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The Effectivity of Citrus sinensis Peel as a Bio-Adsorbent and Absorbent on Engine

Oil

A research proposal presented to the

Faculty of Angeles University Foundation Integrated School

Junior High School

In partial fulfillment of the requirement

In Science 10 and Science Investigatory 10

Group 5

Members:

Espanta, Jerome Jude S.

Ganotice, Mark Darel O.

Castro, Alessandra Nicole M.

Lazo, Kylakate E.

Pangilinan, Eingel Joy G.

Sicat, Faith R.

Grade 10 - St. Augustine

April, 2019
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PRELIMINARIES PAGE

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………4

Dedication…………………………………………………………………5

Abstract……………………………………………………………………6

CHAPTER PAGE

I. Introduction……………………………………………………………
1.1 Background of the Study……………………………………………...7-9
1.2 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………..9
1.3 Objectives of the Study……………………………………………….10
1.4 Hypothesis………………………………………………………........10
1.5 Conceptual Framework……………………………………………….10
1.6 Conceptual Paradigm ……………………………………………..…..11
1.7 Scope and Delimitation………………………………………………..11
1.8 Significance of the Study……………………………………………..11-13

II. Review of Related Literature …………………………….…………


2.1 Citrus sinensis Peel……………………………………………………14-15
2.2 Chemicals present in Citrus sinensis Peel…………………………….15
2.3 Use and Effects of Orange Fibers……………………………………..16
2.4 Engine Oil……………………………………………………………..16-17
2.5 Chemicals present in Engine Oil………………………………………17-18
2.6 Bio-adsorbent………………………………………………………….19-20
2.7 Citrus sinensis Peel as Bio-adsorbent…………………………………20-21
2.8 Adsorbent……………………………………………………………...21
2.9 Absorbent……………………………………………………………...21-22
2.10 Oil Spill………………………………………………………………22
2.11 Effects of Oil Spill in the sea…………………………………………22-23
2.12 Contents of the Citrus sinensis Peel that will help absorb oil………..23
2.13 Effects of drying the peel…………………………………………….24
2.14 Government Agency…………………………………………………24-26
2.15 Marine Ecosystem……………………………………………………26
2.16 Microbiological Degradation………………………………………...27
2.17 Effects on Animals…………………………………………………...27-28
2.18 Effects on Human Health…………………………………………….28-29
Conclusion………………………………………………………………...29-30

III. Methodology…………………………………………………………
3.1 Study Design………………………………………………………….31
3.2 Research Subjects………………………………………….…………31
3.3 Plant Sample………………………………………………………….32
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3.4 Research Locale………………………………………………………32


3.5 Research Instrument………………………………………………….32
3.6 Research Procedures………………………………………………….32-36
3.7 Statistical Analysis……………………………………………………36

IV. Data Analysis and Results………………………………………......


4.1 Table Analysis
4.1.1 Adsorption………………………………………………….37
4.1.2 Absorption………………………………………………….38
4.2 Interpretation of Data…………………………………………………38

V. Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations………………..........


5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………….. 39
5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………………...40
5.3 Recommendations…………………………………..………………..40

Definition of Terms……………………………………………………....41
Bibliography……………………………………………………………..42-43
Appendices…………………………………………………………….....44-48
Resumes………………………………………………………………….49-54
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We, the students who conducted this research, wish to extend our deepest and

sincerest gratitude to the following individuals for their invaluable help in making our

thesis possible. Without them, this research study could not have been completed. First,

to our Almighty Father who showered us with knowledge, wisdom and gave us the

strength and courage in the process of accomplishing this task. To our group mates, who

slept late and gave their bests for making our research a success. With all the ups and

downs that we encountered still we did our best. To our parents, who had given us

support and unending love to overcome the problems we encountered during the duration

of the study. We also thank them for recognizing our efforts and believing in our

capabilities as researchers. To our research adviser, Mr. Kervy Nuqui, for the guidance

and patience he administered to us while the research is being undertaken and for his

words of encouragement that helped us finish our study. To our research facilitator, Dr.

Analiza J. Molina, for the expertise and support, she extended unto us and providing us

constant supervision in the midst of our study. To our panelists, Mr. Mr. Jezrel Cortez,

Mr. Prince Pangilinan, Mr. Rodrigo Rubibar, and Mr. Kervy Nuqui for the comments,

Thank You!
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DEDICATION

I dedicate this project to God Almighty my creator, my strong pillar, my source of

inspiration, wisdom, knowledge and understanding. He has been the source of my

strength throughout this program and on His wings only have I soared. For our research

facilitator, adviser, panelists and all the people who bestowed us their continuous service

and to those who contributed their knowledge in making our research better and possible.

For our parents who never stopped guiding and supporting us in all our endeavors and for

helping us reach our goals and become the individuals, we are today. And for our friends

and classmates who gave us words of motivation during tough times and sharing their

opinions to support us. Lastly, we did our best to find a helpful study for a better place to

live in.
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ABSTRACT

Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or

vegetable which can be peeled off. Fruit peel is sometimes eaten as part of the fruit, such

as with apples. In some cases the peel is unpleasant or inedible, in which case it is

removed and discarded, such as with bananas or grapefruits. Orange is a kind of fruit that

peel is removed, discarded and easily thrown away. This study aims to prove that Citrus

sinensis peel can be used as bio-adsorbent and bio-absorbent on engine oil. The

experiment proceeded with a crushed and uncrushed orange peel. Then engine oil and

water mixture were prepared. Then experiment was divided into 2 groups, where the first

one contains the crushed and second one contains the uncrushed. The crushed peel did

not adsorb the oil, since there were still traces of oil dripping. The absorbent experiment

was conducted twice, first on was tested for an hour and the other one for 2 hours. For

obtaining the results, the peels were soaked to know how much of oil did it absorb and

excess polluted water were being boiled to evaporate the water to leave oil and measure

it. The results showed that uncrushed orange peel has absorbed oil and crushed orange

peel cannot.
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Chapter 1:

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study:


Oranges make a delicious and healthy snack or addition to a meal. A whole

orange contains 85 calories and does not have any fat, cholesterol or sodium content.

Oranges are well known for their vitamin C content. Oranges may boost your immune

system and improve your skin; they also aid with heart health, cholesterol levels and

other issues. Oranges may additionally help reduce the risk of respiratory diseases,

certain cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcers and kidney stones (Szalay, 2014). The peel of

the orange is also filled with nutrients and compounds that can be used in numerous

ways, from boosting your immune system to cleaning your environment.

Most plant fibers are good sorbents of oil (Wong, 2016). A medium-sized peeled

orange provides about 60 calories and 3 grams of fiber, or 12 percent of the daily value.

For 85 calories, a 1-cup serving of peeled, sectioned orange – about the equivalent of a

large fruit – delivers 4.3 grams of fiber, or 17 percent of the daily value. Oranges are

generally considered a good source of fiber because an average-sized fruit supplies at

least 10 percent of the daily value. While smaller specimens are good sources of fiber

relative to the number of calories they contain, they don’t contribute as significantly

toward your total fiber intake. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a small

peeled orange has about 45 calories and just over 2 grams of fiber (Kaija, 2016).

But that is just the fruit inside. According to Laura Flores, a San Diego-based

nutritionist, "Orange peel actually has more fiber than the fruit inside contains" (Szalay,

2014). This led to the idea that we use orange peels as bio-adsorbent over the main fruit.

The ideal sorbent material used for oil spill treatment should have the following

characteristics: oleophilicity, enduring, reusable, biodegradable, has high uptake capacity


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and high selectivity of oil (Abdelwahab, 2016). And in this study, we will try to find out

if orange peel fibers have those properties making it as a bio-adsorbent.

Sorbents are materials with high attractions for oil and repellent for water. Sorbent

materials remove oil either by adsorption or absorption. Adsorption involves the

adherence of oil to the sorbent material which is dependent upon the viscosity of the oil.

The more viscous the oil, the thicker the layer it will adhere to a material. On the other

hand, absorption relies on capillary attraction; oil fills the pores within the material and

moves upward (uptake) into the material due to capillary force. Sorbent can be grouped

as inorganic minerals and synthetic, organic, and organic (agricultural) products.

Agricultural sorbents are cheap, efficient, environmentally friendly, and easy to deploy.

However, efficiency is dependent on sorption capacity, density, wettability, retention rate

and recyclability (Chukwuekezie, 2014).

The bodies of water here in the Philippines are being contaminated by different

toxins one of which is oil. (Bhatta, 2012) Nowadays, oil spill is one of the most serious

pollutants that have negative effects on the ecosystem and marine life. Oil spill

constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental

discharge from tankers, marine engines, ships, oil rigs and underwater oil transport lines.

Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil

spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized (Abdullah, 2010). Oil contamination comes with

a heavy environmental burden and severe health risks for affected species. The effects of

an oil spill may last for decades and may differ in various ecosystems. Every year, a

number of oil spills occur due to faulty equipment, shipwrecks, or accidents, and they kill

indiscriminately, affecting everything from the smallest organism such as plankton up to

the largest such as blue whales (Vlastari, 2016). The present work focuses on the

production of orange peel fibre as a promising sorbent material.


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Engine, or motor, oil is designed to lubricate the inner components of internal

combustion engines, as well as to protect them against corrosion and keep them cool

while they are in use. It’s made from two main elements: base stock and additives. The

base stock commonly makes up 95 per cent of the solution and is either made from

petroleum, synthetic chemicals or a mixture of the two. The base stock is responsible for

lubricating an engine’s moving parts and removing built-up heat. The additives,

meanwhile, account for roughly five per cent of the oil and it is these chemicals that are

responsible for finely controlling oil viscosity and lubricity, as well as protecting engine

parts against wear (King, 2017). Engine Oils are also ones that could be found in oil

spills. Treatment of oil spills and oil contaminated water remains one of the major

challenges to environmental scientists and technologists. Among the existing techniques

used for oil treatment, sorption is a popular technique because it is cheap, simple and

effective (Banerjee et al., 2006). Among all different sorbents, agriculture waste is

preferred as an oil cleanup technology due to its biodegradation. And among the various

agricultural wastes that have high fiber content, orange peels appears to be attractive

material in terms of cost, versatility and abundance

1.2 Statement of the Problem:

Our study will focus on Citrus sinensis peel as a bio-adsorbent and absorbent on

engine oil to reduce oil spills on water. In response to this problem, it will need answers

to the following questions:

1. What contents does an orange have that are responsible for adsorbing and

absorbing a certain type of oil?

2. Which is more effective of Citrus sinensis adsorbing or absorbing engine oil?

3. How much can Citrus sinenis decrease the possibility of coral reef degradation

and other marine animals desolation caused by oil spills?


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1.3 Objectives of the Study:

Our study aims to prove that the Citrus sinensis peel can be used as bio-adsorbent

and absorbent on engine oil. The following are the specific objectives of our study:

1. To provide a more environmental-friendly sorbent in cleaning spilled oil like

engine oil on water.

2. To reduce the rate of both wasted orange peels and oil spills.

3. To be used in educational purposes like a science experiment

1.4 Hypothesis:

In this study, we will be conducting an experiment on making an alternative

banana peel absorbent using biodegradable Citrus sinensis peel. The following

hypotheses for this study are:

Ho: The Citrus sinensis (orange) peel cannot be used as an alternative bio-

adsorbent.

1.5 Conceptual Framework

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


 ADSORPTION
This will help the
METHOD
researchers in
 Citrus  PEEL determining the
- Sun Drying adsorption and
sinensis Method absorption
(orange) peel - Microwave effectiveness
Drying through Citrus
- Crushed or the
 Engine Oil peel itself
sinensis (orange)
 ENGINE OIL peel in the removal
- Synthesis of Oil of Engine Oil in
Polluted Water the water.
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1.6 Conceptual Paradigm

The diagram shows the Conceptual Framework of the study entitled “The

Effectivity of Citrus sinensis Peel as a Bio-Adsorbent and Absorbent on Engine Oil.” The

Independent variable is the Citrus sinensis (orange) peel while the dependent variable is

the amount of Engine oil found during the adsorption and absorption process of the

experiment. Through the use of the said diagram, this ensures the proper planning for the

given research experiment.

1.7 Scope and Limitations:

The study will look into the advantages and disadvantages on how it will affect

the marine ecosystem. It includes factual information gathered from data collections as

well as the problems, benefits, and feasibility of the study. In this research, orange peels

will be collected from “The Daily Detox” located in SM city Clark and also from the

waste of the oranges owned by each of the group member while the Engine oil will be

collected from Shell Gasoline station. The water will be gathered from a tap water and

sea water. But of course the measurement of the orange peels will also depend on the

ratio of the oil and water considering that our study is delimited to a 1000mL/1000g of

water and a 50mL/46g of oil solution. It requires at least 1 week to see the potential

results of the study and to analyze the data. This must be conducted in the laboratory in

order to monitor the experiment. Furthermore, the Engine Oil will serve as the controlled

variable in this research which requires the oil to be untouched from any chemicals

throughout the process.

1.8 Significance of the Study:

Most people would do after eating an orange is to throw the orange peel away.

But people should understand that by throwing these orange peels away would only add

up to the increasing problem in agricultural waste. In this study, the needs and aspiration
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can be seen and therefore become the foundation for a good and environmental friendly

relationship. In particular, the study is significant to the following:

To the community:

The findings of this study will contribute to the improvement of environment in

marine life, people, and in plants. Pursuing this study justifies the need for a more

effective sorbent that is environmentally friendly where it is also recyclable that can help

the community in saving the environment.

To the students:

This study can also change the perspective of the people and also as an individual

about throwing orange peels away. Not only we can reduce the agricultural waste, but

through the help of orange peel as a bio-adsorbent. Since it does not contribute to the

destruction of the marine life and it can prevent food poisoning and extinction to the

organisms that live in it thus, preserving and protecting the marine life.

To the future researchers:

This study will also provide new directions for further studies that can be

explored by the future researchers related to this topic. This study might help them invent

some advance machines that could help to cover wide ranges of bodies of water in the

removal of engine oil that can cause oil spill.

To the environment:

The result of the study may serve as a biotic factor in improving the marine

ecosystem. By reducing the agricultural waste, this study prevents further damage to the

environment that could fix the damage, impact done by these agricultural wastes and oil

wastes.
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Furthermore, the result of this study will hopefully help the Development of

Agriculture and also the Department of Environment and Natural Resources as the study

may help in providing a solution to the oil pollution.


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Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

This chapter is composed of the related literature and studies in relation to Citrus

sinensis peel’s capabilities of being a bio adsorbent on engine oil. These reviews of

related literature will be used by the researches as a basis for writing their study. The

review is used as a thematic type of approach to fully understand the research to be done

with regards to its background and view of the said research.

The following are the articles and inquiries made by the authors from reliable

references and organizations which will give information about Citrus sinensis peel or

also known as orange peels in hastening the process of being a bio-adsorbent.

2.1 Citrus sinensis Peel

One of the most popular fruits in the U.S. are oranges, but very few consume the

peel, which is the healthiest part of the whole fruit. Orange peels are rich in flavonoids,

like hesperidin and polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), and other phytochemicals, which

contribute many of their health benefits. Orange peel contains higher amounts of certain

nutrients than its flesh. For instance, 3.5 ounces of orange peel provides 136 milligrams

(mg) of vitamin C, while the flesh contains about 71 mg. Orange peel also contains

considerable amounts of calcium, copper, magnesium, vitamin A, folate and other B

vitamins and dietary fiber. They have an intense orange and bitter flavor, but the latter is

often a clue that a food is healthy; the bitter taste is the result of the many flavonoids that

orange peels contain. Orange peels are rich in hesperidin, a flavonoid that's been shown

to lower high blood pressure and cholesterol in animal studies. It also has anti-

inflammatory properties (Mercola, 2016).


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Orange is the third fruit that contains the most fiber. Apples, bananas, oranges,

strawberries all have around 3 to 4 grams of fiber (Zelman, 2017). When oranges were

first cultivated, orange peels were highly valued. People extracted essential oils from the

peels to use in medicines and remedies for indigestion and other illnesses. Orange peels

are a source of health-promoting carbohydrates. Peels also contain healthy

polymethoxylated flavones, which are plant pigment compounds, present in all citrus

fruits (Wolf, 2017).

2.2 Chemicals present in Citrus sinensis peel

Citrus sinensis is the scientific name of sweet orange or common orange. It is a

small tree in the Rutaceae (citrus family) that originated in southern China, where it has

been cultivated for millennia. The sweet orange types (Citrus sinensis) are now grown

commercially worldwide in tropical, semi-tropical, and some warm temperate regions,

and have become the most widely grown citrus fruits throughout the world and provide

the greatest fruit marketing production (Forsyth & Damiani, 2003).

C. sinensis is a rich source of secondary metabolites which contribute to the

pharmacological activities attributed to this plant. Several types of chemical compounds

have been identified in fruits, peel, leaves, juice and roots of C. sinensis, which include

the following groups: flavonoids 1–54, steroids 55-56, hydroxyamides, alkanes and fatty

acids 57–60, coumarins 61–67, peptides 68–70, carbohydrates 71–74, carbamates and

alkylamines 75–78, carotenoids 79–82, volatile compounds 83–148, and nutritional

elements such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium (Favela et al., 2016). A

separate chemical analysis was also conducted on sweet orange rinds and it showed that

sweet orange appears to be rich on protein of 7.15% and crude fiber of 12.79% (Oyebola

et al., 2017).
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2.3 Use and effects of orange fibers

Orange is known to have a good source of fibers. It is also proven that it is also

good for our digestive track for all the beneficial fibers the orange have to offer. But

when eaten in excess, the greater the fiber content can affect the digestion causing

abdominal cramps and could also lead to diarrhea.

Orange fiber is a textile made by extracting the cellulose from the fibers that are

discarded from the industrial pressing and processing of the oranges. A part of an orange

peel that is said to have a high fiber is the spongy white stuff between the peel and the

fruit which is the pith. This contains as much vitamin c as the fruit itself. Fibers are found

to be effective in reducing the risk of stroke, protection against loss of muscle mass,

preservation of bone mineral density and reduction in the formation of kidney stones.

Fibers are also widely known to a great help in the environment especially in reducing

oil. The fact that these fibers are beneficiary to us, humans, only explains how it can also

benefit to the nature. Due to the said reasons, the subject is surely ideal for it contains the

fibers and vitamins that are harmless and environmentally friendly for both humans and

animals.

2.4 Engine Oil

Engine oils are made from crude oil and its derivatives by mixing of certain other

chemicals for improving their certain properties. It is also a lubricant used in internal

combustion engines, which power cars, motorcycles, lawnmowers, engine-generators,

and many other machines (Seayad,2013) .

One of the main components of engine oil is Crude oil. It consists of many

different organic compounds which are transformed to products in a refining process.

Crude oil is a fossil fuel, and it exists in liquid form in underground pools or reservoirs,

in tiny spaces within sedimentary rocks, and near the surface in tar sands (Enzler, 2018).
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It is transported across the ocean in supertankers, and it is moved over land by pipeline,

rail, and truck. In every case, the risk of oil spills poses a serious environmental threat

(Spetch, 2018). Spills and leaks from onshore oil pipelines also continue to be a major

risk. Oil and gas wastewater can also impact aquatic wildlife. And heavy metals in the

wastewater can be toxic to fish, even in low concentrations, and may be passed through

the food chain, adversely affecting humans and larger animals (Reinhardt, 2018).

Most current engine oil lubricants contain petroleum base stocks, which are toxic

to the environment and difficult to dispose of after use. By far, the greatest cause of motor

oil pollution in our oceans comes from drains and urban street runoff, much of which is

from improper disposal of engine oil. Toxic effects of used oil on freshwater and marine

organisms vary, but significant long-term effects have been found at concentrations of

310 ppm in several freshwater fish species and as low as 1 ppm in marine life forms.

There are three main ways that motor oil affects plants: contaminating water

supplies, contaminating soil, and poisoning plants. Used motor oil dumped on land

reduces soil productivity Improperly disposed used oil ends up in landfills, sewers,

backyards, or storm drains where soil, groundwater and drinking water may be

contaminated (Duhalt, 1989).

2.5 Chemicals present in Engine Oil

Traditionally, Engine oil has been derived from Crude oil. Crude oil is composed

of numerous hydrocarbons originating from deep within the earth. Once extracted, a

multistep process is undertaken to convert it for use in the motor oil you use in your

car. Crude oil became very useful as it lubricates adjacent moving engine parts to prevent

damage from heat and friction to protect them against corrosion. Without it having a car

would be useless, as oil serves as its lifeblood.


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It is made up from two main elements: base stocks and additives. The base stock

commonly makes up 95 percent of the solution and is either made from petroleum,

synthetic chemicals or a mixture of the two. The base stock is responsible for lubricating

an engine’s moving parts and removing built-up heat. The additives, meanwhile, account

for roughly five percent of the oil and it is these chemicals that are responsible for finely

controlling oil viscosity and lubricity, as well as protecting engine parts against wear. An

example of which is zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), it is a frequently used additive

for preventing wear and to improve their lubrication qualities, while a kind of detergent is

used which is in by the use of metallo-organic compounds of sodium, calcium and

magnesium sulfonates. These help the oil to break down impurities and engine sludge are

neutralized and maintained in a soluble state (How it works Team, 2012).

Another additive found in Engine oil is the dispersants, are a common product

used to clean and control oil spills in the ocean. They are special fluid chemicals that

bond to the oil molecules and separate them from water molecules, thus breaking up the

oil. The result is tiny oil droplets that can biodegrade more quickly than a mass of oil

(Hellerman, 2010). Although they are chemicals it has been proven that these are less

harmful than the highly toxic oil but this doesn’t mean that it is entirely safe to us and

especially to the marine life. For example; the fish eggs, larvae, shrimps, corals, and

oysters are potentially at risk. The said chemical can also contaminate the skin of ocean-

farmed fish if its cage is near where the dispersant used. Because of this dispersant are

mostly likely to be referred to as “fairly low toxicity”.

Another one is the viscosity modifiers, which is responsible in reducing the rate of

viscosity change when temperatures rise or fall. Other compounds used for this function

include methacrylates, dienes and alkylated styrenes (Hellerman, 2010). Although these

are just some of the chemicals but these chemicals are mostly likely to be the responsible

for a smooth sailing Conventional Engine Oil used in cars in today’s modern times.
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2.6 Bio-adsorbent

Sorbent is a substance that sorbs or to take up and hold by either adsorption or

absorption which are considered as a single process. Absorption is the process, in which a

fluid is dissolved by a liquid or a solid, and adsorption is the process in which atoms, ions

or molecules from a substance, which could be gas, liquid or dissolved solid, adhere to a

surface of the adsorbent. Also, adsorption is a surface-based process where a film of

adsorbate is created on the surface while absorption involves the entire volume of the

absorbing substance (Jasuja, 2018).

Adsorbents are insoluble materials that are coated by a liquid on its surface,

including pores and capillaries, without the solid swelling more than 50 percent in excess

liquid. To be useful in combating oil spills, sorbents need to be both oleophilic (oil-

attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repellent). Although they may be used as the sole

cleanup method in small spills, sorbents are most often used to remove final traces of oil,

or in areas that cannot be reached by skimmers (Dashti, 2016).

Sorbents can be either synthetic, natural inorganic, or natural organic. Synthetic

sorbents include man-made materials that are similar to plastics which are designed to

adsorb liquids onto their surfaces and most of them can absorb up 70 times their own

weight in oil. Natural inorganic sorbents are inexpensive and readily available in large

quantities, are not used on the water's surface but they can adsorb from 4 to 20 times their

weight in oil. And lastly, Natural organic sorbents include barley straw, rice straw, pith

bagasse, banana trunk, garlic and onion peel and anything else natural that contains

carbon and fiber.

Many organic sorbents are loose particles such as sawdust, and are difficult to

collect after they are spread on the water, but can adsorb between 3 and 15 times their

weight in oil. Some are also tend to adsorb water as well as oil, causing the sorbents to
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sink. These problems can be counterbalanced by adding flotation devices to overcome the

sinking issue, and wrapping loose particles in mesh to aid in collection (Farlow, 1980).

Bio adsorbents are good example of natural organic sorbent because of its

properties. Environmentalists face major challenges in the treatment of spills and in

developing an alternative product with low cost. Among all different sorbents, agriculture

waste is preferred as an oil cleanup technology due to its biodegradation and buoyancy.

This study investigates the oil sorption capacity of crude and gas oils, using peel as a

substitutional material from local fruit wastes. The research detected that the capacity of

this sorbent to clean up crude oil from produced water toward different factors is

associated with surface characteristics, oil type, oil film thickness, sorption time,

temperature, in addition to the salinity of crude oil (Amer, 2017).

2.7 Citrus sinensis peel as Bio-adsorbent


The use of natural organic adsorbents was widely used because of their greater

adsorption capacities, most ecofriendly and cost effective. Natural adsorbents are not only

biodegradable when disposed, but more efficient than chemical adsorbent as they showed

a greater adsorption capacity. Natural sorbent like fruit fibers can be used as oil sorbents

due to its hydrophobic properties that can help in oil adsorption. Thus, natural absorbent

can be commercialized for cleaning purpose in oil domestic spill for kitchen, factories

and workshops. Because of the factors above, this study was conducted to determine the

potential of fruit peels as an adsorbent in removing oil (Gudang, 2016).

The material derived from orange peel powder is studied for its use as an affective

bio-adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution. MB is an important

synthetic dye which, apart from other undesired properties, also has a negative effect on

the photosynthetic process in plants (Jusufi, 2016). It also represents an ideal molecule

for adsorption studies which is commonly used by different groups for this purpose
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(Halili, 2016). Adsorption is affected by operational parameters, surface properties of the

adsorbent and chemical nature of the adsorbate.

2.8 Adsorbent

Adsorption a process by which a liquid, gas or dissolved solid adheres itself to the

surface of an adsorbent material. Adsorption does not actually involve taking in, or

absorbing, the liquid, gas or dissolved solid into the material (Drese, 2009).

One of the most common examples of an adsorbent is silica gel. Silica gel is an

adsorbent which is often used to protect certain items from moisture damage.

Medications, food, or other potentially delicate items which need to be protected from

moisture damage are often packaged with silica gel in order to keep them safe from water

damage. The silica gel inside these packages will protect the medication or other items by

allowing any water which creeps inside to become adsorbed onto the silica gel (Porges,

2010). Another common adsorbent is activated carbon, which is frequently used in

various purification processes. These include water purification, gas purification, gold

purification, sewage treatment and purification, as well as air filtering and purification

activated carbon is commonly used in gas masks, respirators, and other air filters

(Jackson, 2014).

2.9 Absorbent

Absorption refers to a process by which a liquid or gas is taking into an absorbent

material and absorbed, or dissolved, uniformly inside of it. Absorption, unlike adsorption,

actually involves taking in the liquid or gas and not just adhering it to the surface. A

common, everyday example of absorption occurs when water, juice or another liquid is

spilled on a hard surface, such as a kitchen counter. Because the kitchen counter is not an

absorbent, the liquid is not taken into the material of the table. However, paper napkins or

towels can be placed on top of the spilled liquid—because these materials are absorbent,
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the liquid will be taken into the towels and taken from the counter. The most common

type of absorbents includes household items like bathroom towels, paper napkins and

paper towels, and other fabrics (Bazley, 2014).

An adsorbent is a material which will allow a liquid, gas or dissolved solid to

adhere to its surface. An absorbent is a material which will take in the liquid or gas

uniformly. Absorption occurs when the liquid or gas is being taken into the absorbent

material, while adsorption occurs when a liquid, gas or dissolved solid is adhered to the

surface of the adsorbent.

2.10 Oil spill

The bodies of water here in the Philippines are being contaminated by different

toxins one of which is oil. (Bhatta, 2012) Nowadays, oil spill is one of the most serious

pollutants that have negative effects on the ecosystem and marine life. Oil spill

constitutes a major source of fresh and seawater pollution as a result of accidental

discharge from tankers, marine engines, ships, oil rigs and underwater oil transport lines.

Therefore, the need for cost-effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil

spill cleanup cannot be overemphasized (Abdullah, 2010). Oil contamination comes with

a heavy environmental burden and severe health risks for affected species. The effects of

an oil spill may last for decades and may differ in various ecosystems. Every year, a

number of oil spills occur due to faulty equipment, shipwrecks, or accidents, and they kill

indiscriminately, affecting everything from the smallest organism such as plankton up to

the largest such as blue whales (Vlastari, 2016).

2.11 Effects of oil on the sea

Oil has been a great help to human kind may it be for their daily use, business,

transportation, and many more. Surely the process of how we, humans, extract oil from

its origin made vast improvement as time passes by but due to some irresponsible ways,
23

many suffered from the great deal of consequences made not only to the people but also

in the life below the sea. As it contaminates the sea this creates a much bigger problem to

the health of the marine animals which can ripple across the ecosystem and can bring

destruction to the cycle. It is also known in the form of Oil pollution which others like to

call it as Oil spill. Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea

otters, and the water repellency of a bird's feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the

harsh elements due to its harsh chemicals. Without the ability to repel water and insulate

from the cold water, birds and mammals will die from hypothermia. Although fishes and

other marine creatures may not be exposed immediately but the effects can be seen on the

growth the adult fishes may experience. Not only that but it can also enlarge their livers,

changes in heart and respiration rates, fin erosion, and reproduction impairment. Oil also

adversely affects eggs and larval survival which makes the creatures unhealthy or

possibly die from the continuous state.

2.12 Contents of the Citrus sinensis peel that will help adsorb the oil

The use of natural organic adsorbents was widely used because of their greater

adsorption capacities, most eco-friendly and cost effective. Natural adsorbents are not

only biodegradable when disposed, but more efficient than chemical adsorbent as they

showed a greater adsorption capacity. One of which are fruit fibers (Abdullah et al.,

2016). Fibers are elongate cells with tapering ends and very thick, heavily lignified cell

walls. Fiber cells are dead at maturity and function as support tissue in plant stems and

roots (Armstrong, 2010).

Fibers are commonly found in C. sinensis peel, the reason why we chose to use it

in our experiment. Fibers can be used as oil sorbents due to its hydrophobic properties

that can help in oil adsorption. Fibers also have some properties where oil adheres to the

surface of the fibers making it as an adsorbent for oil (Abdullah et al., 2016).
24

2.13 Effects of drying the peel

The drying methods (microwave, solar and air oven) were found to have a

significant effect on the functional properties of citrus peel powder of all studied samples.

The microwave drying method was found to be a good method for better, Water

Retention Capacity (WRC), Oil Absorption Capacities (OAC), swelling capacity (SWC),

WBC, Foaming Capacities (FC) and Solubility Index (SI) value. Color results of all

drying methods gave more lightness (L*), lower redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) than

control samples.

Citrus fruit peel contains carbohydrates, pectin and fiber, that giving it to better

functional properties. Thus, it can be used to increase viscosity, water and oil absorption

capacity in food systems. For its application in food products to be utilized later, they

need to be preserved. The first and essential step in the process of optimizing the use of

citrus peels is to get rid of its moisture content, i.e., dehydration. But this step may affect

their functional properties like the Oil Holding Capacity (OHC) and Water Holding

Capacity (WHC).

However, the functional properties are associated strongly with the quality of the

peels. Processing such as grinding, drying, heating or extrusion cooking could reduce the

quality attributes, thus affecting the functional properties especially, hydration properties.

Moreover, the reduction of the particle size may plays important role in the hydration

properties as a result of an increase of the surface area (Mahmoud, 2017).

2.14 Government Agency

In 2006, the world consumed more than 3.5 billion gallons of oil each day. Sixty

percent of that oil reached its destination by sea. Fortunately, due to stricter penalties and

better ship design, the number of oil spills has decreased since the oil shipping boom

began in the 1960s. Unfortunately, they haven't been eliminated (Clark, 2007).
25

An oil spill reached relatively quickly and located away from towns is the easiest

to clean up by one of these methods. But rarely do things work out so easily. Oil spills are

generally very messy, hazardous and environmentally threatening. Spills may reach

shorelines, have time to spread and affect wildlife. In these cases, cleanup crews use other

measures.

With that, the Philippine Coast Guard (PCG) is the responsible agency for

preventing and controlling pollution in the country's territorial waters. The Marine

Environmental Protection Command (MEPCOM), a unit of the PCG, is the point of

contact for oil spill response operations and comprises the National Operations Center for

Oil Pollution (NOCOP). The NOCOP Commander serves as the national on-scene

commander and is able to request assistance from other government, private and military

sources. In addition to the NOCOP, there are eight Marine Environment Protection

Offices under the control of the eight Coast Guard districts (Gatdula, 2010).

The key objective of the of the organization was to ensure was to ensure

compatibility between government agencies and the oil industry, including the national

oil company Petron Corporation, which is the largest oil refining and marketing company

in the country. At the same time, industry also recognized the need to revise and improve

oil spill planning standards and in 2007 Petron initiated the development of a

comprehensive, corporate-wide oil spill contingency plan (Parker, 2009).

Knowing that marine pollution originates from many sources, such as dumping

and discharging through the rivers, estuaries, brooks, or springs, Gloria Macapagal

Arroyo implemented a law which would help prevent and control oil pollution, which is

Republic Act No. 9483. It is an act providing for the implementation of the provisions of

the 1992 international convention on civil liability for oil pollution damage and the 1992
26

international convention the establishment of an international fund for compensation for

oil pollution damage, providing penalties for violations thereof, And for other purposes

(Panaligan, 2018).

2.15 Marine Ecosystem

An ecosystem is comprised of the living organisms, the habitat they live in, the

non-living structures living in the area, and how all of those interact and depend on each

other. Ecosystems, whether big or small, maintain the balance within the system or also

known as the state of equilibrium in which all parts of it depend upon each other wherein

each part plays an important role in maintaining the balance and if one part of the

ecosystem is removed, it affects everything else.

Marine ecosystems can be described as the interaction of plants, animals, and the

marine environment which means, or produced by, the sea or ocean. The term covers the

salty waters of the Earth, and is also called as a salt water ecosystem. Marine ecosystems

are the largest types and most diverse of all the ecosystems on the planet because the

ocean covers almost 71% Earth’s surface and 97% of that water is salt water. That proved

us that marine ecosystems can be found all over the world. Also, it is considered as finely

balanced and highly complex, just like other ecosystems. Despite occupying less than 1%

of the ocean floor, coral reefs are home to over 25% of all marine animals (Li, 2014).

The marine ecosystem merely refers to the oceans and seas and other salt water

environments as a whole. There are different types of marine ecosystems which include

salt marshes, estuaries, the ocean floor, the broad ocean, the inter-tidal zones, coral reefs,

lagoons, and mangroves. An example of it is a coral reef, with its associated marine life –

including fish and sea turtles – and the rocks and sand found in the area (Kennedy, 2018)
27

2.16 Microbiological Degradation

Oil spilled in warmer climates generally disappears at a faster rate than oil spilled

in colder climates due to higher evaporation. However, not all spilled oil is removed by

surface evaporation. A significant portion is cleaned up by humans, and other masses are

metabolized by bacteria and eventually incorporated into the food web. Microbes are

characterized as very small free-living organisms visible only under the microscope.

Microbes can be prokaryotes or eukaryotes descending either from the domains Bacteria

or Archaea. Although the microbes may be minute in size relative to other living

organisms on Earth, their collective total mass is staggering due to their ubiquitous

nature. It is estimated that there can be approximately 1 million bacteria per mL of water,

which would correlate to about 1029 cells total in all the world’s oceans (Lee, 2011).

Each microbe species has an optimal environment, but there are many different species,

so different types of bacteria can grow optimally in different conditions. For example,

some grow in very high or low temperatures or even very acidic or basic conditions. Due

to their diverse nature, many of them can obtain metabolic energy through very different

mechanisms. Many microbes are photosynthetic, having the ability to utilize the sun’s

energy to harvest energy, while others have evolved to utilize energy from the chemical

bonds of inorganic compounds such as molecular hydrogen, reduced iron, nitrite,

methane and sulfide. Most of the microbes studied in this thesis typically occupy various

parts of the ocean ranging from the surface to deep depths (Smith, 2011). The focus of

this section is to understand the effectiveness of bioremediation and impacts of microbial

respiration on oxygen level after oil spills have occurred.

2.17 Effects on Animal

Although microbes may play a large role in cleaning up oil, understanding the

food web, and the amount of damage incurred on animals may be useful in understanding

the oil spills impacts on diversity. Animal fatalities are often highlighted by the media
28

after an oil spill because they generate an emotional response as humans are extremely

sensitive to seeing a marine organism or bird covered in oil. In regards to the food web,

man is the least vulnerable of all the organisms because man can choose whether or not

he will eat contaminated food and can remove the contaminated food from his diet. In

nature, since the food web is interconnected through many different organisms, when one

animal is damaged, the rest of the chain of animals may be affected. When a spill occurs,

there are three different factors affecting the toxicity of oil that scientists must be

concerned about: chemical, physical and biological. Initially, chemical factors affect the

toxicity of oil as more soluble species will dissolve in water. The animals lower in the

food chain may consume oil thereby eliminating it from the environment, but because

these organisms will be consumed by higher level organisms, the hydrocarbon could be

spread throughout the entire ecosystem. The ideal situation to get rid of oil would be

excretion or metabolism. If neither of these mechanisms are operative, it may cause the

animals to experience symptoms associated with oil exposure.

2.18 Effects on Human Health

For workers involved in cleanup of an oil spill, a major concern deals with the

level of heat stress that the body will be exposed to. Because of the long hours working

under the bright and stinging sunlight, workers may experience heat stress and fatigue.

However, this symptom is easily identifiable and manageable, while the effect of the oil

may not be as easy to determine. Reviewing studies from past oil spills may give insights

into the short term effects of exposure to these compounds on human health.

A study on the MV Braer oil spill in 1993 followed community residents in the United

Kingdom. Their results indicated that, “within the first 2 days of exposure following the

oil spill, the researchers found evidence of neurological, ocular, and respiratory

symptoms but no significant differences in lung, liver, or renal function between exposed

and unexposed populations.” In summary, most studies conclude that there are definite
29

short term effects of oil spills but due to the lack of long term studies on human health,

accurate conclusions cannot be made on the potential long term effects of oil spills on

human health.

Conclusion

With the literature and studies made by different authors and organizations above,

This study is found to be possible to use in reducing oil. Through the contents of the

orange peel, we can achieve the ambitions for this study. One of which is Fiber, this is the

main component that is responsible for this experiment. Recent studies show that fruits

with high fiber can help in the digestive track thus can also help in decreasing the harsh

chemicals of oil that is being contaminated on the water.

Having said that, oil spill is one of the most serious pollutants that have negative

effects on the ecosystem and marine life. Oil spill constitutes a major source of fresh and

seawater pollution as a result of accidental discharge from tankers, marine engines, ships,

oil rigs and underwater oil transport lines. (Abdullah (2010) presented the need for cost-

effective and environmental friendly sorbent materials for oil spill cleanup cannot be

overemphasized. The use of natural organic adsorbents specifically Citrus sinensis peels

was widely used because of their greater adsorption capacities, most eco-friendly and

cost effective. Natural adsorbents are not only biodegradable when disposed, but more

efficient than chemical adsorbent as they showed a greater adsorption capacity. Natural

sorbent like fruit fibers can be used as oil sorbents due to its hydrophobic properties that

can help in oil adsorption. Through the use of adsorption testing the researchers will

determine the capability of the said peel to the amount of oil it can take. The researchers

therefore conclude that the known natural absorbent Citrus sinensis peels can be used for

cleaning purpose in oil domestic spill for kitchen, factories and workshops.
30

Furthermore, any consequences that will be seen on the results and/or during the

experiment will gain potential further studies to the future researchers and agricultural

field. This study can also help in educating the masses especially the youth. Thus, if the

experiment found to be effective what a great improvement it would be to our

environment.
31

CHAPTER 3:

METHODOLOGY

This chapter includes the methods of the research which provides the information

by which the validity of this subject will be judged. The researchers explain how the

necessary data and information that address the research objectives and questions was

collected, presented, and analyzed. Reasons and acknowledgements for the study design

or method, research participants or subjects, research locale, research instrument,

statistical analysis or treatment, ethical consideration, and research procedure (data

gathering and data analysis) that are used are given.

3.1 Study Design

The study utilized, experimental design would be used in order to gather the

information needed. In an experimental research, the researchers will manipulate one

variable then control the other variables. It has a control group and subjects which will be

conducted through experimentation. This method would be most essential in proving that

Citrus sinensis (orange) peel can be an alternative to Musa acuminata (banana) peel as

absorbent on engine oil. This experimentation is important in order to help contribute to

the improvement of environment in marine life, people, and in plants.

3.2 Research Subjects

The subject will be used in the study for the experimentation is the Oil polluted

water. The said subject is chosen due to the uprising problem in today’s times. One of

which is the oil pollution that can be easily seen on the ocean or on the sea. The

researchers wanted to have a new study about the effectiveness of the Citrus sinensis

(orange) peel as an alternative of Musa acuminata (banana) peel. Through absorption

method, the researchers can provide evidence suggesting the effectiveness of the said peel

to the oil polluted water.


32

3.3 Plant Sample

The sample that will be used for the research is the peel sample of Citrus sinensis.

The C. sinensis peels will be collected from The Daily Detox” located in SM city Clark

and also from the waste of the oranges owned by each of the group member. The

researchers will choose and observe the peel samples carefully which would be the

subject of the study.

3.4 Research Locale

This study will be conducted in the Chemistry laboratory of Angeles

University Foundation-Integrated School, Santa Barbara Campus. The place was chosen

solely because the laboratory itself is safe for the experiment not to be contaminated or

destroyed and the laboratory apparatus needed would be easily accessed in the school.

3.5 Research Instrument

The instruments that will be used for the experimentation are the following.

For the preparation of peel and absorbent testing: tap water for the cleansing of the peel,

distilled water for the removal of water-soluble materials, microwave for the dehydration

of the peels, electric stove for boiling the beakers, graduated cylinder, pots and lastly,

plastic containers.

3.6 Research Procedures

Step 1. Securing approval letters

a. Letter for Assistance and for laboratory use.

These letters are for asking permission for laboratory and equipment use as well

as seeking permission to be aided by a professional in the field of the research in

conducting the experiment.


33

b. Informed Consent for the parents of the researchers.

Step 2. Plant Collection

a. The C. sinensis peels will be collected from "The Daily Detox” located in SM city

Clark and also from the waste of the oranges owned by each of the group member.

Step 3. Plant Authentication

a. The Citrus sinensis peel was authenticated at the Department of Agriculture,

Bureau of Plant Industry at San Fernando, Pampanga

Step 4. Plant Preparation

The peels will be prepared for sorption testing. Half of the portions will be used

for adsorption testing while the other half will be used for absorption testing.

a. The peels were washed with ordinary water.

b. The peels will be the sun dried for 24 hours.

c. The dried material will be washed severally with distilled water to remove water

soluble materials.

d. The material will be then dried again in an microwave.

e. The material will be cooled to ambient temperature.

f. The dried peel will be then stored in a plastic container.

Step 5. Oil Collection

a. The Engine oil will be collected from Shell Gasoline station.

Step 6. Synthesis of Oil Polluted Water

a. The oil polluted water will be synthesized in the laboratory by mixing 1L (1kg) of

distilled water with 50mL (46g) of engine oil.

b. The mixture will be then be poured in a bottle and will be shaken vigorously.
34

c. The solution will be stored for sorption study.

Step 7. Absorption Testing

The absorption properties of the processed dried peel will now be tested through

these steps.

a. The oil polluted water will be placed on 2 containers with equal proportions and

ratio of water and oil.

b. The dried peel will be then be submerged in the mixture.

c. The peels will then be removed from the water bath, and observed.

d. The water that was left will be put into a container, labeled, weighted, and

measured.

e. The peels will also be weighed and measured.

Step 9. Sample analysis

The sample waters that were placed in beakers and containers will now be observed

in this part. If the traces of oil are no longer visible simply by just looking at it, we will

then proceed to the next steps.

a. The measure of the water from the beakers will be compared to the measure of the

solution from the keg/ bucket. If the material is a sorbent, then the weight of the

water from the beakers should be equal to the difference in weight solution from

the bucket and the oil. In our experiment, the solution in the beaker should be

pure water with a measure of 1L and 1kg.

b. For the analysis of the absorption testing, the peel that was taken out from the

water bath will be analyzed. The material is an efficient absorbent if the weight of

the material is equal to the sum of the processed peel and the oil mixture. If the

measurement that was gotten is not exact to the sum of the oil and peel, this

means that the peel either also absorbed water or there were oil that were not

absorbed by the peel.


35

c. We will boil all the mixtures that were collected in each test until no water is left.

We will then measure the weight of the oil that was left after boiling.

3.7 Statistical Analysis

For analyzing the data, this study used the independent t-test. The independent t-

test, also called the two sample t-test, independent-samples t-test or student's t-test, is an

inferential statistical test that determines whether there is a statistically significant

difference between the means in two unrelated groups. The null hypothesis for the

independent t-test is that the population means from the two unrelated groups are equal.

In this type of statistical analysis, we are determining if we can reject the null hypothesis

and accept the alternative hypothesis, which is that the population means are not equal.

The researcher compared the effectiveness of the powdered Citrus sinensis peel and the

regular Citrus sinensis peel as bio-adsorbent and bio-absorbent on engine oil. The test

was used to determine if there is a significant difference between the conclusions of the

study. In this test, the null hypothesis was that Citrus sinensis peel cannot be used as an

alternative bio-adsorbent and bio- absorbent. In the other hand, the alternative hypothesis

talks about the effectiveness of Citrus sinensis peel both or either as a bio-adsorbent

and/or on engine oil. To do this, we needed to see how much did oil the Citrus sinensis

peel adsorbed and absorbed from the oil polluted water in each setup. This allows us to

either reject or accept the alternative hypothesis.

CHAPTER 4:

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

This chapter presents result of the experiment that were performed and the data

gathered from the subjects of the study in the experiment together with the analysis and

interpretation of data gathered at Angeles University Foundation in determination of the

Effectivity of Citrus sinensis Peel as a and Absorbent on Engine Oil.


36

Our study will focus on Citrus sinensis peel as a and absorbent on engine oil to

reduce oil spills on water. In response to this problem, it will need answers to the

questions; what contents does an orange have that are responsible for absorbing a certain

type of oil? Which is more effective of Citrus sinensis adsorbing or absorbing engine oil?

How much can Citrus sinenis decrease the possibility of coral reef degradation and other

marine animals desolation caused by oil spills? Our hypothesis is that the Citrus sinensis

(orange) peel cannot be used as an alternative bio-adsorbent.

4.1 Table Analysis

4.1.1 Absorption:

Pot w/ Orange Engine Water Pot


polluted peel oil
water
1st Pot (1 hour of 1314g 30g 46g 1000g 238g
soaking)

2nd Pot (2 hours of 1228g 30g 46g 1000g 152g


soaking)

Absorbed Absorbed Absorbed Absorbed


solution solution water engine oil
w/ peel w/o peel
1st Pot (1 hour of 77g 47g 20.83g 26.17g
soaking)

2nd Pot (2 hours of 83g 53g 13.74 39.39


soaking)

4.2 Interpretation of Data

The first pot which weighted 238 grams contains 1000 grams of water, 46 grams

of engine oil, and a 30-gram of orange peel weighted a total of 1376 grams. After an

hour being soaked, the orange peel became 77 grams, which means that it gained 17

grams because of the absorbed solution. To be able to know the weight of the absorbed
37

engine oil, we boiled the residue solution to evaporate the water and leave the engine oil.

The left engine oil weighed 26.17grams.

For the second pot which weighted 152 grams contains 1000 grams of water, 46

grams of engine oil, and a 30-gram of orange peel weighted a total of 1228 grams. After 2

hours of being soaked to the polluted solution, the orange peel gained 23 grams because

of the absorbed solution. To be able to know the weight of the absorbed engine oil, we

boiled the residue solution to evaporate the water and leave the engine oil. The left engine

oil weighed 39.39 grams.


38

CHAPER 5:

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

The purpose of the study was to prove that C. sinensis peel can be used as bio-

absorbent on engine oil. It was an experimental research study that looked at how

effective C. sinensis peel as it is than the actual fruit itself. The two independent variable

used are citrus sinensis peels and the amount of engine oil while the dependent variable

includes the time of how long the dried peels were soaked in the oil polluted water.

Upon the approval of concerned instructors, the researchers provided the variables

used in making the research study possible. The lab equipment used was provided by the

school administration. Considering that the said study has two methods used; Adsorbent

and Absorbent Testing, respectively. For the absorption testing, the citrus sinensis peels

went through sun drying for at least 24 hours until the peels are crunchy enough to

proceed to the next process. Then, the peels were place in a plastic container after it was

sun dried, weighing a total of 30 grams. The oil polluted water was placed on two

containers with equal proportions and a ratio of 20:1 of water and oil. The dried peels had

been submerged into the mixture. After an hour, the peels were removed from the first

container while in the second container; two hours were given to the peel before it was

removed. After the removal of peels, the researchers observed the excess water that was

put into the beakers which was later on labeled, weighted, and measured.

After the two tests, we could say that the Absorption testing was a success. Given

the said observation, the researchers analyzed and concluded behind these observations.

5.2 Conclusion

After conducting the experiment, the researchers found out that the Citrus sinensis

Peel could absorb engine oil. The researchers also observed that the peels absorb more

water in the first test than the second. They also observed that the longer the peels were

exposed, the more they absorb and the higher the ratio of oil to water. Thus, the
39

researchers concluded that the Citrus sinensis peel is effective bio-absorbent on engine

oil.

5.3 Recommendations

Recommendations for Further Research

 The experimental results showed how many orange peels can remove the engine

oil on the polluted water. Although the peels worked effectively, the researchers

have limited access on how much ratio or quantity does a certain peels need to

take to remove all of the oils on the polluted water. For the future researchers, we

recommend to have logical extensions of the study.

 As much as Citrus sinensis proven to be effective, we recommend the future

researchers to use different kinds of orange peels. Looking back to the results, a

lot of orange peels were used, we limit ourselves on how many oil those peels can

absorb. For the future researchers, we also recommend to check how many peels

is needed to remove a certain amount of oil and to use bigger amount of peels and

oils.

 For our study, the variables used were the orange peels and the engine oil. For the

independent variable, orange peels were used while for the dependent variable,

the Engine oil was used. For the future researchers, we recommend to give

correction of the study limitations specifically to the control of variables since the

variables can be interchangeable, it is better to not limit and look for an another

angle all throughout the study.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Cholesterol - a substance that is found in the body.

Combustion - the process of burning something.

Corrosion - It occurs whenever a gas or liquid chemically attacks an exposed surface.

Density - is a measure of mass per unit of volume.

Fibre - is a type of carbohydrate that the body can’t digest.


40

Lubricate - apply a substance such as oil or grease to an engine or component to allow

smooth movement.

Oleophilicity - attracting to oil.

Rheumatoid arthritis - is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect more than just

your joints.

Sorbent - a substance that has the property of collecting molecules of another substance

by sorption.

Sorption - absorption and adsorption considered as a single process.

Specimen - a portion or quantity of material for use in testing, examination, or study.

Synthetic - attributing to a subject something determined by observation.

Ulcer - a sore, open and painful wound inside the body.

Viscosity – it shows how thick or semi fluid in consistency.

Wettability - the tendency of one fluid to spread on.

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Jasuja, Nikhilesh. Absorption vs. Adsorption. (November, 2018) RF:.https://www.diffen.

com/difference/Absorption_vs_Adsorption

Farlow, John. (October, 2017). What is a sorbent. RF:https://www.ohmsett.com/ask4.html

Alaa-El-Din, G. & Amer, (May, 2017). A. Study on the use of peels for oil spill removal.

RF: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110016817301849#bi005

Dashti, Narjes. (February, 2016). Sorbents. RF:https://archive.epa.gov/emergencies/conte

t/learning/web/html/sorbents.html

Mohamad Abdullah, et al. (June 20, 2016). Preliminary Study of Oil Removal using

Hybrid Peel Waste: Musa Balbasina and Citrus Sinensis. RF:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319852138_Preliminary_Study_of_Oil_

Removal_using_Hybrid_Peel_Waste_Musa_Balbisiana_and_Citrus_Sinensis

Armstrong, W.P. (March 5, 2010). Plant Fibers. RF: https://www2.palomar.edu/users/wa

rmstrong/traug99.htm

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Letters
43

Certification of the Plant Authentication

Appendix B: List of Figures

Collection of Citrus sinensis Peel


44

Figure A

Collection of Engine Oil

Figure B

Drying of peels
45

Figure C

Crashing of peels

Figure D Figure E

Measuring of solutions

Figure F

Figure G
46

Figure H

Mixture of solutions

Figure I Figure J

Adsorbent synthesis

Figure K

Figure L

Absorbent synthesis
47

Figure M

Boiling of solution

Figure N

Measuring of results

Fiugre O Figure P

RESUME
48

ESPANTA, JEROME JUDE S.


803 8TH STREET LAKANDULA, MABALACAT CITY
0949 691 7292
jjsespanta@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
As a beginner researcher, I may wish to do some exploratory work to learn what

method is properly to use in collecting data, determined the best approach to research

subjects, or even what sorts of questions are reasonable to ask that will help the

community. I am a researcher wanting to simply satisfy my own curiosity about a topic

that can be beneficial to the community.

CORE QUALIFICATIONS
 Ability to cope up with the its surroundings
 Has ability to participate to the given work
 Follow instruction and listen carefully
 Excellent observational and analytical skills

PERSONAL DATA
Birthdate: October 17, 2002 Gender: Male
Birthplace: Angeles City Height: 5’10”
Civil Status: Single Weight: 68 kg
Religion: Roman Catholic
Nationality: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION - INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2015 to April 2019

SCHOOL OF THE INFANT JESUS


Mabalacat City, Pampanga
June 2008 to April 2015

I certify that all information declared here are true to the best of my knowledge.
49

RESUME

GANOTICE, MARK DAREL O.


811 SAN PABLO ST., PANDAN, ANGELES CITY
0929 142 7399
mdganotice@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
As a beginner researcher, I wish to learn more in the field or research. I want to

learn more on how to efficiently do tests, perform experiments, collect data, and analyze

the information that I got. I am trying to improve my researching skills to be beneficial to

the community.

CORE QUALIFICATIONS
 Ability to cope up with the its surroundings
 Has ability to participate to the given work
 Follow instruction and listen carefully
 Excellent observational and analytical skills

PERSONAL DATA
Birthdate: September 22, 2003 Gender: Male
Birthplace: Sanchez Mira, Cagayan Height: 5’9”
Civil Status: Single Weight: 55 kg
Religion: Roman Catholic
Nationality: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION - INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2015 to April 2019

SALAPUNGAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2010 to April 2015

MARZAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


Sanchez Mira, Cagayan
June 2009 to April 2010

I certify that all information declared here are true to the best of my knowledge.
50

RESUME

CASTRO, ALESSANDRA NICOLE M.


#15 PASEO ESPANA ST. VILLA ANGELA, ANGELES CITY
0906 413 7467
castronicole153@yahoo.com.ph

OBJECTIVE:
As a beginner, my objective is to foresee future problems through pursuit of truth,

to respond to current social demands, and to contribute to the creation and development

of scientific technologies with the aim of realizing an affluent society and natural

environment for humanity.

CORE QUALIFICATIONS
 Good communication skills
 Has ability to participate to the given work
 Excellent observational and analytical skills
 Responsible and discipline- specific conceptual knowledge

PERSONAL DATA
Birthdate: September 10, 2002 Gender: Female
Birthplace: Angeles City Height: 5’3”
Civil Status: Single Weight: 59kg
Religion: Roman Catholic
Nationality: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION - INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2009 to April 2019

I certify that all information declared here are true to the best of my knowledge.
51

RESUME

LAZO, KYLAKATE E.
Blk 428 lot 35, tangerine st. Phase 4B,
Metrogate Subd. Brgy. Capaya,Angeles City
09158261154
kylakatelazo@yahoo.com

OBJECTIVE:
As an aspiring medical practitioner, executing the proper instructions, methods,

and ways has been an essential in giving aid and solutions on facing demanding and

tiresome problems. Being able to give assistance to others gives satisfaction and relief to

myself, being able to be trusted and to rely on my services and knowledge helps me to

become a better individual. Given the said reasons, extending my help with certain right

information and effective services can certify the improvement of other people.

CORE QUALIFICATIONS
• Has a quick response in solving critical problems • Knows how to be attentive
and innovative
• Has the ability to communicate well either in oral or written
• Has the ability to work in teams
• Has the ability to multitask effectively

PERSONAL DATA
Birthdate: January 19, 2003 Gender: Female
Birthplace: Angeles City Height: 5’7”
Civil Status: Single Weight: 48 kg
Religion: Roman Catholic
Nationality: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION - INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2015 to April 2019

MONTESSORI SCHOOL OF SAINT NICHOLAS


Dau, Mabalacat City
June 2007 to April 2015

I certify that all information declared here are true to the best of my knowledge.
52

RESUME

PANGILINAN, EINGEL JOY G.


3020 Magalang Avenue, Pandan, Angeles City
0906 906 1279
eingeljoypangilinan@gmail.com

OBJECTIVE:
As a beginner, I would like to vaticinate problems and traverse communities to

know how to decipher problems that is usually present or currently happening. I also

would like to help people by only uttering the truth as I uncover things, and by only

executing the right thing or the things that can help us in many ways.

CORE QUALIFICATIONS
 Has analytical thinking to solve problems
 Knows how to be attentive and follow instructions
 Has the ability to communicate well
 Has the ability to anticipate consequences of situations, then to respond
appropriately

PERSONAL DATA
Birthdate: November 12, 2002 Gender: Female
Birthplace: Angeles City Height: 5’3”
Civil Status: Single Weight: 63 kg
Religion: Roman Catholic
Nationality: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION - INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2009 to April 2019

I certify that all information declared here are true to the best of my knowledge.
53

RESUME

SICAT, FAITH R.
#219 VALDEZ ST. BRGY. NINOY AQUINO, ANGELES CITY
0906 849 2729
faithsicat@outlook.com

OBJECTIVE:
As a beginner researcher, my goal is to prognosticate problems that are associated

with the environment and to provide a solution through discovering a scientific

experiment, which will also help me to develop my skills, with a view of beneficial to the

community.

CORE QUALIFICATIONS
 Ability to follow rules and directives carefully
 Open to change and new information
 Has ability to finish work on time
 Excellent observational and analytical skills

PERSONAL DATA
Birthdate: April 9, 2001 Gender: Female
Birthplace: Angeles City Height: 5’1”
Civil Status: Single Weight: 45kg
Religion: Christian-Baptist
Nationality: Filipino

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
ANGELES UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION - INTEGRATED SCHOOL
Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2015 to April 2019

VIRGEN DE LOS REMEDIOS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL


Angeles City, Pampanga
June 2009 to March 2015

I certify that all information declared here are true to the best of my knowledge.