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REAL PAST SITUATION  IF + PAST PERFECT

(điều kiện có thật ở quá khứ) (câu điều kiện loại 3)

We didn’t go on holiday beacause we didn’t have enough money

 If we had had enough money, we would have gone on holiday

Lưu ý: Tình huống được đưa ra ở hiện tại, kết quả ở hiện tại/ tương lai thì chuyển sang ĐK LOẠI 2,
kết quả ở quá khứ thì chuyển sang ĐK LOẠI 3. Cũng có thể gặp CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TRỘN nếu tình
huống đưa ra ở quá khứ và kết quả ở hiện tại

I can’t see the play because it is solded out

 If the play weren’t solded out, I could see it

S + PRESENT PERFECT..  IT IS + TIME…SINCE + SIMPLE PAST

I haven’t seen her for three weeks  It’s three weeks since I last saw her

S + V (PRESENT PERFECT) + TIME  IT IS + TIME… SINCE + SIMPLE PAST

Tom and Mary have been married for 5 years

 It is 5 years since Tom and Mary got married

S + HAVEN’T + PP…  ….FIRST TIME + S + HAVE + PP

I haven’t seen that man here before  It’s the first time I have seen that man here

S + SIMPLE PAST….AGO  S + HAVE BEEN + V_ing + SINCE/FOR

I started working for the company a year ago

 I’ve been working for the company for a year


 I’ve been working for the company since a last year

S + HAVEN’T + PP…SINCE…  S+ LAST + SIMPLE PAST…WHEN…THE LAST TIME…WAS…

Laurence hasn’t seen her sister since she left for Japan

 Laurence last saw her sister when she left for Japan

S + V + NOT……UNTIL….  IT WAS NOT UNTIL…..THAT (Mãi cho đến….mới)

He couladn’t speak French well until the second year

S + V + O  HAVE + O(sb) + INF/HAVE + O(sth) + PP

The garage is going to repair the car for us next week


 We are going to have our car repair next week

(get sb to do sth = have sb do sth, thể bị động truyền khiến đều là HAVE/GET STH DONE)

NOT SO/ AS + ADJ/ADV + AS….  ADJ/ADV + ER +THAN

 MORE + ADJ/ADV

I can’t cook as well as my mother does  My mother cooks better than I do/I can/me

I don’t know so much about it as she does  She knows a lot more about it than I do

ADJ/ADV + ER + THAN  THE + ADJ/ADV + EST

MORE + ADJ/ADV MOST + ADJ/ ADV

This novel is more interesting than any other novel that I have ever read

 This is the most interesting novel I have ever read

Have you got a cheaper carpet than this

 Is this the cheapest carpet you’ve got?

Lưu ý cấu trúc so sánh kép: THE + COMPARATIVE + S + V

As I get older, I want to travel less

 The older I get, the less I want to travel

…NO SOONER…THAN ..  HARDLY/SCARELY … WHEN…

He had hardly left the office when the phone rang

 No sooner had he left the office than the phone rang

I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back

 Hardly had I put the phone down when the boss rang back

V + NOT…+ V + NOT…(EITHER)  NEITHER…NOR… (không…cũng không…)

He didn’t know where John was and I didn’t either

 Neither he nor I knew where John was


 Neither of us knew where John was

WHY DON’T YOU + V…?  S + SUGGESTED THAT …+(SHOULD)+ V_bare inf…

“Why don’t you put a better lock on the door, John?” Jane said
 Jane suggested that John (should) put a better lock on the door

S + PAST SIMPLE  V_ing..

DIDN’T….. NOT + V_ing

HAD + PP… HAVING + PP

(Rút gọn cụm hiện tại phân từ)

The mother smiled happily. She took baby in her arms.

 Smiling happiy, the mother took the baby in her arms.

Beacause he didn’t know the language, he found it hard to go work

 Not knowing the language, he found it hard to get work

Mr. Brown had failed twice, so he didn’t want to try again

 Having failed twice, Mr. Brown didn’t want to try again

ADJECTIVES  VERBS

It isn’t necessary for you to finish by Saturday.

 You needn’t finish/don’t need to finish by Saturday

It is impossible for roses to be grown in such poor ground

 Roses can’t possibly grow in such poor ground

VERBS  NOUNS

He decided to leave home

 He made a decision to leave home

I didn’t intend to stay here

 I had no intention of staying here

The patient recovered more rapidly than expected

 The patient made a more rapid recovery than expected

The two girls exchanged English lessons

 There was an exchange of English lessons between two girls

CLAUSE  GERUND PHRASE


She laughed but she did not reply  She laughed without reply

She didn’t say a word as she left the room  She left the room without saying a word

SIMPLE SENTENCES  COMPLEX SENTENCES

The owners of newspapers are usually very rich

 The people who owns newspapers are usually very rich

Alice eats very little so as not to put on weight

 Alice eats very little because she wants to lose weight

After four years abroad, Mr. Brown returned home as an excellent engineer

 After Mr. Brown had studied four years abroad, he returned home as an excellent engineer