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# EXPERIMENT NO.

9
PLL as FM Demodulator
Objective
To perform the Frequency Modulation signal Generation and Detection using PLL in Matlab
Apparatus Required
Computer system, MATLAB
Theory:
A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop (PLL) is a control system that generates an output signal
whose phase is related to the phase of an input signal. There are several different types; the simplest is
an electronic circuit consisting of a variable frequency oscillator and a phase detector in a feedback loop.
The oscillator generates a periodic signal, and the phase detector compares the phase of that signal with
the phase of the input periodic signal, adjusting the oscillator to keep the phases matched. Keeping the
input and output phase in lock step also implies keeping the input and output frequencies the same.
Consequently, in addition to synchronizing signals, a phase-locked loop can track an input frequency, or
it can generate a frequency that is a multiple of the input frequency. These properties are used for
computer clock synchronization, demodulation, and frequency synthesis. Phase-locked loops are widely
employed in radio, telecommunications, computers and other electronic applications. They can be used
to demodulate a signal, recover a signal from a noisy communication channel, generate a stable
frequency at multiples of an input frequency (frequency synthesis), or distribute precisely timed clock
pulses in digital logic circuits such as microprocessors. Since a single integrated circuit can provide a
complete phase-locked-loop building block, the technique is widely used in modern electronic devices,
with output frequencies from a fraction of a
hertz up to many gigahertz.
Output:
Message signal in first window,FM signal in second window.

## FM input signal in first window output in 2nd window:

Viva Questions
1. Define FM & PM.
Ans: Phase modulation (PM) is a modulation pattern for conditioning communication signals for
transmission. It
encodes a message signal as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave.
Frequency modulation (FM) is a method of impressing data onto an alternating-current (AC) wave by
varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. This scheme can be used with analog or digital data.
2. What are the advantages of Angle modulation over amplitude modulation?
Ans: : FM has the ability to suppress noise, which is probably the. biggest advantage of FM
comparedto AM.–
FM receivers can be fitted with amplitude limiters to removeamplitude variations caused by noise,
making FM
more immune to noise
3. What is the relationship between PM and FM?
Ans: The change in phase, changes the frequency of themodulated wave. The frequency of the wave
also
changes the phase of the wave. Though they are related, their relationship is not linear.
4. With a neat block diagram explain how PM is generated using FM.
Ans: : FM is produced by PM , the later is referred to as indirect FM. The information signal is first
integrated and
then used to phase modulate a crystal-controlled oscillator, which provides frequency stability.
5. What is PLL?
Ans: : A phase-locked loop or phase lock loop (PLL) is a control system that generates an output signal
whose
phase is related to the phase of an input signal.
6. What are the applications of PLL?
Ans: Phase-locked loops are widely used for synchronization purposes; in space communications for
coherent
demodulation and threshold extension, bit synchronization, and symbol synchronization. Phase-locked
loops can
also be used to demodulate frequency-modulated signals. In radio transmitters, a PLL is used to
synthesize new
frequencies which are a multiple of a reference frequency, with the same stability as the reference
frequency.
Other applications include:
• Demodulation of Frequency modulation (FM): If PLL is locked to a FM signal, the VCO tracks the
instantaneous frequency of the input signal. The filtered error voltage which controls the VCO and
maintains
lock with the input signal is demodulated FM output. The VCO transfer characteristics determine the
linearity
of the demodulated out. Since, VCO used in IC PLL is highly linear, it is possible to realize highly linear
FM
demodulators.
• Demodulation of Frequency-shift keying (FSK): In digital data communication and computer
peripherals,
binary data is transmitted by means of a carrier frequency which is shifted between two preset
frequencies.
• Recovery of small signals that otherwise would be lost in noise (lock-in amplifier to track the reference
frequency)
• Recovery of clock timing information from a data stream such as from a disk drive
• Clock multipliers in microprocessors that allow internal processor elements to run faster than external
connections, while maintaining precise timing relationships
• Demodulation of modems and other tone signals for telecommunications and remote control.
• DSP of video signals; Phase-locked loops are also used to synchronize phase and frequency to the
input analog video signal so it can be sampled and digitally processed
• Atomic force microscopy in frequency modulation mode, to detect changes of the cantilever resonance
frequency due to tip–surface interactions
• DC motor drive
7. What is the free running frequency?
Ans: The VCO is a special type of oscillator that has a frequency controlled by an applied voltage.
The frequency of the VCO without any control signal applied is called the free- running frequency, f0.
8. What is the function of VCO?
Ans: voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is an electronic oscillator whose oscillation frequency is
controlled by a
voltage input. The applied input voltage determines the instantaneous oscillation frequency.
9. What is the function of Low Pass Filter in PLL?
Ans: : A PLL is a feedback system that includes a VCO, phase detector, and low pass filter within its
loop. Its
purpose is to force the VCO to replicate and track the frequency and phase at the input when in lock.
The PLL is a
control system allowing one oscillator to track with another.
10. What is the function of Phase Detector?
A phase detector or phase comparator is a frequency mixer, analog multiplier or logic circuit that
generates a
voltage signal which represents the difference in phasebetween two signal inputs. It is an essential
element of
thephase-locked loop (PLL).
Applications
1. Used for high quality music transmission 2.
5. Used for broadcasting music and speech, magnetic tape recording systems, two way radio
systems
and video transmission systems.
6. When noise occurs naturally in radio systems, frequency modulation with sufficient
bandwidth
provides an advantage in cancelling the noise.
7. Frequency modulation is used in audio frequencies to synthesize sound.
• Frequency modulation has more noise resistivity when compared to other modulation
techniques. That’s why they are mainly used in broadcasting and radio communications. We
know that noise will occur mainly to the amplitude of the signal. In frequency modulation,
amplitude is made constant and only frequency is varied, so we can easily find out the noise in
the
amplitude by using a limiter.
• The frequency modulation is having greater resistance to rapid signal strength variation,
which we
will use in FM radios even while we are travelling and frequency modulation is also mainly
used in
mobile communication purposes.
• For transmitting messages in frequency modulation, it does not require special equipment like
linear
amplifiers or repeaters and transmission levels or higher when compared to other modulation
techniques. It does not require any class C or B amplifiers for increasing the efficiency.
• Transmission rate is good for frequency modulation when compared to other modulation
• Frequency modulation has a special effect called capture effect in which high frequency signal
will
capture the channel and discard the low frequency or weak signals from interference.
• In the transmission section, we don’t need any special equipment but in the reception, we
need more
complicated demodulators for demodulating the carrier signal from message or modulating
signal.
• Frequency modulation cannot be used to find out the speed and velocity of a moving object.
• Static interferences are more when compared to phase modulation. Outside interference is one
of the
biggest disadvantages in the frequency modulation. There may be mixing because of nearby