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Module 4: Types of Media

Print Media
Media is undeniably the most efficient way of communicating
to a large audience because of its capacity to relay the message
across cultures and distances.

The variety of media forms provides a menu of choice for

where and when you can access information. One such media
form is print media. Also known as the press, this type of media
refers to materials that are written and are physically
Perhaps the most significant event in the history of printing is
the invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in
1440. This eventually led to the mass production of books,
which gave people an access to knowledge that they never
dreamt of during those times. Print media can either be in the
form of a book, a newspaper, or a magazine.
Books are the very first mass media in human history, and is
considered to be very personal because they contain records of
past experiences and human knowledge that are passed on to
later generations.
Books also provides opportunities for escape and personal
reflection as experienced by one who reads a novel.
Although targeted to a specific kind of audience, books are very
specialized in that they offer more ideas about a topic, unlike
other mass media forms which are beholden to advertising
When you read a book, you are able you stretch your
imagination and think deeper about ideas that you don’t
normally encounter in your everyday life.
Books are movers and shakers of culture. As a testament to this,
books in physical form are being stored digitally as e-books.
In contrast to books, newspapers and magazines are advertising-
based. This means that a larger bulk of the earnings of magazine
and newspaper publishers come from advertising products
rather than selling the magazine or the newspaper.

Newspapers and magazines are published regularly, whereas

books may come out depending on the publisher’s prerogative.
Magazines and newspapers may be targeted for the general
audience or may address the interest of a particular group of
readers. Magazines typically contain features or human interest
articles, whereas newspapers will definitely have news stories
and occasionally have other types of articles.
Both the magazine and newspaper may also have online
versions for them to reach a wider and larger audience who are
more often virtually connected through the Internet.
The film as a media form is one that is considered
impressionable and has a cathartic effect to its audience. With
moving/motion pictures, the film is able to enhance the media
experience of its consumer because of the audio-video
component which heightens both the sense of hearing and sense
of sight.
Films are very important cultural artifacts because, like books,
they reflect the desire, ideologies, and sensibilities of the
culture which they originate from.
Broadcast Media
One of the most distinctive characteristics of the broadcast
media is their ubiquity. They are considered “household” media
because they can be found in practically any corner of a home.

The broadcast media come in two forms:

 Radio
 Television
Radio was the first electronic mass medium and the precursor
of television. Because of radio, television was a success in most
parts of the world.

For a long time, radio was the “young people’s media”. This is
evident in the proliferation of FM radio stations catering to the
musical taste of younger generations, also known as format
In the Philippines, you customarily expect FM programming to
be format radio, whereas AM programming is dominated by a
news format.
The landscape is slowly changing as news format has already
gone into frequency modulation.
The AM radio still remains the same but more specialized radio
broadcasts have emerged catering to particular niches such as
community radio.
Broadcasting has also started to conquer the Internet and
mobile technology through Internet-based radio and television.

Some people have mixed feelings about television as a media

form. Some think that next to printing press, it is the second
most important invention.
“Television has changed the nature, operation, and relationship
to their audiences of books, magazines, movies, and radio
(Baran, 2010)”.

Others think that television has significantly dumb-down its

content to adhere to what they call the “least common
denominator” which means that television programs avoid
burdening the audience of complex and complicated messages.
Video Games
Video games continue to grow popular to both young and old
because of their increased interactivity and interconnectivity,
“from game console to personal computers to the Internet to
cell phones (Baran, 2010).”
The Internet, is a development in media technology that is at the
heart of all the convergence that you see occurring in traditional
The Internet made it easier to address a wider audience in all
corners of the world. Ideas reach other people in a shorter span
of time. Thus, societies are more connected than ever. Access to
content whenever and wherever is almost possible.
Points of Intersection among Media Forms
Synergy and convergence are what describes the media of

Synergy, is an interaction of two or more agents or forces so that

their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual

Convergence, is the combination of various elements to create a

new whole. (Ex. Traditional media forms converging into a
newer media form that optimizes your media use).
There is a very thin line that separates each media form.
Synergy is the rationale behind the concentration of media in
one company or organization. (ex. A local network giant that
has its main free-air channel with affiliate cable channels and a
cable company subsidiary owning a print media arm and a film
production unit.)
Synergy is also a driving force for mergers and acquisitions in
the media and telecommunications industries.
Convergence is a trend that cannot be done away with because
the audiences are getting more fragmented. Media organizations
would like to reach as many as they can by diversifying the
delivery of their message.
Audiences are no longer biased over one form of media to
access content. Smart phones these days have radio and
television applications, which is a clear example of
Convergence among Different Types of Media
Media Type/Form Convergence
Book • E-books
• Print on demand (POD)
Newspaper • Online version
• Mobile application version
Magazine • Online publishing
• Custom publishing
• Movement from print to television (or
vice versa)
• Advertorial
Film • Concept movies
• Sequels, remakes, and franchises
• Television, comic book, and video
game remakes
Media Type/Form Convergence
Radio • Digital radio
• Internet-based radio and podcasting
• Radio and television (and vice versa)
Television • Video cassette recorders (VCR)
• Digital video disk (DVD)
• Digital video recorder (DVR)
• Digital television or high-definition
• Internet-based television
• Video on the Internet
• Interactive television
• Phone-over-cable
• Mobile video
• Television recording
Media Type/Form Convergence
Video game • Online interactive gaming
• Internet-capable handheld gaming
• Advergaming
• Advocacy gaming
Internet and the • Functionalities of the traditional media
World Wide Web moving to the Web platform
• Internet technology incorporated to
mobile technology (e.g., smart phones
and tablets)
• Internet connected, WI-FI-capable
television monitor
“End of Module 4”
p. 1.12