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Mobility Management

 Traditional mobile communication applications were in two-way voice

communication, text, emails and remote file downloading.

Mobility Management  The emerging applications in video streaming, sensor networking, telemedicine
and surveillance are expected to dominate and shape the next generation of
mobile communication systems.

 One critical feature that enables the ubiquitous communication is the mobility
management - which is perceived to provide continuous constant quality of
service even under very harsh and unexpected conditions.

1. Location Management  Basic mobility management operations include location update as mobile units
move around and location lookup as mobile units are wanted.
2. Handoff Management

Players Mobility issues

 Nokia  Radio resource management
 Location info management
 Erricsson  Security
 Cisco  Temporary loss of connectivity with movement
 Scarce resources : Small devices, low battery power, small
 Nortel CPU, less memory, light weight,….
 React to sudden change in environment due to bandwidth and
 Siemens train system other resource changes
  ????


Location Management Location tracking…

 Location management schemes are based on users'  Location tracking (also referred to as mobility tracking
mobility and incoming call rate characteristics. or mobility management) is the set of mechanisms by
 The network mobility process has to face strong which location information is updated in response to
antagonism between its two basic procedures: location endpoint mobility.
update (or registration) and paging.  It is important to differentiate between the identifier of
 The location update procedure allows the system to keep
location knowledge more or less accurately in order to find an endpoint and its address (i.e., where the endpoint
the user. is located).
 Location registration also is used to bring the user's service  Mechanisms for location tracking provide a time-
profile near its location. varying mapping between the identifier and the
 The paging process by the system sends paging messages address of each endpoint.
in all cells where the mobile terminal could be located.  Most location tracking mechanisms may be perceived
 A network must retain information about the locations of as updating and querying a distributed database (the
endpoints in the network in order to route traffic to the location database) of endpoint identifier-to-address
correct destinations. mappings.
Location Tracking (update) Location Tracking
 Has two components: (1) determining when and how a change in a  Location management methods are most adapted and
location database entry should be initiated; and (2) organizing and
maintaining the location database. widely used in current cellular networks, e.g., GSM, IS-
 In cellular networks, endpoint mobility within a cell is transparent to the 54. IS-95, etc.
network, and hence location tracking is only required when an endpoint
moves from one cell to another.  The location management methods are broadly
 Location tracking typically consists of two operations:
 (1) updating (or registration), the process by which a mobile endpoint classified into two groups.
initiates a change in the location database according to its new location;  The first group includes all methods based on
 (2) finding (or paging), the process by which the network initiates a query algorithms and network architecture, mainly on the
for an endpoint's location (which also may result in an update to the
location database). processing capabilities of the system.
 Most location tracking techniques use a combination of updating and  The second group contains the methods based on
finding in an effort to select the best trade-off between update overhead
and delay incurred in finding. learning processes, which require the collection of
 Specifically, updates are not usually sent every time an endpoint enters a
new cell, but rather are sent according to a predefined strategy so that the statistics on subscribers' mobility behavior, for instance.
finding operation can be restricted to a specific area. .

Location update algorithms Location Management

 Two types:  Location management schemes are based on users'
mobility and incoming call rate characteristics.
 Static  The network mobility process has to face strong
 Dynamic antagonism between its two basic procedures: location
 A location update scheme can be classified as either update (or registration) and paging.
global or local.  The location update procedure allows the system to keep
 A location update scheme is global if all subscribers location knowledge more or less accurately in order to find
update their locations at the same set of cells, the user.
 Location registration also is used to bring the user's service
 and a scheme is local if an individual subscriber is profile near its location.
allowed to decide when and where to perform  The paging process by the system sends paging messages
location update. in all cells where the mobile terminal could be located.
 A local scheme is also called individualized or per-  A network must retain information about the locations of
user based. endpoints in the network in order to route traffic to the
correct destinations.

Two operations of LM Paging schemes

 The paging operation is performed by the cellular network.  Blanket paging in GSM : Paging the MS in all the cells within a
LA (location area) simultaneously.
 If the LA update is correct, in the very first paging cycle, the MS
 When an incoming call arrives for a mobile station, the
will receive a paging request & respond to it.
cellular network will page the mobile station in all possible  Here the delay of the paging response is kept to a minimum.
cells to find out the cell in which the mobile station is
The disadvantage is that paging has to be done in several cells
located so that the incoming call can be routed to the with the same LA!
corresponding base station.  Closest-cells first: The cell where the MS was last seen is paged
 This process is called paging. first followed by subsequent rings of cells that are equidistant
 The number of all possible cells to be paged is dependent from this cell in each paging cycle.
on how the location update operation is performed.  Also called sequential paging.

 The location update operation is performed by an active

mobile station.
In GSM, LM…. Emerging issues in LM…
 Home & visiting databases are called Home Location Register  Database architecture for 3G & 4G..(access to db
(HLR) & Visiting Location Register (VLR) respectively. and management of queries to reduce delay)
 When the MS observes a change in the LA identity, it transmits
a location update to MSC through it’s BS.
 Reduce load on a centralized db (such as HLR), local
 The MSC contacts its VLR with the location update. caches of the MS can be maintained…..used by
 VLR does nothing if it serves the old & the new LA. Mobile IP.
 If the VLR has no info about the MS, it contacts the HLR of the  Alternate location update strategies & paging
MS via a location registration message. algorithms are investigated.
 The HLR authenticates and acknowledges the location  Traffic modeling to investigate the performance..
registration, updates its own database, and sends a message to
the old VLR to cancel the registration.  ?????

What is Handoff??? Handoff effects

 Involves entire gamut of actions required to handle an  In cellular n/w involving voice, you hear a audible
ongoing connection when the mobile terminal moves click when handoff takes place (changing point of
from one point of access to another. access from one BS to another BS)
 In WLAN, packets are lost when handoff changes the
 Handoff is v important cos of the cellular architecture point of access from one AP to another. Additional
used for spectrum utilization. congestion control mechanisms required.
 Reference:  Causes ping-pong effect due to several handoffs between two BS back & forth: has toll on user quality
reception & network load.

Types of handoffs Hard handoff

 Hard handoff (further has: Intra and Inter cell
handoffs): A firm decision is made when to handoff &
has no simultaneous connection between two or
more stations.
 Soft handoff (further has: multiway soft handoffs &
softer handoffs): A conditional decision is made
whether to handoff or not. Depending on the pilot
signal from 2 or more BSs, eventually a hard decision
is made. In the interim period user has simultaneous
traffic with all candidate BSs.
A hard handoff …. When handoff should be initiated?
 In a hard handoff, the link to the prior BS is
terminated before or as the user is transferred to the
new cell’s BS; the MS is linked to no more than one
BS at any given time.
 Hard handoff is primarily used in FDMA and TDMA
,where different frequency ranges are used in
adjacent channels in order to minimize channel
interference. So when the MS moves from one BS to
another BS, it becomes impossible for it to
communicate with both BSs (since different
frequencies are used).

Handoff initiation-Performance evaluation .. Handoff decision

 It is assumed that the signal is averaged over time, so that rapid
fluctuations due to the multipath nature of the radio environment can be
 Network-Controlled Handoff
 Figure shows a MS moving from one BS (BS1) to another (BS2). The  Mobile-Assisted Handoff
mean signal strength of BS1 decreases as the MS moves away from it.
Similarly, the mean signal strength of BS2 increases as the MS  Mobile-Controlled Handoff
approaches it.

 Relative Signal Strength: This method selects the strongest received

BS at all times. The decision is based on a mean measurement of the
received signal. This method is observed to provoke too many
unnecessary handoffs, even when the signal of the current BS is still at
an acceptable level.

Mobile-Assisted Handoff
Network-Controlled Handoff
 The network makes a handoff decision based on the  In a mobile-assisted handoff process, the MS makes
measurements of the MSs at a number of BSs. In measurements and the network makes the decision.
general, the handoff process (including data
transmission, channel switching, and network  In the circuit-switched GSM (global system mobile),
switching) takes 100–200 ms. Information about the the BS controller (BSC) is in charge of the radio
signal quality for all users is available at a single point interface management…. means allocation and
in the network that facilitates appropriate resource release of radio channels and handoff management.
allocation. Network-controlled handoff is used in first-
generation analog systems such as AMPS (advanced  The handoff time between handoff decision and
mobile phone system), TACS execution in such a circuit-switched GSM is
(total access communication system), and NMT approximately 1 second.
(advanced mobile phone system).
Mobile-Controlled Handoff Handoff Schemes in Single Traffic
 In mobile-controlled handoff, each MS is completely  In this scheme: we have non-priority, priority, and queuing handoff
in control of the handoff process. schemes for a single traffic system such as either a voice or a data
 This type of handoff has a short reaction time (on the system.
 we assume that a system has many cells, with each having S
order of 0.1 second). MS measures the signal channels. The channel holding time has an exponential distribution
strengths from surrounding BSs and interference with mean rate . Both originating and handoff calls are generated in
levels on all channels. a cell according to Poisson processes, with mean rates O and H,
 A handoff can be initiated if the signal strength of the  We assume here a system with a homogeneous cell. The focus is
serving BS is lower than that of another BS by a on a single cell (called the marked cell). Newly generated calls in
the marked cell are labeled originating calls (or new calls). A handoff
certain threshold. request is generated in the marked cell when a channel holding MS
approaches the marked cell from a neighboring cell with a signal
strength below the handoff threshold.