. of through holds
7. No. of openings on the freeboard deck
8. Ports on the hull
9. Water tightness of doors
10. Wx tightness of doors
11. Any modifications
12. Machinery space openings.

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What is the role of a classification society?
IACS: Leading the Way: dedicated to safe ships and clean seas

(i) A classification society is a non-governmental organization that establishes and


maintains technical standards for the construction and operation of ships and offshore
structures.
(ii) Classification societies set technical rules, confirm that designs and calculations
meet these rules, survey ships and structures during the process of construction and
commissioning, and periodically survey vessels to ensure that they continue to meet the
rules.
(iii) Class societies issue Statutory Certificates on behalf of Administrations.
(iv) In Oz, Class can issue and approve all Statutory Documents & Certificates except the
Safety Management Certificate.
(v) Due to their vast experience, IMO often consult Class societies in relation to rules &
regulations i.e. changes to SOLAS
(vi)Scope:
-Review technical designs of of new vessels.
-Issue Certificates on behalf of Flag states.
-Attendance with new builds
-Surveys.
-ensure reliability of machinery & strength & structural integrity of ships.

List & explain types of surveys:


(i) INITIAL SURVEY:
-On completion of a new Build or new Port of Registry.
-Inspection of the design of relevant structure, machinery & equipment of the ship to
ensure it complies with the regulations & is fit for the intended service.

(ii) RENEWAL SURVEY:


-After the 5 Year certificates are up.
-If there is a change of classification Society
-An inspection of the vessels Structure, machinery & equipment to ensure that it
complies with the Rules & regulations

(iii) ANNUAL SURVEY:


-General Survey of ship to confirm it is being maintained in accordance with the
regulations.

(iv) INTERMEDIATE SURVEY: 2nd or 3rd Anniversary


-As per annual with Additional / or certain Items checked i.e. Waste thickness of plating
because the IM survey with coincide with the dry docking (30 months)
Or
ISM ship audit
- To confirm that the ship is ‘actually’ fit for service and satisfies the rule requirements

(v) PERIODIC SURVEY:


-Same as renewal / Annual with all items being checked i.e. Radio Certificate or ISPP
(sewage)
- Class societies talk as if the whole survey system is a ‘Periodic survey’ Over 5 Years

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(vi) DOCKING SURVEY:
- 30 months. Inspection of hull plating/ Waterline / Pounding / stern / rudder / hull
fittings

(vii) IN WATER SURVEY:


- In water survey: Granted by Class when Dry dock can be missed.

(viii) SPECIAL SURVEY:


- When ships get to a specific age i.e. LKA 30 year survey. Extra surveys i.e ultra-
sounding testing. i.e. 2 whole sections / bands tested.

(ix) CONTINUOUS SURVEY:


- In conduction with a Class society over a 5 year period, certain tanks / items are
inspected each year. At the end of the 5 year cycle, all compartments and tanks have
been inspected
- Not applicable to Bulk Carriers / Oil / Chemical tankers

(x) MACHINERY SURVEY:


- Can be either a continuous survey over a 5 year period to inspect all machinery
OrCompleted in one go!

(xi) ESP – ENHANCED SURVEY:


- Applicable to Bulk Carriers / Oil / Chemical tankers.
- Can reduce time in dry dock
- On the run survey including tanks / hull thickness

What are P&I Clubs?


Protection and indemnity insurance, commonly known as P&I insurance, is a form of
marine insurance provided by a P&I club. A P&I club is a mutual (i.e. co-operative )
insurance association that provides cover for its members, who will typically be ship-
owners, ship-operators or demise charterers. Unlike a marine insurance company,
which is answerable to its shareholders, a P&I club is the servant only of its members.

Marine insurers provide cover for known quantifiable risks, mainly Hull & Machinery
insurance for ship-owners, and Cargo Insurance for cargo owners. By contrast, P&I
Clubs provide insurance cover for broader indeterminate risks, such as third party
liabilities that marine insurers are loath to cover. Third party risks include a carrier’s
liability to a cargo-owner for damage to cargo, a ship’s liability after a collision,
environmental pollution (Certificate of entry)and war risk insurance; (although some
marine insurers are also prepared to cover war risks).

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Who covers Hull & Machinery insurance?
Any marine insurer (i.e. Allianz) will cover against things such as:
Hull and Machinery insurance provides protection
Against the physical loss of, or damage to,
The vessel
Equipment
Engines
Machinery
Including collision liability risk,
Loss mitigation expenses
General Average contributions.

Explain what you know about the ISM?


What is the ISM?
(i) Provides standards for safety management and operations of ship and pollution
prevention.
(ii) It is an IMO requirement through SOLAS convention chapter IX, further details
through ISM code.
(iii) It is made law in Oz by MO 58.

What are the objectives of ISM?


(i) Provide safe working practices in operations & provide a safe working environment.
(ii) Safe guard against all identifiable risks.
(iii) Continuously improve safety management skills.
(iv) Prepare for emergencies for both environment & safety protection.
(v) Protection of the crew, property and environment.
(vi) Have a safety management system. (SMS)
(vii) To ensure Safety at Sea
(viii) To prevent human injury or loss of life
(ix) To avoid damage to the environment and to the ship

What are the functions of the SMS?


(i) Have a safety environment policy. (Smoking/alcohol/ human rights/Harassment)
(ii) Apply to all International & Flag state requirements.
(iii) Have safety Programs, ship procedures & checklists, training & Induction manuals.
(iv)Internal / External Audits for improvement of the SMS.
(v) Shore to ship communication.
(vi) Drills & emergency response.
(v) Ongoing training
(v) Procedures for incident / accident reporting.

What is the Master’s responsibility in regards to the ISM?


(i) Implementation of SMS & Policies.
(ii) Motivate crew.
(iii) Review SMS.
(iv) Communications.
(v) Issue clear orders & Instructions.

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What is contained in a SMS Safety Management System?
(i) Company Policies.
(iii) Safety Programs: 5x5 /Toolbox/JHA/Food handling/ Stretching/PTW/slips & trips
(iv) Planned Maintenance.
(v) Inductions: Ship/ Company
(vi) Manuals: I.e. Anchor Handling/ emergency Response.
(vii) Reporting / auditing.
(viii) Training / Drills.
Period of validity for DOC & does the ship require the original?
In SOLAS it says that the ship has to keep a copy of the original onboard, but I just went
& checked ours and it was a photo copy from Norway & we had just completed a Special
/ Renewal survey with DNV!
Document of compliance has a 5 yearly renewal / annual surveys which include
Company & ship audits by Class & internal audits by the company
(i) A document issue by an administration to a company who has complied with ISM.
(ii) That the company has implemented a SMS / Policy’s on board its ships.
(iii) Valid For 5 Years subject to Annual surveys.

What are some items checked in an Internal ISM audit?


Certificates / Training / Reviews of SOP JHA / Crews understanding of ISM / LSA / FFE
/ RADIO

What ACT and who Implements ISPS in OZ?


(i) ISPS is brought into domestic legislation by the ‘Marine Transport Offshore Security
Act & Regulation.
(ii) The MTOS Regulation is the operational guidelines for domestic legislation in Oz.
(iii) The Regulations specify the requirements for maritime and ship security plans, so
that the plans meet the criteria set out in the Act.
(iv) A Security risk assessment is issue to a Class Society for an Approved Security plan
to be issued.
(v) Flag States (Class society) & PSC check & survey the Certificate & Plan.
(vi) Department of Transport & Infrastructure implement the Act and look after security
in OZ
(vii) MO 18
(viii) Ship ID tracking through Sat-C called LRT
(ix) DOS Declaration of security (open for esso Rigs) who does what in security plan
(x) Remember the password for the SSAS
(xi) Anyone can be SSO if trained, only SSO to have access to SSP

What are the objectives of the ISPS?


Preventive measures
Government communications
International frame work
Plans & Procedures
Maritime security measures in place

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What are the functions of the ISPS?
Assessing ports / ships security risks
Providing plans & procedures for these risks
Prevention of unauthorized personnel
Prevention of unauthorized weapons & bombs
Training, drills & exercises

What are the drill requirements onboard your ship?


Emergency muster / Abandon ship drill Monthly or >25% of crew change
Fire Drill Monthly or >25% of crew change
FRC Monthly
MOB Monthly
Emergency steering 3 Monthly
Tank rescue 3 Monthly
First aid 3 Monthly
SMPEP 3 Monthly
Collision / Flooding 3 Monthly
Salvage / Critical Engine Failure 3 Monthly
ISPS: Security levels 3 Monthly
ISPS: Security Searches 3 Monthly
ISPS: Piracy attack 3 Monthly
Emergency towing Yearly

What is the objective of SOLAS?


(i)The main objective of the SOLAS Convention is to specify standards for the
construction, equipment and operation of ships, compatible with their safety.
(ii) Flag States are responsible for ensuring that ships under their flag comply with its
requirements, & certificates issued as proof that this has been done.
(iii) Control provisions also allow Administrations to inspect ships of other Contracting
States so that the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of the
Convention / Flag requirements - this procedure is known as Port State control

What are the chapters?


Chapter I – General Provisions
Surveying the various types of ships and certifying that they meet the requirements

Chapter II-1 – Construction – Subdivision and stability, machinery and electrical installations
The subdivision of passenger ships into watertight compartments so that after damage to its
hull, a vessel will remain afloat and stable.

Chapter II-2 – Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction


Fire safety provisions for all ships

Chapter III – Life-saving appliances and arrangements

Chapter IV – Radiocommunications
The Global Maritime Distress Safety System GMDSS/ EPIRBS / SARTs

Chapter V – Safety of navigation


For all vessels regarding voyage and passage planning / Distress

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Chapter VI – Carriage of Cargoes
Requirements for the stowage and securing of all types of cargo and cargo containers except
liquids and gases in bulk.

Chapter VII – Carriage of dangerous goods


Requires the carriage of all kinds of dangerous goods to be in compliance with the International
Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code).

Chapter VIII – Nuclear ships


Nuclear powered ships are required, particularly concerning radiation hazards, to conform to
the Code of Safety for Nuclea Merchant Ships.

Chapter IX – Management for the Safe Operation of Ships


International Safety Management Code (ISM).

Chapter X – Safety measures for high-speed craft


Makes mandatory the International Code of Safety for High-Speed Craft (HSC Code).

Chapter XI-1 – Special measures to enhance maritime safety


Requirements relating to organisations responsible for carrying out surveys and inspections,
enhanced surveys, the ship identification number scheme, and operational requirements.
Chapter XI-2 – Special measures to enhance maritime security
Includes the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code).

Chapter XII – Additional safety measures for bulk carriers


Specific structural requirements for bulk carriers over 150 metres in length

What are the main conventions ratified in the NAVact 2012?


Solas, Marpol, STCW COlregs
Tonnage / Loadline / container
Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims Convention

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What is the Navigation Act 2012?
The Nav Act 2012 is a statutory law, an act of Parliament,
it governs & regulates The Maritime industry in Australia, it is the Oz seafarers Law or
bible.
The Navigation Act is Commonwealth legislation containing the substantive powers for
Australia to regulate international ship and seafarer safety, shipping aspects of
protecting the marine environment and the actions of seafarers in Australian waters. It
also gives effect to the relevant international conventions relating to maritime issues to
which Australia is a signatory. The Act also has subordinate legislation contained in
Regulations and Marine Orders.
The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) has the authority and responsibility
for the operational activities under the Act. These include: vessel survey and
certification, construction standards, crewing, seafarers’ qualifications and welfare,
occupational health and safety, carriage and handling of cargoes, passengers, marine
pollution prevention, monitoring and enforcement activities.
Part 2—Objects and simplified outline of Act

3 Objects of Act
The objects of this Act are:
(a) to promote the safety of life at sea; and
(b) to promote safe navigation; and
(c) to prevent pollution of the marine environment; and
(d) to ensure that AMSA has the necessary power to carry out inspections of
vessels and enforce national and international standards.
4 Simplified outline of this Act
Overview of this Act
(1) This Act is about maritime safety, seafarers and the prevention of pollution of
the marine environment. It provides for matters relating to the following:
(a) seafarers (Chapter 2);
(b) the safety of regulated Australian vessels and foreign vessels (Chapter 3);
(c) prevention of pollution (Chapter 4);
(d) tonnage (Chapter 5);
(e) the safety of navigation (Chapter 6);
(f) wrecks and salvage (Chapter 7);
(g) complying with, and enforcing, this Act (Chapter 8);
(h) other general matters that relate to the above (Chapter 9).
Overview of the rest of this Chapter
(2) The rest of this Chapter deals with:
(a) the application of this Act, including how it interacts with certain State
and Territory laws and its geographical application (Part 3); and
(b) definitions that are used in this Act (Part 4); and
(c) provisions that enable a vessel that would not otherwise be a regulated
Australian vessel to opt in to coverage (Part 5).

Marine orders are legislation made functional through the Nav Act 2012 342
342 Marine Orders
(1) AMSA may, by legislative instrument, make an order (to be known as a
Marine Order) with respect to any matter for which provision must or may be made by
the regulations.

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M.O are Law and help implement maritime and navigational matters from International
law (IMO, ILO etc), industry requirements and technology, they are easier to change
than an act.
M.O may also refer to a code to use in conjunction with the MO which then becomes OZ
law
i.e. MO 25 & the LSA code & SOLAS Chapter III
.
The Nav act was based on a lot of Early British Merchant Conditions.
Such as huge loss of life and poor working & living conditions for the seafarers, which
now is covered a lot by the heavy demand of OH&S.

These issues still matter today but with increase modernised Shipping, the demand for
cleaner seas, cleaner airs, less pollution & safer ships, the Nav act wants to reflect closer
these concerns so hence the reason for the Face lift.

Marine orders list:


1 Administration
Australian International Shipping Register
2
Seagoing qualifications Note: MO3 is currently being
3 reviewed. For more information, please read the recent
events article.
Transitional modifications Note: MO 4 modifying
4 schedules are already included within the MO
compilations linked to this table.
6 Marine radio qualifications

9 Health — medical fitness


Living and working conditions on vessels
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Note: Marine Order 14, issue 1 (Accommodation)
Construction — subdivision and stability, machinery and
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electrical installations
Construction — fire protection, fire detection and fire
15
extinction
16 Load Lines
17 Liquefied gas carriers and chemical tankers

18 Measures to enhance maritime safety

19 Tonnage measurement

21 Safety of navigation and emergency procedures

25 Equipment — lifesaving

27 Radio equipment
28 Operations standards and procedures

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30 Prevention of collisions

31 Ship surveys and certification

32 Cargo handling equipment

33 Cargo and cargo handling — grain

34 Solid bulk cargoes

35 Additional safety measures for bulk carriers

41 Carriage of dangerous goods

42 Cargo stowage and securing

43 Cargo and cargo handling — livestock

44 Safe containers

47 Mobile offshore drilling units


49 High-speed craft

50 Special purpose vessels

51 Fishing vessels

52 Sailing vessels

54 Coastal pilotage

55 Publication of information about vessels

56 REEFREP

57 Helicopter operations

58 International Safety Management Code

59 Offshore support vessel operations

60 Floating offshore facilities

62 Government vessels

63 MASTREP

64 Vessel traffic services

91 Marine pollution prevention — oil

93 Marine pollution prevention — noxious liquid substances


Marine pollution prevention — packaged harmful
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substances

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95 Marine pollution prevention — garbage

96 Marine pollution prevention — sewage

97 Marine pollution prevention — air pollution

98 Marine pollution prevention — anti-fouling systems

What is the difference Between SOLAS & The Nav act?


The Navigation Act is Commonwealth legislation containing the substantive powers for
Australia to regulate international ship and seafarer safety, shipping aspects of
protecting the marine environment and the actions of seafarers in Australian waters. It
also gives effect to the relevant international conventions relating to maritime issues to
which Australia is a signatory. The Act also has subordinate legislation contained in
Regulations and Marine Orders.

The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) has the authority and responsibility for
the operational activities under the Act. These include: vessel survey and certification,
construction standards, crewing, seafarers’ qualifications and welfare, occupational health
and safety, carriage and handling of cargoes, passengers, marine pollution prevention,
monitoring and enforcement activities.

The Nav act is a legal domestic document that implements Solas as described:

Nav Act 340 Regulation-making power to implement Conventions


(1) The regulations may make provision in relation to giving effect to the
following:
(a) the Safety Convention;
(b) the Prevention of Collisions Convention;
(c) the Prevention of Pollution Convention;
(d) the Load Lines Convention;
(e) the Tonnage Convention;
(f) the Container Convention;
(g) the Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims Convention;
(h) the STCW Convention.
Nav act is statutory law, thru an act of parliament
SOLAS is law thru Marine Orders

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What is seaworthy & substandard ship?
23 Definition of seaworthy
A vessel is seaworthy if, and only if:
(a) it is in a fit state as to the condition of hull and equipment, boilers (if any)
and machinery, the stowage of ballast or cargo, the number and qualifications of
seafarers, and in every other respect, to:
(i) encounter the ordinary perils of the voyage undertaken; and
(ii) not pose a threat to the environment; and
(b) it is not overloaded; and
(c) the living and working conditions on board the vessel do not pose a
threat to the health, safety or welfare of the vessel’s seafarers.
Note: An unseaworthy vessel can be detained under section 248.

Taking an unseaworthy ship to sea can incur a 10 year imprisonment

24 Definition of substandard ship MO 11:


Section 210 of the Navigation Act 1912 provides for the detention of a ship that is
“substandard”.[1] Subsection 207A(1) provides that a ship is substandard if it is
seaworthy but conditions on board the ship are clearly hazardous to safety or health
A vessel to which the Safety Convention, the Load Lines Convention or the
Prevention of Pollution Convention applies is substandard, in relation to the condition
of the vessel or its equipment in respect of a particular voyage or operation of the
vessel, if:
(a) a certificate required by the Convention concerned for the proposed
voyage or operation is not in force; or
(b) both:
(i) one or more certificates required by the Convention concerned for
the proposed voyage or operation are in force; and
(ii) the condition of the vessel or its equipment does not correspond
substantially with the particulars of the certificate or certificates.
Note: A substandard vessel can be detained under section 248.
ITEM
Deficiencies

Accesses Not capable of being secured.


Insufficiently protected against weather and sea.
Insufficiently insulated from engine noise.
Unsafe or unsatisfactory condition.
Ventilation Mechanical ventilation or electric fans fitted in sleeping rooms and
mess rooms are not in satisfactory working condition.
Accommodation Accommodation is not free of cargo, or ship stores such as paint.
Floors are not of easily cleaned durable material, which is
impervious to damp.
Floors have blocked scuppers.
Floor tiling or covering is deteriorated to the extent that it cannot
be kept clean, or creates a hazard.
Accommodation in an unhygienic condition, or in a filthy
condition with either built-up or surface dirt.

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Electrical wiring and switches Overloaded power points.
Defective insulation.
General unsafe appearance.
Garbage disposal Garbage cans are not available in galley, pantries or mess rooms.
Garbage cans in unsatisfactory condition.
Main garbage drums are not located in an accessible position.
Main garbage drums without properly fitting lids.
Galley, storerooms and handling Not in a clean condition, with built-up or surface dirt.
rooms
Galley exhaust fan not in working order.
Galley exhaust not grease free.
ITEM
Deficiencies

Food provisions Food is not suitable for intended voyage in regard to:
- quantity and/or quality;
- flour, rice, grain or cereal stores are weevil infested.
Water, potable Fresh water is contaminated and unsuitable for human
consumption.
Insect/vermin infestation Evidence of infestation exists in accommodation by insects or
vermin.
Fly screens for portholes, Screens missing.
ventilators and doors to the open
Screens exist but apertures cannot be properly protected by close
deck
fitting screens.
Screens exist but have gauze broken and/or missing. (Where
temperature controlled mechanical ventilation is fitted, screens
are only required for areas, such as galley and food preparation
areas, where insects can enter through open windows.)
Lighting Crew spaces are inadequately lit.
Light fittings are inoperable.
Light fittings are not fitted with globes or tubes of the correct
rating of the fitting.
Heating Heating is not capable of maintaining a temperature of 16°C.
Steam pipes Steam or exhaust pipes for winches and similar gear pass through
accommodation (other than alleyways).
Lagging Steam or exhaust pipes passing through alleyways not properly
lagged.
Heating steam or hot water pipes are not adequately lagged or
protected.

ITEM
Deficiencies

Paint locker Inadequate natural ventilation.


In an unsatisfactory condition.
Spillage of flammable liquid found.

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Noise Excessive noise. (On receipt of complaint, ascertain if reduction of
noise level is practicable. If this is both possible and reasonable,
but no action is taken, a deficiency exists.)
Paintwork Painted surfaces deteriorated such that they cannot be washed
clean.
Work spaces, including engine Not in a safe and clean condition.
room
Prevalence of oily rags or other fire hazard.
Adequate lighting, ventilation or means of escape is not available.
Mooring ropes and wires Damaged or defective.
(including fittings)
Stored in a manner that is likely to result in damage or defects
Exposed to conditions that could lead to their deterioration and
eventual failure.
Berths Individual berth with clear access is not provided for each crew
member.
A mattress, a pillow and pillowcase, and two clean sheets is not
fitted to each berth.
A blanket is not available for each berth.
Insufficient linen exists to provide a weekly change during the
longest leg of the voyage between ports with laundry facilities.
(Only one change need be provided if a suitable laundry exists
aboard.)
Essential furnishings are not in good repair and clean.
ITEM
Deficiencies

Sanitary facilities Insufficient showers, wash basins and toilet facilities are provided.
Toilets broken or not flushing correctly.
Wash basins broken or without supply or waste pipes.
Water not available at wash basins.
Water supply contaminated and not fit for washing.
Blocked drainage or seepage from toilets/wash basins/showers.
Numerous tiles or extensive patches of coating missing in wet areas
or other defects which prevent these areas being kept clean and
sanitary.
Cold rooms and refrigerated The refrigeration machinery is not operating efficiently.
room
Door seals defective.
Internal alarms not fitted or not operating.
The securing devices not capable of being operated from inside the
room.
Refrigerators not kept clean and defrosted.
Food improperly stored.
Gratings unclean, defective, or with food scraps or dirt beneath
them.
Lining defective.
Clothes washing facilities Suitable sinks in wash rooms broken or not provided. (Not required
if electric washing machines are fitted.)

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Drying rooms Clothes drying facilities not provided in a compartment separate
from sleeping rooms and mess rooms.
Facility not ventilated or heated.
Facility not provided with racks or lines.
ITEM
Deficiencies

Mess rooms Sleeping room used as a mess room.


Mess room not located as close as practical to the galley.
Adequate furniture not provided.
Proper facilities for washing eating utensils and plates not provided.
Hospital A separate hospital is not provided. (Only required if crew is 15 or
more and voyage exceeds 3 days).

The hospital is used for other than medical purposes.


Sewage treatment plant If fitted and operating, is not operating in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.
Medical equipment A medicine chest and/or dispensing instructions not carried.
Medicines and stores are damaged or time expired.
Walkways Walkways are not safe and clear.

Can you sail?


Under Marine order 11, it explains that someone i.e. crew member may write to AMSA
the nature of the complaint towards the ship.
AMSA must come & inspect the ship and provide the Ship, in writing the reasons, if any,
why the ship is classed as sub-standard (listed above) & the vessel can be detained.

10 year imprisonment for taking a Unseaworthy ship to sea NAV ACT 2012 (110)

What is the test of Seaworthiness?


That a vessels hull, machinery, accommodation and cargo carrying areas are free of
Defects, that a ship is properly manned, equipped and supplied, and that the master and
crew are competent and fully qualified.

What is overloaded?
A vessel shall not be overloaded Part

What is a regulated ship as described in Marine order’s?


Basically a vessel with a commonwealth (oz) registration
As per NavAct 2012:
(1) A vessel is a regulated Australian vessel if:
(a) under the Shipping Registration Act 1981, the vessel is registered,
required to be registered or exempt under section 13 of that Act from that requirement;
and
(b) the vessel is not a recreational vessel; and
(c) any of the following apply:
(i) the vessel is proceeding on an overseas voyage or is for use on an
overseas voyage;

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(ii) a certificate issued under this Act, other than a non-Convention
tonnage certificate or a certificate prescribed by the regulations, is in force for the vessel

Does a copy of the nav act be kept onboard?


Yes, if your ship applies to the navact:
Foreign & Regulated ships in Oz waters.

What is the AMSA national standard?


AMSA have taken control of all the states & territories Domestic vessel operations,
Certification & Surveys.

The key objective of the National System is to provide for the consistent national
regulation of the domestic commercial vessel industry across Australia.

State and Territory agencies will be responsible for the effective day-to-day operation of
the National System under delegation from the National Regulator. The jurisdictions
will retain responsibility for the regulation of waterways, the management of ports and
associated issues, such as classifying waters, setting speed limits and regulating alcohol
consumption.

National Standard for Commercial Vessels (NSCV)


The NSCV is the standard prescribed in the Marine Safety (Domestic Commercial
Vessel) National Law Act 2012. It was developed as an upgrade and amendment to the
USL Code.
Uniform Shipping Law Code (USLCode)
The USL Code is the standard for many existing commercial vessels – the USL Code will
still apply to those vessels. Please check the “applicable standards and requirements” or
with your local marine safety agency.

What is the The Marine Safety (Domestic Commercial Vessel) National Law Act 2012
(National Law)?
Is the Oz domestic version of the NAVACT 2012 & the NSCV & USL is the domestic
version of SOLAS.

As a key component of the National System to commence on 1 July 2013, the National
Law regulates domestic commercial vessel safety and establishes AMSA as the National
Regulator for domestic commercial vessels in Australian waters

What is the COGSA 1991 – Carriage of Goods by Sea ACT & what rules does OZ use &
their particular benifits? Marine order 11

CARRRIAGE OF GOODS AT SEA ACT.


Gives functional power to 3 rules:
1. Hamburg
2. Hague/Visby
3. Hague (nearly obsolete).

(i) Rules set out in international transport which contain the minimum terms &
conditions where a Bill of Lading is issued.

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(ii) Covers:
-Carriers obligations
-Carriers Liabilities
-Carriers Exemption from Liabilities
-Shippers Liabilities.

(iii) Obligations of carriage of goods:


-That you apply to the rule i.e. Hague / Visby.
-Act as bailee of the cargo i.e. respect it as if it was your own.
-Apply to the charter Party. (See Section 1.d Charter Party)

Hamburg:
-Not favourable to ship owners (not used as much) because the Ship is liable for stuffing
up i.e. running aground.
-Shipowner liable from load to discharge.
-Covers live animals.
-Some P&I clubs don’t cover Hamburg.
-Need clause for cargo on deck.

Hague-Visby: (Owner / Carriers Liabilities)


(i) 3 Main Factors, Ship must be seaworthy / Cargo Care / Issue Bill of lading.
(ii)Ship owner must carefully: load / handle / stow / carry / care / keep / Discharge
goods.
(iii) Ship owner not liable for:
- Navigation stuff ups.
-Fire.
-Perils of the sea.
-Act of god.
-Act of war.
-Strikes.
-Undeclared DG’s.
(iv) Amendments to the COGAS act have given Coastal state powers to order the master
to take action i.e. to avoid an oil spill, called ‘Power of Intervention’.

What are some of the requirements for COGAS?


Sea Carriage Document means:
- a bill of lading
- a negotiable document of title that evidences a contract of
carriage of goods by sea
- a bill of lading that is not negotiable
- a non negotiable document such as a consignment note
Goods a taken to be delivered to a carrier when the carrier or agent or servant of that
carrier have the goods placed at their disposal within the limits of the wharf/port. The
carrier ceases to be in charge of the goods once they are delivered to or placed at the
disposal of the consignee within the limits of the wharf that is the intended destination
Consignment Note: a non negotiable document containing
- evidence of a contract of carriage by sea in connection with
which no bill of lading has been issued.

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- Clearly states that no liability for any loss of, damage to or
delay of the goods will be accepted by the carrier, and
- Is clearly marked as being non-negotiable

What is a Bill of lading?


(i) Receipt of goods.
(ii) Statement of Quality & Quantity.
(iii)Contract of freight.
(iv)Entitlement.
(v) 3 parts of bill of lading:
-1 Part to Bank
-1 Part to Insurer
-1 Part to receiver.

(vi)A clean B/L has no marginal clauses on it i.e. not correct quantity.
(vii) A dirty B/L may have note of protest attached.
(viii) A waybill is a non-negotiable receipt issued by the carrier when there is a serious
of cargo going to one consignee.

What happens if there is no B/L on Delivery?


(i) Get the receiver to sign a letter of Indemnity.(Protection, compensation or insurance
against future loss or damage.

What happens if the Master gets a letter of Indemnity for a clean B/L?
(i) Its Fraud………………..WHY???

What is a Note of Protest?


(i) Statement of facts
(ii) Master should get it signed by Justice of the peace / Consul
(iii) Copies given to Owner / Supplier /
(iv)Generally, there is no restrictions to issue a letter of protest, rather the contrary,
master usually encouraged and sometimes instructed to serve letter of protest
whenever he thinks necessary.
(v)In the middle of the nineteenth century in Abbot on Shipping, the following definition
of a marine protest and protests in general, was given:
“A Marine Protest is a declaration or narrative, by the master, of the particulars of the
voyage, of the storms or bad weather which the vessel may have encountered, the
accidents which may have occurred, and the conduct which, in cases of emergency he had
thought to pursue…
Protests are also made by the master against the charterers of the ship or the consignees
of the goods, for loading or unloading the vessel pursuant to contract, or within
reasonable or stipulated delays; and by the merchant against the master, for misconduct,
drunkenness, etc., for not proceeding to sea with due despatch, for not signing bills of
lading in the customary form, and other irregularities. “

(vi)This definition, at least in sense if not in form, remains valid today. So, a letter of
protest is not a legal document. It is a report or statement of facts which led to situation
when something beyond the master’s control has gone wrong and the master is unable
to make it right, but has to bring it to attention of all parties concerned either for some

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immediate action or for future reference. It actually may be related or assigned to
almost any activity on board, i.e. cargo, stores and bunker handling, equipment or
machinery failure, navigation, safety, local regulations, etc. In practice, such letters
issued and counter-issued by various parties participating in common activity.
(vii) Although being not a legal document, a letter of protest still has a certain legal
value because it is treated as admissible evidence in the courts of justice.

What is a Voyage Charter?


(i) Compared to a taxi hire – single journey.
(ii) Specified quantity between named places
(iii) Owner Pays for all running costs.
(iv) Charterer pays for un / loading.
(v) In effect the charterers hire the cargo capacity of the vessel.

What is a Time Charter?


(i) Hire of a named vessel for a specific period of time.
(ii) Owner pays for crew / Machinery / Insurance / Maintenance.
(iii) Charterer Pays for un / loading / Port dues / finding vessel employment.
(iv) Usually an Offshore Charter i.e. ESSO & FARSTAD with special clauses like Charterer
(ESSO) pays for Food and lifting gear.

What is a Bareboat Charter?


(i) Charterer acquires most of the rights of the owners.
(ii) Charterer provides all running costs / crew / Insurance /employment for ship.

What is a safe berth / port?


(i) A nominated port that is free from obstructions i.e. Ice
(ii) Adequate facilities for trade.
(iii) Politically Safe.
(iv) Vessel always afloat unless safely aground as per the Charter Party.

What is an Arrived Ship?


(i) In all respects ready to un / load.
(ii) Hatched open and/or holds clean.
(iii) A statement from the master called a Notice of readiness (NOR) served to agent /
shipper.

What is and how do you calculate Laytime?


(i) Laytime is the specified amount of time to load or unload the ship.
(ii) Can be cargo quantity per day.
(iii) Can be days allowed.
(iv)Total Cargo ÷ Discharge load rate = Laytime in days.

What is Dispatch?
(i) The Charter party may not always have dispatch included.
(ii) Shipowner/Master may be liable to pay dispatch to the charterer if un/loading is
completed before the lays days have expired. (un / loading finished early).

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What is Demurrage?
(i) Ship prevented from loading on time and in turn prevented from earning more coin.
(ii) Charterer pays the ship owner.
(iii) Calculations from:
1. Notice of readiness
2. Statement of facts. (Note of protest)
3. 2 x dispatch rate.

What is dead freight?


(i) Payable to Shipowner when shipper has failed to load a full & complete cargo.

What is the New Jason clause?


(i) The master cannot claim General Average for fucking up.

What is the clause Paramount?


Specifies which ‘Carriage of Goods at Sea Act’ rule is used i.e. Hague – Visby.

What is the Lay day?


(i) The Date the vessel must be at the nominated port ready for un / loading.

What does lien mean? Explain the term Maritime Lien?


(i) Is a service provided to a vessel which is not paid for i.e. Ship repairs.
(ii) Debt that travels with ship regardless of the ownership.
(iii) If there are numerous Liens, the ship can be arrested.
(iv) The lien finishes when it is either scrapped or sold by judicial sale

What does particular average and general average mean?


What is General Average?
When there has been damage to cargo due to an act where by a sacrifice has been made
for the benefit of all cargo owners.
General Average is the amount paid by all parties involved (with the cargo) when a
member suffers a loss during the venture. (everybody chucks in)

Tugs to prevent grounding


Water damage to cargo in a fire
Jettisoning cargo to save ship

Factors for a GA claim


-Common adventure
-In peril
-Intentional
-sacrifice
-Reasonable.
H&M Insurance cover GA.

What is Particular Average (Loss)?


(i) Covered by H&M insurance.
(ii)Insurance against a particular thing such as hull damage due to grounding in Heavy
WX.

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what is the ‘statement of facts’?
From my experience the SOF is due to on hire / off hire survey i.e. before and after dry
dock.
Also that it complies to the charter party.
The Master & C/E fill out the SOF recorded the status of the ship:
Condition
Bunkers
Ballast
Cargo
Deck timbers
Tank status
Equipment / machinery conditions
The Charter company will send down a representative to do a bunker survey.

What does LOF relate to & what is its principle?


Slavage – no cure no pay (but SCOPTIC)
LOF is a standard legal document for a proposed marine salvage operation.
The two-page contract is published by Lloyd's of London.
It is called "open" because it is literally open, with no amount of money being stipulated
for the salvage job: the sum to be paid is determined later in London by a professional
arbitrator.
At the top of page one, beneath the title "Salvage Agreement" is a statement of the
contract's main clause. NO CURE – NO PAY.
The payment is determined by the cargo, the ship, the skill.

What are the main provisions of Lloyds Open Form?


(i) Can be done verbally.
(ii) English Law applies.
(iii) Savour has a maritime Lien.
(iv) Minimises time messing around with contracts, quotes & calling DPA / Company
etc.

Explain a little about UNCLOS: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
1982.
1. What are the main zones of jurisdiction?
(i) BASELINE:
-Low water mark
-Straight lines from harbour headlands and islands.
-3’ Cannon shot use to be the baseline.
(ii) INTERNAL WATERS:
-From the Baseline inwards.
(iii) TERRITORIAL WATERS:
-Baseline to 12’ to sea.
-Coastal state has jurisdiction.
(iv) CONTIGUOUS ZONE:
-12’ – 24’.
-The coastal state may exercise jurisdiction to prevent infringements pollution &
terrorism within the territorial sea.

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(v) EXCLUSIVE ECONOMICAL ZONE: (EEZ)
-Coastal state has right to establish an EEZ beyond the territorial sea.
-Baseline to 200’ to sea.
-Coastal states have the rights to fishing, oil and the exploration of natural resources.
(vi) HIGH SEAS:
-Open freely for use of all states.
-Goverened by equals.
-Any state mat lay cables.
-State may exercise control over a ship flying its flag.
-A state may not mess with a ship of another flag.
-Free flight zone??

What are your procedures in regards to Customs & quarantine for arrival &
Departure:
CUSTOMS
96-12 hours from Oz Port:
1. The Agent will send electronically to the Master at least 48hrs prior to arrival, The
Australian entry Custom Forms: (Forms Attached)
1A: Ship Inward Cargo report (If discharging, General cargo etc)
3B: INWARDS/OUTWARDS CREW REPORT
13: SHIP PRE-ARRIVAL REPORT
5-4: Report of Ship’s Stores

2. The Master fills out the forms and sends them back to the agent who forwards them onto
Australian Customs.

3. Australian Customs Send the In/Outwards Crew Report to Australian Immigration.

4. If Customs & Immigration find something that gets their attention with the forms, then
they will send a Customs Officer down to the ship on Arrival otherwise the entry process is
down electronically.
Note: Customs still do random boarding’s in the Port of Newcastle.
QUARANTINE
96 hours from OZ port:
1. Agents send’s The Master EQPAR (Electronic Quarantine Pre-Arrival Report).
(Forms Attached)

2. Master Fills in form and there is a ‘send link’ on the form to which the form is connected
directly from the ship to Australian Quarantine.

3. After paperwork inspection, Quarantine will send an ‘Approval to Berth’ directly back to
the ship, Master sends to agent.

4. Vessels with a good track record may get ‘Free Pratique’ from Quarantine without officers
boarding (3 out of 5 times).

5. All other vessels will get boarded by Quarantine Officers once berthed every time.

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Note: Ships coming from Northern China & Russia have to do ‘Self-Inspections’ for the non-
indigenous ‘Gypsy Moth’ & their eggs.

There are several steps vessel Masters can take to assist in the process:

 Fill out custom forms 1 / 3B / 13 / 4-5


 apply for quarantine clearance (Permission to Berth and/or Free pratique) 12–
96 hours before entering Australian waters using the Electronic Quarantine Pre-
Arrival Report for Vessels (pratique)form AQIS
 meet all ballast water reporting requirements AQIS
 declare all deaths and illnesses on board your vessel AQIS
 declare all animals on board and follow the directions of the AQIS officer
 keep your vessel free of rodent, mosquito and insect infestation AQIS
 keep all waste properly secured in designated bins AQIS
 do not throw any foodstuffs or garbage overboard while in Australian waters
 do not trade foodstuffs with overseas vessels
 on arrival in Australia, don't allow any crew or passengers to leave or board the
vessel unless an AQIS officer has given permission to do so.

What documentation must the master lodge and to whom before Departure?
Port Clearance
Prior to departure from Australia, Customs and Immigration clearance is required.
(Form 3B)
This is available at any appointed port.
Customs should be contacted in advance to avoid unnecessary delay.
It is an offence to depart without clearance.
Requirements for departure
Passports and completed 3B Form.
Dues / fees payed (usually pre –paid on arrival)

What is the purpose of Ballast Water Management?


a. To prevent the introduction of harmful organisms and non-abo marine species in
water.
b. Dangers:
(i) Introduction of non-abo marine species
(ii) Serious diseases and parasites which effect humans, animals & plants
(iii) Ecological impacts on native species including cross breeding
(iv) Pollution

What are the management options for your Ballast Water?


a. BWDSS - Ballast Water Decision Support System: Computerized risk assessment of a
ships ballast water – Not mandatory

b. No discharge of high risk Ballast water in OZ:


(i) Low risk BW as accessed by BWDSS can be:
-Exchange Mid ocean / OZ territorial sea
-Fresh water
c. Tank to Tank Transfer
d. Full ballast water exchange at sea – 200m depth outside EEZ (200’)

33
(i) Flow through method 300% of the capacity of the tank
(ii) Completely exchange tank (watch stability criteria / FSE /BM)

What is de-rat exemption & certificate?


The International Health Regulations entered into force on 15 June 2007 a new Ship
Sanitation Control Exemption Certificate/Ship Sanitation Control Certificate
(SSCEC/SSCC). These certificates will now replace the Deratting Certificate/Deratting
Exemption Certificate.

Ship Sanitation Control Certificate is valid for a maximum of six months.

if evidence of a public health risk is found on board a ship and the ship is not able to
produce a valid DC/DEC or SSCEC/SSCC, the competent authority may proceed to
inspect the ship with one of three possible outcomes.

1) No evidence of a public health risk is found on board. The competent authority may
issue a SSCEC.

2) Evidence of a public health risk is found on board. The competent authority


satisfactorily completes or supervises the completion of the necessary control measures
and is required to issue a SSCC. If, in the opinion of the competent authority, the
conditions under which control measures are carried out at the port are such that a
satisfactory result cannot be obtained, this should be noted on the existing SSCC. The
SSCC is valid for a maximum period of 6 months. The control measures must be
completed before a further SSCC is issued.

3) The competent authority extends the SSCEC for a period of one month until the ship
arrives at a port at which the Ship Sanitation Control Certificate may be received.

34
Explain all the Marpol Annex’s?
Annex 1: Oil
Vessels >400grt / Tankers >150t
IOPP certificate
SOPEP
Oil record book: Part 1 Machinery Spaces / Part 2 Cargo (tankers >150t)

Oil discharge Machinery space requirements:


1. En route >12 from nearest land
2. 15 PPM
3. OWS oily water separator / The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring
and control system (Reg 16)
4. Not from Cargo or pump rooms
5. No discharge in Antarctic
6. SSA: As above with Auto stopper sensor of 15 PPM
7. No visible traces of oil in wake
8. If Unable to comply to these regs: 100ppm
9. <400GRT able to store appropriate amounts of oil & discharge to reception facility

Oil discharge Cargo / Pump Rooms / Slop Tanks.


1. En- route
2. >50’ From Baseline
3. Max 30L per NM
4. OWS / The tanker has in operation an oil discharge monitoring
and control system and a slop tank arrangement
5. No Discharge sensitive sea area (SSA)
6. New Tankers: cannot discharge more than 1/30000 of previous cargo
7. Old Tankers: cannot discharge more than 1/15000 of previous cargo
TABLE 1 Oil MARPOL Annex I - Applies to all vessels
Sub-Category Discharge Conditions

For more information and definitions refer to MARPOL consolidated edition 2011*.

Oil tankers Oily waste from cargo  More than 50 nautical miles from the nearest land; and
All waters tanks
 Tanker is proceeding en route; and
 Instantaneous rate of discharge < 30 litres per nautical mile; and
 Total quantity discharge does not exceed 1/15,000 or 1/30,000 of the
total cargo (depending on the age of the vessel); and
 Oil discharge monitoring and control system and slop tank arrangement
to be operating.

All vessels > 400 gross Machinery space bilges  Proceeding en route; and
tons
All waters  Oil content less than 15 parts per million; and
 Oil discharge monitoring and control system and oil filtering
equipment to be operating

In some circumstances, oil or oily mixtures, may be retained onboard for


discharge to port reception facilities – see MARPOL Annex I, Regulation 14.

Note: 15ppm discharges can be anywhere at sea (not within port limits) including
the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Marine Protected Areas. Vessel must not
be stationary when undertaking discharge.

35
All vessels <400 gross Machinery space bilges  Oil and all oily mixtures retain onboard for on shore disposal
tons
All waters
OR

 Proceeding en route; and


 Has in operation equipment of a design approved by the administration
that ensures oil content less than 15 parts per million.

Note: 15ppm discharges can be anywhere at sea (not within port limits) including
the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Marine Protected Areas. Vessel must not
be stationary when undertaking discharge.
Vessels operating in Great Bunkering utilising ship to  A Permit is required from GBRMPA under which certain conditions
Barrier Reef Marine Park ship transfers may be imposed.

36
Annex II NLS in bulk
Requirements for vessels carry NLS in Bulk:
1. IPPCNLS (International Pollution Prevention Certificate Carry Noxious Liquid
Substances
2. Cargo Record Book
3. SMPEP Ship Marine Pollution Emergency Plan: which can also include the SMPEP.
4. Procedures & Arrangements Plan / Manual Approved by Flag / Class
5. Cert. of Fitness OSV (NLS) for Offshore Supply Vessels

5a. Cert. of fitness Chemicals in bulk for Chemical Tankers (IBC code Iinternational Bulk
Chemical Code means the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of
Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk)

5b. Cert. of fitness Liquid Gases in bulk for Gas Buggies (IGC international Bulk Chemical
Code means the International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships
Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk)

NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES MARPOL ANNEX II AND HARMFUL PACKAGED SUBSTANCES MARPOL ANNEX III
Vessel/Voyage type/Area Sub-Category Discharge Conditions
Chemical and Product Category X
Tankers Tanks to be prewashed before leaving unloading port, residues to be pumped
ashore until the concentration of the substance in the effluent is 0.1% by weight or
less, as indicated by analysis of samples of the effluent taken by an AMSA marine
surveyor. When the required concentration level has been achieved, remaining
tank washings to be discharged to the reception facility until the tank is empty.
Appropriate entries to be made in the Cargo Record Book and endorsed by the
AMSA marine surveyor. Any water subsequently added may be discharged if:

 Ship is proceeding en route at a speed of at least 7 knots; and


 Discharge below the waterline; and
 Ship is > 12 nm from nearest land and depth of water is >25m

High-viscosity or
solidifying Category Y Prewash in accordance with Convention, residues to be pumped ashore until tank
is empty. Any water subsequently added may be discharged if:

 Ship is proceeding en route at a speed of at least 7 knots; and


 Discharge below the waterline; and
 Ship is > 12 nm from nearest land and depth of water is >25m

Category Y  Ship is proceeding en route at a speed of at least 7 knots; and


Category Z
 Concentration of substance in wake of ship < 1 part per million; and
 Amount not to exceed 1m3 or 1/3,000 of tank capacity, whichever is
greater; and
 Discharge below the waterline; and
 Ship is > 12 nm from nearest land and depth of water is >25m

MARPOL Harmful Jettisoning of harmful  Prohibited, except where necessary for the purpose of securing the
Packaged Substances packaged substances into safety of the ship or saving life at sea
(Annex III) the sea

37
Annex III Harmful substances in Package from: DG’s
Annex IV: Sewage
Requirements for vessels >200GRT or Carrying >10 Pax
ISPP International Sewage Pollution Prevention Certificate issued by Class/ Flag
Standard Discharge Pipe / Flange
Requirements for holding tanks / system used will be on the back of the ISPPC
Areas of Discharge
TABLE 3 Sewage - MARPOL Annex IV
Vessel/Voyage
Sub-Category Discharge Conditions
type/Area
All vessels (other than Comminuted and  Permitted as long as no less than 3 nm from nearest land; and
passenger ships within disinfected sewage using
special areas) an approved system in
 Sewage originating from holding tanks, or sewage originating
from spaces containing live animals is discharged at a moderate
accordance with
rate* while the ship is proceeding en route at a speed not less than
regulation 9.1.2 of
4 knots.
MARPOL Annex IV
* The rate of discharge shall be approved by the Administration based upon
standards approved by the Organisation. Recommended standards for the
rate of discharge of sewage from ships can be found in Marine Order 96.
All vessels (other than Sewage not comminuted  Permitted as long as no less than 12 nm from nearest land; and
passenger ships within or disinfected
special areas)
 Sewage originating from holding tanks, or sewage originating
from spaces containing live animals is discharged at a moderate
rate* while the ship is proceeding en route at a speed not less than
4 knots
* The rate of discharge shall be approved by the Administration based upon
standards approved by the Organisation. Recommended standards for the
rate of discharge of sewage from ships can be found in Marine Order 96
All vessels (other than Treated sewage effluent Permitted provided:
passenger ships within discharged through an  Effluent does not produce visible floating solids nor cause
special areas) on approved Sewage discolouration of the surrounding water
International voyages to Treatment Plant (STP)
and continuing in certified by the
 Local laws may prohibit discharges in ports
Additionally:
Australian waters Administration to meet the
operational requirements  When within port limits, check with port authority as permission
referred to in regulation may be required
9.1.1 of MARPOL Annex IV  All vessels should ensure that the STP is operating at optimum
performance when in Australian waters
Food or biological waste removed from filtration units of vessels on
international voyages is prohibited from discharge within 12nm from land
(DAFF requirements)
Passenger ships within Treated sewage effluent Permitted unless:
special areas* from new passenger ships  The ship has in operation an approved sewage treatment plant
* further information on on, or after 1 January 2016 certified by the Administration to meet the operational
special areas can be and for existing passenger requirements referred to in regulation 9.2.1 of MARPOL Annex IV;
found in circular ships on, or after 1 January and
MEPC.1/Circ.778/Rev.1 2018
 Effluent does not produce visible floating solids nor cause
discolouration of the surrounding water.
Note: local laws may prohibit discharges in ports
Great Barrier Reef All sewage discharges In accordance with Annex IV requirements and where applicable with any
Marine Park Vessels on additional restrictions imposed as conditions of a GBRMP permit
International voyages to
and continuing in
Australian waters
Great Barrier Reef All sewage discharges  Recommended to comply with MARPOL Annex IV
Marine Park
Vessels on domestic
 Or, in accordance with requirements of Part 3A of the GBRMPA
Regulations (93A-93G) for both treated and untreated sewage
voyages
 AND, where applicable, in accordance with any additional
restrictions imposed as conditions of a GBRMP permit
Queensland State If vessel does not have a  If a vessel has 16 or more persons on board, no discharge of
Waters (small sewage treatment system untreated sewage is permitted anywhere in Queensland waters.
vessels/State registered on board, options include:
and recreational)

38
 Using onshore  If a vessel has 7 to 15 persons on board, no discharge of untreated
toilet facilities sewage is permitted within 1 nm of a reef or the mean low water
whenever mark of an island or the mainland.
possible  No discharge of untreated sewage is permitted within 1 nm of
 Using a portable aquaculture fisheries resources, or within 0.5 nm of a wharf or
toilet to be later jetty other than a jetty that is a marina.
emptied to a
sewerage/septic
system
Retain sewage in onboard
holding tank for pumping
out to shore facilities.

39
Annex V: Garbage
Requirements for vessels >12m:
Placards / stickers of disposal requirements in the appropriate Language

Requirements for vessels >400GRT & carrying >15 Pax:


(i) GMP: Garbage Management Plan
(ii) Garbage Record Book

Disposal Criteria for Discharge:


Offshore platforms (more than 12 nm
Ships outside special Ships within special
Type of garbage from land) and all ships within 500m of
areas1 areas1
such platforms
Discharge permitted, Discharge permitted4,
while en route3, as far while en route3, as far
Food2 waste comminuted or
as practicable from the as practicable from the
ground to particle size < Discharge permitted
nearest land, but in any nearest land, but in any
25mm
case, ≥ 3nm from the case, ≥ 12nm from the
nearest land. nearest land.
Discharge permitted,
while en route3, as far
Food2 waste not comminuted as practicable from the
Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited
or ground nearest land, but in any
case, ≥ 12nm from the
nearest land.
Cargo residues5 that cannot
be recovered using commonly
available methods for Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited
unloading, not contained in
wash water. Discharge permitted,
while en route, as far as
practicable from the Discharge permitted,
while en route, as far as
Cargo residues5 that cannot nearest land, but in any
practicable from the
be recovered using commonly case, ≥ 12nm from the
nearest land. nearest land, but in any
available methods for Discharge prohibited
case, ≥ 12nm from the
unloading, contained in wash
nearest land. Subject to
water
two additional
conditions6.
Discharge permitted, from a loaded hold7
Cargo material5 contained in
through the ships’ fixed piping bilge drainage Discharge prohibited
cargo hold bilge water
system.
Discharge permitted,
while en route, as far as
practicable from the
Cleaning agents and
nearest land, but in any
additives5contained in cargo Discharge prohibited
case, ≥ 12nm from the
hold wash water
Discharge permitted nearest land. Subject to
two additional
conditions6.
Cleaning agents and
additives4in deck and Discharge permitted Discharge prohibited
external surfaces wash water
Discharge permitted,
while en route, as far as
practicable from the
Carcasses of animals carried
nearest land and at
on board as cargo and which Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited
maximum water depth,
died during the voyage
but in any case, ≥
100nm8 from the
nearest land.
Grey water Discharge permitted9 Discharge permitted9 Discharge permitted9
All other garbage including
Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited Discharge prohibited
plastics, synthetic ropes,

40
fishing gear, plastic garbage
bags, incinerator ashes,
clinkers, cooking oil, floating
dunnage, lining and packing
materials, paper, rags, glass,
metal, bottles, crockery and
similar refuse
When garbage is mixed with or contaminated by other substances prohibited from
Mixed garbage discharge or having different discharge requirements, the more stringent requirements
apply.

Note: The above conditions apply except where the disposal of garbage from a ship is necessary for the purpose of securing
the safety of a ship and those on board or saving life at sea – see MARPOL Regulation 7.1.1

What can you discharge overboard?


Grey Water

Where can’t you discharge overboard?


No food stuffs inside 3’
No plastics / dunnage / crockery / rags / glass anywhere
(iii) Incenerators must be approved with training / Ash disposed at reception facility

Annex IV: Air


What is Sox and Nox?
(i) Sox: Sulphur Oxide (fuel content)
(ii) Nox: Nitrogen Oxide (exhaust Content)
Requirements for vessels >400GRT: (under 400GRT as per Administrations requirements)
(i) IAPP International Air Pollution Prevention certificate
(ii) The Sox content of fuel used on a ship should not be Greater than 4.5% (SSA 1.5%)
(iii) Nox Regulations apply to engines >130 KW: (not lifeboats)
-Must meet emission standards
-Exhaust monitoring Equipment
-2000 rpm=7.8 k per KW
-150 rpm = 17 g per KW
(iv) Incinerators must meet the standards
Vessel/Voyage type/Area Sub-Category Discharge Conditions
All vessels Ozone-depleting  Prohibited
substances

Nitrogen Oxides  Operation of diesel engines >130kW prohibited unless engine is


certified to meet prescribed emission standards.
 New Engines:
• Tier I - 17 g/kW from 1 January 2000
• Tier II - 14.4 g/kW from 1 January 2011
• Tier III - 3.4 g/kW from 1 January 2016 (in Emission Control Areas
(ECA))
Existing Engines (installed on ship on or between 1 January 1990 to 1
January 2000)
• 17g/kW for diesel engine with power output >5000kW and
displacement per cylinder => 90 litres
• Approved method by Administration

Sulphur Oxides  Sulphur content of fuel oil not to exceed 4.5%. **


 From 1 January 2012, sulphur content of fuel oil not to exceed 3.5% **
 From 1 January 2020 sulphur content if fuel oil not to exceed 0.5% **

** Fuel oil to be purchased from a registered supplier

41
Note: Feasibility review to be completed 2018
Incinerators  Incinerators installed after 1 January 2000 must be type approved

What is STCW 95?

Explain the STCW convention & STCW code?


(i)STCW CONVENTION RESOLUTION 1

The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch keeping


of Seafarers (STCW), 1978, provides the legal framework within which global minimum
standards of knowledge, understanding, experience and professional competence of
seafarers may be achieved.

The STCW convention includes Resolution 1 which is made up of 8 chapters outlining


the requirements for:

1. General Provisions (goes into things such as definition of words, principles


governing near-coastal voyages, quality standards)
2. Master & Deck Department (requirements to obtain a certificate on a certain size
ship)
3. Engine department
4. Radio communications and radio personnel (requirements for certification)
5. Special training for personnel on certain type of ships. Previously this chapter
was concerned only the crews of tankers. Special requirements were introduced
concerning the personnel of roll on-roll off passenger ships. This change was
made in response ro-ro safety, following the capsize and sinking of the ferry
Estonia in September 1994
6. Emergency, occupational safety, medical care and survival functions.
Incorporates the mandatory minimum requirements for familiarization, basic
safety training and instruction for all seafarers. It encompasses the issue of
certificates of proficiency in survival craft, rescue boats; training in advanced
firefighting; and relating to medical first aid and medical care
7. Alternate certification Regulations regarding alternative certification are
included in a new Chapter VII. This involves enabling crews to gain training and
certification in various departments of seafaring rather than being confined to
one branch for their entire career. It is intended to ensure that safety and the
environment are not threatened in any way
8. Watchkeeping. Measures were introduced for watchkeeping personnel to
prevent fatigue. Administrations are required to establish and enforce rest
periods for watchkeeping personnel and to ensure that watch systems are
arranged so that the efficiency of watchkeeping is not impaired by fatigue.

42
(ii)SEAFARERS TRAINING CERTIFICATION & WATCHKEEPING (STCW) CODE

The Seafarer’s Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW) Code contains both
mandatory technical standards and non-mandatory guidance for the use of those
involved in educating, training or assessing the competence of seafarers or who are
otherwise involved in applying the provisions of the STCW Convention.

The STCW Code is made up of Resolution 2 with Part A & Part B for all the 8 chapters:

1. Standards regarding General Provisions


2. Standards regarding the Master & Deck Department
3. Standards regarding the Engine department
4. Standards regarding the radio personnel
5. Standards regarding the Special training for personnel on certain type of ships
6. Standards regarding the emergency, occupational safety, medical care and
survival functions
7. Standards regarding the Alternate certification
8. Standards regarding the Watchkeeping

Part A – mandatory provisions to which specific reference is made in the annex to the
STCW convention and which give, in detail, the minimum standards to be maintained by
Parties in order to give full and complete effect to the provisions of the STCW
Convention.

Part B – recommended guidance to assist Parties( Administrations / Flag State) to the


STCW Convention and those involved in implementing, applying or enforcing its
measures to give the STCW Convention full and complete effect in a uniform manner.

(2) How do we use the STCW Convention & Code practically?


(i) The International Convention on Standards for Training, Certification, and
Watchkeeping for Seafarers came into force in 1978 (STCW-78). The 1995 amendments
to the Code (STCW-95) added more "hands-on" demonstrations of your skill & ability to
prove that you are qualified to serve aboard seagoing vessels. The biggest change with
STCW-95 is that it formalizes the documentation of your ability to perform these tasks.

In a practical sense, as a sea farer how do we use the convention & code?

An example of this would be that we need to obtain a GMDSS certificate to serve on a


vessel, what requirements and standards do we have to meet.

In the STCW convention:;


Chapter IV Radio communication and Radio personnel, outlines the mandatory
requirements,
.1 not less than 18 years of age: and
.2 have completed approved education and training and meet the standard of
competence specified in section A-IV/2 of the STCW code (Resolution 2).

43
So we have to pass an approved course, to find out what is involved in the course we
use:
The STCW code;
PART A: Chapter IV Standards regarding Radio personnel.
This outlines the minimum standards by law that the training has to meet, so the course
has to approved to these standards to obtain a legitimate GMDSS certificate.
So I will have experience in the field and training in a classroom to meet all the
requirements of the Items specified in Part A of the code.

PART B Chapter IV: Non- Mandatory, This gives guidance for Parties (Administrations)
of how to achieve this standard in Part A

Does STCW work?


(i) The STCW convention and code came about mainly to standardise all training
certification and watchkeeping throughout the maritime community.
The purpose and objectives of the convention work in a sense that all seafarers should
be now competent and certified, obtaining practical training and knowledge through
seatime, training centres and courses.
Fatigue is now no longer a sleeping giant with minimum rest hours part of the
convention.
The resolutions amended (1995) have looked at such things as Training of Radio
personnel, crisis management, training pilots and VTS personnel and the participation
of women at sea.

(ii)When trying to uniform the convention throughout the world it has been found that
each Administration partied to the convention in fact have different standards, audit
levels and views of the Convention and Code, so not all certificates or training are
universally accepted. A seafarer may have a certificate to Master a vessel in
international waters but this certificate may not be recognised if the seafarer wishes to
upgrade their certificate in a different country to their current issuing Administration.
Administrations in some countries have set the bar high in some areas such as training,
so accepting a certificate from an Administration with less facilities to reach this
standard are rejected. In these areas the Convention hasn’t quite reached its full
potential.

What are the hours of rest for a seafarer? (MO 28 Operational standards &
Procedures
The minimum hours of rest for a seafarer must be:
(a) 10 hours in any 24 hours; and
(b) 77 hours in any 7 days.
The minimum hours of rest may be divided into 2 periods, of which 1 period must be at
least 6 hours.
The interval between consecutive periods of rest must not exceed 14 hours.

44
What is PSC?
(i) It is strategy used to ensure SOLAS, protection of the environment & Property.
(ii) Port State Control (PSC) is the inspection of foreign ships by a PSC officer in national
ports to verify the competency of the master and officers on board, the condition of the
ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international regulations and
that the ship is manned and operated in compliance with these rules.
(iii) The primary responsibility for ships' standards rests with the flag State - but port
State control provides a "safety net" to catch substandard ships.
(iv) AMSA is particularly interested in the Safety Equipment onboard i.e. Lifeboat falls.
ILO & Certification
(v) A PSC Officer who finds or suspects a deficiency may enforce the following:
1. Deficiencies can be rectified within 14 days for minor infractions
2. Under specific conditions, deficiencies can be rectified when the ship arrives at the
next port
3. Deficiencies must be rectified before the ship can depart the port;
4. Detention of the ship
(vi) PSC get there powers to detain, board & inspect a ship through the Nav Act 190AA.
(vii) Customs also have a role in PSC as often they are the first & only to board.

What is the relationship between OHSmi & Seacare?


Seacare Overview
Seacare is a national scheme of occupational health and safety (OHS), rehabilitation and
workers’ compensation arrangements which applies to defined seafaring employees
and – in relation to OHS – defined third parties.
.
The Seacare Authority oversees the operation of the:
 Seafarers Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 1992 (Seafarers Act) which
establishes a workers' compensation and rehabilitation scheme for seafarers
employed on certain ships engaged in trade or commerce within a Territory,
interstate or overseas, and on other vessels declared by the Australian Maritime
Safety Authority;
 Seafarers Rehabilitation and Compensation
 Seafarers Rehabilitation and Compensation Levy Act 1992 (Levy Act) which
provides for a levy to be collected to support the Seafarers Safety Net Fund. The
Safety Net Fund stands in the place of an employer where there is no employer
against whom a seafarer can make a compensation claim;
 Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act 1993 (OHS (MI) Act)
which provides an OHS regime for seafarers.
The Authority also administers Regulations made under these Acts.

Mission
The mission of the Seacare Authority is:
To take a leading role in minimising the human and financial costs of workplace injury
in the Australian maritime industry.
Occupational safety and health (OSH) is the area concerned with protecting the safety,
health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.

45
OHSMI Regulation is the legal frame work for OHS that provide guidelines for health and
safety in the maritime industry.
An Act to promote the occupational health and safety of persons employed in the
maritime industry.

The objects of this Act are:

(a) to secure the health, safety and welfare at work of maritime industry employees
(b) to protect persons at or near workplaces from risks to health and safety arising out
of the activities of maritime industry employees at work
(c) to ensure that expert advice is available on occupational health and safety matters
affecting maritime industry operators, maritime industry employees and maritime
industry contractors
(d) to promote an occupational environment for maritime industry employees that is
adapted to their health and safety needs; and
(e) to foster a cooperative consultative relationship between maritime industry
operators and maritime industry employees on the health, safety and welfare of
maritime industry employees at work.

What personnel fall under the OSHMI Act?


(i) Australian seafarers signed onto a ship i.e. Articles of agreement.
(ii) Contractors who are working on the ship.

When does the OSHMI act not apply?


(i) When the vessel has been taking control from an external contractor i.e. Dry
dock.(except Parts 23,24,25,26 which is pretty much duty of care.
(ii) Note that control does not mean Operate.
Note,
(i) For dry docking, these issues are raised at Pre-docking, OH&S, maintenance meeting
with the Dry dock, Company & Master i.e. PTW’s, Incident reporting & OH&S act.

Employer’s Responsibilities with the OSHMI.


Owners & operators have primary responsibilities of providing a safe workplace for
both employees and contractors.

Owners & Operators Must:


Take steps to ensure the health, safety & welfare of employees & contractors by
providing:
1. Safe working environment.
2. Safe plants
3. Safe systems of work.
4. Safe access.
5. Training.
6. Instructors.
7. Manuals.
8. Maintain records.
9. PPE.
10. Medical & first aid services.
11. Health & Safety policies.

46
12. Risk Assessments.
13. Procedures, JHA’s & Checklists.
What are the responsibilities of the Employee?
(i) Should not operate in a way that may cause risk to themselves or others.
(ii) Use PPE
(iii) Do not distract others in shit situations.
(iv) Report.
(v) Observe hazards or potential hazards.
(vi) Promote safety.
(vii) Update Procedures/PTW/toolbox meetings/JHA
(viii) Help others

What is the Masters responsibilities under the OSHMI act?


(i) As the owners representative they are to promote and implement the operator’s
responsibilities.
(ii) Review, report & suggest improvements to the owner the effectiveness of OHS
onboard.
(iii) The Master shall rectify all PIN, PN (prohibition Notice) & IN (Incident notices)

What is AMSA’s responsibility under the OSHMI act?


To provide an inspectorate.

What is the role of the Inspectorate?


(i) The role of the inspectorate is to perform investigations.
(ii) Issue PN & IN.
(iii) Ensure a company is conforming to the act.
(iv) Report to AMSA & Seacare.
(v) Look at trends of accidents and there locations issued by Seacare.
(vi) Be available on request from operators to investigate accidents / incidents.

What is a PIN and who issues one?


(i) A Provisional incident notice is issued by the Health and safety rep to the Master.
(ii) It highlights an issue of health & safety that needs rectifying.

What is a PN and who issues one?


(i) A Prohibition Notice is issued to the Owner by an AMSA inspectorate after
conducting an inspection or investigation.
(ii) It is to highlight an immediate threat to health & safety.
(iii) The activity must be stopped or machinery shut down or work practices ceased
until the issue has been rectified and the Inspectorate is satisfied.
(iv) The PN must be writing and given to the muster specify the reasons and ways to
help rectify the problem.

What is an IN and who issues one?


(i) An Improvement Notice is issued to the Master by an AMSA inspectorate after
conducting an inspection or investigation.
(ii) It highlights possible areas where the OSHMI act has been breached or likely to be
contravened.
(iii) An IN should specify time to rectify, specific action to be taken.

47
(iv) Copy issued to Master, the HSR and posted at the scene.

What is a HSR & what are their duties?


(i) A Health and safety representative is usually nominated by the DWG.
(ii) The HSR represents the DWG and protects its members in OHS matters.
(iii) The HSR should have training; the owners should provide time for training
everybody onboard.
(iv) The HSR can issue a PIN (Provisional improvement notice), stop work, request an
investigation, inspect a workplace, investigate complaints & accompany the
Inspectorate during investigations.

What Is a DWG?
(i) A Designated Work Group is usually formed around ship ranks (C/O, C/E and I/R’s)
that have common issues on OHS matters.

When do you fill in An AMSA form 18/19?


Vessels which are required to report under sections 185, 186, 197 and 312 of the
Navigation Act 2012 are required to report under the TSI Act, however, the completion
and submission of form ‘AMSA18' [ PDF: 1.16Mb] by a responsible person is sufficient
to fulfil the obligation to report imposed under section 18 of the Transport Safety
Investigation Act 2003. As such there is not need to send a separate report to comply
with this requirement.
Sections 185 and 186 of the Navigation Act 2012
A report of marine incidents (defined in s14) must be made by the Master or Owner
where:
 the vessel is involved in a marine incident that has affected, or is likely to affect,
the safety, operation or seaworthiness of the vessel;
 the vessel is involved in, or causes, a marine incident that involves:
i. the death of a person; or
ii. serious injury to a person; or
iii. the loss of a vessel; or
iv. the loss of a person from the vessel; or
v. significant damage to a vessel; or
vi. loss of cargo of a vessel.
Application: All ships in Australian waters, Australian ships anywhere.
Section 187 of the Navigation Act 2012
A report of dangers to navigation must be made by the Master where;
 the master meets with, or is informed of, any serious danger to navigation on or
near his or her course.
 A serious danger to navigation includes, but is not limited to, any of the
following:
(a) dangerous ice;
(b) a dangerous derelict;
(c) a dangerous derelict;
(d) a tropical storm;
(e) sub-freezing air temperature associated with gale force winds causing severe ice
accretion on superstructures;
(f) winds of force 10 on the Beaufort scale for which no storm warning has been
received.

48
Application: All ships in Australian waters, Australian ships anywhere.

Section 312 of the Navigation Act 2012


Whenever a person carried on the vessel gives birth, dies or disappears or a seafarer is
injured or contracts an illness that incapacitates him or her from the performance of his
or her duty;
 the master must record the occurrence in the vessel’s official logbook; AND
 as soon as practicable, give a report in writing.
Application: Regulated Australian Vessels anywhere.
Under Marine Order 32 (Cargo Handling Equipment)
Section 9.2.2 of Marine Order 32 requires a report to be submitted for any incident
involving breakage or failure of ship’s cargo gear or injury to any person on an
Australian ship or on any other ship in Australian waters when engaged in cargo work.
This applies to all ships in Australian waters.
Under Section 107 of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act
1993
For Australian ships on any voyage and Australian offshore industry units section 107
of the Occupational Health and Safety (Maritime Industry) Act 1993 requires notification
and reporting of:
 any accident that results in the death of, or serious personal injury to any person;
or
 any accident that results in an employee being incapacitated from performing
work for a period of five successive days or more; or
 a dangerous occurrence (i.e.: a near miss), which occurs at or near a workplace
under the control of the operator.

When is MARPOL Incident reporting required? FORM 1522


Harmful substances / IMDG / Marpol

Article 8 and Protocol I of MARPOL contain comprehensive requirements for a report in


the required format to be made to the nearest coastal , without delay, when an incident
involves:
A discharge above the permitted level or probable discharge of oil or of noxious liquid
substances for whatever reason including those for the purpose of securing the safety of
the ship or for saving life at sea; or
A discharge or probable discharge of harmful substances (see note) in packaged form,
including those in freight containers, portable tanks, road and rail vehicles and
shipborne barges; or
Damage, failure or breakdown of a ship of 15 metres in length or above which:
affects the safety of the ship; including but not limited to:
collision
grounding
fire
explosion
structural failure
flooding
cargo shifting
results in impairment of the safety of navigation

49
failure or breakdown of steering gear, propulsion plant, electrical generating system,
and essential shipborne navigational aids
A discharge during the operation of the ship of oil or noxious liquid substances in excess
of the quantity or instantaneous rate permitted under the present Convention.

What levies does AMSA charge?


The Protection of the Sea Levy:
Is charged against ships and is based on the "potential polluter pays" principle. The levy
applies to vessels which are more than 24 metres in length and have onboard more than
10 tonnes of oil in bulk as fuel or cargo. The levy is currently 14.25 cents per net
registered ton per quarter, with a minimum of $10 per quarter. The levy was first
imposed on 1 October 1973 and is reviewed annually.

The Marine Navigation Levy:


Is a charge against commercial shipping which is levied to recover all costs of operating
the Commonwealth's marine aids to navigation system. It is Government policy that the
"user pays" principle is applied and all costs are recovered.
The Marine Navigation Levy is payable each quarter in the case of coastal trading
vessels, and upon arrival at an Australian port in the case of overseas trading vessels. A
certificate, valid for three months, is issued on the occasion of each payment. The basis
of charging is the net registered tonnage (NRT) of a vessel. Only vessels with a length of
24 metres or greater are obliged to pay the Marine Navigation Levy.

Marine Navigation (Regulatory Functions) Levy:


Is identical to those of the Marine Navigation Levy, this levy goes towards funding
AMSA’s PSC, certification & surveys.

What is The IMO?


IMO – THE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION – IS THE UNITED NATIONS
SPECIALIZED AGENCY WITH RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SAFETY AND SECURITY OF
SHIPPING AND THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION BY SHIPS
The IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory
framework for shipping which includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters,
technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping.
IMO is governed by an Assembly of members and by a Council of members elected from
the Assembly.
The work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by
technical subcommittees i.e. MSC- Safety Navigation Committee – Pollution committee

50
Cargo
Explain the process of draft survey and why conduct a draft survey?
Draft surveys are conducted to get an accurate measure on the total cargo loaded, often
the estimated cargo loaded is done by the loaders conveyor belt.
The draft survey cargo total wt is used for the ‘Mates receipt’ which is the total cargo wt
used on the Bill of Lading.

Initial draft survey & Final draft Survey?


See NEWCASTLE port procedure document

Explain PIC?
The Person in charge is or ‘Terminal Representative’ is appointed by the terminal or
facility who has responsibility for the operations conducted by the terminal in regards
to that particular ship, the PIC can delegate some duties to the terminal foreman in
regards to the loading of the cargo i.e. keeping ship upright and adhering to the load
plan.

What does the ship to shore checklist contain?


Ship Particulars
Depth / drafts / air drafts
WX / Tides
Emergency departure
Communication
PIC ship & terminal
Bunkering
Repairs
SOF statement of facts
Copies of Port / terminal info
Inductions: Ship & Shore
Confined space procedures
Load sequence
Trimming
Mooring

How to take over a watch loading a bulk carrier in port.


Monitor:
Tide / Wx / Mooring lines
Load Plan / Ballast operations / Load pour rates
ISPS
Handover notes:
Emergency contacts Port / Terminal
PIC / contact
Crew on watch
Masters Handover notes
Port / Loading standing orders
Any applicable PTW / Procedures

51
Statement of facts: load pours / hatch times etc.

OOW and stevedores say it’s unsafe to work. Explain the process of mediation and
action to be taken?
Stop operations.

What documents, codes, publications are relevant to loading a bulk carrier.


IMSBC code, find a certain cargo and explain in detail where to find it and what it all
meant such as stowage factor:
SOLAS Ch VI / XII
MO 32 / 33 / 34 / 35 / 42 / 44
Codes: IMSBC / Grain / Container / IMDG /
Cargo securing Manual
Lifting register
IMSBC: Contains both bulk cargo code & Bulk loading & Unloading code. This
publication contains things such as:
General Provisions loading / unloading
Safety
Ship suitability
Trimming procedures
Stowage factors
TML and TML testing
Properties of cargoes
Class of cargo: ABC
Angle of repose: no more than 35 degrees
Ship to shore checklist
Loading plans
Cargo watchkeeping
Fumigation
Port & terminal info

Notice to furmigate a hold?


At least 72 hours to AMSA

52
What are the procedures for loading dangerous goods in OZ? esso /private /
normal?

AMSA Requirements:

a. Multi model form: 48 hours


(i) From the shipper to:
- Master
- Consolidator / Packing
- AMSA on request

b. Stowage Plan & Cargo Manifest: 24 hours


(i) From the Master to AMSA within 24 hours of Loading
(ii) Do not load until a multi model form has been received from the shipper.

c. Bridge Folder:
(i) Have the following in a folder:
-Multimodel Form
-Stowage plan
-Cargo Manifest
-EmS for DG’s onboard: Have Fifi / detergent / BA’s available
-MFAG
-Ships Emergency procedures
-Check the DOC for DG’s for stowage

IMDG code, find a certain cargo and explain in detail:

List the procedures for loading or preparing a Stowage plan for DG’s?

a. Check the DOC for Ship stowage requirements

b. STEP 1
(i)Look up the DG & get all the info about it:
- UN No
- Class
- Sub risk (may pose more than 1 threat)
- Special Provisions
- Limited Quantities (if it is under a certain amount it is not classes as a DG)
- Expected quantities
- Packing Instructions
- Stowage & Segregation
- EmS: Emergency schedule for Fire & Spills
- Properties

c. STEP 2
(i) Go to the Supplement & get the:

53
- EmS for each of the DG’s (& the MFAG)

d. STEP 3
(i) Get the Category from the DG’s details A-E or 1-12

(ii) With this letter or number go to Part 7.1 Stowage

(iii) Look up the number / Letter in this chapter, Here it will tell you where you can
stow the DG. i.e. On deck / Under deck in transport unit etc.

e. STEP 4
(i) Now go to the Segregation Part 7.2

(ii) Look up what kind of ship you are on in one of the chapters in this part:
- All cargo ships
- RO / RO
-Container
- Barge

(iii) In the appropriate vessel


Chapter look up the segregation table and use the matrix to compare segregation with
other DG’s i.e. Explosives 1.1 & Flammable gases 2.3 has a number of ‘2’.

iv) With this 2 look up what it means i.e. Away from

(v) Now look up ‘away from’ in the same chapter: it will give you details of the
segregation i.e. 3m or separated by a bulkhead etc.

Name the IMDG classes with their corresponding class numbers?


 Class 1 Explosives
 Class 2 Gases
 Class 2.1 Flammable gases
 Class 2.2 Non flammable non toxic
 Class 2.3 Toxic
 Class 3 Flammable liquids
 Class 4 Flammable solids
 Class 5 Oxidizing substances
 Class 6 Toxic and infectious substances
 Class 6.1 Toxic
 Class 6.2 Infectious
 Class 7 Radioactive material
 Class 8 Corrosive substances
 Class 9 Miscellaneous and dangerous substances.

54
Private DG carriage: Esso etc.
Esso transfer DG internally between a Marine terminal and an Oil platform at sea.

Esso still have to comply to the IMDG code and MO 41, but in a somewhat modified way
7 have been exempt from AMSA for the following requirements:

(Exemption Certificate 4758)


(i) To notify AMSA of shipment of DGs (Gippsland Ports need the classes on the
Departure & arrival reports from the ship)
(ii) To use the multi model form (Esso have a their own Material despatch advice form)
(iii) To apply segregation distances in the IMDG Code. (Instead they use the information
in the segregation table and apply in to a deck horizontal spacing table)

The consigner or sender is still responsible for packing and declaring DGs accordance
with the IMDG code:
PSN
UN No.
Class
Sub risks
Quantity
Wt
Container No.
Packaged and secured in Esso approved containers (Inspection approval every 3 years)

55
What are the loading procedures & stability criteria for Grain?
a. The Vessel must have an Authorisation to Carry Grain Certificate.
b. The Master Submit to AMSA 72 hours prior to loading a:
(i) Intention to load grain:
Part A Intention to Load Grain
Part B Stability

(Discharge: Notice to discharge within 24 hours to AMSA)

What are the preparations for loading grain?


a. NOR: Notice of readiness
b. Ship to shore to ship checklist
c. Load Plan
d. Paper work: Master / Agent / Shipper / AMSA
e. Stability
f. Hold survey & preparations:
-Bilges dry & clean / covered & tested
-Free from odours
-Clean rust scale
-safe access
-Holds clean / insect clean
- no smoking
- Intrinsically safe electrical stuff
Note: Grain is described as a ‘Non-Cohesive’ Cargo in the IMSBC meaning a dry cargo
that acts like a liquid.

3 Functions of Grain Stability:


(i) Good initial stability
(ii) Will not list to a dangerous angle
(iii) Enough residual stability when listed

Part B of the intention to load Grain – Stability:


(i) Calculate corrected heeling moments for all holds
(ii) Get allowable heeling moments with Displacement KG from back of Ships stability
Book
(iii) If the heeling moments are less then you are good to sail but still have to do arrival
heeling moments.

c. GM > 0.3m

d. Grain stability book:


-Full
-Untrimmed

c. Shift of grain: List <12 or Deck edge immersion

56
e. Residual stability must 4.3m-degrees after the heeling arm calculations are added to
the GZ plot

f. In the statical stability diagram, the net or residual area between the heeling arm
curve and the righting arm curve up to the angle of heel of maximum difference
between the ordinates of the two curves, or 40° or the angle of flooding (θı), whichever
is the least, shall in all conditions of loading be not less than 0.075 meter-radians

a= Heeling mt
Displacement

b = 0.8 x Heeling mt
Displacement

Plot a & b on the GZ graph


Draw a line between them
Use Simpson rules to calculate the Residual Dynamic stability above that line between
12 – 40 degress or angle of flooding: should be at least 0.075m-radians

GM shall be at least 0.3m for entire trip


Arrival stability completed on departure
List not more than 1 degree on departure

What are the methods for securing grain?


Completely & Partially Filled spaces:
Longitudinal boards
Saucer and tarps
Bundling
Shifting boards
Lashing?

What is the Grain DOA?


The Document of authorisation is the vessels fitness to carry grain.
Items will be surveyed to confirm the that the ship in fit for surface such as:
Grain stability booklet
Grain stability criteria & calculation
Hold capacity
Hold features to prevent Grain shifting i.e shifting boards / saucer fill & tarps

What are Hazards associated with Grain?


(i) Germination – Keep dry / No loading in rain
(ii) Dust explosion – No smoking / Signs / monitor dust fume
(iii) Grain shifting – see below / Angle of repose <35
(iv) Infestation – Sample at intervals / fumigation
(v) Swelling – Check moisture content

57
Describe the steps involved with loading COAL?

a. Coal is classed as TYPE B from the BC code.


b. The BC code has a section about coal.
c. The agent or master submits a form ‘ILSBC’ to AMSA at least 48 hours prior to Loading:
Doesn’t happen in Newcastle , apparently because they know the properties

(i) Intention to Load Solid Bulk Cargoes Form:


-Ships IMO
-Port / Quantity / Quality
(ii) Type B cargoes:
-Angle of repose
-SF
-TML
- Sulphur content
-Trimming
-RD
-UN No.
-MSDS
-Bulk cargo Shipping No
- Cargo Properties

(iii) The Shipper declaration: in writing


-The Shipper or agent provides the master with the properties of cargo including the Bulk
Cargo Proper shipping Name and Type B details including:
TML
Angle of repose
DG class
Shipper / consignee
Fire & Spill procedures
Best way to contain a coal fire is to stop air supply

(iv) Master not to load until the intention to load solid bulk cargo to AMSA submitted
& Load plan & Ship to shore checklist completed & Shippers Declaration completed.

(v) Master & Terminal Rep do a ship to shore checklist which is kept for 6 months.

What are the properties / Hazards / Hold preparations for Coal?


a. COAL Properties:
(i) Liquidification - TML
(ii) Gas Emission – Methane Gas / Hydrogen
(iii) Oxygen Depleting
(iv) Self combustible – Carbon monoxide
(v) Corrosive – sulphuric acid

e. Procedures for Loading COAL:

58
(i) Away from Hot spots / No smoking
(ii) Surface Ventilation
(iii) Hold preparation:
-Bilges
-Paint bare steel
(iv) Bilges clean & dry
(vii) Grease tracks compression bars, limiting sparks
(viii) BA’s available
(ix) PSC look at hold vents are free!!
f. At Sea:
(i) No smoking
(ii) Temp Testing: at 55c< self-combusting
(iii) Gas testing
(iv) Ventilation
(v) Pump bilges
(vi) Intrinsically safe electrical stuff
(vii) Hold vents free but shut

59
TANKERS:
Documentation
Shipper declaration
DOC
BOL
NOP – Love letters
ISSGOT

Certificates
IOPP
P&I certificate on entry
OWS
OMS / Shut offs
ORB part 1 & 2
SOPEP

Operations:
Segregated ballast
Inert gas off less than 5% oxygen
+ve inert gas for loading
Gas vapours to reception facility not to atmosphere
LEL always less than 12%
Spill recovery scuppers / valves
Fire wires for tugs
Mooring lines wire with rope (so vessel can be cut from the wharf)

CSE:
Full water wash
Inert to 8% o2
Purge inert
Purge with Fresh air less than 2% hydro carbons

60
What is COW?

Crude oil washing (COW) is a system whereby oil tanks on a tanker are cleaned out
between voyages not with water, but with crude oil - the cargo itself. The solvent action
of the crude oil makes the cleaning process far more effective than when water is used.
(There is usually a final water rinse but the amount of water involved is very low.) The
system helps prevent pollution of the seas from operational measures.

The tank cleaning machines used crude oil - in other words, the cargo itself. When
sprayed onto the sediments clinging to the tank walls, the oil simply dissolved them,
turning them back into usable oil that could be pumped off with the rest of the cargo.
There was no need for slop tanks to be used since the process left virtually no slops. The
process became known as Crude Oil Washing (COW).

Crude oil washing meant that the mixture of oil and water which led to so much
operational pollution in the past was virtually ended. At the same time, the owner is
able to discharge far more of this cargo than before, since less of it is left clinging to the
tank walls and bottoms.

Crude oil washing was made mandatory for new tankers by the 1978 Protocol to the
MARPOL Convention.MARPOL Annex I Regulation 13 (6) requires every new crude oil
tanker of 20,000 tons deadweight and above to be fitted with a cargo tank cleaning
system using crude oil washing.

What are the problems with tension winches and Tankers?


Automatic self-tensioning has some serious drawbacks when used inappropriately and
ships have, on occasion, been cast right off the berth, so oil and gas terminals normally
forbid using self-tensioning winches on tankers or gas carriers. However, they are often
used on other types of ships, such as container ship and bulk carriers
Fenders are an integral part of the mooring’s behaviour when self-tensioning winches
are used. Tensioning the lines against the compression of the fenders provides a buffer
to changes in both the lead of the lines and offshore environmental forces. Lines that
lead predominately fore and aft (i.e. spring lines and inshore head and stern lines)
should be held on the winch brakes, rather than winches set in self-tension, as the latter
can cause the ship to ‘walk’ up and down the quay. When the lines at one end of the ship
tighten, their winches to pay out, while the lines at the other end slacken, causing their
winches to pick up. Such behaviour is usually caused by an oscillating disturbance, such
as when another vessel passes close by, or the berth is subjected to swell.
In the port of Geraldton They have fixed surge mooring lines at the berths.

Why do Pax vessels have Heeling Tanks?


So that if the vessel listed due to damage, the vessel can be righted to launch
liferafts/boats etc.

Do Pax vessels muster for all PAX voyages?


No, if voyage is less than 24hours, show safety video.

61
Confined space entry, list the steps? OHS act
PTW
Print & Review CSE procedure
Review JHA
Toolbox
Step back 5 x 5
BA
Emergency rescue procedure
PPE
EEBA
Gas monitor

Explain the use & properties of a Gas monitor?


Gas detectors simultaneously monitors atmospheric hazards including carbon dioxide
(CO2), oxygen (O2), combustible gas (%LEL), methane and a wide selection of toxic
gases. They can also monitor TWA (time weighted average) up to 8 hour shifts & STEL
(short term exposure limits) usually 15-30 minutes.

What are the hierarchy’s of control?


Use to prevent or reduce risks involved in a task when conducting a JHA:
Administration
Engineering
PPE
Substitution
Elimination

62
Cargo Stowage & Securing
When must AMSA be notified in relations to MO32?
>100t lift
2 containers high
Lift wt over SWL of gear
Large item over the side.

What is explosion proof?


Explosion proof is the more commonly used method for detector/sensor assemblies for
fixed gas detection systems, An “explosion proof “ classification for a sensor/transmitter
means that the housing has been engineered and constructed to contain a flash or
explosion. Such housings are usually made of cast aluminium or stainless steel and are
of sufficient mass and strength to safely contain an
explosion should flammable gases or vapours penetrate the housing and the internal
electronics or wiring cause an ignition.

You have just sailed, what would you ask the mate?
To have a general walk around the ship, checking:
-General housekeeping – deck and accommodation
-Stowage and securing
-Hx wx preparations
-Watertight doors
-Mooring line stowage
- Crane stowage

What are the Crane access requirements?


Mo 32 schedule 2 section 15.
It’s not something I can control because it a fixed system and should be built in
accordance with the rules, if it looks dodgy then I would refer to the above act or you
could get the MO32 & just check that it does approve.
The next question is something I will try to remember because it is something I can
control.

What are the vertical ladder & walkway requirements?


Walkways:
2 m high 750 mm (except for doorways etc.)

Portable ladders:
I length / not more than 6.5 m long / inclined to 70 or 80 degrees with firm ground
Held steady / secured at top

Temporary Fences:
1m high / every 2.5m a stanchion / 2 parallels if chain or rope

Fixed ladders & fences:

63
See Mo32 & construction details, im not going to remember that stuff because it should
be built in accordance with the rules if worried get MO32 and check the set up

Proof load for cranes?


<20t SW x 1.25
20 – 50 t + 5t
>50t x 1.1

What is a proof load?


A Non-destrctable test of an item that exceeds the SWL but not the BS, breaking strain

What is SWL?
Means the maximum gross wt an item can be safely used.

When can you exceed the SWL?

a. One off lift


b. Inform Owner / Class / AMSA
c Must not exceed Proof load
d. If over 50 t the equipment must be certified by class

Access to a mast house more that 3m elevation?

What is the person in charge?


Person responsible for loading and unloading the ship

What is the minimum lighting for ladder access and holds?


10 Lux walkways
20 Lux Ladders & Gangways
50 Lux work areas

What is the minimum walking space between containers?


600mm or 550mm near the side of ship

For Esso: look up the ‘Esso Safe operating procedures’ manual and it specifies no actual
distance but a ‘Safe’ access for crew, so then to be safe you would look up MO32 and find
out that it is 750mm.

What are the notes about Wire ropes?


Made of at least 114 constituent wires
Free form knots

Replace if:
1 broken wire near swage
Measure 10 x diameter along wire, if 5% are broken, chuck

What is marked on a shackle?


The SWL of the shackle

64
Numbers / Letters / Marking that corresponds with the shackle certificate

What are the requirements for lifting equipment inspections on your vessel?
Look up the planned maintenance in the SMS, all corresponding items should be enter
as per MO 32 i.e. Lifting gear inspection every 6 months by a competent person
5 Yearly tests by a responsible person for:
Cranes / tuggers
Shackles
Lifting blocks

If it is ‘Classed’ or in survey then a thorough examination by a responsible person:


Nobles Class etc.

Every 2 years we throw all our lifting slings

All the procedures should be entered into your IMS planned maintenance to prompt you
when the appropriate check is due with a scheduled job.

What is unique about the MO32 and foreign vessels in Oz?


That you still apply to MO32 when loading and unloading in an OZ port.

Can a block be used above its SWL?


Yes, a single sheave block is rigged as a Gun or or double whip arrangement & the load
is fixed to its head then the load lifted may be twice the SWL marked on the block.

Breaking Strain& SWL

SWL = 1/6 of breaking strain

Wire:
6 x 12 BS = 15D²
500

6 x 24 BS = 20D²
500

Rope:
Manila BS = 2D²
300

Poly BS = 3D²
300

Nylon BS = 5D²
300

How do you check limit switches?


As per our monthly Schedule jobs form the IMS.

65
Operate crane with no load to check limit switches in a controlled manner

What is a rigging plan?


A rigging plan gives details of the configuration, details of the gear & equipment used
and operating procedures:
Type
Quantity
Dimensions(size)
Capacity(WLL)
Configuration
Weight of Lift

How do you check if a sheave block is damaged?


Items to check:
Cheeks aren’t cracked
Pin and sheaves not worn.
Crown thimble eye not worn

66
What is the preparation’s for a 140t heavy lift?
From experience loading the Lady Kari-Ann in Melbourne with a 140t Glycol Separator
on the stbd 1/4

1. Stability
I completed a Stability criteria for the vessel loaded with the 140t on departure and for
arrival allowing for consumables.

While doing this I could play around with the ballast on the stability program to see how
much ballast I would need to transfer to stbd side from No. 3 & No. 11 BW tanks to keep
the vessel upright.

From that, I also did a GG1 vertical to get the GM correction to add to the KG,

then GG1 Horizontal calculation to see if the list was correct

then another TanQ calculation, knowing the list and GM I transposed the formula to get
GG1,
Knowing the distance from between the 2 tanks and the displacement I could work out
the amount of ballast to transfer.

GG1= w + d / Displ. + W (vertical then horizontal l)

Tan Q = GG1/GM

GG1 = W x Distance between tanks in m / The displacement

Transpose the equation to get W by itself and that is the amount of Ballast to transfer
from stbd to port.

Once the load had been secured and ballast finished I did a final tank sound and updated
the stability calculation.

All these calculations where given to independent surveyor for insurance for the sea
passage.

Documentation
AMSA where contacted and details submitted about the lift over 100t.

Independent surveyor needed all the AMSA and ship documentation including stability
to approve the sea passage of the Glycol separator.
Some insurance restrictions that we were not allowed to leave the wharf if the sea state
was more than 3m and not allowed to unload the lift to the platform unless the sea state
was less than 1m

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Loading
The ships Cargo securing manual plan was consulted prior to loading to work out the
deck strength and load bearings required for the Lift.
The LKA had aft deck rating of 7t / per sqm Aft of frame 20(140t / 7t = 20sqm)
The support frame was 8m long by 4m wide. (32sqm)

The frame for the Separator was secured to the deck by a certified welder.
The separator was secured in the frame by pins and lugs which are knocked out by the
ships crew on unloading to the platform.

The platform crane was rated to 150t SWL

We were tied up to a general cargo ship in Melbourne and used their cranes in union to
load the separator onto the LKA.
The cranes had to be inspected by the Independent surveyor and the cranes had to be in
‘Class’.
The loading onto the LKA took some time:
First we put a 2 degree list on to port
Then slowly took the wt. on deck continuously transferring ballast and slowly taking the
wt on deck until the cranes no longer had any wt

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LSA & FFE
What are some requirements for life rafts / boats?
stowed for launching directly from the stowed position under
unfavourable conditions of trim of up to 10 and list of up to 20

Most ships will have a capacity of 150% for the complement of the ship

Only one type of release mechanism shall be used for similar survival
craft carried on board the ship.

Falls, where used, shall be long enough for the survival craft to reach
the water with the ship in its lightest seagoing condition, under
unfavourable conditions of trim of up to 10 and list of up to 20
Falls end to ended every 30 months & replaced every 5 years

Engines ran weekly

Vessels less than 85m (other than tankers / chemical / gas ships) can have liferafts with
a compliment 150% each side instead of life boats.

Lifeboat on-load and off-load hooks – what’s the difference?


Off-load” release mechanisms, fitted in lifeboats and the automatic release hooks used
for liferafts, are designed to be operated (opened) when the load applied to them is
removed—ie when the boat or raft has been lowered and becomes waterborne.
“On-load” disengaging gear, fitted in lifeboats and rescue boats, is designed to be
operated (opened) when the boat has been lowered and becomes waterborne, whether
or not a load is being applied to it by the action of the ship or the sea or the lifeboat is
not waterbourne

How do on-load off load hooks work?


On a lifeboat the off/onhook operation as follows:
OFFLOAD
At the helm off the lifeboat there is:
-A release handle with a pin, connected to the hook by a morse cable
-An off load indicator in cased by Perspex which is attached to a diaphragm on the
lifeboats hull.
Operation:
The falls are lowered at the helm, on the way down pull out the safety pin, once the boat
is lowered into the water(75% displacement) the water pushes on the diaphragm
making the indicator turn green, this activates the release handle making it operable
(note the release handle will not work until the indicator is green) Operate the release
handle and sail way.

ONLOAD
Due to being stuck on ships side or falls do not release once water borne:

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Remove pin
Break Perspex
Manually turn indicator to green
Brace yourself and operate release handle

Note that FRC hooks have an ‘arming handle’ and lifeboats have a release handle

talk through how you would conduct drill on free fall life boat. How often are they
required to be manoeuvred on water?
Go through the ship specific SOP and JHA if unfamiliar
Every six months but if impracticable Class may extend to 12 months if simulated
launching is conducted every 6 months.

Why do we have free fall lifeboats?


As per solas requirements
Due to the size of the ship,
Only one life boats to service (but ship has to carry liferafts on each side which have to
be moveable from one side to another)
Also if life boat engine does not work the free fall life boat is propelled away from the
ship when launched hence away from danger

How do you launch a FRC?


Training should be done once every swing or 1 month intervals
Have a tool box meeting with the Ship specific operational procedure & JHA for FRC

Prepare FRC:
Remove gripes
Remove power cord
Turn on Batteries
PPE / Lifejacket
2 persons onboard
Radios / nav lights on
Get permission to launch

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Hydraulics on
Proper hand signals
Up on winch out of cradle
Out on davit
Lower wire
1m from water ‘arm’ off load lever
Start engine
Once hit water the offload release will open once a certain weight is displaced in the
water
Release the painter

Dead ship / Emergency release.


There should be enough air in the actuator to raise the frc out of the cradle and extend
the davit, the weight of the FRC will allow the wire to payout using the emergency
release cables onboard the frc.

How often are lifeboats required to be manoeuvred on water?


If you read SOLAS for lifeboats they have to manoeuvred every 3 months on water, but
you may get exemptions for lowering to the water and /or only on one side due to ship
operations: each lifeboat lowered every 3 months and manoeuvred annually.

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What are extra requirements for oz regulated ships as per MO 25?
Lifejackets:
In addition to the life-jackets required by Regulation 7 of Chapter III, a cargo ship must
be provided with another life-jacket for each person that the ship is certified to carry.
3.6.2 The additional life-jackets required by clause 3.6.1 may be used to comply with
Regulation 7.2.1.2 of Chapter III and the remaining life-jackets, if any, must be kept in
float-free locker or lockers in a suitable and plainly-indicated location
EPIRBS:
the normal equipment of a liferaft as set out in paragraph 4.1.5.1 of the LSA Code is
varied by the following:
(a) the first-aid outfit required by paragraph 4.1.5.1.8 of the LSA Code must comply
with Schedule 2;
(b) in addition to the requirement of an efficient radar reflector or search and rescue
locating device mentioned in paragraph 4.1.5.1.14 of the LSA Code, an approved EPIRB

If found crew member missing in the morning, which method would be used initially
to alert other vessel/relevant authorities?
I would phone RCC Australia, then put out an urgency message through either
VHF/MF/HF DSC depending out distance travelled from last time the person was seen.
My full actions would be:
Stop vessel
Muster
Ship search (same procedure as for a security stowaway search)
If not found:
Do an estimated time/distance/ area covered since last seen.
Send urgency call
Inform RCC oz with details such as: (rcc would use the MASTrep system to help with
SAR)
Inform DPA
Area / wx / tide / current
Obtain IAMsar III
Have a toolbox meeting with crew
Set lookouts & rooster (Fatigue etc)
Obtain track made good
Press mob button
Start search
While the vessel was stationary she what wx / tide / current were doing

Engine Room fire and in charge of fire party, what actions?


Fire alarm goes off – accept alarm
Send someone to inspect zone
If suspect fire or is fire Muster / sound alarm (Depending on size i.e. extinguisher may
do the trick)
Head count then into fire party
Get Emergency ship procedures
Isolate breakers / damper flaps / vents / boundary cooling

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BA party / individual jobs should be know
Attack fire
If cannot fight box up area
Decesion to let go engine room fire suppressant done by Master & C/E
Follow procedure for letting go Suppressant:
Box up area
Fixed Fire system Release:

(i) Read Instructions / Get Emergency procedure


(ii) Open box
(iii) Stop Machinery
(iv) Close vents / Damper flaps / Fuel
(v) Muster
(vi) activate Pilot to E/R Valve & to bottles – Delay then boom
(vii) Boundary cool

General fire information:

a. Class of fires
A – combustable materials
B- Liquid – Beers!
C- Gases
D metals
E electrical
F fats / cooking oil

b. Types of extinguishers.
Dry powder BC BCF
Foam
Water

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Co2 remember dry dock isolation of bottles / main valve shut / individual pinned
bottles.
Oatmeal? fats

c. Fire triangle
Fuel – remove
Oxygen- smoother less than 11.5%
Heat – quench or cool
d. Spread / Start of fires / Propagation
Conduction – heat transfer through bulkheads etc
Convection – spread through air / ash / vents
Radiation- sun

e. Flash point
The lowest temperature at which a substance starts to give of vapor and will flash when
a naked flame or spark is given to it.

f. Ignition Point.
The lowest temp after the flash point that it will keep burning

g. Self Ignition point.


The tempreture at which substance will self combust and keep burning with a ignition
source.
Gasoline unleaded flash point – 50 SIT 280
Diesel oil flash point 70 – SIT 280
Lub oils flash point 200 –SIT 280

Cooking oil FP 200 SIT 310

What are the test requirements for BA’s? MO15


5 year extinguisher pressure test: Stamp Date on the bottle
Annual Inspection by a Registered Fire or Safety Company (SoS / Ufe Fire)

What are Fire extinguisher requirements for your ship?


Annual refill / inspections by an approve fire joint, date stamped on tag
5 Year Bottle test
Monthly IMS tests, general check of condition & charge levels (turn dry powder upside
down)

What are Fire hose & Pump requirements for your ship?
Mo 15 / Solas chapter II-2 Reg 10

LKA >1000Grt
Non – Perishable Material
Hose fitted with Nozzle, fittings and securing appliance i.e. hammer (interchangeable)
Lengths:
E/R: 10-15m
Deck / other spaces: 10-25m
Breadth >30m 10-30m

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Numbers
As per Flag requirements but:
No less than 5 ( not including E/R)
Hose every 30m

Pumps: 2 independently driven


Emergency pump located in separate space to machinery
Main Fire pump May be a service pump (not used for oil)
During our last survey, the DNV wanted to see a water Discharge length of 8 to 12m
from the hose.

How many lifebuoys on your ship?


LSA Code / SOLAS Ch III / Mo 25
LKA: at least 8 (60 – 100m Cargo ship)
1 at stern / 2 on each open deck / 50% Lights / 2 smoke

How does a Onload FRC / Lifeboat Release hook work?


The onload release is used for emergency to let go the lifeboat or FRC when there is no
power or you can’t get to the water with the dead ship mechanism.

It allows releasing the boat when the vessel is listing or trimmed in an emergency.

Offload release is once the boat touched the water and 25% of the wt is supported by
the water the hook releases so the boat does not get caught up in the swell and sea
while being connected to the hook.
The offload release has to be ‘armed’ while being deployed for it to work when it touchs
the water
Also the hook has to be properly set when recovering to deck.
Your vessel should have a JHA and SOP for launching FRC’s & lifeboats.

What are the requirements for Thermal protection aids?


Liferafts: 2 or 10% of complement
Lifeboats for everybody >35 S /N

What are some of the problems with on – off load lifeboats?


Not all hooks are the same
Poor maintenance on falls & hook & securing’s
Improper use off the on-off load
Inadequate training / risk assessments
Operator errors unfamilar with davit / boat controls

What are some incident reports with falls?


Falls and securing points let go and killed 2 people-bad maintenance.
Improper resetting of the lifeboat falls
Bringing home falls too hard

75
MO 57 / OZ code of safe working Practices for Helicopter Operations

1. List the important parts of Marine Orders 57?

Issue 2 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS

2 Purpose the Navigation Act, makes provision for and in relation to:
(a) the protection of the health and the security from injury of persons engaged in the
loading or unloading of ships; and
(b) the safety of persons, including pilots, going on or coming from, or onboard, ships, in
connection with transfer operations by helicopter.

3 Application
This Part applies to and in relation to:
(a) a ship registered in Australia; and
(b) a ship registered in a country other than Australia that is in the territorial sea of
Australia or waters on the landward side of the territorial sea.

5 Arrangements on ships
The master of a ship must not permit the transfer of persons and goods between
helicopter and ship unless:
(a) the owner or master has provided such arrangements, equipment, instructions and
training as:
(i) are necessary and reasonable for emergency evacuation of persons from the ship
(ii) are appropriate and reasonable for the normal operations of the ship
(b) the master is satisfied that:
(i) the equipment is maintained in working order and readily available for use;
(ii) the specified training has been carried out.

5.2 Arrangements, equipment, instructions and training that comply with:


(a) the Australian Code of Safe Practice for Ship-Helicopter Transfers,
(b) the International Chamber of Shipping Guide to Helicopter/Ship
Operations, to the extent that it is not inconsistent with (a),
will be regarded as meeting the requirements of 5.1.
5.2 Crew members' responsibility
Every crew member must:
(a) carry out the instructions determined by the owner or master (b) generally take
such action as is reasonable to ensure that helicopter transfers are carried out safely.

2. What is outlined on the AMSA website about Helicopter Operations?

(i) Ship-helicopter operations, for a variety of purposes, are becoming increasingly


commonplace in Australian waters. AMSA revised MO 57 to ensure that these
operations in Australian waters continue to be conducted with very high standards of
safety and operational awareness.

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(ii) AMSA has accepted, as best practice, the International Chamber of Shipping’s
Guide to Ship Helicopter Operations, 4th Edition (ICS Guide) as the most up to-date guide
promoting standardised procedures for ship-helicopter operations worldwide.
3. Does MO 57 apply to my ship?

(i) Marine Orders Part 57 (MO 57) applies to all vessel’s carrying out helicopter
Operations in Australian Waters.

4. Is this regulation applicable to all ships or only to ships certified to have a


helicopter landing area or winching area?

(i) The provisions of Marine Orders Part 57 (MO 57) require all ships (there are
no exceptions) intending to conduct helicopter operations in Australia to comply with
the regulations contained within the order.

5. What is applicable to ships not intending to transfer a marine pilot by helicopter?

(i) Ships not intending to conduct helicopter operations do not have to comply.
Note, however, that provision 5.5 Medical or other emergency is there to cater for
helicopter operations in an emergency.

What standard fire fighting and rescue equipment is required by MO 57?


(i) SOLAS should be consulted for fire extinguisher capacity and quantity since it has
some specific references to helicopter operations that are relevant. The Master may also
wish to refer to the ICS Guide to ensure he/she is providing the safe operation required
by MO 57. The requirement in MO 57 is that the equipment is at least as effective as
what is specified in the ICS Guide.
20lt foam
9kg dry powder
FIFI suit

6. Can the existing fire extinguishers (which are as per the vessel’s fire plan) be
moved to deck and used for this purpose OR is dedicated equipment required?
A Ch II-2 of Solas states “Where helicopters land or conduct winching operations on an
occasional or emergency basis on ships without helidecks, fire-fighting equipment fitted
in accordance with the requirements in Part C may be used. This equipment shall be
made readily available in close proximity to the landing or inching areas during
helicopter operations.” The required equipment may be obtained by using spare
equipment or otherequipment so long as it is returned to its normal position on
completion of helicopter operations.

77
Wx
What is a storm surge?
Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The
wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea level. Low pressure at the
centre of a weather system also has an added effect.
Storm surges are typically associated with TRS.

What is the dangerous semi -circle in a TRS?


Furthest from the equator
The half of the TRS located to the left of the track

Navigable Semi-Circle: The Half of the TRS located to the right of the Track

Dangerous Quadrant: The leading quadrant of the Dangerous semi-circle:


Pushes you towards the path / highest velocity of winds

Conditions necessary for the development of TRS:


(i) A large area of sea with surface temperature in excess of 27° C,
(ii) at least 5° from the equator. It must be away from the equator in order that there is
sufficient Coriolis force available for the cyclonic circulation to develop. (Coriolis force
is zero at the equator and increases towards the poles.)
(iii) convective ascent – Low pressure / Depression of 990hpa or lower
(iv) Evaporation of water
(v) An eye structure & uplift
(vi) TRS's rarely form near jet streams, (troposphere winds)since the strong wind shear
with height inhibits vortex development.
(vii) force 8 winds 24-40 knots
Indication of a TRS:
a. Change in wind direction & force from normal patterns
b. Gradual fall in barometric pressure
c. No diurnal variation on the barometer
d. Unexpected long heavy swell/ confused swell
e. Unusual bird activity
f. Lurid sky / Radiating cirrus cloud at sun set/rise

4 Stages of the TRS:


(i) FORMATIVE STAGE
Incubation of a low pressure system
(ii) IMMATURE STAGE (2-4 Days)
Low pressure intensification
Pressure falls / increased pressure gradient
No eye / rotation starts
(iii) MATURE STAGE
Max development
Low central pressure / below 990hpa
Eye formed

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Heavy rainfall

(iv) TERMINAL STAGE (decay of TRS)


Land Fall
Cooler waters
Wind shear at top i.e. jet stream
Latent heat stops evaporating
Cold air

Features of the TRS:


-The Eye: Central pressure of the TRS / diameter of 12-60’ / no cloud wind rain
- Eye Wall: Ring of wall clouds of the eye / belt of violent winds/rain
- Spiral bands: aka Feeder bands: Rain / cloud visible from satellite / intensity of TRS /
400’
- Destructive winds: winds Persistence/Gustiness/strength
- Storm surges: Consequence of Large pressure difference / onshore winds /swell / sea
- Path: Direction in which TRS is moving
- Track: The area that the storm has already been
- Stormfield: horizontal area the TRS covers
- Vertex: The most westerly point of TRS (recurvature)
- Vortex: the eye
- Trough line: 90 degrees to track / lowest point of barometric pressure
- Dangerous Semi-circle: the half of the TRS located to the left of the track
- Navigable Semi-Circle: The Half of the TRS located to the right of the Track
- Dangerous Quadrant: The leading quadrant of the Dangerous semi circle:
Pushes you towards the path / highest velocity of winds
- Barometric pressure: Slowly falls / falls rapidly – EYE – Rises rapidly / rises slowly to
normal

7. Action to Avoid TRS:


a. DANGEROUS SEMICIRCLE:
(i) Wind will be backing
(ii) Place wind 1-4 points on the port bow
(iii) A/C to maintain wind on port bow
(iv) This action will take you out of dangerous semi circle

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(v) Keep plotting TRS
b. NAVIGABLE SEMI CIRCLE:
(i) Wind will be veering
(ii) Place wind on port ¼
(iii) A/C to keep wind on port ¼
(iv) ths action will take you away from the TRS
c. PATH OF STORM
(i) Wind will be steady and increasing in speed
(ii) Pressure dropping rapidly
(iii) Steam N x W into the Navigable semi circle
(iv) When in Navigable semi circle apply those rules (port ¼ )

BOM’S WX Forecasting:
a. Tropical cyclone warnings Issued by the Bureau of Meteorology
b. Coast stations will be issuing regular cyclone advice from the Tropical Cyclone
Warning Centres (TCWC - Brisbane, Darwin and Perth) as follows:
c. A TROPICAL CYCLONE WATCH message is issued by TCWC whenever a cyclone or
potential cyclone is expected to produce gales in the coastal are within 48 hours but not
within 24 hours. It alerts the recipients to the possibility of a TROPICAL CYCLONE
WARNING being issued within the following 24 hours.
d. The TROPICAL CYCLONE WATCH is reviewed three hourly and a new message issued
six hourly until it is either replaced by a TROPICAL CYCLONE WARNING or finalised.
e. A TROPICAL CYCLONE WARNING is issued when gale force or stronger winds are
expected to develop in coastal areas within 24 hours. TROPICAL CYCLONE WARNINGS
are issued at least three hourly and may be issued hourly when the cyclone is close to
the coast.
f. A FLASH CYCLONE WARNING is issued whenever the following conditions are met:
1. It is the first warning to a community not previously alerted by a Cyclone Watch.
2. It is an urgent amendment of the current warning.
g. The TCWC will be tracking the cyclone by satellite and by weather radar when close
enough to the coast. The information given by them will include:
(i) the name of the cyclone
(ii) approximate location of the eye (by geographical reference, eg 75 miles NW of
Broome and by latitude and longitude)
(iii) present movement
(iv) expected movement
(v) coastal and island communities under threat
(vi) wind strength near the centre and for the radius that destructive winds extend from
the centre
(vii) the central pressure and cyclone category on a scale of 1 to 5 with 5 being the most
severe

TRS general information:


(i) The master has to decide whether to go or stay in port or go or stay at sea.
(ii) Port authorities in cyclone affected northern Australian ports have Cyclone
Contingency Plans in place.
(iii) On entering a port or haven, which does not have a cyclone contingency plan, avoid
anchoring amongst other boats where possible.

80
(iv) If possible, go well up a small creek and secure fore and aft, and athwart ships to
stout mangroves. Mangroves provide a tremendous windbreak without being too high.
(v) In determining a safe haven for a cyclone, the following factors should be taken into
consideration.
 Does the area provide shelter from the prevailing and expected winds?
 It must be easily accessible
 Sufficient swinging room if at anchor
 Sufficient depth of water at all levels of tide
 Good holding ground if intending to anchor
 Distance of the safe haven from your present position
 Estimated time to reach the haven in the prevailing conditions
 Is it in the likely path of the storm
 Effect of a storm surge in the haven
(vii) Cyclone contingency plans, At the beginning of each cyclone season mariners
intending to operate in cyclone affected areas should contact their state marine
authority for up to date contingency plans for relevant ports.
(viii) If at sea the master should take the following factors into consideration:
a. Position of vessel in relation to TRS
b. TRS track / path
c. Capability of vessel i.e. seaworthiness
d. SOLAS
e. Cargo
f. Heavy WX preparations
g. Charter requirements / reporting / Buddy system
h. Vessel / company operational procedures & guidelines

81
Passage Plans & Charts
Temporary and preliminary notice. The difference. Give example of each.

Temporary: Changes in aids to navigation or too warm of hazards of a temporary


nature. Eg, a naval exercise, exploration drilling or dredging, Harbour depths

Preliminary: Issued to promulgate navigation significant data early to the mariner and
is something that will be permanent i.e. New Buoy in an area

*Draw the symbols from Chart 5011: i.e. obstruction / pipeline

How do you know if are chart has been corrected?


Number at the Bottom left hand corner of Chart should correspond with the last chart
correction in the:
Latest NTM
Vessels Chart Correction Portfolio
6 monthly Culmative List
Check Hydro office website
Register with the hydro office to get NTM sent via email

What are the Nav act & solas requirements for charts?
Solas Ch V Regulation 19:
2.1.4: Nautical Chart & publications to plan & display the ships route for the intended
voyage and to plot and monitor throughout the voyage
(also a GPS receiver or radio nav system)

Solas Ch V Regulation 27:


Nautical Charts & Nautical publications such as Sailing directions, list of lights, NTM,
Tide tables and all other nautical publications necessary for the intended, shall be
adequate & up to date.

Nav Act 2012


The master & owner of a ship shall not take the ship to sea, unless its supplies with
charts, of a suitable scale and properly corrected at the time of sailing, necessary for use
on the particular voyage about to be undertaken.

Every officer shall have access to charts

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What are some Chart projections?
a. Mercator:
1. Mercator is a cylindrical projection.
2. It is derived from a mathematical formula.
3. Minimal distortion at the Equator / Maximum at the poles.
4. Mercator charts are proportionally exaggerated North & South due to the
exaggeration of the East & West when ‘opening’ up the longitudinal meridians for the
Mercator. (basically making the sphere of the earth fit on a cylinder.)
5. Orthormisim is introducing an equal distortion North & South, the distortion
increases towards the poles, therefore a bearing and bearing remain true and land
represents its true shape.

Advantages:
1. Directions & Position lines can be easily transferred.
2. Rhumb lines easily transferred.
3. Distance easily measured 1nm = 1 minute of latitude.
4. Directions remain correct through distorted areas.
Disadvantages:
1. Great circle cannot be laid off due to being curved. (It can be laid off in a series of
waypoints and rhumb lines.)
2. Polar regions cannot be represented due to large distortion.
3. Areas cannot be compared due to varying distances.
4. Distance varies with latitude.
When taking distances off a Mercator chart, use the Latitude scale adjacent to the area
being used.

b. Transverse Mercator:
Mercator turned 90 degrees and the meridian used as the transverse equator. Used for
large scale, plan & port charts.
The projected area in the vicinity will have minimal distortion.

c. Great Circle:
Is an azimuthally projected chart. It utilizes a plane which touches a selected point on
the globes surface, a point of tangency. Lines laid on a GC chart are straight. Can be used
for large scale charts.
Advantages:
1. Used for long distance sailing, shortest route over long distances.
2. A GC line can be laid off on a Mercator chart as a series of short rhumb lines.
Disadvantages:
1. Can put vessel into high latitudes encountering ice & bad wx and can also void
insurance.

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Great circle sailing, how do you go about this?
Calculate using Spherical trigonometry and PQR triangle / Cosine formula
Cos a = cosb cosc + sinb sinc cosA

Use a Gnomonic chart: Draw a straight line & mark off a series of WP to plot onto a
Mercator Chart.

Use composite limiting latitude sailing using Napier rules:


Sin middle = product of the cosine of the opposite parts
sin middle = product of the tangent of the adjacent sides

For charter party, insurance, Wx, ice & Loadline requirements

Dangers with high altitude sailing?


(i) Limitations of navigation markers, buoys & may be not functional due to ice
accretion
(ii) The gyro will be affected by steaming error close to the poles
(iii) The DGPS can be affected by the density of the ionosphere & atmospheric
conditions
(iv) The magnetic compass is affected by dip
(v) Using a sextant – no night / no stars
- Horizon hard to determine
(vi) HF radio may not work due to atmospheric conditions
(vii) Ice accretion affects stability and Nav gear / antennas etc.

When must a master send a Danger msg?


As per SOLAS ch V reg 31 & Nav act:
Dangerous Derelicts
Dangerous ice
Sub-freezing gales
TRS
Force 10

How do you know if a Nav area warning is still in force?


Good ship practice is to have a NAV warning folder on the bridge:
NAVarea 10
Met
SAR
Oilrigs
Special ships
Met Buoys

Check the latest NTM


Check AMSA website (subscribe for email)
Check OZ hydro website (subscribe for email)
Listen to the HF channel Wiluna or Charleville

84
How do you get a copy of the latest nav warnings & Aus coast Warnings?
Nav Warning folder (from NTM or Sat – C EGC log)
SAT-C EGC Log (achieved on disk)
Amsa Website: Maritime safety Info or apply for email updates from AMSA website
Ship Chart Correction Log
Oz Hydro website

Explain the difference between Notice to mariners / Annual NTM / Marine Notice /
Cumulative list?
Cumulative list:
a 6 monthly (jan/ July) update of each chart correction since its last print date

Oz NTM:
2 weekly Correction for Charts Publications / NAV & Met warnings / SAR

Annual NTM:
The Annual notice to mariners advises mariners of important matters affecting
navigational issues, safety & publications in OZ.
This publication includes all significant and relevant information obtained by the
Australian Hydrographic Service (AHS) such as:
Ausrep / ReefVTS
Military
Dumping grounds
Torres Strait tides
GMDSS
DGPS
Depth sounds
Pilotage
Pollution
All NTM stuff

Marine notices:
Marine Notices provide information to the shipping and broader boating community of
issues which may impact on them. While these Notices have no legislative background,
often the topic relates to upcoming changes to legislation or changes in procedures as a
result of amended or new legislation.

Voyage from PNG to Melbourne. How many seasonal zones pass though?
2 Tropical and summer. Look up the Load line convention and the seasonal zone is in
the annex

At about what latitude is this world wide?


Zones change with seasons worldwide, these are just an indication:
Tropical 15s to 15n
Summer 20 to 35
Winter 35 - 50

85
What other considerations when loading in PNG.
Loading to the summer Loadline but adding on allowing for fuel consumptions i.e. load
to the summer Loadline plus the amount of consumables used before entering the
summer seasonal zone.
Quarantine / Customs

Is there any benefit when travelling the return journey?


None because you can only load to the Summer Loadline, you actually carry less cargo
on the return voyage.

86
Ship handling

What are the Manoeuvring characteristics of a CPP?


The prop continuously spins, and the pitch changes from the controls.
A right hand CCP will cut to starboard when going astern.

How does it behave in neutral pitch?


It may have some creep ahead or astern, you can usually tell when alongside the wharf,
look at the wash coming off the prop or check your mooring lines.

What is UKC and DUKC?


Under keel clearance is the distance between the keel & the seabed, company or ports
may have a minimum UKC for passages i.e. Farstad company policy is 1m & NPC has a
DUKC of 1m
DUKC includes squat and also swell

How do waves / swell affect DUKC?


Due to the roll & pitch of the ship the UKC may be reduced. In Newcastle the ship must
give the Pilots extra information like the GMf & GMs to enter into the computer system
SAUKCS, this predicts how much the ship may roll i.e. tender, big roll = increase in draft
Mariners Handbook 11.129:
Prudent Mariners navigate with adequate UKC at all times, making due allowances for
all the factors that are likely to reduce the depth beneath the keel.

Increasing client pressures are causing mariners to navigate in certain areas without
enough water under the keel.

To ensure safe UKC, an UKC allowance should be laid down by an authority (Dover
Strait) or be company or ship procedure.
The UKC should include provisions for:
Reliability of chart (7 the fact the depths may of changed)
Obstructions including pipelines that may stand as high as 2m from the seabed
Vessels movement in heavy Wx (1 degree of roll may increase the draft by 0.5m)
Long period swell
Negative tidal surges (high pressure system)
Squat at a given speed

Draft + UKC + Squat = Least charted depth + Tide + Meteorological conditions

LKA UKC Criteria:


Farstad UKC at least 1m

Draft + Squat + UKC = Total Depth required


Total Depth required – Least charted depth = Height of tide required

Med Moor

87
Running Moor

Used to reduce swinging circle.

Open Moor

The use of 2 anchors, let one go and set that anchor, then use tide or steam up at 60
degrees and let go the other go, anchor, used to for heavy weather.Done this one once
on the Falie behind North Neptune Island SA in a strong gale.

Kedging an Anchor
In practical terms I’ve kedged an anchor at Port Adelaide with the One & All, as we
docked with the fresh SW sea breeze (setting onto berth) we use to drop the anchor,
mainly so we could get off the berth later on but also to control the head when berthing.

Baltic Moor

I have done this one at Apollo Bay in VIC on the one & All, not to berth but to make a lee
for launching the tender to put people ashore.

88
What is ship squat?
Squat can be encountered from anywhere below 4 times the draft.

Squat can affect the vessel when moving but also when stationary in a tidal stream or
current.
Squat varies with speed.

Squat is caused by the restricted water flow beneath the keel & the seabed cause the
water flow to speed up & cause a Low pressure drawing the hull towards the seabed.
For vessel with even trim:
Cb >0.7 squat will be greater at bow
Cb <0.7 squat will be greater at stern
(Cb for ship recorded in Ship Stabook)

Vessels with a trim, squat will be greater at he deeper end.

Use the following Formula with care:

Shallow water Squat = 2 x Cb x Speed²


100

Open water Squat = Cb x Speed²


100

What is interaction?
Interaction is the name given to the effects of the change of water pressure around the
hull.
3 zones are specified in Interaction on the ships hull:
Bow: Pressure zone (++)
Amidships: Suction zone (--)
Stern: Pressure zone (++)

Bow pressure somewhat stronger than stern…usually

A change in speed will dramatically change the interaction forces.

What is the bank effect / cushioning effect?


If the vessel moves away from the centreline of the Canal towards a bank, once again the
water flow is restricted between the bank and the ships hull, causing suction.

The suction tends to be aft of amidships due to the pressures not evenly distributed
along the hull and will tend to pull the aft towards the bank & the bow away.

The positive bow pressure does help in pushing the bow off the bank but is only part of
the reason as stated above.

89
What is canal effect and smelling the ground?
Both have to do with the restricted water flow around the ships hull.
If the pressure forces on each side of the hull are out of balance i.e. too close to a bank or
passing to close to a shoal then the vessel can shear to one side uncontrollably

What is the SWE?


The shallow water effect is a hydrodynamic phenomenon when the vessel reaches a
certain depth & speed, the water flow under the keel is restricted, increasing the water
flow speed under the keel resulting in a low pressure, causing a suction, increasing the
ships draft, called the Bernoulli's principle.

This squat effect results from a combination of (vertical) sinkage and a change of trim
that may cause the vessel to dip towards the stern or towards the bow depending on the
Cb.
The steering can become impaired and loss of power & speed.
It can depend on displacement & speed of vessel.

90
Radio
What GMDSS entries are made in the log?
Rt calls
DSC calls
Distress / Urgency calls

Note, checks required for GMDSS requirements are stated in the front of the GMDSS
Radio log book.
As listed:
Daily:
VHF RT / DSC internal
MF/HF RT /DSC internal
Printers
Battery Charge

Weekly:
VHF RT / DSC coast station
MF/HF RT /DSC coast station
Sat C transmission test
VHF Handhelds

Monthly:
Epirbs
Sarts
Batteries levels / hydrometer

What vessels must have GMDSS?


Vessel over 300t on international voyages.
Vessels over 500t
Pax 12+
Regulated oz vessels that don’t fall in these categories i.e. One & all
SAT-C monitoring known as LRT ship ID traking

What are the areas for GMDSS & which is Oz?


A1 Inshore
A2 Coastal
A3 Interstate & International (Oz)
A4: Polar areas 70+

What equipment does a class A3 vessel carry?


EPIRB
2 x SART
2 x SAT –C
2 x VHF DSC / RF
1 x MF
1 x HF
3 x Portable VHF RF
NAVTEX if going to those areas

91
What legislation makes the GMDSS law in OZ?
Marine orders 27
SOLAS ch IV radiocommunications (SOLAS is made domestic law through NAV ACT)

What are the emergency power requirements?


Emergency Power to last 6 hours
Battery supply to last 1 hour and be able to recharge in 10 hours.

How does the Sat-c network operate?


The system uses 4 network co-ordination stations in each of the ocean regions:
IOR / POR /AOR-E / AOR-W
Data is sent through LES (Land Earth Stations) & ship Earth Stations.
Set the sat-c oonboard to tour region, then you can set the unit up to receive data such
as Nav warnings, Met warnings & fleet net data for your area.
The Sat-c uses SAC (special access codes) like a telephone number to send data such as
Reefrep Sailing plans.

Tell me everything you know about an EPIRB?


The 406 / 121 EPIRB uses both the SARsat(yanks) & COSPAS (Russians) satellite
systems.
The EPIRB works on both the geostationary (not good at polar areas) and Leo
stationary(covers the entire world) satellite systems.

These satellites pick up the EPIRB signal nearly instantly and sends the signal to a LUT
(local user terminal) which sends the signal to a RCC with a GPS position of the EPIRB.
(Note: N&S of 70 you may have to wait for a Leo satellite to be over head)
The 121 frequency is used by aircraft to hone in on the signal.
The EPIRB has a 48hour battery.

Tell me everything you know about a SART? (AIS)


Search and rescue radar transponders: 96 hours standby / 8 hours integration
Produces 12 dots on a 3cm (X band) radar.
Indicates when being interrogated by a radar.
AIS sarts issues an AIS message to an AIS installation giving static data & a range &
bearing of the Sart.
The symbol on new ECDIS will be a red circle with a red cross. On old ECDIS and radar
overlay it will be a ship with no name with ‘sart active’ or ‘sart test’.

What call is a MOB?


Mayday:
DISTRESS:
The radiotelephone distress signal MAYDAY is used to indicate that a ship / person / property is
threatened by grave and imminent danger and required IMMEDIATE assistance.
URGENCY
The radiotelephone urgency signal PAN PANis used to indicate that a ship / person has a very urgent
message to transmit concerning its safety. i.e. Vessel has engine troubles and needs a tow
SAFETY
The radiotelephone safety signal SECURITE is used to indicate that the calling station has animportant
navigational or meteorological warning to transmit i.e. Port control sending a weather warning.

92
BRM & WATCHKEEPING
What is the BRM objective?
In its rawest form its using all the available resources to achieve a common goal,
eliminating one person errors or just errors in general.

What are the Functions of BRM?


(i) Short term strategy, what are we to achieve
(ii)Communications, closed loop
(iii) De / Briefing
(iv) Contingencies, Emergency preparedness & procedures
(v) Management Style, Alfa male??
(vi) Fatigue
(vii) Challenge & Respond, by every crew member on board
(viii) Workload, spread the load to the appropriate person
(ix) Automation, is it available &/or reliable
(x) State of the ship, personality make up??

What are some problems with non-effect BRM?


(i) Pre occupation with minor tasks
(ii) Delegation, doing all of it yourself
(iii) Failure to set priorities
(iv) Inadequate monitoring
(v) Briefings
(vi) Closed loop communications
(vii) Utilizing available data / information
(viii) Failure to detect deviations

What are ‘Bad thoughts’ when it comes to BRM?


-It won’t happen to me
-I can do it
-We always do it this way
-It’s not my job

What are some things that the Pilots & Masters relationship is based on?
(i) Good closed loop communications
(ii) Cross checking each other
(iii) Roles defined, who has the conduct, who is OOW, who is putting her alongside
(iv) Support each other
(v) Each member knows their role
(vi) Learn of the Pilot
(vii) Information exchange
(viii) Enough time for information exchange

Whats contained on a pilot card?


Ship Particulars
Security level
Manoeuvring diagram
Gyro error

93
Compass error
Drafts
Air drats
Length to stern / bow from bridge wing
Anchor shot
Bridge equipment checklist
Engine revolutions and speed

What’s contained in standing orders?


Standards for watchkeeping: STCW / MO 28
(i) Note the Master’s SO should not conflict with the Company SMS.
(ii) Masters can reflect their personal views.
(iii) Ship procedures / checklists / manuals / Nav policy should support MSO.
(iv)Standards for preforming a:
Nav watch (when to take a fix etc)
Cargo watch
DP watch
Anchor watch
Oil rig watch
(v)When to call master
(vi)Limiting parameters i.e. wind / swell / sea

Whats contained in night order book?


Night specific orders:
When to call a crew member
When to contact a rig/ agent
When to send a report
Adjusting speed for an ETA

Explain what is meant by conning the ship?


From a dictionary:
Con or conn conned, con·ning, cons or conns (Nautical)
To direct the steering or course of (a vessel).
1. The station or post of the person who steers a vessel.
2. The act or process of steering a vessel.

In generally speaking in bridge terms its which officer has the watch

If you are conning the ship, what info do you think you would require?
I have answered this to do with steering the ship not taking over the watch.
Course to steer
True course
Gyro Corse
Magnetic course
Possible leeway
Possible set and drift
Passage Plan
Manoeuvring diagram
Pilot card

94
Drafts / UKC / squat / interaction
Your own little note pad with courses etc so you don’t have to go into the chart room all
the time
Tides / Wx forecast
Traffic density

What information do you have for a pilot?


Pilot Card
Manoeuvring Diagram
Have a toolbox meeting about BRM, roles & responsibilities
Gyro error

How do you instruct a 2/0 on taking over the watch?


You should have an OOW handover checklist
Be on bridge 20minutes before, been to the toilet and got a jumper (Capt Alexanders Pet
thing)
Possible watch encounters
Emergency procedures
Master standing orders / Night orders
Radar Shadow sectors
OOW to be fit in respects (VB / sleep)

Confirm the following:


-Position
-TC / GC / CC
-STW / SOG
-Traffic
-work on deck
-Depth
-Nav Dangers
-Night orders
-Wx / Swell / Sea / Current / Tide
-Compass errors
- 2/o knows how to use all the bridge equipment operational
- 2/O knows how to manually steer and use the sticks
-Alarms
-Duty Engineer / UMS procedures
-List / heel / trim
-Possible encounters on next watch
-Next WP Turn

What factors should be considered preforming a watch?


(i) Keep watch on bridge
(ii) Do not leave the bridge until properly relieved
(iii) OOW to have the con even if master is on the bridge
(iv) Notify master if in doubt
(v) Read & understood & signed Master’s Standing Orders & Night orders
(vi) Knowledge & limitations of bridge equipment & alarms
(vii) No other duties

95
(viii) Know UMS procedures
(ix) Familiar with manual steering and the controls
(x) Stopping / turning distances of vessel
(xi) Manoeuvring characteristics of vessel
(xii) Record keeping
(xiii) BRM
(xiv) Communication
(xv) Monitor:
-sea state / wx / current / tide/ wind
-Visibility
-Nav lights
-Fire rounds
-Crew
-Autopilot
(xvi) Take compass error
(xvii) Look out window for:
-Distress signal
-Other vessel
-Debris
-Land
-Buoys / beacons
-Submerged stuff
(xviii) Anticipate:
-Next turn
-WP
(xix) Fix position regularly
(xx) Radar long range scanning

What would you expect to see in regards to a 2nd Mates passage Plan?
UKC & squat workings
Berth to Berth
Appraisal / Planning / monitoring / Execution / review / Archive
Transits and bearings for A/C
Clearing bearings
Publications used
Charts & Publications up to date

What information is required about harbour passage planning?


Guides to port entry
Sailing directions
ARLS pilot and port services
Berth to berth
Pilots
Tides
Wx
Confirm with VTS traffic movement

96
What do you do if a pilot hasn’t got a passage plan?
Your ships passage plan should be from berth to berth, so a passage should have been
completed and checked.

What are your pre-departure checks?


Get the ship specific checklist:
Planning: Tides / wx /BRM / Watch schedule / Pilot card / agent

Equipment checks: Radar / ais / auto pilot / GPS / Plotter / Charts / Gyro & Magnetic
compass / Ships clock & LMT / Echo sounder

Machinery: Steering checks / propulsion checks / Indicators / Communications

Communications: Flags / whistle / handheld / GMDSS / VHF / Internal

Sea: Deck secure / cargo secure / Paper work complete / Water tight integrity /
Anchors / Drafts / Stability / Port clearance / Papa / pilot ladder

Who does Mastrep apply to?


All OZ regulated ships & foreign ships
Ships engaged on OZ coastal trade.
F/V on international voyage.
Voluntary ships
Small craft if 24 hour voyage / 200 nm

What is Mastrep?
A ship reporting & monitoring system for Navarea X
The above ships have to be fitted with AIS & will be tracked once inside Navarea X.
Ship only reports to RCC for: MP / HS / Incidents
Mastrep is used for:
Vessel monitoring (UNCLOS)
SAR: Limiting search time / using available assets / precise search areas

Who does Reefrep apply to?


All ships of 50 metres or greater in overall length;
All oil tankers, liquefied gas carriers, chemical tankers or ships coming within the INF
Code, regardless of length;
Ships engaged in towing or pushing where it, or the ship being towed or pushed is a ship
described in a) or b) or where the overall length of the tow is or exceeds 150 metres.
Navy encouraged

When would you as master be wanted to be called?


In any doubt
Shallow water
Restricted visibility
No or Uninspected land fall
Derelicts / dangers / distress sighted
Increase in Wx / current / tide
Increase in traffic

97
Can’t maintain course
As required in Master’s standing / night orders
CPA exceeded
Nav hazards
Restricted waters

In what state must you be in to be “fit for duty”?


MO 28 / STCW
No drugs / alcohol
10 hours rest in 24 hour period
At least a break of 6 hours
77 hours rest in 7 days
On more than 14 hours between rests
Exemptions given for emergencys / drills

MOB, what are your actions?


MOB button on GPS
Smoke & light lifebuoy deployment
Williamson turn: turn to side of MOB until 60 degrees off heading then hard over the
other way, should be on reciprocal track.
Muster ship
Lookout
Distress call
Consult IAMSAR manual

What publication to use for SAR? What sort of info contained within it?

èIMSAR vol III.


SOLAS chapter V Safety of Navigation requires ships to carry an up-to-date copy of
Volume III of the International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR)
Manual.
Search patterns
On scene commander roles
Search commander roles
Searching techniques
Communications

98
What are the dimensions for a pilot ladder & what is the set up for pilot boarding?
- Regulation 23 Chapter V of SOLAS and IMO Resolution A.889(21): Recommendation on
pilot transfer arrangements.
MO 21 Safety of Navigation
Note: For pilot ladders, see Australian Standard AS 2933-1987, Shipbuilding—pilot
ladders

IMS work schedule – Get all the details & make a work schedule every 3 months
Light facing FWD highlighting boarding area / OOW / Lifebuoy & light
Bulwark ladder if used only lashed at the bottom on deck
Life vests near sea door
Officer and deck IR to meet pilot
Communications
Man ropes
Ladder height to pilots instructions
Lifebuoy with light

99
Colregs & ROR & Buoys

Do 6 x flip cards & read COLREGS

What are special buoys & its characteristics?


Special buoys indicate spoil grounds / rec areas / military areas / pipelines & cables
Yellow light when fitted, any rhythm not used for white lights
Not A – D – U
Can be shaped as lateral marks
Special Marks Retro reflectors:
Yellow Square or Cross (comprehensive code)

What are retro reflective buoys?


Use to distinguish unlighted marks, retro reflective material fitted to reflect backlight.
Two codes: Comprehensive & Standard
The code in use will, if known be mentioned in Admiralty Sailing Directions (Pilot
Books)
Information about the two codes is in the Mariners Handbook
Lateral marks both codes: red or green band or shape
Preferred channel Marks both codes: as above for dominate colour
Special Marks both codes: Yellow band or cross

Cardinal / isolated Danger / Safe water marks Standard: White bands or letters or No.s

Cardinal comprehensive:
North blue on yellow
East Blue on blue
South Yellow on blue
West Yellow on yellow

Isolated Danger Comprehensive: Blue on red


Safe water Comprehensive: red on white

What are Preferred Channels marks?


When proceeding in the direction of buoyage, at a point where the channel divides to
form separate routes to the same destination the preferred Channel is indicated by a
modified lateral mark.
Note: Always keep the vessel on the appropriate side of the Mark i.e. Cans to port when
proceeding from seaward!
Lights: flashing green or red 2+1

What is IALA?
International Association of Lighthouse Authorities is non-governmental body which
brings together reps from aids to navigation services to exchange info, recommend
improvements.
IALA came up with a 2 buoyage system:
IALA A: Red to Port (cans in the left hand)
IALA B: Green to Port (cans in the left hand)

100
What is the emergency wreck marking buoy?
A newly discovered hazard to navigation not yet shown on charts or listed in the NTM,
will be marked with a ERMB.
Yellow cross with blue & yellow striped buoy
Light: Alternating yellow & blue light

What else is used to mark new dangers?


Racon D
2 lateral or cardinal marks together flashing the appropriate colours: Q & VQ

How do you know which way the buoyage system goes? OZ seafarers??
The conventional direction of Buoys is indicated in two ways:

LOCAL Direction of Buoyage: the direction taken when approaching a harbour, estuary,
river or other waterway from seaward

General Direction of Buoyage: The direction determined by local authorities usually


based on clockwise around continents, info for local areas can be obtained from The
Admiralty Sailing directions (pilot Books)
It may also be indicated on a chart: an arrow with two circles near the point indicating
direction of buoyage.
In Oz the information is contained in the Australian Seafarers Handbook 8.1.2, info is as
follows:
IALA A buoyage direction:
East coast: North to south
South coast: East to west
Tassie: anticlockwise
West coast: South to north
North coast & Torres Strait: West to East
Gulf of Carpentaria: anti clockwise
An explanation for this is contained in the Mariners Handbook

Explain the meaning behind Rule 2:


Responsibility:
(a) Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, master or crew
thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to comply with these Rules or of the
neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen, or
by the special circumstances of the case

(b) In construing and complying with these rules due regard shall be had to all dangers
of navigation and collision and to any special circumstances, including the limitations of
the vessels involved, which may make a departure from these rules necessary to avoid
immediate danger

[Rule 2 is sometimes referred to as the "General Prudential" rule and provides for non-
conformance with stated rules in order to prevent a collision, because what is
paramount is to avoid or minimize the damaging effects of a collision, as opposed to
blindly following the rules to the letter. The overall intent is to minimize actual collision
taking place rather than rule compliance in and of itself, per se.]

101
Explain the difference between sections I, II & III in Part B.
Part 1: Conduct of vessels in any visibility:
Rules 4-10

Part II: Conduct of vessels in sight of one another:


Rules 11-17

Part III: Conduct of vessel in restricted visibility


Rule 19

Restricted visibility rule 19, explain?


(a) Rule 19 applies to vessels (not in sight of one another) in or near restricted visibility.
(b) All ships shall proceed at a safe speed for the condition of visibility (see Rule 6). A
power-driven vessel shall have her engine(s) on stand-by for immediate manoeuvre.
(c) All ships shall comply with Section I of this Part e.g., Rules 5 (lookout), 6 (safe
speed), 7 (risk of collision), 8 (action to avoid collisions), 9 (narrow channels), and 10
(TSS) with due regard for the visibility conditions.
(d) If another vessel is detected by radar alone, and a close-quarters or collision risk is
suspected, a vessel should take early and substantial action to avoid the other, but:
(i) avoid any turn to port for a vessel detected forward of the beam, except for a vessel
being overtaken,
(ii) avoid any change of course toward a vessel abeam or abaft the beam.
When the fog signal of another vessel is heard, apparently forward of the beam, a vessel
should reduce speed to the minimum at which she can maintain her course, or if
necessary stop, and navigate with extreme caution until there is no risk of collision.[6]

1. In or near restricted visibilty


2. Engines ready
3. Safe speed
4. Comply to section I
5. By radar detect target, risk of collision / close ¼ situation: do something!
Not: A/C towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam
A/C port except for overtaking
6. If you hear a fog signal forward or close ¼ situation, stop enough to keep heading,
sound signal until risk is over, blast the shit out of each other (check radar for blind
spots or retune)
7. Navigate with extreme caution.

Risk of collision in restricted vis. What are your actions?


See above:
Systematic radar plot
EBL
ARPA
Radar (use the radar to see how much visibility you have i.e. object 1.2’ away is on radar
& can be seen)
Bridge doors open
Sound appropriate sound signal
AIS
Think of the circle

102
Crossing situation:
Towing vessel on port side – crossing not RAM

Vessel aground:

F/V lights when nets shooting, hauling, stuck

F/V with gear 150m horizontally away from vessel

Explain Geographical range / luminous range /nominal range?


To find out what light range is used in your area consult the appropriate List of lights
vol K
Geographical Range:
Maximum Distance that can be seen taking into account:
-Height of eye.
-Curvature of the earth.
-Height of the structure/object.
D=2.09√height of eye + 2.09√height of Object.

Luminous Range:
The maximum range a light can be seen taking into account the intensity of candela of a
light and visibility at the time.

Nominal Range:
Distance a light can be seen at a visibility of 10’.

What are the whistle requirements?


ANNEX III – Col regs

103
Do mast head lights & side light cut out ay 22.5 abaft the beam?
Annex I – Colregs: Light specs
No, 1-3 cut off allowance for side lights / 5 for masthead lights

Can a special mark flash ‘U’?


No as per NP 735 cannot flash A-D-U

The 2nd mate calls you, there is red smoke on the surface what does this mean?
What would you do? And where do you get info about this?
Submarine in distress
Annual Notice to mariners
Call RCC

You have a collision with another ship, could you try to Salvage that vessel?
No, you would render assistance, because no matter what your ship will still be
somewhat responsible for the incident in a court of law.

Steps:
If vessels are together raft up to prevent pollution and sinking
Muster
Emergency procedures and preparedness for collision
Water tight doors
Ballast to keep upright
FSE, put FSE prevention steps into place
Damage stability criteria
Pollution: call Coast state for assistance

If your ship is ok render assistance to other vessel


Exchange name call sign IMO No. flag POB

Urgency call Pan Pan if needed


Call company

104
Bridge Equipment
Radar: M.O 21 Safety of Navigation & Emergency Procedures / SOLAS Ch. V

What are the steps to set up a RADAR?


Check scanner
Power ON warm up
Align heading marker
Transmit
Mode HU NU CU input heading
Motion REL FOTT TRUE input speed
Range 3 or 6 for set up
Brilliance
Gain: light speckle
(IF amplifier controls the overall amplification of echoes, accepts signal from mixer or
tuner converts the  into a voltage to be displayed)
Tune: auto tune
Tuning bars
strong target
performance monitor
(Converts the Rx  into a lower intermediate  in the mixer then pass it onto the IF)
Sea Clutter (same principal as gain but only a certain distance out from antenna)
Rain clutter: helps detect targets in rain areas
VRM: check VRM against range rings
EBL: check EBL by taking visual brg of target (azimuth ring) and compare it to radar
brg with EBL and heading
Re-tune in 10mins and once every watch

General information about the RADAR….


Assumptions should not be made on scanty info especially scanty radar info
Allow 30m or 1% of range in use for error discrimination
Radar height formula 2.21ht of radar (+ 2.21ht object = range that object could be
detected)
Movement on radar is a sum of own + other vessels course and speed-relative motion
When using radar for navigation i.e. Waypoints input GPS speed and course
Speed through water is used for collision avoidance (it is accepted that all vessels in
the
area are affected by the same body of water)
EBL’s and trails are a good early indication of risk of collision
P.I’s are a good nav practice for keeping on course, distances off and the effect of set
and drift and wind.
Apply half the beamwidth to bearing i.e. leading edge of land add one degree OR
trailing edge minus one degree (find beamwidth in manual)
Take bearing of the centre of targets i.e. Vessel
Take ranges from inside edge of VRM
To search for target beyond rain use long pulse or 10cm S radar
In Rain use short pulse to reduce echoes
Use rain clutter to search for targets in rain

105
What are some of the RADAR errors?
Multiple echoes: when the radar pulse bounces between your ship & the target,
producing several echoes on the same bearing
Side lobe echoes: the smaller lobes at the side of the Main radar beam produce their
own echoes, at small ranges
Indirect errors: Pulse returning id deflected off funnels etc and cause 2 echoes at the
same range as the target but different bearings
Interference: Cause by other radars or internal disturbances

Do you change to ground stabilisation when entering shallow water?


Ground stabilisation is usually used for Navigation (SOG GPS input) in pilotage waters, it
is also noted that in pilotage water visual headings and aspect are used primary for
collision avoidance (but not limited to: Use all available means)
Have the other radar on Sea stabilised for Collision avoidance

You see a vessel visually but it is not on the radar, why?


Radar not tunes properly
Target is in radar blind sectors
The construction of the target is not giving a good echo i.e. timber F/V or fibreglass
yacht

What are the pros & cons of a 3cm & 10cm radar? When would you use each one?
3cm:
Coastal & Inshore pilotage
In heavy seas
Close range collision avoidance

10cm:
Long range scanning / collision avoidance
Looking for targets through rain (long pulse)

What vessels must carry a 3cm radar?


300 grt

What vessels must carry a 10cm radar


3000 GRT +

What vessels are required to have ARPA?


500 grt
10000 GRT 20+ targets

If unsure about any equipment check SOLAS V / MO 21 / Ship safety certificate annex

All ships are required to carry "adequate and up-to-date charts" under SOLAS Chapter V
(Regulation 20) to assist in navigation.

106
1. What is ECDIS?

(i) Electronic chart display & Information system.

(ii) An Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) is a computer-based


navigation information system that complies with International Maritime Organization
(IMO) regulations and can be used as an alternative to paper nautical charts

2. What vessels have to carry ECDIS?

As can be seen from the above there are no mandatory carriage requirements for
existing cargo ships of less than 10,000 GT……………………

(i) The implementation schedule for the carriage of


ECDIS on new and existing vessels is as follows:

New passenger vessels of 500 GT and upwards constructed on or after 1st july 2012.

New tankers of 3,000 GT and upwards constructed on or after 1st July 2012.

New cargo ships, other than tankers, of 10,000 GT and upwards constructed on or after
1st July 2013.

New cargo ships, other than tankers, of 3,000 GT and upwards but less than 10,000GRT
constructed on or after 1st July 2014.

Existing passenger ships of 500 GT and upwards constructed before 1st July 2012 not
later than the first survey on or after 1st July 2014.

Existing tankers of 3,000 GT and upwards constructed before 1st July 2012 not later
than the first survey on or after 1st July 2015.

What are the carriage requirements of ECDIS?


(i) Operator Training.

(ii) Full independent back with separate radar , GPS input and power supply,
Or
Update Paper chart portfolio.

(iii) Members are referred to the IMO circular SN.1/Circ.276 on ‘Transitioning from
Paper
Chart to Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (ECDIS) Navigation’ for
additional guidance and information.

What are the ARPA errors?


Alarms: Lost target / Guard zone / Nav equipment input failure
Errors:
Wrong speed / course input
Explain Target swap?

107
What are the Standards for ARPA?
(i)1 min trend:
R/C: +- 11 degrees
CPA: 1’
Rel. Speed: 10%

3 Min:
RC: 3 Degrees
TC: 5 Degress
CPA: 0.3’
TCPA: 1 min
Rel. Speed 1%

Target Range within 30m


Target bearing 1 degree

(ii) Integrated AIS.


(iii) Target Data
(iv) Target swap control.
(v) Azimuth stabilized Gyro
(vi) Manual & auto acquisition (20-40 targets).
(vii) Zones acquisition
(viii) Ground & sea stabilized.

What vessels must have a magnetic compass?


19 Magnetic compass
19.1 The master of a ship must ensure that:
(a) for a ship over 100 gross tonnage:
(i) a compass deviation book is kept on the ship; and
(ii) the information mentioned in Schedule 1 is recorded in the compass
deviation book; and
(b) if the observations for a magnetic compass on the ship show a deviation of the
compass on any heading of more than 5o — the compass is adjusted by a licensed
compass adjuster at the first port where an adjuster is available to correct the deviation;
and
(c) for each magnetic compass fitted on the ship — the tables or curve of residual
deviations from the last adjustment, and details of subsequent changes in deviations,
are available for use at all times; and
(d) the size and position of magnets and soft iron correctors in a compass fitted on the
ship and the date and nature of any changes made to them or to their position are
recorded by the person making the adjustment in the compass deviation book.
This is a penal provision.
19.2 When a licensed compass adjuster completes an examination and adjustment
of a ship’s compasses, he or she must give to the master a table of deviations in
accordance with Form MO—21/1 in Schedule 2.
19.3 A surveyor may direct the master of a ship to have the ship’s compasses
adjusted in accordance with paragraph 19.1(b) if:
(a) paragraph 19.1(c) or (d) has not been complied with; and
(b) the surveyor thinks that the compasses of the ship are, or may be, unreliable.

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How do you know if a magnetic compass is unreliable?
Deviations of 5 or more

Where do you get info about a Magnetic compass?


MO 21 / Solas V / My marine handbook

Would you sail with an unreliable magnetic compass?


Get it adjusted, its part of the Ship Safety certificate & what happens if the gyro broke
down.
Or
Get the 2nd magnetic compass (150grt) as long as it has a deviation table or swing the
compass if in a remote area.

If you swing, a compass is it good for all areas?


Not really, but as long as the deviation is under 5 degrees, that’s why you take compass
errors regulary, applying the compass error to your course on a regular basis.

Pilot advises that there is erratic movement on the magnetic compass, what are
your actions?
Check fluid levels
Use the gyro, look out the window, give helm orders
Make sure no ship structure changes
Check heeling bucket magnets

How do you correct an oscillating compass card?


As above

What is heeling error & how do you correct it?


Maximum on North / South headings
Difference between deviations when the vessel is upright and heeled on the same
heading.
Raise the heeling bucket magnet and record / log
Correction only good for that latitude

What happens when you adjust the heeling bucket?


Stops or increases the card ‘rollin’ when the vessel is rolling

Can you adjust a compass?


Yes remember original location of magnets

Large compass errors?


Check chart for admoralities / swing compass, port denny make table, only good for that
area

What vessels must have gyro?


500 grt

109
What are the errors & settings associated with a Gyro Compass & how are they
fixed?
(i) Steaming error:
where rapid changes in course, speed and latitude cause deviation before the gyro can
adjust itself. On most modern ships the GPS or other navigational aids feed data to the
gyrocompass allowing a small computer to apply a correction
or
There are speed and latitude adjustments on the Gyro unit
(ii) Damping or settling error: (settling position not exactly True north)
1. Shift the lubber line
2. Computed tables from the manufacturer
3. Mechanical device

(iii) Residual error which is known as the gyro error: High or Low
(iv) Rolling error

3. What are the advantages & disadvantages of the Gyro Compass?


ADVANTAGES:
(i) Points to true north
(ii) Not influenced by Magnetism and electrical forces
(iii) Can have repeaters
(iv)No deviation
(v) Does not wander
DISADVANTAGES
(i) Takes hours to power up
(ii) Yearly Maintenance
(iii) In High latitudes the gyro becomes unreliable due to tilt
(iv) Expensive
(v) Needs power
(vi) Adjustments for speed and latitude

The Gyro breaks down, what are your actions & what does it effect?
Gyro repeaters
All gyro fed bridge equipment:
DP
Auto pilot
Radar / ARPA
AIS
ECDIS

Change over to 2nd gyro if one available,


Manual steering
Use magnetic compass
Take compass beraing

What are some of the drawings found on the bridge?


Radar blind sector
Fire Plan
Manoeuvring diagram

110
Fire plan
General arrangement plan
Steering manual to auto
Emergency steering

What are the Echo sounder errors?


-Set draft in depth sounder menu for depth under the keel(minus if transducer is higher
than the base of the keel)
-Sound waves thru water are affected by temp and density (1450 – 1550 m/sec)
-Depth sounders have a 5% give or take on soundings
- Do a monthly check with the lead line

False echoes:
Round the clock echoes: is when the stylus has already started another cycle when the
previous pulse comes back, it show for a depth of 300: 10 / 310 / 610 but a weaker
trace, unlikely in digital sounders

Double echo errors: The pulse is rebounded twice from the surface of from the ships hull
giving readings twice the depth, trace is always weaker than the true depth, adjust gain
/ sensitivity

Multiple Echoes: Same as double echoes but happens several times, adjust the gain /
sensitivity

False Echoes: Fish, weed, the deep scattering layer that has different density of water
with plankton and fish (300-450m during day / surface at night), turbulence

What are the AIS errors & Dangers?


Just to note AIS has 4 principle functions:
MASTrep / Reefrep
Collision Avoidance
VTS
Aids to nav
SAR
Coast state surveillance
Dangers:
-Not everybody has AIS.
-Some vessels might have it turned off i.e. due to security.
-Poorly set up configuration on some ships may give inaccurate readings.
-It is used as an aid for collision avoidance and nowhere in the COLREGS does it say you
can use AIS, nor is it a substitute for visual and/or radar information
-VHF use for COLREGS is also said to be ‘Fraught’ with danger, identification of a target
with AIS does not remove that danger
-Vessels under 500grt may not have a gyro fitted.

111
Stability:
Remember the following formulas?

TPC = WPA x RD / 100

FWA: Displacement
4 x TPC

DWA: FWA x (1025 – RD )mm


25

Displacement:
cb = V / L x b x d

Area of Waterplane = L x B x CW

L = Length of vessel…. B = Breadth of vessel

CW= Co-efficient of Waterplane

Volume of Displacement = L x B x d x Cb

Displacement = V x R.D

Kg = Total Mts / Total displacement

Seasonal marks = 1/48 of summer draft

New displacement = New density


Old displacement Old density

KG & FSE & AOL:

KG = Total Wt / Total Moments

KG = KM –GM

KGf = KG + FSc

GM = Pendulum Length X GG1 / Pendulum Deflection in m

GG1 = Wt x d / Displacement

Tan Ǿ = GG1 / GM (Can be transposed GM = GG1 / Tan Ǿ)


moments = Wt x Distance

FSC = FSM / displacement

112
FSM = i x density (FSM also from tank criteria in Stabook)

(FSE) i = L x b3 / 12

BM = I / V I = L x b3 / 12 Box BM = b2 / 12 x d (draft)
d = 2/3 of draft (triangular prism)

Gz = KN – (KGf x SineQ)

AOL: Tan Q = SQroot of (2GM/BM)

Heel
MSS = Disp. x GZ

GZ = GM sine Q

DS = Area under the curve x disp.

113
Describe the following?

Centre of Gravity
A point on the vessel through which all forces of gravity act vertical downwards

Centre of Buoyancy
A point on the vessel through which all forces of buoyancy act vertically upwards equal
to the water displaced

Metacentre
A point on the centre-line of a vessel through which all the forces of buoyancy pass
when the vessel is heeled

Righting Lever
When the vessel is heeled by an external force, the centre of buoyancy/centre of gravity
are not in the same line, now a horizontal distance exists, the buoyancy pushing the
vessel upright (the righting lever Gz)

Metacentric Height
The distance from the Centre of Gravity to the Metacentre (G.M.)

Height of the Metacentre


The distance from the Keel to the Metacentre (K.M.)

Displacement
Is the total weight of the vessel equal to the water it displaces
Displacement = Lightship + deadweight

Draught
The vertical distance from the Keel to the waterline

Freeboard
The vertical distance from the waterline to the uppermost continuous deck

Under keel allowance


The distance from the keel to the seabed

Trim
This is the difference between the fore and aft draughts

Mean Draft
This is the forward and aft draft added together and divided by the number 2

Stable Equilibrium
This is when a vessel has a positive righting lever (G below M)

Neutral Equilibrium
This is when the vessel has no righting lever (G & M together) (Danger of Capsize)

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Unstable Equilibrium
This is when the vessel has a negative righting lever (G above M) (Capsizing lever)

Stiff Vessel
This is a vessel with a very large righting lever (G near the Keel)

Tender Vessel
This is a vessel with a vessel small righting lever (G very near M)

Angle of Loll
This is a vessel that is initial unstable but when heeled has a vessel small righting lever
(Very dangerous condition, get rid of any weights on deck either by putting it overboard
or down into the hold) (Caution watch an angle of loll through ice accretion, always take
the ice off all rigging first the from the high side and push it towards the low side giving
you a bigger list but your forces of buoyancy work harder to keep your vessel upright)

List
A list is caused by you moving anything on the vessel to one side

Stability Curve
this is a curve that shows the following :
(1.) angle of maximum stability
(2.) maximum g.z.
(3.) the righting lever at any angle
(4.) angle of vanishing stability
(5.) the range of stability
(6.) angle where deck-edge immersion begins
(7.) the amount of dynamic stability a vessel has
(8.) the point of contra flexure
(9.) the angle of inclination
(10.) the initial g.m.
(11.) the radians for that vessel

Stability
This is an act of keeping the vessel stable

Transverse Stability
The vessels ability to return to the upright position

Reserve Buoyancy
This is the volume of air in the watertight space above the waterline

Centre of Floatation
This is the centre of the water-plane area of a vessel at any draught

Deadweight
This is the cargo, stores water, fuel that you've taken aboard

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Light Displacement
The total weight of the vessel, machinery etc that stays on the vessel and cannot be
moved, (stores, fuel water etc not included)

Lightship
The total weight of the vessel, machinery etc that stays on the vessel and cannot be
moved, (stores, fuel water etc not included)

A righting moment or a moment of statical stability


The total weight X the righting lever (Gz)

A moment
A moment = weight x distance

Loaded weight regarding the centre of gravity


When a weight is loaded onto a vessel the centre of gravity moves towards it

Discharged weight regarding the centre of gravity


When a weight is discharged from a vessel the centre of gravity goes back to where it
was before the weight came on board (Opposite direction from where the weight was
placed at on the vessel)

Shifted weight regarding the centre of gravity


When a weight is shifted on a vessel the centre of gravity moves from where the weight
was to the weights new position

Dynamic stability
The amount of work taken to bring a vessel back to its upright position

Density
The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume

Volume of displacement
This is where the vessel is equal to the water displaced and expressed in cubic metres

116
What is contained in a Stability booklet?
- Inclining experiment
-Profile view
-Plan view
-Ship Particulars
-Load Line
-FWA
-Draft marks
-Hydrostatic tables
-KN curves
-Deck edge immersion
-Potential angle of flooding
-Angle of flooding
-Immersion diagram
-Trim calculation for LCF draft
- IMO criteria
-Tank summary tables
-cargo space diagrams

Explain the relationship between LCF / LCB / LCG?

LCF
a. The LCF if the centre of the waterplane area (birds eye view) but displayed as a
profile view.

b. LCF is the tipping point of the vessel on the transverse axis.

c. The LCF has to be determined to calculate the rest of the hydrostatic tables

LCB
a. The longitudinal centre of buoyancy is the centre of the underwater volume
longitudinally

LCG
a. The longitudinal centre of gravity is the weight acting down longitudinally

2. the relationship between the LCG & LCB is called the trimming lever

Trimmed by the stern

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6. Explain a vessel going from Saltwater to Dock water to saltwater?

SW to DW
Vessel Sinks
Draft Changes
Hydrostatic particulars change
LCB moves Aft / due to underwater volume increasing
LGC Same / no chane in weight
LCF changes / due to change in WPA
Trimming lever changes
Vessel trims more to the head

DW to FW:
LCB moves FWD to to decrease in Underwater volume
Vessel trims by the stern

What is a trimming moment & how do you calculate it?


Using trimming tables while loading

Change of trim = Moments caused (w x d or mts fwd – mts aft)


MCTC

Trim = LCG +- LCB x displ


MCTC

What is transverse stability?


Basically, the ability for a vessel to remain upright, or return to an upright position
when affected by an external force.
MSS = GZ x displ
GZ = GM sine Q
DS = displ x area under the curve

What is FSE? Draw & explain? How will you calculate G?


Use a concrete barrow analogy: move when dry compared to when wet.

What is AOL? Draw & Explain, How will find initial GM?
AOL is when there is an effective rise of G towards the metacentre resulting in no or
negative GM(G above M) due to slack tanks, water / fish on deck, improper loading.
The G usually centres on the upthrust buoyancy line above the M resulting in no GZ or a
capsizing GZ (negative righting lever).
As G settles on the buoyancy line it causes the vessel to settle at a loll, & the ship will
then roll (pivot) around this loll when moved by an external force i.e. Swell.

As the vessel rolls around this loll the ship can flop to the other side and possibly
capsize.

118
positive / neutral / negative stability diagrams:

To find the GM do a stability calculation finding KGf, get KM from hydrostatics and get
GM.
Also AOL TanQ=sqroot 2 x (GM/BM)
What is the difference between AOL & list? How would you determine?
List is cause by a distribution of weights on a vessel when un/loading, moving weights
onboard, fluid transfer.
AOL is caused by a rise in G, resulting from FSE, slack tanks, damaged stability, water on
deck, ice on deck.
Stop loading
Do a stability calculation
Check the loading with the plan
Check with engineers if they are moving liquids

119
What are the 10 steps to reduce AOL?
1. Find out the cause of the loll, if in doubt if list or loll, treat as loll.
2. If AOL due to slack tanks, fill low tanks with small FSM first, do not allow DEI or water
on deck, Transfer high tanks to low, ice on mast.
3. If due to weight below, fill low tanks with small FSM
4. Do a stability calculation, determine GM and KGf.
5. Calculate FSM for each tank that you wish to fill / empty and add it to the KGf
6. Provided it’s safe and will increase the GM+ proceed to fill tank.
7. Once proven that there is +VE stability start correcting list.
8. Jettison cargo if need be.
9. Use swell, sea & wind to your advantage so you don’t flop over to other side.
10. Go outside normal procedures (NAVACT) if need be i.e. go over load line.

The ship Takes a 5 degrees list whilst loading in port. List or loll.
How check and correct?
List has positive stability → moving anything on the vessel to one side will list.
Loll has negative stability. G & B in the same transit → initial unstable but when heeled
has a small righting lever (very dangerous) condition.

Stop loading
Do a stability calculation
Check the loading with the plan
Check with engineers if they are moving liquids

What happens if a compartment is holed below the waterline that is:


full of SW?
Full Of ?FO
Empty?
Above the waterline?

Damage stability formula:


The volume lost = volume gained.

120
Draw a GZ curve & explain how to get GZ & explain the IMO stability Criteria?

a. The GZ = KN – KG sine Ǿ explanation:

GZ = XN

XN = KN – KX

Sin Q = KX / KG

KX = KG sine Ǿ

GZ = KN – GZ x sine Ǿ

b. The KN explanation:

-KN from stability booklet is constant for a particular draft.


-A Naval architect determines a righting lever around the keel.
-KN is determined for a range of displacements to help determine the righting lever.
- It determines the dynamic stability under the righting lever curve on a GZ graph.
-AMSA have adopted this formula: (n.b. there are 2 other methods)

121
c. Resolve GZ for each angle of heel:

HEEL 10 20 30 40 50 60
KN
KG x Sine Ǿ
GZ

d. Now plot GZ for each angle of heel on a Graph:

-Angle of down flooding/Potential Angle of flooding/Deck edge Immersion/GM@30


f. Use Simpson’s rules to determine the area under the curve:
Angle of vanishing stability
This is on the curve of statical stability and where the curve comes down and has no
(g.z.) ( + or - ) then this is where stability vanishes

Initial GM
This is on the curve of statical stability, on the angle of inclination at 57.3 degrees there
is a radian line , and a tangent line which starts from 0 degrees and leaves the first arc of
the curve of statical stability and where the tangent line and the radian line at 57.3
degrees meet then this is the initial g.m.

Angle of Maximum stability


This is on the curve of statical stability, on the curve itself at the top of the curve down
to the angle of inclination and this is the angle of maximum stability

122
Maximum GZ (on curve of static stability)
This is on the curve of statical stability, at the top of the curve look at the distance on the
scale (metres) and this is the maximum g.z.

Range of positive stability


This is on a curve of statical stability , where the curve starts on the angle of inclination
to where the curve stops at the point of vanishing stability

Where is deck edge immersion?

Importance of adequate freeboard


With freeboard raised then this will give you
(1.) a greater range of stability
(2.) a greater range of vanishing stability
(3.) a greater maximum g.z.
(4.) the maximum g.z. occurs at a greater angle
(5.) greater dynamic stability

What is the IMO stability criteria?


MO 12 / Intact Stability Booklet / SOLAS ch. II-1

(1) Area under curve up to 30 degrees not less than 3.15 metre degress
(2) Area under curve up to 40 degrees not less than 5.16 m/d
Or 0 to angle of flooding if the AOF is less than 40 degress
(3) Area between 30 and 40 degrees not less than 1.72 m/d
Or30 to AOF (if less than 40 degres)
(4) @ 30 Heel the GZ ordinate has to be greater than 0.20m
(5) Max GZ has to occur preferably @ 30 Degress but not less than 25 degrees
(6) Initial metacentric height (GM) corrected for FSE not less than 0.15 (0.35 F/V
(7) Use simpsons rules to calculate the area under the curve

You have finished loading and there meat hooks hanging in one of the top loaded
containers, what are your actions?
If you cant access the container, dry to lower your KG in increase your GM, by filling DB
tanks etc.

What is change in draft due to roll?


The draft increases with beam.
Use this simple formula:
d= ( ½ breadth x sineQ) + (original draft x cos Q)
New draft – original draft = increase in draft

123
Dry Dock
1. What are some of the ship preparations prior to docking?
(i) Docking stability including trim & draft
(ii) Organising the ship plans needed including put not limited to:
Docking plans
Manhole covers
Electrical
Vents & Breathers
Overboard discharges
Anode plan
Bottom plug
Engineering plans i.e. windlass etc
Section plans
Shell expansion
(iii) Work scope DMO’s
(iv) Labour needed
(v) Materials needed
(vi) CO2 Lock down
(vii) Will the ship be dead or people living onboard.
(viii) Survey & Certificate requirements i.e. what tanks & items need surveying

2. What is involved with the pre-docking meeting between Ship’s crew / Ship
Manager/ Dry Dock Master / Dry dock personnel?

(i) A meeting will be held involving all appropriate personnel to outline some of the
following:
1. Stability criteria/ draft/ trim/Bending moments/stresses required by the naval
architect.
2. Ships docking plan, location of hull fittings/discharges/plugs etc (given to dock
master & naval architect)
3. OH& S procedures (see next question)
4. PTW
5. Fire fighting systems
6. Fresh water
7. Sewage
8. Docking procedure JHA
9. Work scope, work schedule….remember Williamstown stuff up with empting tanks
and hull cleaning.
10. Shore power / shore generator
11. Garbage requirements
12. Emergency procedures
13. Shore based contractors needed?
14. Confined space entry requirements i.e. OZ accredited certificates for crew.

Note: Farstad still carried on as if they were in control of the ship i.e. incident reporting,
safety programs etc.

124
3. What are some things as a Master / Chief Officer should you look at in a dry dock?
(i) The Propeller tip damage, does it need repolishing
(ii) Anchors / Cables
(iii) Painting blasting required
(iv) Time in dry dock and prioritise DMO
(v) Damage to hull
(vi) Load line survey

4. What are some things to remember about undocking?


(i) Bottom Plugs!!
(ii) Gratings Bow thruster / Valves
(iii) That all valves are either shut or been reinserted
(v) Naval Architect stability requirements
(vi) Sea trial Requirements
(vii) Dock Masters undocking procedure & JHA

5. What are the OH&S requirements of a Dry Docking?


(i) At the Pre-Dry dock meeting OHS will be discussed.
(ii) The only time OSHMI does not apply to OZ seafarers is when the control of the
vessel is taking over by a Dry Dock, note that control does not mean operate
(iii) If the dock does take control then OHS will come under the dry docks OHS system,
but the ship will continue to comply with company incident reporting etc.
(iv) Crew will be inducted with the safety systems / OHS procedures / PTW system /
Dock Procedures & Policies.

6. What are some of the Navy Dockmaster at Garden Island’s ‘Rule of thumb’?
(i) 1 Foot of aft trim for every 100 feet of ship but maximum 3ft of trim.
(ii) If 3 ft is exceeded then the ‘P’ upthrust may exceed the bending moments of the ship
due to weight distribution.
(iii) If there is too much trim the underwater plan changes from a triangle shape to a
diamond shape, the triangle shape gives a good platform to rest the stern on the blocks
whereas the diamond block co-efficient is hard to control.
(iv) The most critical part of the docking is once the stern rest on the blocks until the
fwd end draft finishes ‘Making’ draft. i.e. As the bow starts to come down on the fwd
blocks the water can no longer displace the bow as the water is pumped out, the bow
will start to settle and the draft will actually increase until the vessel is resting on the
blocks, the draft will decrease again once the vessel has fully settled.

125
1. What are the stability requirements of Dry Docking?
(i) Most critical when the keel touches the block.
(ii) Always place one end down first to give a good foundation until the other end
settles.
(iii) There will be an upward force acting on the hull which will reduce the ship stability.
(iv) If the GM becomes negative then it may result in an angle of loll. (same if a ship is
grounded)
(v) The place of first contact is P. P is at its greatest at first contact.
(vi) Formulas for Dry Dock Stability:

P = MCTC x Trim (cm)


Length (P to LCF) LCF get from Hydrostatic Tables for That Displacement.

Then

MM = P x KM (KM from Hydrostatic tables for that displacement)


Displacement

New KM1 = KM + MM

Then

GG = P x KG (KG from stability calculations)


-P

New KG1 = KG + GG

Then

New GM = KM1 – KG1

What state should v/l be in when re-entering the water.

In my experience from the LKA docking, I liaison with the Naval Architect & he wanted
The exact state as when it went in, 30cm trim aft, same ballast etc. Note that we carried
FW ballast so it was easy for us, but if you had SW ballast then my logic would be just to
talk to the naval architect and see if you could go back possible in lightship condition.

The vessel should be in a upright stable condition.

What actions would you take if your vessel is grounded?

126
LIST OF TONNAGES
List of tonnages

127
OTHER QUESTIONS
What are the departure steering gear tests?
As per SOLAS V / MO 21
Done 12 hours before departure
Officers competent with all components of steering / gear / change overs
Emergency gear change over procedures on bridge
Emergency steering gear test every 3 months
Communications
Check:
Remote steering station
Full rudder control i.e. 35 to 35
Time taken from hard over to hard over

128