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The Internet has redefined Communication. It had transcended boundaries and made
global village possible. It has changed the perception of journalism. Internet gave new
meaning to what is ‘new’. The Internet is considered as the greatest advance for
communication since the printing press”. A greater degree of creativity can be exercised
with digital journalism when compared to traditional journalism.
Internet was used as an outlet for their news by millions of users or special interest groups.
Since 1993, an incredible growth of online news organizations was observed at an exceptional
rate. Right from the beginning of the twenty-first century there was a sharp upsurge in the
scores of traditional news organizations migrating online despite the emergence of a number
of non-traditional news providers The proliferation of online communication has had a
profound effect on the newspaper industry. As individuals turn to the Internet to receive
news for free, traditional newspapers struggle to remain competitive and hold onto their
traditional readers.

As far as the Indian media was concerned in the past few years the scenario in the Indian media
have been comparatively depressing. There were only a few prominent media houses in the
country that not only manipulated the news from the print version moreover they were also
being monitored either by big corporate houses or political parties. Several times, owing to
their vested interest these mainstream media does not address a number of critical or socially
relevant news. At times, the regional issues were not covered comprehensively as well as it is
mentioned only in tickers. Occasionally, stories were also stopped at the press at the final
moment due to the pressure from the higher authorities and lobbyists. These kinds of activities
debar people to know the true stories or news that might influence their lives. A growing form
of journalism called the Citizen journalism, also called the public or participatory journalism
was yet one more form of User Generated Content and was fast becoming the popular media
along with the growth of the internet.

Definition of Online Journalism

Online, according to Ward (2003) is the “generic term often used loosely to describe digital
information access, retrieval or dissemination.” To understand this definition properly, we need
to understand the term digital. “ The digital process, ” Ward again observes, “ breaks down all
information – be it data, text, graphics, audio, still pictures or video – into a sequence of
numbers (digits), transports it by wire, cable or broadcast frequency to a destination and then
re-assembles it back into its original form. ”

Qasim Akinreti (2003) describe Online Journalism, as the media share of digital revolution .it
combines the core journalism skills of reporting, editing and news production , features and

 Online journalism refers to news content produced and/or distributed via the Internet,
particularly material created by journalists who work for mainstream market-driven
news organizations.“Networked Publics,” University of Southern California
 Online journalism can be defined as gathering information, reporting the of facts
produced, processed and distributed via internet technology and publish in cyber
space.” Jan Van Dercrabben
 Journalism is any non-fiction or documentary narrative that reports or analyzes facts
and events firmly rooted in time which are selected and arranged by reporters, writers,
and editors to tell a story from a particular point of view. Journalism, as it is practised
online, is known as online journalism. Doug Millison
 If journalism is the art of documenting history, then online journalism is the art and
science that will allow humans to document the future. - Michael Fusco
 "New media is a combination of the two. You can offer unlimited supporting
documents for your story, but the writing itself must be more compact because you
don't need to include background information - you can link to it,“ David Carlson

Open participatory Journalism: In open participatory online journalism, every person can
participate as a writer or editor. Interact with the people through online directly. All activity
within it is managed and directed by the members of the forum.

close participatory Journalism: In close participatory online journalism, there is some

restrictions, rules and regulation to participate. A group of privileged members can only read,
post, edit and comment on content.

Public connectivity journalism: In public connectivity online journalism, it has the connection
between the online medium and the mass people but not all the people can interact with a writer
or editor. Content is created by the members and comments are created by the audience.

Characteristic of Online Journalism

Hypertextuality : Hypertext is about ways to connect the story to other stories, archives,
resources and so on through hyperlinks. It helps provide extra information that users may
choose to view. It enables the interactivity of the audience with the news. Hyper-text had
defined the pagination and linkage of news stories. A web story can exist on its own and link
to different other pages. Documents are interconnected with hyperlinks to internal and
external pages. There are two types of hyperlinks -new content opened by one; The other one
indeed leads to a spiraling down of content .

Hypertext enables a distinctive feature of online journalism – Linkage. The links provided on
news websites to other websites where the reader can access stories similar to the one he is
reading. The link may take the reader to similar stories that are current or that are in the
archives of the same news organization whose website he is surfing or that of other
organizations. A single story may provide several links, thus placing at the disposal of the
reader, access to more information than the traditional media can possibly achieve at one
Multimodality: Communication happens beyond the language. There is a culmination of
different media. On the Web storytelling is not limited to just words and photographs,
newsmakers can include a range of media formats. For this aspect, we take a look at the use
of audio, photos, print options and commercials or advertisements with (in) the articles.
Video has its own paragraph, it was analysed more deeply and so there are more findings. It
provides alternative way to produce more content

Interactivity: Interactivity points out all features that allow users to respond, react, or
engage in the news article. For example, when readers’ comments are featured, interactivity
allows users to make them heard and to connect with other users. This aspect allows citizens
to enter the domain of journalists. Interactivity varies from Navigational interactivity to
feedback mechanism. It could be moving from one page to other, sharing content, taking a
poll, etc. There are two types of interactivity that is possible in online journalism – medium
interactivity and human interactivity. With the technology changing, people are able to
interact with the message, through links, scrolls, interactive videos etc. Similarly human
interactivity is the community and participatory form of journalism where people can share
information to each other.

Communication and feedback on the new media is also instantaneousThis also makes the
new media highly interactive, and has given rise to a new phenomenon called citizen
journalism, whereby non journalists not trained in the art of the profession engage in the task
of gathering and dissemination information.

Immediacy: When journalism is moving onto the Internet it also means a new environment
that has different characteristics than the analogue mediums of communication. Online news
production was largely a response to the perceived pressure of immediacy. Information is
constantly updated. The news cycle of online journalism is the very next moment. Thus it
removes the information processing in traditional media and creates more openness.

Flexible Delivery Platform: A single new provider can take a piece of information and put it
on a web or in a search database or display on a mobile phone. Online provides a means to re-
purpose content. Real-time and shift time publication of the content is possible. It is the
networked and global reach of the content is possible. The news site are improved,
integrated, and responsive user experience. Social media accounts provide a flexible delivery
platform to access and retrieve the content. Furthermore , information is available in all

Archiving: It made storage and retrieval are easier for the content easier. The most important
and fresh stories are kept on the top. Related stories are together and least active stories in the
bottom. Easier for content research as internet provides gives an easy interface to create and
filter datasets covering particular topics, organizations, time periods and so on.

Journalists rely on archives now more than ever. Archives are not just about (or for) the past,
they are (crucially) for the present and the future. Journalists need archives for investigative
reporting, for fact checking and validation, for the preservation of their own sources and
reporting. News organizations can also benefit from archiving by relying on repackaging and
reselling old content they own for revenue.
Non-linear conception of the content : Consumer control over when to consume
something, and to give the consumer the control over which platform to consume the material
on. The news conception pattern is audience driven whereas, traditional media follows linear
pattern. Users can contribute the thus, agenda setting of editorial has become irrelevant.

Non-linear media is a form of media that can be interacted with by the consumer by clicking
through a website, or by interacting through social media. Non-linear media is a move away
from traditional linear media, in which content is selected by the publisher to be consumed
and is then done so passively.

Digital in nature: Contents are in machine-readable form. Information is transferred in

binary code. It provides an opportunity for customization, sharing and embedding content.
Being digital in nature also give more room for content as compared to traditional news

Pitfalls of web journalism

Immediacy : Internet has redefined the news cycle. Breaking news sends out the next
moment in online journalism. In the fight to be first mistakes are made which is immortal in
digital space.

Reliability of the source: One of the features of the internet is the anonymity. When news is
made of user opinion, facts are compromised. It provides a great challenge in identifying the
authenticity of the source

Access to the medium: Internet users represents only 46.8 per cent of the global population.
The medium is new and not easily accessible in different parts of the world..

Traditional Vs Web Journalism

Traditional Online
1 Medium of communication : Medium of communication: Published in the
Information through printed internet. It can be news portals, blogs, social
materials, and other broadcasting network sites.
equipment. Traditional means of The new medium of communication are the
mass communications were chosen choice of the audience. They have certain
by the sender of the message. The power over the medium.
audience were mass audience, who
were passively consuming
2 Communication Process : Communication Process :
One way communication process. Two way communication process. Audience
The audience are passive and often can give feedback and comments almost
no feedback process. instatneously

3 Close: Open and Participatory:

There are regulations in who can Web provides everyone equal space to publish
gather and disseminate content. Only content. People can share their experience or
the professionals gathered news and the information shared by others easily on
published it web.

4 Opaque: The agenda of news rooms Transparent: Many online journalism sites
plays an important role. The editorial are open about their stands and opinions. In
policy of the organization is reflected internet, people c can decide what is the most
in the news content important issue. Hence, they share the agenda
of the day.
5 Delayed update: News cycle of a Immediate: The internet allows for
broadcast programme varies from 3- instantaneous and continuous coverage.
2 hours. Newspaper is 24 hours
6 Customization : Traditional media Customization : Internet journalism is search-
does not provide customized news based. One can choose the story that interests
for the reader. Mass marketing of them. It also provide the option to customise
the content. Everyone get the news the newsfeeds and notification for area of
which are packed for the mass interest.

7 News Decision: The contents are News Decision: the priority of the content is
prioritized by the economical benefit decided by the demands of the users.
for the organization. The economic Audience set the agenda for the programme.
policy of the organization plays a
critical role in news making.
8 News Content : Content for News Content : Promotes user generated
traditional journalism platforms are content. News could be based on users
created by professionals. Hence, it opinion or users can participate in providing
follows the ethical code for public information

9 News Layout : News layout is News Layout : the most popular and most
structured. The amplitude and impact recent news stories are arranged on the top. It
of the story has more weight age over is constantly updated and changing.
other stories.

10 Story Length: The space allocated Story Length: But online media provides
for news are limited. News are unlimited space for the story
selected based on the space and time
allocated for the programme.

11 Language: more journalistic and Language : Online media informal languages.

formal language are used in Personal narrative, picture narrative and list
traditional journalism. Traditional news articles stories are seen in online.
journalism follows the conventions
of the media

12 Reach : The audiences for mass Reach : Audiences for online journalism
media journalism. It aims for a mass remain smaller. It aims at a personal appeal in
appeal a mass communication

13 News narrative : Guides readers News narrative : readers become participants

through a linear narrative of news process. Narrative is not linear.
Factors Differentiating Online Journalism -Viewers Perspective

Interactivity: Interactivity is central to how journalism has been changed by the arrival of
the internet. Online journalism incorporates more images, infographics and videos. It gives
more control to the users. Forums, live chat, user generated contents, wiki, social
recommendations etc are platforms were audience can participate.

Social Presence: News became sociable. The news is experienced by the users. Even the
audience played an active role in the news process. Sharing and consuming news changed
with web2.O . With open journalism, the journalism process has broken the convention of the
traditional news room. It enables citizen to participate in journalism through forms like blogs,
social media forms. Citizen journalism and crowd sourcing for news content are popular

Media Richness: The use multimedia elements for online journalism like as text, graphics,
sound, motion picture, animation, video, 3D etc. It bridges the different media platforms.
Gives better frame of reference, reduces ambiguity in the mind of the audience. Provides
more cues and information

Autonomy: Online journalism provides more autonomy and control to the users. Users can
control what is the most important news. The reporter is not the gatekeeper of the
information. The media decide the important news by the ripples it create in internet
platforms. Users can customize the format and content of the news.

Soft news/ entertainment element: The online provides more space for soft and human
interest stories. It is flexible as compared to the rigid structure of the traditional medium of
information dissemination. Online is often used for entertainment and enjoyment. New
format of mashup videos, vines, listicle format of news

Privacy: Another concern about online is the privacy of the users. News sites could mine
data of the audience, understand their geographical and demographical information.

Personalization: The degree to which the content is customized to the user's preference. The
user can choose what they want to see on the home page of the news portal. The layout can
vary from user to user

How online media transformed journalism

 Digitalization

 Media convergence

 Mobility and dislocation of sending and receiving

 Audience role
 Adaptation of publication

 Appearance of delivery

 Blurring and fragmentation of media institutions

Elements of Online Journalism

 (Hyper)Text  Blogs

 Audio  Microblogging/Text/email
alerts (Twitter)
 Video
 Community elements – forums,
 Still images polls, surveys
 Audio slideshows  Live chats
 Animation  Mapping
 Flash interactivity  Mashups
 Database-driven elements

Headline : Headline, blurbs and briefs are known as “micro content” in online journalism. A
good headline is a difference between encouraging someone to read the story and skipping
over it to read something else. A Web page offers scores of headlines and links competing for
attention. Clarity is crucial while writing the headline. Write brief headlines: fewer than six to
10 words create better links. Use strong verbs. Put the most important words first. Avoid
articles. Use question headlines if the subject is interesting enough to entice readers.

Blurbs: It can be strap line or a kicker. Blurbs are brief summaries of what a reader will find
on the other end of a hyperlink. Good blurbs don't harangue or tease; instead, they provide a
useful sample of the target page, so that a user can make an informed decision about whether
to click. Avoid writing summaries that repeat the headline.

Brief: A news brief is exactly what it sounds like: a brief news story. A few paragraphs. It
can stand alone in place of a story. Sometimes there is not much difference between a blurb
and a brief.

Hyperlinks: A link from a hypertext document to another location, activated by clicking on a

highlighted word or image. The purpose of linking is for storytelling, informing, creating
accuracy, and enabling transparency. Hyperlinks creatively connect the different elements of
a multimedia presentation, using colored or underlined text or small picture, called an icon on
which the user clicks. It is one of the most striking features of the World Wide Web.
Hyperlinks lead users to information they would never have encountered. One of the
challenges is the problem of navigation and getting lost in hyperspace.

The Intro and the Paragraphs: This must answer the 5Ws and H.( Who, What, Where,
When and How). Not more than 50 words. Let this be an executive summary of the story,
nesws, products or services. Put the main points of your document in the first paragraph, so
that readers scanning your pages will not miss your point.
Content: While writing content for online journalism, writing for the audience. Break the
large text into subheads. Tag the keywords in the story. Highlight and link the major ideas.
The journalistic principle of accuracy and clarity and the objectivity of the story must be

Interactivity: Interactivity is the ability of the user to alter the media he or she comes in
contact with. Interactivity has different dimensions 1) choice (2) connectedness. (3)
Information collection. (4) Reciprocal communication Most importantly interactivity on a
website can also come inform of interaction between the communicator and his audience by
the use of comments.

Highlights: The major points of the news stories are often highlighted on put in a side bar
box. It could be a fact box or bullet points.

Graphics: Graphics is the art of visual communication that combines images , words colours
and ideas to convey information to an audience. This also has to do with visual presentation
of images on surface such as computer screens, walls or paper.

Video: Video refers to the recording, reproducing, or broadcasting of moving visual images.
In a video, the audience sees the message not just to read or hear it as it is in print and radio.
Storage formats include digital video formats like BLU-RAY DISK, DVD, QUICKTIME
(QT) and MPEG-4 for recording and transmission. . Video brings the real events to the

Multimedia Storytelling: Multimedia is the use of more than one medium for expression or
communication. It is believed that digital media will spell doom for the narrative because the
new generation young people, lack the attention span for reading in-depth stories, they get
bored. Multimedia story telling is an art of storytelling through the use of other elements of
online journalism. It offers a combination of different modes of expression such as text,
video, audio, graphics, slideshows still photos and animations to easily get across to their
target audience. Interactive graphics : A computer graphic system that allows the operator
to interact with information displayed. Interactivity is a quality of new media. It is the
engaging and informative visuals of photos and video and the facts. Examples can Charts
and graphs, parallax scrolling, interactive videos etc.

Data- driven Journalism: It is a journalistic process based on analyzing and filtering

large data for the purpose of creating or elevating a news story. Many data-driven stories
begin with newly available resources such as open source software, open access publishing
and open data, while others are products of public records requests or leaked materials.
Database journalism : It is a principle in information management whereby news content is
organized around structured pieces of data, as opposed to news stories.

News Blogs: A web blog is a frequent, chronological publication of personal thoughts and
web links. News blogs are usually in news websites where the writer shares a subjective view
about a story. Micro-blogging A microblog is a type of blog in which users can post small
pieces of digital content like pictures, video or audio on the Internet. These posts are
immediately available to a small community or public. It differs from a blog due to its
smaller content. Micoblogging is highly popular among users due to its portability and

An Internet forum is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the
form of posted messages. A forum can contain a number of subforums, each of which may
have several topics. Within a forum's topic, each new discussion started is called a thread and
can be replied to by as many people as so wish.

Comments / Feedback: It provides a two-way discussion of the news.

Archives: A news story once published on the site can be accessed 24/7 from the
newspaper’s online archives in contrast to a printed newspaper where one has to visit a
library to locate a story that has been printed a month or a year ago. Newspapers can never
match the convenience that media websites bring in terms of access and retrieval.

Mashup: Mashup is the usage of content from more than one source to create a single new
service displayed in a single graphical interface. The characteristics of a mashup are the
combination, visualization, and aggregation. It helps to make existing data more useful

Mashup digital- Media file containing text, graphics, audio, video and animation
combined to modify an existing digital work.

Mashup video- a video edited from inputs from more than one source

Mashup (web app) – web apps that combine data from more than one source.

Interactive graphics - A computer graphic system that allows the operator to interact with
information displayed. Interactivity is a quality of new media. It is the engaging and
informative visuals of photos and video and the facts. Examples can Charts and graphs,
parallax scrolling, interactive videos etc.

Mapping - Mapping is making a graphical representation, a map or flow, of something. That

something can be a road, a procedure, a process, a structure, or a system. The map or flow
typically arranges and relates the different components. It can also traces flows of nearly
anything: energy, goods, information, materials, money, personnel, etc. Online mapping is
the compilation and publication of Web sites that provide exhaustive graphical and text
information in the form of maps and databases.

Online is a distinctive medium because it is user-driven and multifaceted. All elements of the
medium should support the offering of the content. The application of core journalistic
principles and processes should inform all stages of online content creation and presentation,
from the original idea to the finished page or site. Online journalism is a broad church –
embracing content creation across a wide range of types (e.g. news and information) and
settings (e.g. commercial as well as news-based).

Internet had changed the way people consume information. Journalists working in print, radio
or television produce stories as a complete package, a digest of events and information that is
resented to the reader en bloc and which cannot be unpicked. The web is a nonlinear medium,
within which the readers can choose what they want and leave the rest. The news editors are
no longer the gatekeepers to information. The process that happens before a story is
published has also been transformed

Digitalization brought

 Faster news delivery

 Better access to source and information
 More interaction with readers

News formats in Online journalism

Print Plus : It is most common style of telling news. Most of the news stories are said with
written words and pictures(printable format). Along with that additional features of internet
such as embedded audio and video are used to tell the story. Print plus format has interactive
content such as clickable headlines, pictures, share options etc. Most stories are written
following the principles of print journalism.

Videos Formats: In online, news videos are found in two formats: Long horizontal video and
short and vertical video. The long video formats follows the traditional news packaging
structure of television. The news is narrated through a reporter with video footage from

There is short and vertical video format. These are short in length, portrait format, often
eyewitness views uploaded from and for a small screen. They are tailored to social platforms,
phones and tablets. This style of video has also evolved beyond the traditional reporter-led
TV news broadcast, driven by the proliferation of eyewitnesses shooting on phones and
prominent YouTubers. Usually has text running through the video to give more information.

Horizontal Stories: These formats usually use full screens of images and words, swipe to
progress. It has the features of slideshows. Use it for short, visual storytelling on mobile and
interactive screen. Each screen contains images, large text or video that you navigate around
by swiping sideways. This has resulted in several card-based news formats, made mainstream
by Snapchat Stories.

Longform scrolling: It is very visual, scroll-driven, long-form articles and features. With
online journalism long form of writing is back. Use it for long stories with good visuals that
you can invest in. These news formats has pictures and multimedia in it to maek the reading
more comprehensive. This format derive from the parallax scrolling technique used by New
York Times. This format is quite labour intensive to produce and requires a certain type of
story to work well.

Listicles: This is a very common format of news in internet. The news article is listed out in
as different points and subheads. Fleshed-out lists, often has attention-grabbing headlines to
attract readers. Use it for short, punchy and shareable stories.

Newsletters : They are the short summaries of the day’s news. In digital space, it is delivered
to subscribers of news by email or as notification. It is form of summarising the news on a
regular basis. Short daily briefings seem to be a popular format used in news apps.

Timeline stories: News is presented as a lists of events, sometimes visual or interactive

format. This format is used for explaining stories that develop over time. These stores are
updated with time. A reverse chronological approach of story telling is used in timeline story.
The most recent information is kept on the top, and the beginning is at the bottom of the
timeline. Timeline stories are usually seen for sports events, political campaign, etc.

Interactive Documentaries: News stories have embedded text, visual and audio elements.
The user can control the and interact with these elements as they read. This form of story
telling include huge investment, in research, time and capital. These news formats are not
very frequently published.

Live blogs: The live coverage of conference and meet happen in an alternative media
platform like Twitter and Facebook . This method is commonly used for breaking news and
coverage of important issues. The most recent information is kept on top. The design is
reverse –chronology and use it for stories that are evolving right now. News is covered in
video and text format. Citizens and professionals use social media platforms to break news.

Virtual reality Journalism: This is form of telling stories with 360 video and VR
equipment's. Virtual reality appears to be on the cusp of mainstream adoption. For
journalists, the combination of immersive video capture and dissemination via mobile VR
players is particularly exciting. It promises to bring audiences closer to a story than any
previous platform. VR is usually long format of visual story telling.

Example. NY: Life on Mars

Qualities of a Reporter

There are some things that are basic whatever the medium the journalist is reporting for. One
of these things is the acquisition of the necessary skills or qualities to practice effectively as a
journalist. The skills are:

1. Nose for news,

2. Ability to ferret for story,
3. Ability to write well,
Nose for News

Mike Awoyinfa (2005) says: “News is conflict. News is controversy. News is unusual.
Abnormality is most of the time bad news. It is bad news that hits the front page. If it is
abnormally terrible, then in the perception of the reporter, it is a good story.”

In discussing nose for news, Ganiyu (2004), says, it is an all important quality for the
journalist to possess; that it is the ability to recognize news when the journalists sees one. It
means the ability to know what even or story will interest your reader, listener or viewer.

Ability to ferret for Story

It is one thing to have nose for news, that is to know what makes good news and what will
interest your readers, listeners or viewers, it is another thing to be able to get the story. Tony
Marro of Newsday says, “real reporting only begins when people say ‘no’. Verification is
the essence of honest journalism. Humans lie (or at least try to mislead) and official records
are often wrong. So being willing to work as hard and as long as it takes to verify the truth of
an action or issue is the key to being a good reporter.”

Ability to Write Well

Journalism is about writing. Whatever medium you chose to practice in, the ability to write,
the writing skill is indispensable. A journalist must be able to string words/picture or video
together in an interesting and creative fashion that will grab and hold the attention of his

News gathering tools

Eyes and ears – journalists must be both observant and curious. They should find it
impossible to walk past a hole in the road without looking to see what is in it. They can also
rely on the eyes and ears of others to provide tip-offs to potential news

Internet – World wide web has billions of websites. You need information at every stage of
the news identification and collection process. Not just specific information to develop your
story, but contextual stuff that will bolster your knowledge of underpinning structures and
current affairs. Deconstruct the story and look for its component

Search tool- Find the focus of the key story and search. Modify search queries to look for
specific information. Use meta search engines to look for the specific and fast result.

Emails: These are a productive tool for news gathering. The journalist can send communicate
through email correspondence. A mailing list is also an effective tool. Their content is often
of a higher standard and more focused. They operate on an e-mail system. Groups of people
with a similar academic or professional interest will form an e-mail mailing list. Discuss the
issues with group of interested stakeholders
Chat groups/ Forums: Newsgroups are another online meeting place. It is an open platform
where people can discuss anything under the sun.

Social Media tools: Social media has become another tool for gathering information. Many
people/ companies break the news on Twitter and Facebook.

Crowdsourcing is the practice of engaging a ‘crowd’ or group for a common goal.

Crowdsourcing is an open journalistic practice of gathering information for news articles and
in co-creating stories with readers. In crowdsourcing applications, the crowd is invited to
complete an online task, for instance by submitting information that the crowdsourcer is
searching for. It is considered as an innovation, problem-solving, or efficient method. One
can access to new ideas and solutions.

online collaborative journals: A technology tool that can be used to help people work
together to achieve a common goal or objective. People come together and brainstorm ideas
and information about a particular topic.

News Portals - Other media – journalists are professional magpies. They will scour
competing media for ideas, nuggets of information, even complete stories, which they can
investigate further. ‘Other media’ is probably the biggest source of existing news for
journalists to develop, which is okay as long as if it doesn’t become their only source of
news. Subscribing to prominent news portals and getting information from there

News Agencies -Can subscribe and customize content to the needs.

Government and Industrial Portals – Information published in government webpages

(likePIB) and industrial pages

Principles of online journalism

Whether the reporter is reporting online or offline, the journalist must bear in mind that
however you serve it, journalism is journalism and the guiding principles and ethics remain
the same. Whatever the medium, the journalist must at all times be guided by the highest
ethics of the profession.

Editorial independence: That decision concerning the content of news should be the
responsibility of a professional journalist. Journalists must avoid impropriety and the
appearance of impropriety as well as any conflict of interest or the appearance of conflict.
They should neither accept anything nor pursue any activity that might compromise or seem
to compromise their integrity.

Accuracy and fairness: That all news reports should be accurate and where inaccuracy has
been inadvertently commitment, retraction and a right to reply should be granted. Good faith
with the reader is the foundation of good journalism. Every effort must be made to assure that
the news content is accurate, free from bias and in context, and that all sides are presented
fairly. Editorials, analytical articles and commentary should be held to the same standards of
accuracy with respect to facts as news reports. Significant errors of fact, as well as errors of
omission, should be corrected promptly and prominently.

Privacy: That individual is entitled to personal or family privacy, except where disclosure is
for overriding public interest. Pledges of confidentiality to news sources must be honored at all
costs, and therefore should not be given lightly. Unless there is clear and pressing need to
maintain confidences, sources of information should be identified.

Impartiality: To be impartial does not require the press to be unquestioning or to refrain from
editorial expression. Sound practice, however, demands a clear distinction for the reader
between news reports and opinion. Articles that contain opinion or personal interpretation
should be clearly identified.

Accountable and Transparent: Ethical journalism means taking responsibility for one’s work
and explaining one’s decisions to the public.

Humanity: Journalists should do no harm. What is publish or broadcast may be hurtful, But
one should be aware of the impact of their words and images on the lives of others. Ethical
journalism treats sources, subjects, colleagues and members of the public as human beings
deserving of respect.

Forum For Public Criticism: The news media are the common carriers of public discussion.
This discussion serves society best when it is informed by facts rather than prejudice and
supposition. It also should strive to fairly represent the varied viewpoints and interests in
society, and to place them in context rather than highlight only the conflicting fringes of debate.
Accuracy and truthfulness require that as framers of the public discussion we not neglect the
points of common ground where problem solving occurs.

Social responsibility: That a journalist should promote universal principles of human rights,
democracy, justice, equity, peace and international understanding.

Plagiarism: That a journalist should not copy, wholesale, the work of another person without
the consent of the owner or without attribution. 14.

Copyright: That a journalist should abide by rules of copyright established by national and
international laws and conventions, and

Press freedom and responsibility: That a journalist should at all times strive to enhance press
freedom and responsibility.

Principles for online writing:


In the new media age, information needs to be adaptable. The first way an online journalist
should be making information adaptable is to tag it. These allow you to ‘bookmark’ any
online source with a series of tags, enabling them to be quickly found when required. RSS is
another way to make information adaptable. If your stories, a subject section or a search is
available as a feed others can more easily combine it with other tools (e.g. mapping),
aggregate it, filter it and do other things with it. And of course the simple act of making your
content downloadable or embeddable makes it more adaptable. The choice to stream video,
for example, prevents users from doing potentially interesting things with it.

Brevity: Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a

paragraph no unnecessary sentences. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences
short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell.
Brevity comes on a number of different levels. At the most obvious level, shorter articles tend
to work better online because most people struggle to read long documents on screen.

Clarity: Clarity in writing helps in better understanding. Journalist should have good
understanding of language and medium to communicate the information clearly to the
audience. Avoid clichéd and hackneyed expressions. Short words are easier to spell and to
understand than long words. Also remember that long words are often euphemisms.

Objectivity: Journalistic objectivity may refer to fairness, disinterestedness, factuality, and

non-partisanship. Objectivity in journalism aims to help the audience make up their own
mind about a story, providing the facts alone and then letting audiences interpret those on
their own. To maintain objectivity in journalism, journalists should present the facts whether
or not they like or agree with those facts. Objective reporting is meant to portray issues and
events in a neutral and unbiased manner, regardless of the writers opinion or personal beliefs.

Interactivity: Interactivity is central to how journalism has been changed by the arrival of the
internet. At a basic level, hyperlinks allow the reader to dictate their experience of ‘content’
through their choice of clicks. With online video and audio, the user can pause, fast-forward,
etc. – and if it has been split into ‘chunks’, the user can choose which bit of a longer video or
audio piece they experience. RSS allows users to create their own media product, combining
feeds from newspapers, broadcasters, bloggers, and even tags or Google News
search terms. Database-driven content allows the user to shape output based on their input –
e.g. by entering their postcode they can read content specific to their area. At a general level
search engines provide a similar service. And Flash interactives allow the user to influence
output in a range of ways. This may be as simple as selecting from a range of audio, video,
text and still image options. It may be playing a game or quiz, where their interaction.

Community Connectivity: Communities formed online to pass on and clarify information

more efficiently than the news organisations. Conversation and community have always been
the lifeblood of journalism. Good journalism has always sought to serve a community;
commercially, journalism has always needed large or affluent communities to support it.

Scannability: Users of news websites are generally task-oriented: they will most likely have
arrived at your webpage through a search for something specific. Online news borrows from
techniques from print and broadcast media to help the readers/ browsers. The headline, the
sidebar, the photo, the caption, the subhead, and the inverted pyramid are adopted from print
and ; the intro, the establishing shot, the actualite are taken from the broadcast.

Trends in Online Journalism

Non- linear dissemination of information - The Web is based on non-linear consumption.
So, people do not have to go from item one to two to three. When choosing the stories that
interest them, they can, and do. The consumption pattern is driven by the audience, not by the

User autonomy – Audience autonomy refers to the extent to which the contemporary media
environment provides audiences with unprecedented levels of control over not only what
media they consume, but also when, where, and how they consume it; and also, increasingly,
the extent to which audiences have the power to more than mere media consumers, becoming
contributors to the media environment as well

Networked journalism - The public is now becoming partners with journalists in the
production of news. Journalists are networking with the audience also enhances breaking

The shift of traditional media to online platform - More and more traditional news media
is going online and finding the loyal audience in the web.

Specific genre – Online journalism is catering more space for different genres of news which
are often not considered in the traditional medium. - Chat , Survey Opinion, comment,
criticism, letters to the editor, article, column, cartoons, etc are some of evolving online genre

Minimal production cost: With online journalism, there is a decline in the production cost
of news. With people covering news in the digital platform, investment in print and
broadcasting tools have been eliminated.

Media convergence - The use multimedia elements for online journalism like as text,
graphics, sound, motion picture, animation, video, 3D etc are increasing.

Interactive news – more news portals are using interactive graphics and channels to
demonstrate an event. The news depends on the input given by the audience. Interactive
media engage the user. Ex: Gamethe news,

Mobile journalism- mobile journalism is when journalists use portable electronic devices
(smartphones and tablets) to gather, edit and distribute news to an audience. Mobile
journalism is the new way of reporting incidents live. Incident proves are spread fast using
the mobile and social platform.

Social networking - There is a transformation for the journalist from being the gatekeeper of
information to sharing it in a public space. Mainstream media are exploring the use of social
media to drive traffic. The use of smartphones and social media has ushered in a new era of
journalism as citizens play a bigger role in the process of news making.
RSS (Rich Site Summary/Really Simple Syndication) – It enables the audience to be fed to
news continuously. The most recent news is pulled to a computer or mobile phone, as
opposed to email and mobile updates. It even allows to categorise and save the favourite

Churnalism - Churnalism is a form of journalism in which press releases, stories provided

by news agencies are used to create articles in newspapers and other news media. Journalists
are publishing unchecked drivel from PR firms straight onto the page. The originality of
content across different media is reduced in this process

Geotagging - Geotagging is the process of adding geographical information to various

media in the form of metadata. Geotagging is most commonly used for photographs and can
help people get a lot of specific information. Geotagging-enabled information services can
also potentially be used to find location-based news, websites, or other resources

Semantic web /Web 3.O- The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which
information is given well-defined meaning, better-enabling computers and people to work in
cooperation. Semantic journalism a version when a journalist work on a story, her computer
would gather data on the matter, from pictures to other articles to assessing global opinion
trends. It would read through the web pages of a given theme and summarize key concepts.
The journalist is left with what she does best: checking and analyzing the data.

Media Aggregation - Aggregation and curation are techniques of using content from other
sources to provide content for your audience. It's always been part of the role of journalism,
selecting and presenting information, and editors have always done it. Now contents are
presented in a way to the taste and preference of the audience.

The increasing relationship between social media and photography – The use of
photographs per stories are increasing.

Blurring objectivity in news- to maintain objectivity in journalism, journalists need to

present the facts whether or not they like or agree with those facts. The concept of objectivity
is changing in new media where facts and opinions are published as news.

Increase in the paid news - Paid news or paid content are those which indicate favourable
conditions for the institution that has paid for it. The number of public relation and sponsored
content circulated in online media is rising continuously.

Virtual reality development in news - Journalists are incorporating virtual reality into the
news. Example: The New York Times created a series of 360 videos called “Life on Mars,”
chronicling the lives of NASA astronauts living in Mars-like conditions.

increase in crowdsourcing and citizen journalism - Crowdsourcing and citizen journalism

are changing the ways of journalism and the ways of how people consume news. The power
of mass collaboration and intelligence of Internet technologies leads to plenty of ways for
creating news, reporting news and analyzing news. Crowdsourcing is defined as “obtain by
enlisting the services of a number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the Internet.”
The Citizen journalism refers to the collection, dissemination, and analysis of news and
information by the general public, especially by means of the Internet.

Live streams as eyewitness media - More and more news portals are using live streaming
without edit as the eyewitness footage of the events unfolding.

More local information –micro media – Internet is catering to the marginalized and
specialized community than disseminating general news stories.

Chat apps as a newsgathering tool - Chat apps typify a differentiated, connected, and
complex system of software that offers both atomized and compound forms of journalistic
interactions. In journalism, chat apps have taken on a heightened significance in reporting
political unrest, particularly in terms of audience/reporter distinctions, sourcing of
information, and community formation.

Increasing fake news and lowering of journalistic credibility – One of the major concerns
growing with the growth of online journalism is the proliferation of fake news.
Dissemination of information online without verification of facts and checking the credentials
of the source created lack of trust in journalism among the audience.

Citizen journalism: Citizen journalism is a rapidly evolving form of journalism, which has
enabled ordinary people to report newsworthy situations around them. Citizen journalism is a
concept in media that refers to journalistic activities of ordinary people. It means citizens
themselves report the issues confronting them. Citizen journalism has enabled people to raise
their voice on what they feel need attention. These people are, thus, termed as citizen
journalists. Duffy, Thorson and Jahng (2010) have defined "citizen journalist" as an
individual, who is not a trained professional, but who nonetheless may report on his or her
neighbourhood or community. Citizen journalists or amateur reporters are none but the
general audience, that is, viewers, readers and listeners of mainstream media.

Citizen journalism is also known as participatory and democratic journalism (Baase, 2008).
There are various other synonyms used for citizen journalism - "public journalism," "civic
journalism," "stand-alone journalism," "networked journalism," "open source journalism,"
"crowd-sourced journalism," "collaborative journalism," "grassroots journalism,"
"community journalism," "bridge media" and so on. These forms of journalism are related to
"citizen journalism", but each is a unique species that has evolved out of a larger family of
social media. All these terms refer to different acts.