Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

# MATRICES FORMULA SHEET

1) Characteristic Equation:
i) For a 3 3 matrix λ3  1λ 2  2λ  3  0 is the characteristic equation where
1 = sum of the leading diagonal elements,
2 = sum of the minors of the leading diagonal elements, 3 = A
ii) For a 2  2 matrix   1  2  0 is the characteristic equation where
2

## Eigen values : roots of the Characteristic equation.Can be obtained from calculator.

 x1 
 
x
Eigen vectors: a nonzero vector X=  2  satisfies the equation (A–I)X = 0.
x 
 3
2) Cross Rule ( Use only for two distinct equations)
a1 x  b1 y  c1 z  0
a2 x  b2 y  c2 z  0
x y z
x y z
b1 c1 a1 b1 then  
b2 c2 a2 b2 b1c2  b2 c1 a2 c1  a1c2 a1b2  a2 b1

## 3) If 1, 2 , 3 are the eigen values of A then

1 1 1 -1
(i) K1, K2 , K3 are the eigen values of KA. (ii)  ,  ,  are the eigen values of A .
1 2 3

A A A
(iii) 1p , 2p , 3p are the eigen values of Ap (iv) , , are the eigen values of adjA.
1 2 3

## (v) 1  K , 2  K , 3  K are the eigen values of  A-KI  .

4) (i) Sum of the eigen values = Sum of the leading diagonal elements.
(ii) Product of the eigen values = A .

5. (i) If A is a triangular matrix then the eigen values are its diagonal elements.
(ii)If A is a singular matrix ( i.e. A  0 ) then one of the eigen values is 0.

6. (i)If A is an orthogonal matrix then AAT = ATA = I.(ii) If A is symmetric matrix then A = AT
7) Conditions for orthogonal transformation:
A real symmetric matrix A with
(i) eigen vectors X1,X2,X3 are linearly independent. i.e.) X1 X 2 X 3  0 and
(ii) eigen vectors X1,X2,X3 are pair wise orthogonal. i.e.) X1.X2T = 0, X2.X3T = 0 and X3. X1T = 0

Note: If the eigen values of real symmetric matrix are distinct then the eigen vectors are linearly
independent and pair wise orthogonal
8) Diagonalisation: The process of transforming a square matrix A in to a diagonal matrix D.
A real symmetric matrix is said to be orthogonal diagonalizable if there exist an orthogonal matrix N
such that NTAN = D.

## 9) Quadratic form: A homogeneous polynomial of second degree in any number of variables.

Matrix form of the Q.F: Every quadratic form can be expressed as XTAX , where A is a symmetric
matrix with aii = coefficient of xi2 and aij =   coefficient of xi x j  = aji
1
2 
10) Canonical form = sum of squares of any number of variable.
Matrix form of the C.F: Every canonical form can be expressed as YTDY, where D is a diagonal
matrix.

11) Orthogonal reduction: The orthogonal transformation: X=NY reduces the quadratic form to
canonical form provided NTAN = D where N is normalized modal (orthogonal) matrix.
Proof: Q.F= XTAX = (NY)TA(NY) = (YTNT )A(NY) = YT(NTAN)Y = YT(D)Y = C.F.

12) Rank (r) of the Quadratic form: The number of nonzero terms in the resulting canonical form is
called rank of the quadratic form.

13) Index (p) of the Quadratic form: The number of positive terms in the resulting canonical
form is called index of the quadratic form.

## S.No. If the eigen values are not

Nature If the eigen values are known
known
1 Positive definite All the eigen values are positive D1,D2,D3 are positive
D1, D3 are negative D2 is
2 Negative definite All the eigen values are negative
positive
All the eigen values are positive D1  0 , D2  0 D3  0 and
3 Positive semi definite
and atleast one is zero atleast one is zero
All the eigen values are negative D1  0 , D3  0 , D2  0
4 Negative semi definite
and atleast one is zero and atleast one is zero
eigen values are positive and
5 Indefinite All the other cases
negative
a11 a12 a13
a11 a12
where D1 = a11  a11 D2 = D3 = a21 a22 a23
a21 a22
a31 a32 a33