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Michael Jorge G. Estrada

Justine Cyrille U. Morillo

Roanne Carla C. De Vera

April Joy S. Dela Cruz

Athena Reth P. Dela Cruz

Denise Joy C. Flores

Michaela Lana Faye C. Victorio



Practical Research II Adviser

Pangasinan National High School

Lingayen, Pangasinan

S.Y. 2019-2020

Submitted as a Final Requirement for Practical Research II

August 2019

Chapter I


Background of the Study

Cases revolving alcohol impaired driving are one of the most prevalent type of

traffic accidents the world encounters. According to the Metropolitan Manila

Development Authority (MMDA), the Philippines during the years 2009-2015, had

10,914 injury cases due to driving under the influence of alcohol. The average percentage

of drunk driving during 2009-2015 was 12.5% out of all cases of vehicle accidents.

In addition, the Land and Transportation Office or LTO (2018) reported that

during January to June 2018, there were 101 drivers that were under the influence of

alcohol who were caught. They stated that driving under the influence of alcohol is still a

big problem in our country today. Not only are the drivers affected but also innocent

people or bystanders.

Drunk driving or driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol involves operating

any kind of vehicle while intoxicated or under the influence of the alcohol. It is one of the

biggest factors of vehicular accidents including smoking, drugs, using mobile phone,

sleepiness and others. Approximately 10,000-25,000 vehicular accidents happen each

year and this is due to the factors mentioned. Currently, countries around the world has

no device or system available to avoid vehicular accidents.

It is a crime punishable by law to drive with the influence of alcohol. Blood

alcohol content refers to the amount of alcohol absorbed in the bloodstream with a blood

alcohol content of at least 0.08 percentage, just a small amount of alcohol can lead to

dangerous situations. It may slow the driver’s reaction time, it may cause the driver to

lack coordination, reduce concentration, decrease vision and inhibit judgement which can

lead to harmful and dangerous situations. Just a Blood Alcohol Content of 0.02

percentage can already be very dangerous when driving.

Alcohol causes different physical and mental decline. Consumers commonly

experience decrease in reaction time, reduced eye-hand-and-foot coordination,

drowsiness or dizziness. Along with these, alcohol can cause impaired judgement,

decreased attention, and recklessness. Drunk drivers have hard time judging their car’s

position, locating other vehicles and recognizing road signs. Oftentimes, drunk people

share that they are not aware of their actions whenever they are intoxicated. (American

Association for the Advancement of Science, 2010)

Galbicsek (2019) stated that it takes about 30 minutes to 2 hours before alcohol is

absorbed in the bloodstream. During this time, the consumer may start experiencing the

aforementioned effects. This period of time is when drivers are at most risk. Since they

think that they are still in good condition and are capable of driving, the effects of alcohol

start to manifest in the middle of their journey. Drunk driving greatly increases the risk of

traffic accidents that may lead to dame to properties, mild to serious injuries, and worst of

all, death.

In the Philippines, Republic Act No. 10586 also known as the “Anti-Drunk and

Drugged Driving Act of 2013” is an act that penalizes people driving under the influence

of alcohol, dangerous drugs, and similar substances, and for other purposes. Under this

law, people involved in any kind of traffic accidents are subjected to mandatory alcohol

and chemical test to determine if they violated the law. Drivers proven to be violators

should be penalized imprisonment for a minimum of three (3) months and pay fine of

twenty thousand pesos to five hundred thousand pesos with a chance of revocation of the

driver’s license.

Basically, there is a number of prevention for the case of drunk driving. As cited

on (Drunk Driving Prevention, 2019), the most effective way to prevent it is to plan

everything out even before drinking. In this regard, licensed drivers may consider riding

on public utility vehicles after consuming alcoholic beverages or contacting other drivers

that can take them home. Besides these preventions, the only way to be safe is to not

drink alcohol or avoid alcohol when you plan to drive somewhere especially when alone.

As of now there are only three ways to determine drivers under the influence of

alcohol, these methods are Field sobriety tests, Blood alcohol tests and observation. Law

enforcers use portable blood alcohol content (BAC) analyzer such as breathalyzer.

Breathalyzer tests the BAC of the person from a breath sample. Once the alcohol level

reaches 0.08% it is considered unsafe to drive since it is the legal limit. However, levels

of intoxication between 0.04-0.07% already causes some physical effects.

Despite the precautionary measures the government is implementing, it is evident

that traffic accidents revolving alcohol intoxication is still prevalent. People still have the

tendency of risking their safety by driving after drinking. It is clear that a more effective

measure to prevent drunk driving is needed to lessen this kind of traffic accidents.

With these data, the researchers came up with the study that aims to develop a

system that inhibits the ignition of vehicular engines when alcohol intoxication is

detected. Using a Blood Alcohol Content analyzer and body temperature sensor attached

to the vehicle’s steering wheel, the level of alcohol intoxication of the driver is

determined and analyzed. The analyzer is connected to the engine starter inhibitor and

whenever high level of alcohol intoxication is detected, the engine will not start.

This study entitled “Alcohol Intoxication Level Detection via Blood Alcohol

Content and Body Temperature Analyzer as Vehicular Engine Ignition Inhibitor” aims to

sole the prevalent problem revolving alcohol impaired driving. This study will be a new

and efficient way in identifying drunk drivers and to reduce the number and prevent

vehicular accidents from happening caused by drunk driving or driving under the

influence of alcohol.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to investigate the alcohol level taken by the subject within a given

time only. It is also focused on the detecting the alcohol level through the detection of

body temperature and alcohol level of a car driver.

With this regard, the researchers seek to answer the following questions:

1. Is there a significant difference between the device and the commercially-used

breathalyzer as breath analyzer?

2. Is there a significant difference between the infrared sensor and a

commercialized digital thermometer as temperature sensor?

3. Is there a significant difference between the researchers’ product and --- in

terms of:

a. accuracy

b. efficiency

c. cost

Hypotheses of the Study

The following are the null and alternative hypotheses for each questions stated on

the statement of the problem:

1. NO : There is no significant difference between the device and the commercially-

used breathalyzer as breath analyzer.

AO : There is a significant difference between the device and the commercially-

used breathalyzer as breath analyzer.

2. NO : There is no significant difference between the infrared sensor and a

commercialized digital thermometer as temperature sensor.

AO : There is a significant difference between the infrared sensor and a

commercialized digital thermometer as temperature sensor?

3. NO : There is no significant difference between the researchers’ product and --- in

terms of:

a. accuracy

b. efficiency

c. cost

AO : There is a significant difference between the researchers’ product and --- in

terms of:

a. accuracy

b. efficiency

c. cost

Significance of the Study

The study mainly focuses on detecting alcohol intoxication level on breath using

an arduino-based device. Also, the study contributes to a new technology that helps

people lessen the causes of car accidents.

The beneficiaries of this study are as follows:

Alcohol consumers. They are the primary beneficiaries since these are the

subjects of the study. Alcohol consumers, with the designed device, will be able to lessen

or remove any harm that alcohol can cause, most especially vehicular accidents.

Family. The study will also benefit the families who are waiting for their

members, who may be drunk, to go home. In this case, when the device detected alcohol

on the drunk person, they will receive a text which contains the exact location of that

same person.

Police departments. Polices will also benefit from this study because with the

help of the device, their work will be lessen and done easily.

Drivers. All drivers, they may be drunk or not, will be benefited because this

study will lessen the risk of car accidents. Sober drivers will peacefully drive and will not

have any problem regarding road rages. Furthermore, drunk drivers will not affect any

other drivers.

Government. In general, the study will give benefits to the entire government of

a place or country as it will decrease the possibilities of road and car accidents which are

mainly caused by drunk driving.

Conceptual Framework

Independent Variables Dependent Variables

 Number of  Arduino-based
alcohol bottles device
 Body  Accuracy of the
temperature device
 Alcohol  Engine starting
intoxication system
level  Programming

Figure 1. Research Paradigm of the study

Listed are the independent and dependent variables of the study.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This research study is delimited on the body temperature and alcohol level

detection of a person who is about to drive his car, and on connecting the device on the

ignition system of a car in order to inhibit the ignition of the engine of a vehicle.

The arduino-based device was incorporated with a GSM module which sends

messages to the registered immediate family of a person being tested. Also, the device

was placed in the steering wheel of a car for it to be able to abruptly detect the alcohol

level of the person.

As for the subject of the study, the researchers only considered one (1) subject,

which is an adult who drinks at most four (4) bottles. Thus, the whole research study is

focused only on one subject because alcohol tolerance varies from one person to another.

The researchers were given an ample time to finish this study from the month of

June until October, 2019. Moreover, the financial resources are limited only to that of the


Definition of Terms

The following terms were used in the study and defined operationally below.

Alcohol Intoxication – amount of alcohol intake.

Alcohol level – variable tested and measured using Analog Alcohol Sensor MQ3 in the


Body temperature – variable tested and measured using GY-906 MLX9061 IR Sensor

in the study.

Car accident – main problem of the study

Drunk driving – the act done by the subject of the study which is punishable by law

Drunk person – subject of the study

Ignition system – part of a car where the product of the study is connected

Road rage – an effect of the main problem of the study

Chapter II



Review of Related Literature

Review of Related Studies