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sewer and water lines, power lines, natural gas

DISASTER lines can also all be impacted. These can take days
or months or even years to repair.

READINESS Impact of Natural Disasters on People:


 Displaced Populations
 Health Risks
AND RISK  Food Scarcity
 Emotional Aftershocks

REDUCTION Just as a natural can change the landscape of our


personal lives as well as aspects of our
community, so too can different types of disasters
By:Mary Amiel Riva U. Catado drastically alter the natural environment. The
cyclones that occurred in Myanmar in 2008, or
the wildfires that spread throughout California in
Task 1: According to measurable severity, the 2009 are examples of how areas of land that
effects of disasters are primary, secondary, or detail whole ecosystems can be dramatically
tertiary in nature. Explain each and site examples. damaged or transformed from a single disaster
event.
Effects of Hazards
In addition to affecting people’s homes and health,
Hazardous process of all types can have primary,
Disasters can wreak havoc on the economy.
secondary, and tertiary effects.
Companies may become less productive. Some
Primary Effects occur as a result of the process businesses may have to declare bankruptcy and
itself. For example water damage during a flood or close down. But disasters do not only result in only
collapse of buildings during an earthquake, doom and gloom. Academic studies suggest that
landslide, or hurricane. catastrophes can also have positive effects on the
economy, promoting growth.
Secondary Effects occur only because a primary
effect has caused them. For example, fires ignited Sectors of the economy that deal with disaster
as a result of earthquakes, disruption of electrical cleanup will thrive in the aftermath of a calamity.
power and water service as a result of an In addition, areas that were hit by natural disasters
earthquake, flood, hurricane, or flooding caused by often receive a boost from the national
a landslide into a lake or river. government and international relief agencies. This
influx of capital could help improve employment
Tertiary Effects are long-term effects that are set
rates in affected areas.
off as a result of a primary event. These include
things like loss of habitat caused by a flood,
Of course, some businesses won’t survive the
permanent changes in the position of river channel
trauma, and there may be some “natural selection”
caused by flood, crop failure caused by a volcanic
with only the fittest entities moving forward.
eruption etc.
Companies that remain are those flexible and
Task 2: How do disasters affect people and the resilient enough to face unexpected challenges and
environment? Economy of community? become stronger in the process. New businesses
may crop up, too, filling the voids left by others
Natural disasters, for example an earthquake can with a commitment to thrive in the face of
kill people from collapsing buildings and seriously adversity.
injure many more. Homes are destroyed and in
many developing countries they do not have
insurance to re-build them. Infrastructure such as
Task 3: Given the coastal community’s high Classification of Natural Hazards and Disasters
exposure to typhoons, assess its level of
vulnerability. Natural Hazards and the natural disasters that
result can be divided into several different
Vulnerability describes the characteristics and
categories:
circumstances of a community, system or asset
that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of
 Geologic Hazards
a hazard. There are many aspects of vulnerability,
 Atmospheric Hazards
arising from various physical, social, economic, and
 Other Natural Hazards
environmental factors.

Manila world's 4th most at risk from disasters: Natural Hazards can also be divided
study by ABS-CBN into catastrophic hazards, which have devastating
consequences to huge numbers of people, or have
“The Philippine capital is the fourth most at risk in a worldwide effect, such as impacts with large
the world from disasters, threatening half of the space objects, huge volcanic eruptions, world-wide
local economy in a city that is home to 12 million disease epidemics, and world-wide droughts. Such
people, international research showed. catastrophic hazards only have a small chance of
occurring, but can have devastating results if they
Typhoons, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and
do occur.
floods threaten to wipe out $101.09 billion ($4.7
trillion) or half of Manila's average nominal gross
Natural Hazards can also be divided into rapid
domestic product (GDP), according to Lloyd's 2015
onset hazards, such as Volcanic Eruptions,
to 2025 City Risk Index.” (Michellle Ong, 2014)
Earthquakes, Flash floods, Landslides, Severe
From the figure below showing the annual Thunderstorms, Lightening, and wildfires, which
frequency of natural disasters in the Philippines develop with little warning and strike rapidly. Slow
(Prevention Web, 2014), we can see that more onset hazards, like drought, insect infestations,
than half of the natural disasters in the Philippines and disease epidemics take years to develop.
contain the exposure of typhoons, storms and
tropical cyclones. This means Philippines’ level of Anthropogenic Hazards
vulnerability to typhoons is still high.
These are hazards that occur as a result of human
interaction with the environment. They
include Technological Hazards, which occur due to
exposure to hazardous substances, such as radon,
mercury, asbestos fibers, and coal dust. They also
include other hazards that have formed only
through human interaction, such as acid rain, and
contamination of the atmosphere or surface
waters with harmful substances, as well as the
potential for human destruction of the ozone layer
and potential global warming.

If natural and anthropogenic hazards both occur at


the same time, the level of vulnerability will be
Task 4: What would happen if both natural and very high. Damages will be fatal and there will be a
anthropogenic hazards occur at the same time? lot casualties. It can affect the community
physically, biologically, economically, politically and
socio-culturally.