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Literature Review The interest in using ICT in class room is tremendously increasing.

The integration of
ICT highly beneficial both for students and teachers( Cope & Ward, Naidu Cunnington & Jassen2002).The
activity theory (Engestron1987) also suggests that ICT must be studied and through the using of ICT
there is comprehensive learning of digital technology. It is very important that students develop attitude
of learning technology but some time it is ignored but technology must dominate in education.
According to Symonds(2002) in the coming years school will become “Hightech”.Bennet(2002) suggests
that technology must be included in in school curriculum. Teachers must have also command in teaching
technology and they must also facilitate students in learning the use of technology Teacher,s training in
technology is also important factor (Diem2000)It is some time observed that teachers do not have
command over the use of different devices .Diem suggests that it is urgent need that teachers must be
fully conversant with the use of technology. According to (Tolmie2001) unless the teachers know the use
of technology , it is obvious that itself technology can not have impact on students.According to
(Tierman2002) students must have access to to computer technology. It means that to create a
technology learning environment there should be adequate availability of software (Shaver1999).
Moor,s Law suggests that computer technology enhances the pace of learning ,outdated software must
be replaced by latest software and apps. Sometime there is issue that schools lack in resources and
further most of the students do not have computers at home, but this trend is now changing. Now
students have more technology orientation and as such they do computer work through laptop and
other available devices. Fiske and Hammond(1997) describe instructional technology a key to quality
education. Globally now it is the era of technology. Experts believe that technology increases the
effectiveness of teachers and students learning. According to these experts technology changes the role
of teachers to technology managers(JONASSEN et al 1999). Attran and Van Laar(2001) suggest that with
the use of technology lot of time is saved in administrative matters and in record keeping through
increasing the efficiency of teachers and students. Due to networking and computer technology
teachers are at more ease in giving instructions to students. Further students also retrieve valueable
study material through the use of computers. When students jointly carry out the study and complete
their assignments the use of computer technology is an added advantage for them. The researchers like
OTTO and ALBIAN(2004) consider that there is some deficiency in integration of technology in teaching.
Leadership has an important role in technology intergration. Dinhan(2005) suggest that leader should
develop schools equipped with innovative technogy and they must encourage quality teaching and
learning environment. It is the duty of pricipals to reienforce the integration of technology in schools
and students learning. The role of principal is vital in technology integration(Wilmore and Betz 2000).
They further state that through integration of technology principals must support and manage activities
of students and teachers thus create benchmarks and learning standards. If technology is properly
integrated in teaching it will certainly support the professional development of students and teachers. In
this modern age of information technology ICT must be inducted in day to day activities. An effective
technology leader can do this job if integration is properly implemented in the learning environment.
According to Hope,Kalley,Guyden(2000), technically leaders must be fully aware and understand the
importance of integration of technology and how this can be applied in students, teachers learning.
Gibson(2002) suggested that principals must fully remain focused on all aspects of technology
integration. This includes use of technology in administrative issues, curriculam development, personnel
matters, traning and development of staff, communication between teachers, students and parents and
other related issues. Principal must develop such culture that supports the integration of technology.
Fullan(2003) stated that advancement in schools reforms can only take place if leadership is truly
involved in such change. Principal is always considered a facilitator for ICT change. According to
Schiller(2003) , if principal takes active role in technology integration he can produce conducive
integration oriented environment that will ultimately help the students and teachers.
Hope,Kalley,Guyden(2000) suggest that school teachers should be competent in the use of technology in
the schools. Segall(1998) suggested that the school principal must remain seeking advice and assistance
from computer experts and they should appoint those teachers who have better command in the use of
information technology. Smith et al (1999) stated that school administrator understand the integration
and implementation of technology. Through technology we generate knowledge and different processes
that expand and strengthen human working capacities. Through technology people access, collect
information to improve self knowledge and as well as for the benefit of overall community. In the
evaluation of education quality and standards the technology plays important role. (Wobber 2003)
Through the use of ICT students and teachers can use knowledge that have positive impact in their
studies and learning (Volman and Van Eck 2001). ICT replaces the old conventional teaching studies with
new innovative methodologies. ICT is considered a significant tool that enhances teachers and students
learning. It develops students learning skill, problem solving and communication skills. (Plomp et al
1996, Voogt 2003). One of the challenges in current era is creating awareness in communication
technologies. Business people, educationists and ordinary people, all are concerned for development of
information technology. Information and Communication technology includes television, radio and
digital technologies like computer and internet. These technologies can bring revolutionary change in
education sector. When ICT is properly used it created new methodologies of leaning for students and
teachers. ICT is helpful in “active learning” and in “collaborative learning”. ICT can help in direct class
teaching , school broadcasting and in general educational programming. The roll of teachers have been
important in the implementation of Information ,Communication and Technology in education.They are
facilitators in ICT teaching process. In the cuurent age of modernization their role have shifted from
mere knowledge provider to teahing language through ICT Albirini ( ) argues that teachers are the “end-
users and real agents” in planning technology further implementation of technology. With the
emergence and rise of tnternet governments of all over the world have realized that technology has an
important role in education.Now particular attention is being paid to induct technology in educational
programs. It is very important that teachers and students understand the role of technology in
education. Not only in education but in social and cultural sectors technology role is considered
important. In education technology is being used in instructional design, global issues in educational
technology, online teaching, curricular integration, and professional development. ICT is considered a
driving force not only for education but also for economic development. According to Smith and Smythe
(2002) this development is empowering both people and organizations to use ICT effectively. Many
researchers address the issue of ICTs integration in higher education and suggest that policymakers and
teachers can play an important part in this dimension [7,8,]. Both groups (policymakers and teachers)
need to understand how technology and the education system interact with each other. The integration
of ICTs in higher education brings many opportunities and also causes more challenges; that is why it is
very important befor implementing the use of ICTs to make sure that suitable levels of investment is in
place, adequate training, good policy, careful planning, restructuring the teaching process, and a
systematic approach also are require when integrating ICTs in education in order to achieve maximum
educational benefits. It is also vital to think carefully about purpose of education or the context in which
the ICTs can be used before implementation. In our previous work we defined education as an engine
for the development and improvement of any society ICTs is a strong tool for spreading knowledge and
information.The use of ITC in education is growing rapidly all over the world. Their fast growth it has
already taken place all over the world; however the integration of ICTs in education has deep effects for
the whole education process ranging from investments to use of technologies in dealing with key issues
of access, equity, management, efficiency, pedagogy, quality, research and innovation [10]. The growing
use of ICTs as an instructional medium is changing and will possible continue to change many of the
strategies employed by both educators and students in the teaching and learning process. Many
researchers address the issue of ICTs integration in higher education and suggest that policymakers and
teachers can play an important part in this regard. It is also vital to think carefully about purpose of
education or the context in which the ICTs can be used before implementation. In our previous work we
defined education as an engine for the development and improvement of any society. With these results
it is convinced that the presence of ICT in education sector is also increasing steadily. As Neeru Snehi
(2009), argued that ICTs can play enormous role for improving access and equity in education system in
general and higher education in particular. As regards with education, the use of ICTs offers benefits to
both teaching and learning activities also leads to the changing in teaching and learning process. In the
follow section we will answer two questions that arising in the use of ICTs in education. ll paragraphs
must be indented. All paragraphs must be justified, i.e. both left-justified and right-justified. The use of
ICT in education provides problem based learning and enables students to be independent, have a
critical thinking. The impact of ICTs on learning can be approached in various ways to meet the need of
learners. Research has shown that the use of different approaches offered by ICTs enhance teaching and
learning by transforming the environment into the one that is learner-centered and promote deep
learning. This is a major question of all when thinking about the integration of ICTs in education. But the
answer this question is NO. It is obvious that by integrating the use of ICT’s in education,
educators/teachers will develop strategies that will promote deep learning and change the learning
environment into the learner-centered environment. Kounin (1970) defined effective classroom
management as .producing a high rate of work involvement and a low rate of deviancy in academic
settings. It includes .the provisions and procedures necessary to establish and maintain an environment
in which instruction and learning can occur and the preparation of the classroom as an effective learning
environment. (Fraser,1983, p.68). A well-managed classroom is then one in which pupils are consistently
engaged in the learning tasks with few pupil off-task behaviours. The literature discusses the classroom
management issues that create a conducive environment for the effective integration of ICT in schools.(
Ping, Teo, Wong, Khine, Chai, and Divaharan(2003) Pelgrum (2001), in a worldwide survey among
schools from 26 countries, found that the most frequently mentioned problem of integrating ICT in
education was the insufficient number of computers. This was echoed by Williams, Coles, Wilson,
Richardson, and Tuson (2000) who found that a limited availability of ICT led to problems of classroom
management and organization of resources. Cheung (1997) observed that pupils tended to lose
concentration when the group working on a computer was too big. Given the large number of members
in the group and the limited amount of time a teacher has for each lesson, there was not enough
opportunity for each pupil to have a turn at the computer. Beside the issue of an insufficient number of
computers, Pelgrum (2001) found that insufficient peripherals and learning software were in the top ten
list of problems related to ICT integration in schools. When peripherals such as earphones and
microphones, and copies of learning software were insufficient, teachers experienced great difficulty in
planning and conducting lessons even if there were enough computers (Cheung, 1997). Using ICT in the
classroom involves organising supporting activities for the ICT tool. Potter (2000,) recommended the
principle of discussing with pupils .the difficulties that they have to overcome in familiarising themselves
with the onscreen layout of the particular piece of software.. Potter (2000) suggested that teachers
could print out screens to help the pupils become familiar with the new layouts they would be
encountering. Indeed, one cannot simply assume that pupils are comfortable with any ICT software or
hardware that they handle. It is thus the responsibility of the teachers to conduct ICT- based activities in
such a way that every pupil understands and follows whatever is going on in the lesson. In any learning
environment, ICT-based or non-ICT-based ones, some degree of order and regularity is essential if pupils
are to work productively and consistently toward instructional objectives (Doyle, 1990; Gettinger 1988).
A classroom without any guidelines for appropriate behaviours is very likely to be chaotic and
unproductive. Potter (2000) suggested that a bank of regular sayings, which emphasised good practices,
be put on the notice board of the computer room for all pupils to see. These are the rules and
procedures that state the expected pupil behaviour to create an effective and harmonious learning
environment in ICT-based lessons. Evertson, Emmer, Clements, and Worsham (1997) suggested five
different categories of rules and procedures for the classroom: (a) procedures for room use, (b)
procedures for teacher-led instruction, (c) Procedures for moving in and out of the room, (d) Procedures
for group work, and (e) general procedures, such as distribution of materials and fire drills. These rules
and procedures are to be integrated into a workable system by teachers and should be deliberately
taught to the pupils. By making the rules and procedures .concrete, explicit, and functional,. order in the
learning environment and pupils. work accomplishment are achieved (Doyle, 1986,). Although many of
these rules and procedures are established in .regular. classrooms, they can still be applied in ICT-based
learning environments (Wong, 2000). In addition to the previously mentioned issues and strategies,
teachers also need certain support to effectively integrate ICT in their lessons. According to Wong
(2000), the most common problem a teacher faces when conducting an ICT-lesson is pupils
encountering technical problems. It is therefore crucial to provide teachers with technical support,
especially help in trouble-shooting ICT-related problems (Parks & Pisapia, 1994). The teachers can then
concentrate on conducting the actual lessons. Technical support can come from a variety of sources,
such as a computer technician employed by the school, and from the pupils themselves. The latter can
be trained to assist other students in solving simple technical problems (Marcovitz, Hamza, & Farrow,
2000). Despite the contention that the effects of technology integration are generally not well
documented (Hayes, 2004), there has been an increasing use of information and communication
technology (ICT) in Australian schools (Bruniges, 2003; Finger, 2003; Finger & Trinidad, 2002; MCEETYA,
2005; Meredyth, Russell, Blackwood, Thomas & Wise, 1999). There has similarly been a demonstrable
incremental movement of ICT from the peripheral to the mainstream of school life as progress is made
towards meeting the specific national aim to “integrate information and communications technology
into all facets of education and training, including the administrative functions and e-business models
required to support learning” (Bruniges, 2003, para. 4). The purpose of integrating ICT has been stated
as being “to improve and increase the quality, accessibility and cost-efficiency of the delivery of
education, while taking advantage of the benefits of networking learning communities together to equip
them to face the challenges of global competition” (Bruniges, 2003, para. 6). As a background to (and
arguably driving) these directions in education, ICT is being charged with the capacity to transform
society (Fullan, 1993, 1997; Fullan & Miles, 1992; MCEETYA, 2005) and, consequently being held to be
central to school reform (Prestridge & Watson, 2002; State of Queensland, 2002). The rapid growth in
Information Communication and Technologies (ICT) have brought remarkable changes in the twenty-
first century, as well as affected the demands of modern societies. ICT is becoming increasingly
important in our daily lives and in our educational system. Therefore, there is a growing demand on
educational institutions to use ICT to teach the skills and knowledge students need for the 21st century.
Realizing the effect of ICT on the workplace and everyday life, today’s educational institutions try to
restructure their educational curricula and classroom facilities, in order to bridge the existing technology
gap in teaching and learning. This restructuring process requires effective adoption of technologies into
existing environment in order to provide learners with knowledge of specific subject areas, to promote
meaningful learning and to enhance professional productivity (Tomei, 2005). In a higher education
context, “curriculum” is a notion worthy of exploration and elaboration. It plays as “a construct that
could both consolidate such initiatives undertaken to date and highlight coherent strategies or foci for
the provision of more valuable and meaningful learning opportunities in higher education” (Hicks, 2007).
According to Gaff and Ratcliff (1997), the curriculum in universities is now “an intellectually rich concept
that may be viewed and analyzed from many different vantage points. One can look at purposes,
experiences, or outcomes of the curriculum”. Ratcliff also claims that “the vision of what is a curriculum
is heavily shaped by disciplinary values, educational philosophy, the diversity or homogeneity of
students enrolled, and the social and institutional context”. Besides, Mortimer and Sathre (2007)
suggested that curriculum is a corporate responsibility that the collective faculty of the educational
institution must share. They also note that “A program of study is not just a faculty responsibility, but a
responsibility of the institution as a whole”. Many faculties prefer to select the courses and the content
they want to teach, and how they want to teach them, in part, based on the nature of academic
freedom and autonomy (Innes, 2004). Furthermore, Candy, Crebert and O’Leary (1994) determined that,
“the concept of curriculum in the university setting was unfamiliar to many academics, which developed
and taught units or courses to reflect their own interests with little attention to ensuring coherence or
identifying the aims and objectives of teaching. In view of the aforementioned area of discussion, it is of
utmost importance that educators be made aware of the value of ICT, as well as how to incorporate it in
their classrooms. Integrating ICT into the curriculum is more complex than we think: thus, we should
strive to further propose ways through which to implement it into classrooms. We will need to adapt
and accommodate in order to ensure that what is taught will change as much as how it is taught rather
than use computers to deliver the existing curriculum (Mojkowski, 1987). It is essential to focus on the
pedagogy and ensure that the instruction is tied to the appropriate media to have the effective use of
technology (Ferdig, 2006). We need to build more complex curricular and instructional contexts in which
technology is already embedded in order to parallel the existing concerns for access to the curriculum,
and to achieve the learning outcomes of the curriculum (Woodward & Cuban, 2001). According to Shuva
(2010), the chief purpose of ICT integration into a curriculum is to create an environment, not only for
interaction among educators and students, but also for the utilization of technological facilities. There
exists a myriad of important issues in the integration of ICT into the curriculum in education - a