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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

LECTURER
ENGR. ROY SEARCA JOSE P. DELA CRUZ
Course Outline
• Stress and strain
 Stresses in Beams
• Torsion
• Bolted connection  Beam Deflection
• Springs
• Moment of Inertia and
Centroid
• Shear and moments in
beams
• Moving loads
• Flexure and Bending
Moment
Introduction
• Load sources
and its effects
• Structure
performance as
supporting,
spanning or
bracing element
• What changes
the structure
undergo as load
is applied.
Strength of Materials
• Internal forces of a
member caused by the
external forces acting on
that member. 60#

• Changes in dimensions of a MO 4’ M1 60#/ft


M2
member caused by these hO

R1 R2
forces. SPAN O SPAN 1 = 10’

• Physical properties of the 150mm


materials in the member. 50mm

200mm
150mm

50mm
150mm
Types of Load
• Gravity – weight of the structure and
occupants, contents and snow/water on the
roof. (Application – vertically downward and
constant in magnitude)
• Wind – anticipated wind velocity (Horizontal
force with vertical component on sloping
surfaces with vertical uplift on flat roof)
• Earthquake – ground vibration as a result of a
subterranean shock. (Back and forth, up and
down movement resulting to inertial forces
induced by building weight
• Blast - Explosion of bomb, projectile, or
volatile materials (Slamming force on
surfaces surrounding the explosion).
• Hydraulic pressure - groundwater levels
above the bottom of the basement floor (
horizontal pressure on basement walls/
upward pressure on basement floors).
• Temperature change – rise and fall of
temperature (Forces exerted form
expansion/contraction; distortions if
connected parts have different coefficients
of expansion.
• Shrinkage – Natural volume reduction
occurs in concrete, wood and soils (effect
similar with thermal change)
• Vibration – caused by heavy machinery,
moving vehicles, or high intensity sounds.
(with concern for comfort of occupants.)
• Internal action - settlement of supports,
slippage or loosening of connections, or by
shape changes due to sag, warping, and
shrinkage.
Classification of Load
• Dead Load – permanent loads
• Live Load – dispersed load on roof and floor.

Static Vs. Dynamic forces


 Gravity  Blast  Shrinkage
 Wind  Hydraulic  Vibration
 Earthquake pressure  Internal action
 Temperature
change
Dispersion of loads
Wind loads on
structures
• p = 0.003V2
p= pressure(psf)
V= wind velocity (mph)
Reactions
External vs. Internal Force
• Compression/Tension
• Shear
• Bending
• Torsion
Compression/tension
Shear
Bending
Torsion
Stress vs.
Strain

• 1/2 – glass/high strength steel


• 3 – wood/concrete/plastic
• 4 – ductile mat’ls (low grade steel)
Stress strain curve
• Proportional limit
• Elastic limit
• Elastic and plastic range
• Yield point
• Ultimate/tensile strength
• Breaking strength
• Modulus of resilience
• Modulus of toughness
• Working stress
• Yield strength
• Percentage elongation
 Strain hardening
• Percentage reduction in area
• Strain hardening  Tangent modulus
 Coefficient of linear expansion
 Poisson’s ratio
Stress combinations
• 1  2
• 3
Thermal effects
Composite Structure
Terms to Remember
• Elasticity- is the ability of a material to return
to its previous shape after stress is released.
• Resilience – ability of a material to absorb
energy when elastically deformed and to
return it when unloaded
• Stiffness – resistance of a material to
deformation in the elastic range/ability to
resist bending.
• Plastic deformation (Plasticity)- is the opposite of
elastic deformation and is accepted as
unrecoverable strain. Plastic deformation is
retained even after the relaxation of the applied
stress.
• Ductility – indicates the ability of the material to
deform in the plastic range without breaking.
• Toughness – measure of the ability of the
material to absorb and release energy in the
plastic range.
• Modulus of  Modulus of Rigidity/Shear
Elasticity (E) Modulus of Elasticity (G)

 Volume Modulus  Modulus of


of Elasticity (K) Resilience (U)
• Relationship between E, G, K & μ

 Relationship between E, G & μ

 Poisson’s Ratio
μ = ε’ / ε
 Elongation due to Self Weight
• Factor of Safety (n)
Force and Stress
• Stress = Force / Area = N / m2 (Pascal)
• Forces
– Concentrated - moment/torque
– Uniformly distributed
– Uniformly varying
• Stress
– Tensile - Shear - Tangential
– Compressive - Flexural - Longitudinal
– Torsional - Thermal
STRESS
• COMPRESSIVE STRESS
• TENSILE STRESS
• SHEAR STRESS
Problem 1
• The lap joint shown is fastened by 3-20mm diameter
joints. If a 50 kN load is applied as shown, determine:
a. Shearing stress in each rivet
b. Bearing stress in each plate
c. Maximum tensile stress in each plate.
Assume the thickness of the plate is 25mm.

130mm
PN1 Given:
Solution P = 50kN w = 130mm

a. Shearing stress in rivets t = 25mm # of rivets = 3


Ø = 20mm
50x103N / 3
Ss= P/A = -------------------- = 53.05 N/mm2 = 53.05MPa
π/4(20mm)2

b. Bearing stress in each plate


50x103N
Ss= P/A = -------------------- = 33.33 N/mm2 = 33.33 MPa
25mmx20mmx3
c. Maximum tensile stress in each plate
50x103N
Ss= P/A = -------------------- = 15.38 N/mm2 = 15.38 MPa
130mmx25mm
50x103N
Ss= P/A = -------------------------------- = 18.18 N/mm2 = 18.18 MPa
(130mm-20mm) x 25mm
Problem 2
• The piston of a steam engine is 16” in
diameter and its stroke is 24”. The maximum
steam pressure is 250psi. Determine the
required diameter of the piston rod if the
design stress is 10,000psi.
PN2 Given:
Ø = 16”
Solution Pressure (S) = 250psi
Design Stress = 10,000 psi
• Convert steam pressure S into force P 250psi

P = π/4(16”)2 x (250psi) = 50,265.48#


P
• Required Area to resist compressive force P
A=P/S
= 50,265.48 # / 10,000 psi = 5.024 inch2

A = π/4 d2
d = √ 4/ π x (5.024)
d = 2.53”
Problem 3 P
A B

• Determine the required 200mm

diameter of the connecting 240mm C


D
rod AB in the bell crank
shown if its axial stress is
600
limited to 100MPa.
Determine also the shearing
stress in the pin at D if its
diameter is 20mm. 30kN
PN3 Given:
Solution
External force = 30 kN
 = 20mm A B
a. ΣMD = 0 P
200P = 30 sin 60 (240)
P = 31.18 kN
200mm
P = AS
31.18 x 103 N = π/4 d2 100 N/mm2 240mm C
d = 19.92mm
b. ΣH = 0 D 600
31.18 + 30 cos 60 = Rh R = √ 46.182 + 25.982
Rh = 46.18 kN R = 52.98 kN
ΣV = 0 S = P/A
Rv = 30 sin 60 = 52.98 x 1000 N 30kN

Rv = 25.98 kN π/4 (20)2 (2)


= 84.33 N/mm2
S = 84.33 MPa D
Problem 4
A 75mm pulley 10 kN

loaded as shown is
keyed to a 50mmØ P

shaft. Determine the 75 mm

width b of the 75mm


long key if the 6 kN

allowable shearing
stress is 70 MPa. 10 mm

b
PN4
Solution Given:
ΣMC = 0 Ss = 70 MPa
P (25) + 6 (37.5) – 10 (37.5) = 0 Øshaft = 50mm
P = 6 kN Øpulley = 75mm
Length of key = 75mm

P = AS
6 x 1000 N = 75mm b x 70 N/mm2
10 kN

b = 1.14mm 37.5mm

P
25mm
75 mm
C
37.5mm
6 kN
Changes in dimensions
caused by forces
• Deformation can be detrimental to the
system’s overall performance or an issue of
comfort/aesthetics.
• Hooke’s Law – stress is proportional to strain
• Sɛ
• E = S/ ɛ
• Young’s Modulus/Modulus of Elasticity (E) –
constant of proportionality (Hooke’s Law)
Stress and Strain
 Strain (ε)– mathematically equal to deformation divided
by the original length.
 E=S/ε
*S = P / A ; ε = y / L

y = PL /AE

 Poisson’s Ratio (μ)


– ratio of lateral strain and
longitudinal strain
 μ = ε’/ ε
Proportional limit. –is the point
where the stress is exactly
proportional to strain ends in the
stress-strain graph (Point A).

Elastic limit.- is the point after


which any continued stress
results in permanent, or inelastic,
deformation in a stress strain
graph (Point B).

Yield point – the point when the


stress resistance of the material
decreases after the peak of the
curve in the stress-strain
graph(Point B).

Ultimate Stress – the point


Methods of Design where the material is considered
to have completely failed (Point
• Allowable Stress Design E).
•Ultimate Stress Design
Point of Rupture – point where
actual tearing of material
happens. (Point F).
• Creep – slow permanent deformation caused
by a constant load over a long period of time
and dependent upon temperature
• Fatigue is associated with cyclic stressing or
straining of a material leading to premature
failure
• Fatigue strength – value of cyclic stress at
which failure occur after N cycles
• Fatigue limit - limiting value of stress at which
failure occurs as N becomes very large.
Problem 5
• A 10mm diameter tensile specimen has a 50mm gauge
length. The load corresponding to the 0.2% offset is
55kN and the maximum load is 70kN. Fracture occurs at
60kN. The diameter after fracture is 8mm and the
gauge length at fracture is 65mm Calculate the following
proportion of the material from the test.
– % elongation
– Reduciton of Area(RA) %
– Ultimate tensile strength
– Yield strength
– Fracture strength
– If E = 200GPa, the elastic recoverable strain at Loadmax
• Given
PN5 D= 10mm; Df =8mm; L = 50mm; Lf =65mm
Solution

 Original Area = π/4(0.01)^2


= 7.854x10^-5 m2
 Area @ Fracture = π/4(0.08)^2
= 5.027x10^-5 m2
 % elongation = (65-50)/50 x 100
= 30%
 Reduction of Area = (7.854-5.027) /7.854 x 100
= 36%
PN5 Solution
 UTS = Pmax/Aorig = 70x10^3/7.854x10^-5 N/m2
= 891 MPa
 Yield Strength = Py / Aorig = 55x10^3/7.854x10^-5
= 700 Mpa
Fracture Strength = Py / Aorig = 60x10^3/7.854x10^-5
= 764Mpa
 Elastic recoverable strain at Loadmax = Pmax/Aorig / E
= 891MPa / 200X10^3MPa
= 0.0045
Problem 6
During a stress-strain test, the
200
unit deformation at a stress of
35MPa was observed to be 140
167 x 10-6 m/m and at a stress

STRESS (MPa)
of 140 MPa, it was 667 x 10-6
m/m. If the proportional limit 80
was 200MPa, What is the
modulus of elasticity of the 35
material? What is the strain
corresponding to a stress of 80
167 667
MPa?
STRAIN (m/m) x 10-6
Given:
PN 6 S1=35MPa; ε1 = 167 x 10-6 m/m
 Solution S2= 140 MPa; ε2= 667 x 10-6 m/m.
Proportional limit = 200MPa; S3 = 80 MPa

E=S/ε
= 140 N/mm2 – 35 N/mm2) 200

(667 x 10-6 – 167 x 10-6) m/m


140
E = 210000 N/mm2

STRESS (MPa)
E = 210 GPa
ε=S/E 80

= 80 N/mm2 / 210 x103 N/mm2


ε = 3.81 x 10-4 35

167 667

STRAIN (m/m) x 10-6


Problem 7
• A rigid bar is hinged at A
and supported by a steel Strain gauge
rod at B. A strain gauge at
450
the rod indicates a strain B
of 0.0003. If the rod is Ø

75mm2 in cross section,


calculate the applied load 2.5m

W. Assume E = 200GPa. 600

3.5m

W
A
Given:
PN7 A = 75mm2 ε = 0.0003
Solution E = 200GPa

E=S/ε 450 T
= T/A B

--------- Ø=750

ε
200,000N/mm2 = T / 75mm2 / 0.0003 6(sin75) 2.5m
T = 4500N
600

From the Figure


Ø = 180 - 60 – 45 = 750 3.5m

W
ΣMA = 0 A 60
W (3.5sin 60) – 4500 (6 sin 75) = 0 60
w = 8604.17 N

wsin60
A
w
Problem 8
A 10mmØ x 6m steel rod is subjected to an axial
tension of 10 kN. If μ = 0.30 and E = 200 GPa, find the
change in the diameter of the rod.
PN8 Given:
Solution Ø = 10mm P = 10 kN L = 6m
E = 200GPa μ = 0.30

*μ = ε’ / ε
*E = S / ε = P/A / ε
200,000 N/mm2 = {10,000 N / [π/4 (10mm2)2]} / ε
ε = 0.0006366
μ = ε’ / ε
ε’ = Δd / 10mm

0.30 = Δd / 10mm / 0.0006366


Δd = 0.00191mm
Problem 9

A steel wire 10m long hanging vertically


supports a tensile load of 2000 N. Neglecting
the weight of the wire, determine the
required diameter if the stress is not to exceed
140 MPa and the total elongation is not to
exceed 5mm. Assume E = 200GPa.
PN9
Solution Given:
P = 2000 N
a. Required Ø from stress S = 140 MPa
P = AS E = 200 GPa
2000 N = π/4 d2 (140 N/mm2) L = 10m
d = 4.26mm y = 5mm

b. Required Ø from deformation


y = PL/AE
5mm = 2000 N ( 10000 mm )
π/4 d2 (200 x103 N/mm2)
d = 5.05mm
Problem 10
Find the ratio of Modulus of Rigidity* to Modulus of Elasticity
if Poisson’s Ratio is 0.25.

* Modulus of Rigidity - modulus of elasticity in shear.


Modulus of Elasticity – measure of stiffness of material.

E E G
PN10
Solution
E
G = ----------------
2 (1 + μ)

G 1
----- = --------------
E 2 (1 + μ)

= 1 / 2(1+0.25)

G/E = 0.40
Other forms of Stress
• Tangential/Circumferential/Girth Stress (ST) =
PD / 2t

• Longitudinal Stress = PD / 4t
• P = internal pressure
• D = internal diameter
• t = thickness of plate
Problem 11
A cylindrical pressure vessel is fabricated from
steel plates which have a thickness of 20mm.
The internal diameter of the vessel is 500mm
and its length is 3m. Determine the maximum
internal pressure which can be applied if the
stress in the steel is limited to 140MPa.
PN11
Solution
Given:
t = 20mm
ST = PD / 2t
Ø = 500mm
140 N/mm2 = P (500mm) / 2 (20mm)
L = 3m
P = 11.2 N/mm2
S = 140MPa
P = 11.2 MPa.

SL = PD / 4t
140 N/mm2 = P (500mm) / 4 (20mm)
P = 22.4 N/mm2
P = 22.4 MPa
Problem 12
A pipe carrying steam at 3.5 MPa has an outside
diameter of 450mm and wall thickness of 10mm. A
gasket is inserted between the flange at one end of
the pipe and a flat plate was used to hold the cap
end. How many 40mmØ bolts must be used to hold
the cap on the end of the pipe if the allowable stress
in the bolts is 80MPa, of which 55 MPa is the initial
stress? What circumferential stress is developed in
the pipe?
PN12 Given:
Øout = 450mm; t = 10mm
Solution Sbolt = 80MPa; Sini = 55MPa
Øbolt = 40mm; P = 3.5 MPa

• Computing for Circumferential stress


S = PD/2t
S = 3.5N/mm2 [450-2(10)mm]/2(10mm)
S = 72.25MPa
• Computing for the req’d # of bolts.
Force due to pressure
F = AS
F = (π/4) (450mm - 2*10mm)2 (3.5 N/mm2)
F = 508,270.42N
• Force (T) carried by one bolt
T = AS
= (π/4) (40mm)2 (80-55N/mm2)
T = 31,415.93 N

• No. of Bolts
nT = F
n = F/T = 508,270.42N / 31,415.93N
n = 16.2 say 17 bolts.
Thermal Stress
• Stress induced by elongation or contraction
of material as a result of change in
temperature.
YT = ά L ΔT
Where:
• YT = elongation/contraction
• ά = coefficient of thermal
expansion/contraction
• L = length of material
• ΔT = change in temperature
Problem 13
• If a material is allowed to freely expand due to
heating, it will develop:
a. Thermal stress
b. tensile stress
c. compressive stress
d. shearing stress
e. no stress
Problem 14
Steel railroad rails 10m long are laid with a
clearance of 3mm at a temperature of 150C. At
what temperature will the rails just touch?
What stress will be induced in the rails at that
temperature if there where no initial
clearance? Assume ά = 11.7 x 10-6 m/ (m0C)
and E = 200 GPa.
PS14 Given:
L = 10m
Solution ά = 11.7 x 10-6 m /(m0C)
E = 200 MPa
Yt = 3mm

YT = ά L ΔT
3mm = 11.7 x 10-6 m /(m0C) 10,000mm (T-15)
T = 40.640C

Y = PL/AE = SL/E *(S=P/A)


3mm = S (10,000 mm) / 200 x 103 N/mm2
S = 60 MPa
Problem 15
A steel rod is stretched between two rigid
walls and carries a tensile load of 5000N at
200C. If the allowable stress is not to
exceed 130 MPa at - 200C, what is the
minimum diameter of the rod? Assume ά
= 11.7 x 10-6 m/ (m0C) and E = 200 GPa.
PS15 Given: 5000N 5000N

Solution P = 5000N
Y
ά = 11.7 x 10-6 m /(m0C)
E = 200 MPa
Y = Yt + Y1 Yt Y1
S = 130 Mpa

SL/E = ά L ΔT + P1L /AE

130 N/mm2 5000N


------------------ = 11.7 x 10-6 (20 + 20) + ----------------------
200 x 103 N/mm2 A (200 x 103
N/mm2)
137.4 mm2 = π/4 d2
A = 137.4 mm2
d = 13.22mm
Torsion
 Twisting action in shaft or thin-walled tube as a
result of transmitting power from prime mover to a
machine.
 Torsional Stress
(Ss) = Tr/J J = π/32 D4 – solid shaft
J = π/32 (D4-d4) - hollow shaft
 Torsional Strain
λ = rØ / L r – radius of shaft, Ø = angle of twist;
L = length of shaft
 Power Transmitted by Shaft
P = T 2πf f = angular velocity (rev/s)
T = torque
• Shaft – a member usually of circular cross-
section which supports gears, sprockets,
wheel, etc.
• Axle – rotating/non-rotating member that
support wheels, pulleys and carries no torque
• Spindle – a short shaft
 Polar moment of Inertia
 Polar Section Modulus

• Safe diameter of Shaft


 Comparison of Solid Shaft & Hollow Shaft
 Strength

 Weight

 Strain
• Combined Bending and Torsion in Shaft
Problem 16
A hollow steel shaft (G = 12 x 106 psi) must
transmit a torque of 300,000 in-lb. The
total angle of twist must not exceed 30 per
100ft. The maximum shearing stress must
not exceed 16,000 psi. Find the inside
diameter d of the hollow steel shaft if the
outside diameter D is 12”.
PN16 Given:
D = 12”; G = 12x106 psi
Solution T = 300,000 in-lb; θ = 30
For Torsional Stress: Ss = 16,000 psi
Ss = Tr/J
16,000 psi= 300,000 in-lb (6”)/ J
J = 112.5 in4
For Torsional strain: λ = rθ / L G = Ss/λ
Ss = Tr/J
θ = TL/JG
3 π/180 = 300,000 in-lb (100’ x 12”/1’)
J (12 x 106 psi)
J = 572.96 in4

For hollow shaft *For Solid Shaft


J = π/32 (D4 – d4) J = π/32 D4
572.96 in4= π/32 (12”4 – d4)
d = 11.05”
Problem 17
• The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is
twice its inside diameter. The ratio of its
torque carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft
of the same material and the same outside
diameter is:
a. 15/16 b. ¾ c. ½ d. 1/8 e.
1/16
PN17 Given
Solution (Ss) = Tr/J J = π/32 D4 – solid shaft
J = π/32 (D4-d4) - hollow shaft
Problem 18
A steel marine propeller is to transmit 4.5MW
at 3r/s without exceeding a shearing stress of
50MPa or twisting through more than 10 in a
length of 25 diameters. Compute the required
diameter if G = 83 GPa.
PN18 Given:
P = 4.5MW; f = 3 rev/sec
Solution θ = 10; G = 83 GPa
Ss = 50 MPa
P = T 2πf N-m/s
T = 4.5x106watts / 2π(3 rev/s)
T = 238,732 N-m
From Shearing stress: Ss = Tr/J; r = D/2; J=π/32D4
Ss = 16T / πD3
50 N/mm2 = 16(238,732N-m) / πD3
D = 290mm
From deformation: 1(π/180) = 238,732(1000) N-mm(25D)
π/32 D 4 (83x103)N/mm2
θ = TL/JG
D = 347.5mm say 348 mm

Therefore use d = 348mm


Moment of Inertia and Centroids
• Center of Gravity – a point in a body through which
the whole weight of a body may assumed to act
• Centroid – known as center of area is a point where
the whole area of the figure is assumed to be
concentrated
• Area Moment of Inertia – measure of resistance to
bending and forms the basis of strength of materials
• Mass Moment of Inertia – measure of resistance of
the body to rotation and forms the basis of dynamics
of rigid bodies
Centroid of Planar Shapes
Typical Cross Section of Compression
Members
Centroid for Composite Shapes
Area Moment of Inertia
• Circular area

 Area w/ concentric hole  Semi circular area

 J = polar moment of inertia


• Semi circular area

 Quarter circle area


• Rectangular Area

 Thru axis N-N


• Square Area  Rectangular area w/
centrally rectangular
hole

 Triangular Area  Triangular Area


thru axis N-N
• Circular ring

 Elliptical area
Transfer Formula for Moment of
Inertia
IN-N = Ix-x + Ad2
Problem 19
• A wide flange section beam 100mm wide
by 150mm depth has a web thickness of
20mm is used in a structure of length 5m.
Determine the centroidal moment of
inertia of the cross section of the beam.
Compute also the moment of inertia of the
section for an axis located 100mm
measured from the bottom of the beam if
the flange thickness is 12mm.
PN 19 Solution
• I1 = bh3 / 12
A.
= 0.1 x 0.153/ 12
= 28.1 x 10-6 100mm

• I2 = 0.04 x 0.133 / 12
= 7.32 x 10-6
• I = I1-2I2
= 1.346 x 10-5 m4  = 1.97 x 10-5 m4
B.
Part Area y (mm) I (mm4) A x y2 Ix (mm4)
(mm2)
1 2000 40 66,667 3,200,000 3,266,667
2 2000 90 66,667 16,200,000 16,266,667
3 1560 25 2,197,000 975,000 3,172,000
Σ 19,765,334
Helical Spring
16PR
 Shearing Stress = ----------------- ( 1 + d / 4R)
πd3

64PR3n
 Deformation (δ ) = ---------------
Gd4
 Spring Constant (k)
Where P – Tensile/compressive force
k=P/δ d – diameter of spring material
R –radius of spring
Gd4 n – no. of turns
(k) = --------------- G – modulus of rigidity
δ - deformation
64R3n
Equivalent Spring Constant(Kef)
Problem 20
A helical spring is made by
wrapping wire 25mmØ 175mm

around a forming cylinder


175mm in diameter.
Compute the number of
turns required to permit a
stretch of 100mm without d/2
D/2

exceeding a shear stress of R

100MPa. Assume G =
82,800 GPa.
PN20 Given: P

Solution d = 25mm; Ss = 140 MPa 175mm


D = 175mm; G = 82,800MPa

R = D/2 + d/2 = 175/2 + 25/2


R = 100mm

16PR d/2
D/2

Ss = ------------- (1 + d/4R) R

πd3
16 P (100mm )
140 N/mm2 = ----------------- [1 + 25mm/4(100mm)]
π(25mm)3
P = 4042.5 N
y = 64 PR3n / Gd4

100 = 64 (4042.5 N)(100mm)3 n


82, 800 N/mm2 (25mm)4

n = 12.5 say 13 turns.


Problem 21
A load P is supported by two
P
concentric steel springs arranged as
shown. The inner spring consists of
30 turns of 20mm diameter wire on
a mean diameter of 150mm. The
outer spring has 20 turns of 30mm
wire on a mean diameter of 200mm.
Compute the maximum load that
will not exceed a shearing stress of
140MPa in either spring.
PS21 Given:
R1 = 150/2 = 75mm n1 = 30
Solution R2 = 200/2=100mm n2 = 20
d1 = 20mm Ss = 140MPa

Ss = 16PR (1 + d/4R) d2 = 30mm


πd3
For Spring 1
140 N/mm2 = 16P(75mm) [1+20mm/4(75mm)]
π(20mm)3
P1 = 2749 N
For Spring 2
140 N/mm2 = 16P(100mm) [1+30mm/4(100mm)]
π(30mm)3
P2 = 6904 N
Y1 =Y2

Y = 64PR3n/Gd4

64P1R13n1/Gd14 = 64P2R23n2/Gd24

P1(753) (30)/204 = P2(1003)(20)/304

P2 = 3.2 P1
If P1 = 2749
P2 = 3.2 (2749)
P2 = 8796.8 N>6904N (Spring 2 fails)

If P2 = 6904
6904 = 3.2 P1
P1 = 2157.5 < 2749 N (safe)

P = P1 + P2 = 2157.5 + 6904
P = 9061.5
END OF L1