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Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent

1. Introduction

Module 5 Independent 1. Introduction This module contains the required information that Basic Scaffolders are required

This module contains the required information that Basic Scaffolders are required to know and understand regarding the erection & dismantling of independent scaffolds.

2. NASC Guidance TG20:13

of independent scaffolds. 2. NASC Guidance TG20:13 TG20:13 Good Practice Guidance for Tube and Fitting

TG20:13 Good Practice Guidance for Tube and Fitting Scaffolding was updated in 2013 by the National Access and Scaffolding Confederation (NASC). The guidance booklet is designed to conform to the latest European standards for scaffolding BS EN 12811 and aims to raise awareness of good practice in scaffolding across the construction industry and drive up standards of scaffolding and safety.

The NASC have produced 3 different style publications of TG20:13 with a view to targeting the different end users such as:

TG20:13 User Guide “TG20:13 User Guide is intended to be a handy, easy to use pocket reference guide written for scaffolding operatives, supervisors, client site management and all those involved in the provision and use of tube and fitting scaffolding. It summarises the principal points of interest for TG20 compliant scaffolds, which are described in more detail within the TG20:13 Operational Guide.” NASC November 2013

TG20:13 Operational Guide “The comprehensive guide to good practice is intended for all those involved in the procurement, supply and use of tube and fitting scaffolding. The guide provides clear definitions for TG20 compliant scaffolding: common scaffolding structures that have been designed by a structural calculation to BS EN 12811.” NASC November 2013

TG20:13 Design Guide “The TG20:13 Design Guide provides technical data, commentary and source material for the use of scaffold designers in circumstances which are outside of the standard structures provided in TG20:13 Operational Guide and User Guide. It assumes that readers are competent and suitably qualified engineers or designers.” NASC November 2013

Guide. It assumes that readers are competent and suitably qualified engineers or designers.” – NASC November
Module 5 Independent 3. Independent Scaffold General Requirements Independent scaffolds are the most commonly used

Module 5 Independent

3. Independent Scaffold General Requirements

Independent scaffolds are the most commonly used type of scaffolding and typically provide access to the façade of a building. Fig. 1 shows a typical independent scaffold commonly being used in many different industries.

scaffold commonly being used in many different industries. Fig. 1 Typical Independent Scaffold Scaffolds can be

Fig. 1 Typical Independent Scaffold

Scaffolds can be fully boarded, however only 2 lifts can be in service and fully loaded at one time. BS EN 12811 allows two in service lifts at one time if:

Maximum of one platform is loaded 100%

The other platform is loaded 50%

Clients must be informed of any loading capacities and it will be their responsibility to manage the use of fully boarded independent scaffolds. Any independent scaffold that requires to have more than 2 working lifts in operation at any time will be subject to design.

Foundations and Ground Support The foundations must be capable of carrying the imposed load both locally for each standard and in general for the whole scaffold. Certain foundations may require special consideration such as:

Sloping ground

Sand

Nearby excavations, ground works and trenches

Bearing capacity of suspended surfaces (e.g. roofs, floors, gantries, canopies, precast beams and staircases, cellar lights etc.)

Basements, tunnels, service ducts and other voids

canopies, precast beams and staircases, cellar lights etc.) • Basements, tunnels, service ducts and other voids
Module 5 Independent Independent scaffolds generally require to be sited on base plates and sole

Module 5 Independent Independent scaffolds generally require to be sited on base plates and sole pads to spread the load of the scaffold or protect the surface below. Fig. 2 shows the sole pad and base plate configuration. Fig.3 & Fig. 4 show the required dimensions of the sole pad and base plate.

show the required dimensions of the sole pad and base plate. Fig. 3 Sole Pad Dimensions
show the required dimensions of the sole pad and base plate. Fig. 3 Sole Pad Dimensions

Fig. 3 Sole Pad Dimensions

Fig. 2

sole pad and base plate. Fig. 3 Sole Pad Dimensions Fig. 2 Fig.4 Base Plate Dimensions

Fig.4 Base Plate Dimensions

Sole pads and base plates must be used if the scaffold is directly supported by sand, soil, subgrade or on non-structural pavements (e.g. block paving, concrete slabs, tarmac). Sole pads can be spanned under 2 adjacent standards, providing they have the same area as two single sole pads. Sole pads should not create a trip hazard.

For sloping ground greater than 1 in 10 (1 vertical to 10 horizontal) engineers input must be sought. A foot lift / kicker lift with right angle couplers is required for the sloping ground conditions Fig. 5

is required for the sloping ground conditions Fig. 5 Fig. 5 Foot / kicker lift on

Fig. 5 Foot / kicker lift on sloping ground

Standards may be placed directly onto a steel or concrete surface providing:-

It is level and even

Is adequately hard

Has sufficient thickness

Can prevent penetration

providing:- • It is level and even • Is adequately hard • Has sufficient thickness •
Module 5 Independent Independent Scaffold Load Classes BS EN 12811 defines 6 levels of load

Module 5 Independent Independent Scaffold Load Classes BS EN 12811 defines 6 levels of load classes. Load classes 5 to 6 are required to be designed by qualified Design Engineers. TG20:13 only classify load classes 1 4

(Fig.6).

 
 

Load

Duty

Uniformly Distributed Load on Platform

Max Bay

Max Spacing of board Transoms

Class

Length

1

Very Light Duty

0.75kN/m 2

2.4m

1.2m

2

Light Duty

1.50kN/m 2

2.4m

1.2m

3

General Purpose

2.00kN/m 2

2.0m

1.2m

4

Heavy Duty

3.00kN/m 2

1.8m

0.9m

Fig. 6 Independent Load Classes

Load Class 1: Very light duty scaffolding Uniform load of 0.75kN/m 2 (approximately 75kg per m 2 )

Typically used for inspection, access and light cleaning (e.g. window cleaning).

No storage of materials.

3 to 5 boards wide + 1 inside board.

Maximum Bay Length 2.4m

Maximum Transom Span 1.2m

Load Class 2: Light duty scaffolding Uniform load of 1.5kN/m 2 (approximately 150kg per m 2 )

Typically used for plastering, painting, stone cleaning, glazing or pointing.

4 to 5 boards wide + 1 inside board

Maximum Bay Length 2.4m

Maximum Transom Span 1.2m

Load Class 3: General purpose scaffolding Uniform load of 2kN/m 2 (approximately 200kg per m 2 )

Typically used for general building work including brickwork, window and mullion fixing, rendering and plastering.

4 to 5 boards wide + 2 inside boards

Maximum Bay Length 2.0m

Maximum Transom Span 1.2m

Load Class 4: Heavy duty scaffolding Uniform load of 3kN/m 2 (approximately 300kg per m 2 )

Typically used for heavy masonry work, concrete block work, and heavy cladding.

4 to 5 boards wide + 2 inside boards

Maximum Bay Length 1.8m

Maximum Transom Span 0.9m

and heavy cladding. ▪ 4 to 5 boards wide + 2 inside boards ▪ Maximum Bay

Module 5 Independent

Erection Procedure

Module 5 Independent Erection Procedure A. Sole boards/base plates will be positioned in line with the

A. Sole boards/base plates will be positioned in line with the bay sizes required for the particular load class. The first set of standards will be placed on the baseplates & sole pads with double couplers fixed to the first kicker lift height.

B. The inside ledger will be placed into the RAC of the inside standard and securely tightened.

C. A transom will then be installed (using a double coupler) above the inside ledger which has been installed and levelled across to an outside standard and measured to accommodate the number of boards required.

D. An additional ledger will be installed to the outside standard below the transom using a double coupler and then levelled to an additional standard the length of the required scaffold.

E. As per the adjacent end, a transom is fixed using a RAC will then be installed above the ledger and levelled across to an inside standard, the inside ledger will then be installed to this inside standard using a double coupler.

F. Additional standards will then be installed at intervals to suit the load class of the scaffold, all components of the kicker lift will be installed/fixed using RAC’s.

G. As per the kicker lift, ledgers will then be installed to standards using RAC’s at the required lift height. The inside ledger will be fixed at either end of the scaffold using RAC’s and levelled.

H. The outside ledger should then be levelled across from the inside standard and transoms installed on top of both ledgers at either end and at the measured stipulated width using RAC’s.

I. Ledger bracing and sway bracing will be installed to the scaffold using swivel couplers in line with all standards levelled. This will be repeated until the scaffold reaches the working lift.

J. SG4 guardrails will be installed to a height of 1 metre to create a scaffold safe zone and to accommodate the “scaff step” which will be used to install the advanced guardrail at the lift above.

K. At the working lift, transoms will be installed using putlog couplers at the required spacing.

at the lift above. K. At the working lift, transoms will be installed using putlog couplers
Module 5 Independent L. A double guardrail and toe boards are to be installed to

Module 5 Independent

L. A double guardrail and toe boards are to be installed to a minimum height of 950mm with no unprotected gap in excess of 470mm.

M. The working lift is to be fully boarded, guard railed with toe boards installed to a minimum of two points using putlog couplers.

Independent Scaffold Lifts The Independent Scaffolding may be fully boarded or partially boarded. There is a difference between a boarded lift and a working lift (also referred to as ‘in service’)

One lift loaded with personnel and materials (100%) per elevation.

Plus, one other lift loaded to 50% per elevation.

Working lifts do not need to be adjacent lifts. Note that all decking must withstand a

minimum 1.5kN of loading to accommodate personnel (BS EN 12811). Should you require more working lifts simultaneously loaded then design advice should be sought.

The Work at Height Regulations require sufficient space for working and the safe passage of people and materials. BS EN 12811 requires a 500mm clear width. This can be achieved with 3 x 225mm scaffold boards (675mm). TG20 allows platform widths of 430mm. Fig. 7 shows the minimum platform width for an independent scaffold being used for personnel and materials. Fig. 8 shows the minimum width for an independent scaffold for personnel only. Fig. 9 shows the minimum and maximum overhang from centre to centre.

scaffold for personnel only. Fig. 9 shows the minimum and maximum overhang from centre to centre.

Fig. 7

Fig. 8

scaffold for personnel only. Fig. 9 shows the minimum and maximum overhang from centre to centre.
Module 5 Independent Fig. 9 Ledger Bracing Ledger bracing requires to be fixed to ledgers

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 9 Ledger Bracing Ledger bracing requires to be fixed to ledgers with

Fig. 9

Ledger Bracing Ledger bracing requires to be fixed to ledgers with doubles (Fig. 10) or standards with swivels (Fig. 11) from the base lift to the top lift. Alternative pairs of standards, unless bay length is 1.5m or less then every third pair of standards is permitted. The end pairs of standards must be ledger braced. All tube & fitting scaffolds must be fully ledger braced. Independent Scaffold requires working platforms to have unhindered access (This can only be achieved in T&F using specially designed components e.g. unit transoms).

using specially designed components e.g. unit transoms). Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Ledger brace patterns can be

Fig. 10

specially designed components e.g. unit transoms). Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Ledger brace patterns can be achieved

Fig. 11

Ledger brace patterns can be achieved either by “Dog Leg” Fig. 12 or “Zig Zag” Fig. 13

transoms). Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Ledger brace patterns can be achieved either by “Dog Leg” Fig.
Module 5 Independent Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Façade Bracing Façade bracing for independent scaffold requires

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Façade Bracing Façade bracing for independent scaffold requires one
Module 5 Independent Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Façade Bracing Façade bracing for independent scaffold requires one

Fig. 12

Fig. 13

Façade Bracing Façade bracing for independent scaffold requires one façade brace in every 6 bays. The brace must reach from the base to the top lift and be between 35 and 55 degrees. Three principle configurations of façade bracing:

Zig-zag over two bays Fig. 14

Zig-zag over one bay Fig. 15

Continuous (only possible for wider facades) Fig. 16

The brace must be fixed to transoms with doubles at each lift or each pair of standards with swivels. Façade braces should be fixed within 300mm of the intersection (Node Point). Joints in continuous tubes shall be overlapped (300mm), or a Class B sleeve coupler used. Note spigot joint pins must be spliced.

sleeve coupler used. Note spigot joint pins must be spliced. Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16

Fig. 14

used. Note spigot joint pins must be spliced. Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Joints in

Fig. 15

Note spigot joint pins must be spliced. Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Joints in Ledgers

Fig. 16

Joints in Ledgers Joints in ledgers should be made with sleeve couplers and must be stagger to avoid joints in the same bay. They should be ideally located in the end thirds of each bay, adjacent to the standards Fig. 17.

joints in the same bay. They should be ideally located in the end thirds of each
Module 5 Independent Fig. 17 Joints in Standards All joints in standards should be staggered

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 17 Joints in Standards All joints in standards should be staggered Fig.

Fig. 17

Joints in Standards All joints in standards should be staggered Fig. 18. Four joints can be in one bay as long as at least one is spliced.

joints can be in one bay as long as at least one is spliced. Fig. 18

Fig. 18

Guardrails and Toe-boards Guardrail and Toe-Board on Working Platform Requirements Fig. 19:

Min main guardrail 950mm

Max gap 470mm

Toe-board required if there is a risk of people, materials or objects falling from the

scaffold. The min toe-board height 150mm specified by BS EN 12811 Typically 225mm scaffold boards are used.

from the scaffold. The min toe-board height 150mm specified by BS EN 12811 Typically 225mm scaffold
Module 5 Independent Fig. 19 Toe-boards require to be secured at two points per toe

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 19 Toe-boards require to be secured at two points per toe board.

Fig. 19

Toe-boards require to be secured at two points per toe board. They should be fixed to the inside of the standards and must resist a minimum horizontal load of 0.15kN. The below methods Fig. 20 show the different types of fitting to be used to secure the toe-board.

types of fitting to be used to secure the toe-board. Fig. 20 Free-Standing Independent Scaffolds These
types of fitting to be used to secure the toe-board. Fig. 20 Free-Standing Independent Scaffolds These

Fig. 20

types of fitting to be used to secure the toe-board. Fig. 20 Free-Standing Independent Scaffolds These

Free-Standing Independent Scaffolds These scaffolds can be built up to a maximum height of 6m providing they are erected to the following specifications:

The height to the top working platform does not exceed 6m

The scaffold shall not have any debris netting or sheeting attached

to the top working platform does not exceed 6m • The scaffold shall not have any
Module 5 Independent • The lift heights do not exceed 2m or 2.7 for the

Module 5 Independent

The lift heights do not exceed 2m or 2.7 for the first lift

Ties & Stability All scaffolding must be suitably stable and secure to prevent collapse, uplift or overturning. This is generally referred to as ‘stability measures’, which include:

Ties to a building façade or other structure

Freestanding scaffolds (such as self-supporting towers relying upon their self- weight and height to base ratio for stability)

Other measures (e.g. rakers, buttressing, kentledge, guys and anchors).

Ties are the most common method for stabilising scaffolding and inadequate tying is

the most common cause of scaffold collapses.

tying is the most common cause of scaffold collapses. Fig. 21 Tie Assemblies Tie tubes should

Fig. 21

Tie Assemblies Tie tubes should be connected to the inner and outer ledgers or standards with right-angle couplers. Ties should be positioned within 300mm of the node point otherwise design advice must be sought. However, it is common practice to connect to the inner ledger only to maintain head clearance along the lift. The suitability of this tying method would be stated on the TG20 eGuide Compliance Sheet. For tying to the inner standards only design advice should be sought.

Methods of Tying Scaffolds Box Ties (also known as column ties)

the inner standards only design advice should be sought. Methods of Tying Scaffolds Box Ties (also
Module 5 Independent Fig. 22 Box ties are formed using right-angle couplers and connected within

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 22 Box ties are formed using right-angle couplers and connected within 300mm

Fig. 22

Box ties are formed using right-angle couplers and connected within 300mm of the node point Fig. 22. Packing used to protect the building fabric but also resist inward, outward and lateral movement. This tie method can be used for standard and heavy duty ties.

Through Ties

can be used for standard and heavy duty ties. Through Ties Fig. 23 Through ties are

Fig. 23

Through ties are a tie assembly through a window or other opening Fig. This type of tie prevents inward and outward movement. It is formed using right-angle couplers connected to inner and outer ledgers or standards. The tie method is classed as a standard duty tie. Reveal Tie

couplers connected to inner and outer ledgers or standards. The tie method is classed as a
Module 5 Independent Fig. 24 A reveal tie is a light duty tie only. The

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 24 A reveal tie is a light duty tie only. The tie

Fig. 24

A reveal tie is a light duty tie only. The tie method relies on friction and should not

comprise more than 50% of the ties. The tie is generally fitted into a window recess or similar structural feature where it is not possible to provide a through tie.

Girder Clamps

it is not possible to provide a through tie. Girder Clamps Fig. 25 For girder clamp

Fig. 25 For girder clamp tie method, the clamps must be used in pairs and be opposing.

Drilled in or cast anchors

be used in pairs and be opposing. Drilled in or cast anchors Fig. 26 TG4 and

Fig. 26

TG4 and TG20 (Section 7) are the authoritative guidance for the use of drilled or cast

in anchors for scaffolding ties. There is a requirement for the specification, use and

testing of this type of tie method Fig. 27.

for scaffolding ties. There is a requirement for the specification, use and testing of this type
Module 5 Independent Fig. 27 Tie Spacing Ties are normally spaced evenly throughout a façade.

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 27 Tie Spacing Ties are normally spaced evenly throughout a façade. The

Fig. 27

Tie Spacing Ties are normally spaced evenly throughout a façade. The number, frequency and duty of ties is specified by a TG20 Compliance Sheet or a scaffolding design engineer. The maximum vertical spacing and horizontal spacing between the lines of ties should not be exceeded. Ideally all, but at least half the ties should be at ledger braced frames. The top lift should be tied at alternate standards if the scaffold is clad with sheeting or debris netting (or if otherwise specified). TG20 Compliance Sheets specify the maximum area of the façade that should be supported by each tie in square metres. Typically, 16m 2 although will be more for clad and netted scaffolds.

Fig. 28 shows a typical scaffold erected with 2m bays and 2m lifts therefore achieving 4m 2 bays. The ties are effective over a 16m 2 area. Fig. 29 shows the same scaffold but using half the ties and ties being effective over 32m 2 area (TG20 guidance required).

effective over 32m 2 area (TG20 guidance required). Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Tie Spacing Examples At

Fig. 28

over 32m 2 area (TG20 guidance required). Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Tie Spacing Examples At alternate

Fig. 29

Tie Spacing Examples At alternate lifts Fig. 30 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts)

guidance required). Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Tie Spacing Examples At alternate lifts Fig. 30 (unclad scaffolding
Module 5 Independent Fig. 30 At every lift Fig. 31 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts)

Module 5 Independent

Module 5 Independent Fig. 30 At every lift Fig. 31 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts) Fig.

Fig. 30 At every lift Fig. 31 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts)

30 At every lift Fig. 31 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts) Fig. 31 Fewer ties with

Fig. 31

Fewer ties with double the tie duty Fig. 32 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts)

double the tie duty Fig. 32 (unclad scaffolding at 2m lifts) Fig. 32 For further or

Fig. 32

For further or more detailed information regarding ties & stability should be sought from the latest TG20 & TG4 publications.

4. Dismantle of Independent Scaffold

ties & stability should be sought from the latest TG20 & TG4 publications. 4. Dismantle of
Module 5 Independent The following best practices should be adopted when dismantling an independent scaffold:

Module 5 Independent The following best practices should be adopted when dismantling an independent scaffold:

Dismantling of the scaffold is generally the reverse procedures of the erection, if site conditions have changed and this is not possible then a separate method statement and risk assessment requires to be carried out.

Any hazard identified prior to dismantle will require to be controlled within the risk assessment.

Before dismantling begins the area requires to be inspected to ensure the scaffold is clear of debris or materials.

Barriers and signage are required around the dismantle area.

The scafftag requires to be removed leaving the red ‘Do Not Use’ tag. Further warning signage ‘Incomplete Scaffold’ should be displayed in prominent areas to prevent unauthorised access.

Scaffolders should ensure 100% tie off as per their SG4 training received.

Scaffolders not to connect fall arrest systems to anchorage points that are part of the structure being removed.

During dismantle scaffolders should dismantle back to the safety of the ladder access.

Any anchoring of the scaffolding is not to be released until the scaffold levels above have been completely dismantled.

Components of which the connectors have been released must be removed immediately.

Scaffolders must work off supported scaffold boards during the dismantle process.

Dismantled scaffolding components must be removed from the scaffold via a controlled measure such as ‘hand balling’, under no circumstance must they be thrown from the scaffold.

Once removed from the scaffold the components require to be stored correctly and safely within the approved storage areas allocated.

Only decking surfaces that are complete can be walked on.

Scaffolding can only be entered via the accesses provided and under no circumstance are scaffolders to climb the outside of the scaffolding during erection and dismantle.

A partially dismantled scaffold must be left in a safe condition and prevention in place to stop unauthorised persons accessing the incomplete scaffold.

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