Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR A SPEED

CONTROL OF ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE


IN AN INDUSTRIAL PLANT

BY

ADESINA OLUSEGUN BOLA


luciusadesina@yahoo.com

Department of Electrical/Electronics Engineering,


University of Lagos, Nigeria

2015
ABSTRACT

This paper describes work which investigates application of fuzzy logic controller to control the
speed of induction motors used in HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene) extrusion industry, which is
one of the artificial intelligent methods of controlling nonlinear systems like the electric motor drive
use in an extrusion Industry. An induction motors are characterized by complex, highly non-linear
and time-varying dynamics, and hence their speed control becomes challenging if conventional
controllers are used. Reason being that they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and
performance may deteriorate.

The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller’s performance is compared against that of a PID controller, the
result indicates the best possible tuning of simulation with FLC controller, the peak overshoot and
Settling time result obtained shows that the fuzzy logic controller has an excellent controllability
over the speed of three-phase induction motor compare to when PID controller is employed.
The advantages of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) over the conventional controllers are: they are
economically advantageous to develop, a wider range of operating conditions can be covered using
FLCs, set of rules is incorporated into the design, resulting in a non-linear controller with improved
large signal performance over linear PID controllers and an initial approximate set of fuzzy rules can
be impulsively refined by a self-organizing fuzzy controller.
These rules portray a relationship between two inputs into the controller and one output, all of which
are normalized voltages. These are: The input speed error denoted by Error (e), the input derivative
of speed error denoted by Change of error (∆e), and The output frequency denoted by Change of
Control (wref) (Varun et al., 2012).
The errors are evaluated according to the rules in accordance to the defined member functions.
The membership functions and the rules have been defined using the FIS editor given in MATLAB.
The results obtained by using a conventional PID controller and the designed Fuzzy Logic Controller
have been studied and compared.
1.0 INTRODUCTION

Induction motors are widely used in various industries as prime workhorses to produce rotational
motions and forces. Generally, variable-speed drives for induction motors require both wide
operating range of speed and fast torque response, regardless of load variations (Ashok, Koda and
Ram, 2010). Voltage source inverter-fed induction motors are most considered for variable speed
drive applications (Naveena, Dodakundi and Layadgundi, 2015).
Recently, fuzzy logic control has found many applications in the past decades, which overcomes
these drawbacks (Besir, Muammer and Fikret, 2005). Giving the non-linear and interdependent
nature of input and output of the Handoff unit of HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) extrusion
process, the simple false or true logic cannot adequately deal with the ensuring control situation.
Fuzzy logic developed by L. Zadeh in the 1960s, provides a good solution. It substitute the
mathematics of imprecision with phrase like “high’’, “medium’’, “low’’ etc (Osofisan and
Obafaiye, 2007) This is because it interpolate between a set of fuzzy rules. The fuzziness is
introduced by allowing overlap of the so-called membership functions; Zadeh’s work has facilitated
the application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) to a wide variety of practical problems.
Fuzzy logic is a systematic mathematical formulation for investigating and characterizing different
types of uncertainties. It is best suited when a mathematical model of the process does not exist, or
exist but is too complex to be evaluated fast enough for real time operation or is too difficult to
encode. In such situation, difficulties arise in using traditional control methods (Zadeh, 1965).
To optimize the control of the speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic controller has been
designed in this research work, so as to increase the efficiency, reliability and performance of the
induction motor.
The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first is shown the dynamic response of speed by designing the
fuzzy logic controller for keeping the motor speed constant when the load varies. The second aim is
shown the superiority of fuzzy logic controller over the conventional PID controller.

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Recently Artificial Intelligence based techniques (i.e. fuzzy logic, neural networks, fuzzy-neural
networks, genetic algorithms, etc.). Have gained a wide attention in control applications. There are
numerous AI applications to electrical machines and drives (Zadeh, 1965).
The drives are D.C. drives, induction motor drives, synchronous motor drives, switched reluctance
motor drives and sensor less drives etc. For most drives, high accuracy is not usually imperative,
however, in high performance drive applications, a desirable control performance in both transient
and steady states must be provided even when the parameters and load of the motor are varying
during the motion (Aakanksha and Naveen, 2003).
“Controllers with fixed parameters cannot provide these requirements unless unrealistically high
gains are used. Thus, the conventional constant gain controllers used in the high performance
variable speed drives become poor when the uncertainties of the plant exist, such as load
disturbance, mechanical parameter variations and un-modelled dynamics in practical applications.
Therefore, control strategy of high performance electrical drives must be adaptive and robust. As a
result, interest in developing adaptive control methods for electrical drives has increased
considerably within the last two decades and several adaptive control methods based on linear model
have developed for induction motor drives.
In the past decade, fuzzy logic and neural network control techniques have applied to electrical
drives to deal with nonlinearities and uncertainties of the control system.
Fuzzy control has the ability of implementing expert human knowledge and experience expressed in
the form of linguistic rules.
It is easy to understand the structure of the fuzzy controller and to modify the control laws.
Hence, fuzzy logic control introduces a good tool to deal with the complicated, nonlinear and ill
defined systems, which cannot be described by precise mathematical models.” (Sayyad et al.,
2009)
In many instances, the mathematical model of the plant is simply unknown or ill-defined, leading
to greater complexities in the design of the control system, also when there are system parameters
variation or environmental disturbance, behavior of system is not satisfactory. In addition, usual
computation of system mathematical model is difficult or impossible. For design and tuning of
conventional controller, there are many techniques like Broida and Nyquist or Bode diagram.
Using of classical controller in electrical motor drive with high performance is complex and
difficult.
It has been proposed that intelligent control systems give a better performance in such cases. Unlike
conventional control techniques, intelligent controllers are based on artificial intelligent (AI) rather
than on plant model. They imitate the human decision-making process and can often be implemented
in complex system with more success than conventional control techniques. AI can be classified into
expert systems, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. With the exception of
expert systems, these techniques are based on soft-computing methods.
The result is that are capable of making approximations and ‘intelligent guesses’ where necessary, in
order to come out with a ‘good enough’ result under a given set of constraints. Intelligent control
system may employ one or more AI technique in their design. However, of interest in this work is
the fuzzy logic controller design for industrial plant induction motor (Besir Dandil, Muammer
Gokbulut and Fikret Ata, 2005).

3.0 FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 4.0 show the block diagram of a typical fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and the system plant.
There are five principal elements to a fuzzy logic controller: (Ghiaus, 2001)
 Fuzzification module (fuzzifier).
 Knowledge base.
 Rule base
 Inference engine.
 Defuzzification module (defuzzifier).

Knowledge Rule base


base

Input Scaling factor Output


Defuzzification
normalisation Fuzzification Inference denormalisation Plant

Output-scaling
factors
Sensors
normalisation

Figure 4.0: Block diagram of a typical fuzzy logic controller (Cirstea et al., 2002).
4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The basic technique of fuzzy control theory for machine drive application shall be used as the
fundamental guideline for the design of direct logic controller which has a better performance than
the conventional Proportional Integral Differential (PID) controller.

Therefore in order to validate the fuzzy control strategy as used in this research work, digital
simulation studies shall be made of the fuzzy logic controller system designed in this work and
compared with that of the convectional PID controller.

The simulation shall be realized using the fuzzy tool box soft-ware in MATLAB (R2007a edition)
environment.

4.1 PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DIFFERENTIAL (PID) CONTROLLER

If a mathematical model of the plant can be derived, then it is possible to apply various design
technique for determining parameter of the controller that will meet the transient and steady-state
specification of the closed loop system.

The inclusion of Proportional Integral Differential (PID) Controller transfer function in to the block
diagram of the system is as shown in figure 5.0.

PID CONTROLLER AC SERVOMOTOR


R(s) + C(s)
TRANSFER FUNCTION TRANSFER FUNCTION
- (Gc(s))

Figure 5.0: Block diagram of a PID based Servo System control Mechanism.

Ziegler-Nichols suggested rules for tuning PID controllers (meaning to set values Kp, Ti and Td )
based on experimental step response or based on the value of Kp that results in marginal stability
when only proportional control action is used.

The PID Controller transfer function based on Ziegler-Nichols rules for tuning PID controller is
given as

1
Gs(s) = Kp (1 + TiS + Tds ) = Kc (s + a)2 / s …………………………….. [1]
Where, Kp = Proportional Gain, Ti = Integral time, Td = Derivative tine based on the transient
response characteristics of the plant, S = Differential part of the PID controller and a = Proportional
part of the PID controller.

Based on the transient response characteristics of a given plant Ziegler-Nichols proposed rules for
determining values of the proportional gain Kp, integral time Ti and Derivative time Td, the rules
suggest a set of value of Kp ,Ti and Td that will give a stable operation of the system.( Essays, UK.
(November 2013).

However the transfer function of the armature controlled dc motor can be deduced from the block
diagram below.

Va (s) Q(s)
1/Ra Kt 1/ s2 J + sF + K
_

sKb

Figure 5.1: The block diagram for a servo system

The transfer function of the motor block diagram could be derived as

𝑄(𝑠)
⁄𝑉𝑎(𝑠) = Gp (s) = Kt / [Ra (s2J + sF +K) + sKtKb ] [18] …………… [2]

Where

K= Amplifier’s Gain Constant= 2.4 X 10-3 Nm/rad

Kt = Motor torque constant = 6 X 10-2 Nm/A

Kb = Combine moment of initial of the motor and load = 6 X 10-2 Nm/A

La = Armature Inductance = Negligible

Ra= Armature Resistance = 1.0Ω

Jo= Moment of Initial= 1.2 X 10-3 kgm2

F= Coefficient of friction = Negligible


The above parameter (K, La, Ra, Kt, Kb, Jo and F) were based on the industrial dc motor parameter
manually collected.

On substitution of the data provided above we arrived at a final expression for servo motor transfer
function as

1.2
Gp(s) = ………………… [3]
0.36s3 + 1.86s2 + 2.5s+1

The forward path transfer function of the PID based servomotor system block diagram given by
figure 5.1 above could be reduced as shown by figure 5.2 below

C(s) (s+a) 2 1.2


= Kc . ………………… [4]
R(s) s 0.36s3 + 1.86s2 + 2.5s+1

R(s) + 1.2(s+a) 2 C(s)


Kc
0.36s4 +1.86s3 +2.5s2 + s

Figure5.2: Reduced Block of PID based Servo System Control Mechanism

Using an appropriate MATLAB program, the most suitable value of ‘Kc’ and ‘a’ which are the PID
controller constants were determine from Fig 5.3 below to be 4.2 and 0.7 respectively.
Substituting these two values into equation above and taking the transfer function of the system
described by figure 5.2 yield the overall system transfer function expressed as

5.04s2 + 7.056s + 2.469


GT = …….… [5]
0.36s4 + 1.86s3 + 7.54s2 + 8.056s + 2.469
Figure 5.3: PID controller with Unit step input

5.0 DESIGN OF THE FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER

Fuzzy control systems are model-free estimators. Fuzzy experts like Lofti Zadeh describe fuzzy
logic as a method of dealing with imprecision of practical systems. The design of a fuzzy logic
controller is a three stage processes. It comprise of Fuzzification, inference mechanism and
defuzzification. ‘‘Fuzzy controllers have got a lot of advantages compared to the classical controllers
such as the simplicity of control, low cost and the possibility to design without knowing the exact
mathematical model of the process. Fuzzy logic is one of the successful applications of fuzzy set in
which the variables are linguistic rather than the numeric variables.
Linguistic variables, defined as variables whose values are sentences in a natural language (such as
large or small), may be represented by fuzzy sets. Fuzzy set is an extension of a ‘crisp’ set where an
element can only belong to a set (full membership) or not belong at all (no membership).Fuzzy sets
allow partial membership, which means that an element may partially belong to more than one set
A fuzzy logic controller is based on a set of control rules called as the fuzzy rules among the
linguistic variables. These rules are expressed in the form of conditional statements (Amer, 2015).
Our basic structure of the fuzzy logic controller to control the speed of the induction motor consists
of 4 important parts, viz., Fuzzification, knowledge base, decision-making logic and the
defuzzification.
The internal structure of the controller is shown in the Fig.6.0.
K1 Rule Base
Evaluate
error and u
Fuzzification Defuzzification Plant
change in K2 Inference
error
yref
Data Base

RLF

Figure.6.0: Basic Stage of Fuzzy Logic Controller Design


The necessary inputs to the decision making unit blocks are the rule-based units and the data based
block units. The fuzzification unit converts the crisp data into linguistic formats. The decision
making unit decides in the linguistic format with the help of logical linguistic rules supplied by the
rule base unit and the relevant data supplied by the data base.
The error and the change in error is modelled using the equation as.
e(k) = w ref - wr
∆e (k) = e (k) – e (k-1) ………………… [6]
The output of the decision-making unit is given as input to the de-fuzzification unit and the linguistic
format of the signal is converted back into the numeric form of data in the crisp form. The decision-
making unit uses the conditional rules of ‘IF-THEN-ELSE’. In the first stage, the crisp variables e
(k) and Δ e (k) are converted into fuzzy variables. The fuzzification maps the error, and the error
changes to linguistic labels of the fuzzy sets.

Figure.6.1: FIS Fuzzy editor with 2 inputs and 1 output


5.1 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER DESIGN

The general structure of a complete fuzzy control system is given in Figure 6.0. The plant control u
is inferred from two state variables, error (e) and the change in error (∆e). The actual crisp input are
approximates to the closer value of the respective universe of discourse. Hence, the fuzzified input is
described by singleton fuzzy sets. The control rules are designed to assign a fuzzy set of the control
input u for each combination of fuzzy set of K1 and K2 (K1 = Error, K2 = Change in Error)
(Ravindra, Veera and Sivanagaraju, 2013).

K1 Rule Base
Evaluate
error and
change in Fuzzification Inference Defuzzification u Plant
K2
error
Data Base

RLF

Figure.6.0 (recall) Basic Stage of Fuzzy Logic Controller Design

5.1 DEFUZZIFICATION

Defuzzification convert the conclusion reached y the inference mechanism into the input to the
plants. The continuity of input membership functions, reasoning method, and defuzzification method
for the continuity of the mapping u fuzzy (e, ∆e) is necessary (Guettaf A., Benchabane F., Bahri M.,
et al., 2014). In this research work the triangular, the triangular membership function, the max-min
reasoning method, and the center of gravity defuzzification method are used, as those methods are
most frequently used in many literatures (Attous and Bekakra, 2010). Below are the MATLAB
SIMULINK views of the Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Membership Function Editor,
Rule Editor, Rule Viewer, Surface Viewer.
System FLC: 2 input, 1output, 25 rules
Figure 6.1(Recall): Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and Membership Function Editor

Figure 6.2: MATLAB Rule Editor


Figure 6.3: Rule Viewer at e = 0.5, ∆e = 0.5 and output (u) = 0.5

Figure 6.4: Surface Viewer of the Output Response (u)


Figure 6.5: A complete Simulink block diagram on SIMULINK window in MATLAB environment.
The Simulink block diagram above compares the PID controller effect on the servo-motor transfer
function and that of the Fuzzy Logic Controller. Setting our Switch second input terminal to -1 to 1
connects the servo-motor to PID controller while setting switch second input node to 0 allows fuzzy
logic controller to control the servomotor. This Simulink block creates a real time comparison of the
two controllers when in use.

6.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS


In the course of carrying out the simulation on the Simulink window of MATLAB fuzzy logic tool
box, test were carried out on the normal servomotor system transfer function to ascertain the
transient response of the system with a unit-step input perturbation using suitable MATLAB
programs. The same program was used to determine the most suitable values of our PID controller
constants Kc and a respectively which gives a suitable operation of the system (with system
equation)
1.2Ks2 + 2.4Kas + 1.2Ka2
G(s) = …………... [6]
0.36s4 + 1.86s3 + [1.2K+ 2.5]s2 + [2.4Ka+1]s+ 1.2Ka2
The following are the result arrived at
Figure 7.0: Transient response of the servomotor system with PID controller with unit step input.
The rise time is 1.0 sec and the settling time is 5.02 sec, command window solution for k, a and
maximum outputs overshot are as follows on the command window:
sol =
4.2000
0.7000
1.0962
That is K = 4.2000, a = 0.7000 and Maximum Output Overshot = 1.0962.
The transfer function of the controller and that of the system to controller after supplying the values
of ‘k’ and ‘a’ arrived at on the command window was also perturbed with a unit step response to
better the effect of PID controller on the motor system control
(http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Transient/TransInputs/TransStep.html).
The response arrived at using MATLAB program is given below.
Figure 7.1: Unit Step Response of the Overall System Transfer Function with PID Controller

The rise time reduced from 1.0 sec to 0.9 sec also the settling time reduced to 4.4 sec from 5.02 sec,
these show that PID controller has a fairly moderate control over the initial response of the system
given the motor response which indicate a reduction in the instability in the system.

6.1 FLC SIMULATION BLOCK DIAGRAM

The fuzzy logic controller block diagram was constructed on the already well-know set parameter of
an AC Asynchronous motor characteristic. The block diagram below presents a comprehensive
relation. FLC fine tuning was carried out to ensure a better control of the servomotor system, setting
our constant for best result as compared with other controller ( Below is the FLC simulation block
diagram.
Figure 7.2: A complete Simulink block diagram on SIMULINK window in MATLAB environment for
the implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller.
A square wave signal was fed into the block diagram with the designed FLC recalled in the block
diagram in the SIMULINK environment since the controller developed has been stored both on the
workspace and the MATLAB file for applications. The comparator compares the reference signal to
that of output signal from the FLC on the motor and also that of the PID controller
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-D_amplifier)
The switch alternate between the signals that will get to the comparator scope, the scope views the
output signal from either the PID or FLC controller in the simulation block diagram.
Figure 7. 3: Square Wave Input at Comparator End with PID Controller

Figure 7.4: Square Wave Input at Comparator End with Fuzzy Logic Controller
RESULTS AFTER TUNING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER’S PARAMETER CONSTANTS

After proper tuning of our fuzzy logic controller parameter constants, we arrived at a better response
as shown below.

Figure 7.5: Simulation results with reference speed as a staircase waveform and an intermittent load.

Since there is need for us to establish a true comparison of the two controller mentioned earlier (FLC
controller) and (PID) using a unit-step input signal at signal generator end in the Simulink block
diagram. Therefore the FLC controller simulation diagram as shown below.
Figure 7.6: FLC Controller Simulation Block Diagram with Unit-Step Input.

In this simulation the duration was reduce to 100 seconds to see how fast the output response
converge to the right signal being monitored. It can be seen from the above figure (7.3 & 7.4) that
while using the Fuzzy Logic Controller the overshoot obtained is 1.01 as compared to that of PID
Controller which is 1.05. The settling time is also less in case of the Fuzzy Logic Controller which is
1.4s, but the rise time is larger. Fuzzy Logic Controller, however, portraits a better response when
the reference speed is changed (Jyoti, 2016). It tends to approach the new reference speed faster and
has, comparatively, a very low overshoot. It can be observed from Fig 7.1 that the PID controller
diverges from the new reference speed and does not attend a steady state when it is very less as
compared to the base speed or greater than the base speed.

The Fuzzy Logic Controller on the other hand attains a steady state. Even though this attained speed
is not exactly equal to the new reference speed, it is very much close to it.
Comparism between FLC and PID

Figure 7.7: Comparison of Speed for PID and FLC

The result shown above indicates the best possible tuning of our simulation block diagram with FLC
controller in use. The peak overshoot is now 1, showing that the fuzzy logic controller has an
excellent controllability over the speed of three-phase Ac induction motor.
It could be seen that the FLC controller when perfectly tuned monitors the Induction motor System
response to the desire output response confirming the superiority of our FLC controller over the
conventional PID controller.

7.0 CONCLUSION

The speed control of an induction motor drive by means of the fuzzy technique has been investigated
in this paper and also PID controller.
By considering the speed comparison of both controllers Fig 6.6, the fuzzy controller has shown
good performances and also settling time of the speed matched with the desired values that were
taken during the simulations.
By the method presented in this paper, the efficiency, performance and reliability of induction motor
drive increases by the use of FLC rather than that of using PID Controller. PID controller cannot be
applied to systems which have a fast change of parameters, because it would require the change of
PID constants in the time. It was shown that an excellent performance of the fuzzy control in
contrast to the conventional one for the speed control of asynchronous machines could be achieved.
Based on this FLC is more efficient and reliable than that of PID Controller for this speed control of
induction motor.

8.0 RECOMENDATION

In this work, I have studied the fundamentals of induction motor drives, the main topic of concern
being speed control. My focus is to develop a Fuzzy Logic Based Controller so as to achieve
precision in control.
The controller attempts to attain a certain level of human intelligence by utilizing the linguistic
variables instead of numerical ones. Its main advantage is that it completely avoids the mathematical
computations, which relieves the designer from using cumbersome techniques.
Simulation of the block diagram for speed control of induction motor given in Fig 7.5 has been
performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the results have been studied.
The Fuzzy Logic Controller was designed and tuned so as to achieve desirable results.
This controller can be implemented in different practical applications of induction motors, the
feasibility and effectiveness of the controller in the corresponding applications can be studied and
changes can be made according to the system requirement so as to achieve an optimum value for the
rise time, settling time and peak overshoot.
References

1. Naveena G J, Murugesh Dodakundi and Anand Layadgundi “Speed Control Of An


Induction Motor Using Fuzzy Logic And PI Controller And Comparison Of Controllers
Based On Speed”, 2015, pg83.
2. Besir Dandil, Muammer Gokbulut and Fikret Ata, 2005. A PI Type Fuzzy-neural Network
Controller for Induction Motor Drives. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5: 1286-1291.
3. Osofisan, P.B. and O.J. Obafaiye. 2007. “Fuzzy Logic Modeling of the Fluidized Catalytic
Cracking Unit of a Petrochemical Refinery”. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology.
8(1):59-67.
4. L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control 8, pp. 338–353, 1965
5. Aakanksha Tripathi and Naveen Asati “Artificial Neural Network Controller for Induction
Motor Drive”, 2003
6. Sayyad Naimuddin, S. B. Warkad, Dr. G. M. Dhole and Mohammad Nasiruddin.
“Enhancing the Operational Availability of CNC Machine Using Fuzzy Logic Controller”.
7. Besir Dandil, Muammer Gokbulut and Fikret Ata “A PI Type Fuzzy-neural Network
Controller for Induction Motor Drives”. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5: 1286 – 1291, 2005
8. Ghiaus C., “Fuzzy model and control of a fan-coil”, Journal of Energy and Buildings,
Volume 33, 2001, pp 545–551
9. Three Phase Induction Motors Engineering Essay. Retrieved from
https://www.ukessays.com/essays/engineering/three-phase-induction-motors-engineering-
essay.php?cref=1)
10. Amer Mohammad Jarjees, “Optimal Speed Control Single Phase Induction Motor using
Fuzzy Controller Tuning by Adaptive Tabu Search Technique”, 2015
11. Ravindra Sangu , Veera Reddy.V.C, Sivanagaraju.S “Damping Power System Oscillations
By Sssc Equipped With A Hybrid Damping Controller”, 2013, pp.3040 – 3048
12. A. Guettaf, F. Benchabane, M. Bahri • O., et al. “Torque ripple minimization in switched
reluctance motor using the fuzzy logic control technique” (2014)
13. D. Ben Attous and Y. Bekakra. “Speed Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Motor using
Fuzzy Logic Techniques”, 2010
14. http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Transient/TransInputs/TransStep.html
15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-D_amplifier
16. Jyoti Yadav. “Speed Control of Induction Motor using Fuzzy Logic Approach”, 2016