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IN AN INDUSTRIAL PLANT

BY

luciusadesina@yahoo.com

University of Lagos, Nigeria

2015

ABSTRACT

This paper describes work which investigates application of fuzzy logic controller to control the

speed of induction motors used in HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene) extrusion industry, which is

one of the artificial intelligent methods of controlling nonlinear systems like the electric motor drive

use in an extrusion Industry. An induction motors are characterized by complex, highly non-linear

and time-varying dynamics, and hence their speed control becomes challenging if conventional

controllers are used. Reason being that they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and

performance may deteriorate.

The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller’s performance is compared against that of a PID controller, the

result indicates the best possible tuning of simulation with FLC controller, the peak overshoot and

Settling time result obtained shows that the fuzzy logic controller has an excellent controllability

over the speed of three-phase induction motor compare to when PID controller is employed.

The advantages of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLCs) over the conventional controllers are: they are

economically advantageous to develop, a wider range of operating conditions can be covered using

FLCs, set of rules is incorporated into the design, resulting in a non-linear controller with improved

large signal performance over linear PID controllers and an initial approximate set of fuzzy rules can

be impulsively refined by a self-organizing fuzzy controller.

These rules portray a relationship between two inputs into the controller and one output, all of which

are normalized voltages. These are: The input speed error denoted by Error (e), the input derivative

of speed error denoted by Change of error (∆e), and The output frequency denoted by Change of

Control (wref) (Varun et al., 2012).

The errors are evaluated according to the rules in accordance to the defined member functions.

The membership functions and the rules have been defined using the FIS editor given in MATLAB.

The results obtained by using a conventional PID controller and the designed Fuzzy Logic Controller

have been studied and compared.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Induction motors are widely used in various industries as prime workhorses to produce rotational

motions and forces. Generally, variable-speed drives for induction motors require both wide

operating range of speed and fast torque response, regardless of load variations (Ashok, Koda and

Ram, 2010). Voltage source inverter-fed induction motors are most considered for variable speed

drive applications (Naveena, Dodakundi and Layadgundi, 2015).

Recently, fuzzy logic control has found many applications in the past decades, which overcomes

these drawbacks (Besir, Muammer and Fikret, 2005). Giving the non-linear and interdependent

nature of input and output of the Handoff unit of HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) extrusion

process, the simple false or true logic cannot adequately deal with the ensuring control situation.

Fuzzy logic developed by L. Zadeh in the 1960s, provides a good solution. It substitute the

mathematics of imprecision with phrase like “high’’, “medium’’, “low’’ etc (Osofisan and

Obafaiye, 2007) This is because it interpolate between a set of fuzzy rules. The fuzziness is

introduced by allowing overlap of the so-called membership functions; Zadeh’s work has facilitated

the application of fuzzy logic control (FLC) to a wide variety of practical problems.

Fuzzy logic is a systematic mathematical formulation for investigating and characterizing different

types of uncertainties. It is best suited when a mathematical model of the process does not exist, or

exist but is too complex to be evaluated fast enough for real time operation or is too difficult to

encode. In such situation, difficulties arise in using traditional control methods (Zadeh, 1965).

To optimize the control of the speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic controller has been

designed in this research work, so as to increase the efficiency, reliability and performance of the

induction motor.

The aim of this paper is two-fold. The first is shown the dynamic response of speed by designing the

fuzzy logic controller for keeping the motor speed constant when the load varies. The second aim is

shown the superiority of fuzzy logic controller over the conventional PID controller.

Recently Artificial Intelligence based techniques (i.e. fuzzy logic, neural networks, fuzzy-neural

networks, genetic algorithms, etc.). Have gained a wide attention in control applications. There are

numerous AI applications to electrical machines and drives (Zadeh, 1965).

The drives are D.C. drives, induction motor drives, synchronous motor drives, switched reluctance

motor drives and sensor less drives etc. For most drives, high accuracy is not usually imperative,

however, in high performance drive applications, a desirable control performance in both transient

and steady states must be provided even when the parameters and load of the motor are varying

during the motion (Aakanksha and Naveen, 2003).

“Controllers with fixed parameters cannot provide these requirements unless unrealistically high

gains are used. Thus, the conventional constant gain controllers used in the high performance

variable speed drives become poor when the uncertainties of the plant exist, such as load

disturbance, mechanical parameter variations and un-modelled dynamics in practical applications.

Therefore, control strategy of high performance electrical drives must be adaptive and robust. As a

result, interest in developing adaptive control methods for electrical drives has increased

considerably within the last two decades and several adaptive control methods based on linear model

have developed for induction motor drives.

In the past decade, fuzzy logic and neural network control techniques have applied to electrical

drives to deal with nonlinearities and uncertainties of the control system.

Fuzzy control has the ability of implementing expert human knowledge and experience expressed in

the form of linguistic rules.

It is easy to understand the structure of the fuzzy controller and to modify the control laws.

Hence, fuzzy logic control introduces a good tool to deal with the complicated, nonlinear and ill

defined systems, which cannot be described by precise mathematical models.” (Sayyad et al.,

2009)

In many instances, the mathematical model of the plant is simply unknown or ill-defined, leading

to greater complexities in the design of the control system, also when there are system parameters

variation or environmental disturbance, behavior of system is not satisfactory. In addition, usual

computation of system mathematical model is difficult or impossible. For design and tuning of

conventional controller, there are many techniques like Broida and Nyquist or Bode diagram.

Using of classical controller in electrical motor drive with high performance is complex and

difficult.

It has been proposed that intelligent control systems give a better performance in such cases. Unlike

conventional control techniques, intelligent controllers are based on artificial intelligent (AI) rather

than on plant model. They imitate the human decision-making process and can often be implemented

in complex system with more success than conventional control techniques. AI can be classified into

expert systems, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. With the exception of

expert systems, these techniques are based on soft-computing methods.

The result is that are capable of making approximations and ‘intelligent guesses’ where necessary, in

order to come out with a ‘good enough’ result under a given set of constraints. Intelligent control

system may employ one or more AI technique in their design. However, of interest in this work is

the fuzzy logic controller design for industrial plant induction motor (Besir Dandil, Muammer

Gokbulut and Fikret Ata, 2005).

Figure 4.0 show the block diagram of a typical fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and the system plant.

There are five principal elements to a fuzzy logic controller: (Ghiaus, 2001)

Fuzzification module (fuzzifier).

Knowledge base.

Rule base

Inference engine.

Defuzzification module (defuzzifier).

base

Defuzzification

normalisation Fuzzification Inference denormalisation Plant

Output-scaling

factors

Sensors

normalisation

Figure 4.0: Block diagram of a typical fuzzy logic controller (Cirstea et al., 2002).

4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The basic technique of fuzzy control theory for machine drive application shall be used as the

fundamental guideline for the design of direct logic controller which has a better performance than

the conventional Proportional Integral Differential (PID) controller.

Therefore in order to validate the fuzzy control strategy as used in this research work, digital

simulation studies shall be made of the fuzzy logic controller system designed in this work and

compared with that of the convectional PID controller.

The simulation shall be realized using the fuzzy tool box soft-ware in MATLAB (R2007a edition)

environment.

If a mathematical model of the plant can be derived, then it is possible to apply various design

technique for determining parameter of the controller that will meet the transient and steady-state

specification of the closed loop system.

The inclusion of Proportional Integral Differential (PID) Controller transfer function in to the block

diagram of the system is as shown in figure 5.0.

R(s) + C(s)

TRANSFER FUNCTION TRANSFER FUNCTION

- (Gc(s))

Figure 5.0: Block diagram of a PID based Servo System control Mechanism.

Ziegler-Nichols suggested rules for tuning PID controllers (meaning to set values Kp, Ti and Td )

based on experimental step response or based on the value of Kp that results in marginal stability

when only proportional control action is used.

The PID Controller transfer function based on Ziegler-Nichols rules for tuning PID controller is

given as

1

Gs(s) = Kp (1 + TiS + Tds ) = Kc (s + a)2 / s …………………………….. [1]

Where, Kp = Proportional Gain, Ti = Integral time, Td = Derivative tine based on the transient

response characteristics of the plant, S = Differential part of the PID controller and a = Proportional

part of the PID controller.

Based on the transient response characteristics of a given plant Ziegler-Nichols proposed rules for

determining values of the proportional gain Kp, integral time Ti and Derivative time Td, the rules

suggest a set of value of Kp ,Ti and Td that will give a stable operation of the system.( Essays, UK.

(November 2013).

However the transfer function of the armature controlled dc motor can be deduced from the block

diagram below.

Va (s) Q(s)

1/Ra Kt 1/ s2 J + sF + K

_

sKb

𝑄(𝑠)

⁄𝑉𝑎(𝑠) = Gp (s) = Kt / [Ra (s2J + sF +K) + sKtKb ] [18] …………… [2]

Where

The above parameter (K, La, Ra, Kt, Kb, Jo and F) were based on the industrial dc motor parameter

manually collected.

On substitution of the data provided above we arrived at a final expression for servo motor transfer

function as

1.2

Gp(s) = ………………… [3]

0.36s3 + 1.86s2 + 2.5s+1

The forward path transfer function of the PID based servomotor system block diagram given by

figure 5.1 above could be reduced as shown by figure 5.2 below

= Kc . ………………… [4]

R(s) s 0.36s3 + 1.86s2 + 2.5s+1

Kc

0.36s4 +1.86s3 +2.5s2 + s

Using an appropriate MATLAB program, the most suitable value of ‘Kc’ and ‘a’ which are the PID

controller constants were determine from Fig 5.3 below to be 4.2 and 0.7 respectively.

Substituting these two values into equation above and taking the transfer function of the system

described by figure 5.2 yield the overall system transfer function expressed as

GT = …….… [5]

0.36s4 + 1.86s3 + 7.54s2 + 8.056s + 2.469

Figure 5.3: PID controller with Unit step input

Fuzzy control systems are model-free estimators. Fuzzy experts like Lofti Zadeh describe fuzzy

logic as a method of dealing with imprecision of practical systems. The design of a fuzzy logic

controller is a three stage processes. It comprise of Fuzzification, inference mechanism and

defuzzification. ‘‘Fuzzy controllers have got a lot of advantages compared to the classical controllers

such as the simplicity of control, low cost and the possibility to design without knowing the exact

mathematical model of the process. Fuzzy logic is one of the successful applications of fuzzy set in

which the variables are linguistic rather than the numeric variables.

Linguistic variables, defined as variables whose values are sentences in a natural language (such as

large or small), may be represented by fuzzy sets. Fuzzy set is an extension of a ‘crisp’ set where an

element can only belong to a set (full membership) or not belong at all (no membership).Fuzzy sets

allow partial membership, which means that an element may partially belong to more than one set

A fuzzy logic controller is based on a set of control rules called as the fuzzy rules among the

linguistic variables. These rules are expressed in the form of conditional statements (Amer, 2015).

Our basic structure of the fuzzy logic controller to control the speed of the induction motor consists

of 4 important parts, viz., Fuzzification, knowledge base, decision-making logic and the

defuzzification.

The internal structure of the controller is shown in the Fig.6.0.

K1 Rule Base

Evaluate

error and u

Fuzzification Defuzzification Plant

change in K2 Inference

error

yref

Data Base

RLF

The necessary inputs to the decision making unit blocks are the rule-based units and the data based

block units. The fuzzification unit converts the crisp data into linguistic formats. The decision

making unit decides in the linguistic format with the help of logical linguistic rules supplied by the

rule base unit and the relevant data supplied by the data base.

The error and the change in error is modelled using the equation as.

e(k) = w ref - wr

∆e (k) = e (k) – e (k-1) ………………… [6]

The output of the decision-making unit is given as input to the de-fuzzification unit and the linguistic

format of the signal is converted back into the numeric form of data in the crisp form. The decision-

making unit uses the conditional rules of ‘IF-THEN-ELSE’. In the first stage, the crisp variables e

(k) and Δ e (k) are converted into fuzzy variables. The fuzzification maps the error, and the error

changes to linguistic labels of the fuzzy sets.

5.1 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER DESIGN

The general structure of a complete fuzzy control system is given in Figure 6.0. The plant control u

is inferred from two state variables, error (e) and the change in error (∆e). The actual crisp input are

approximates to the closer value of the respective universe of discourse. Hence, the fuzzified input is

described by singleton fuzzy sets. The control rules are designed to assign a fuzzy set of the control

input u for each combination of fuzzy set of K1 and K2 (K1 = Error, K2 = Change in Error)

(Ravindra, Veera and Sivanagaraju, 2013).

K1 Rule Base

Evaluate

error and

change in Fuzzification Inference Defuzzification u Plant

K2

error

Data Base

RLF

5.1 DEFUZZIFICATION

Defuzzification convert the conclusion reached y the inference mechanism into the input to the

plants. The continuity of input membership functions, reasoning method, and defuzzification method

for the continuity of the mapping u fuzzy (e, ∆e) is necessary (Guettaf A., Benchabane F., Bahri M.,

et al., 2014). In this research work the triangular, the triangular membership function, the max-min

reasoning method, and the center of gravity defuzzification method are used, as those methods are

most frequently used in many literatures (Attous and Bekakra, 2010). Below are the MATLAB

SIMULINK views of the Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Membership Function Editor,

Rule Editor, Rule Viewer, Surface Viewer.

System FLC: 2 input, 1output, 25 rules

Figure 6.1(Recall): Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) and Membership Function Editor

Figure 6.3: Rule Viewer at e = 0.5, ∆e = 0.5 and output (u) = 0.5

Figure 6.5: A complete Simulink block diagram on SIMULINK window in MATLAB environment.

The Simulink block diagram above compares the PID controller effect on the servo-motor transfer

function and that of the Fuzzy Logic Controller. Setting our Switch second input terminal to -1 to 1

connects the servo-motor to PID controller while setting switch second input node to 0 allows fuzzy

logic controller to control the servomotor. This Simulink block creates a real time comparison of the

two controllers when in use.

In the course of carrying out the simulation on the Simulink window of MATLAB fuzzy logic tool

box, test were carried out on the normal servomotor system transfer function to ascertain the

transient response of the system with a unit-step input perturbation using suitable MATLAB

programs. The same program was used to determine the most suitable values of our PID controller

constants Kc and a respectively which gives a suitable operation of the system (with system

equation)

1.2Ks2 + 2.4Kas + 1.2Ka2

G(s) = …………... [6]

0.36s4 + 1.86s3 + [1.2K+ 2.5]s2 + [2.4Ka+1]s+ 1.2Ka2

The following are the result arrived at

Figure 7.0: Transient response of the servomotor system with PID controller with unit step input.

The rise time is 1.0 sec and the settling time is 5.02 sec, command window solution for k, a and

maximum outputs overshot are as follows on the command window:

sol =

4.2000

0.7000

1.0962

That is K = 4.2000, a = 0.7000 and Maximum Output Overshot = 1.0962.

The transfer function of the controller and that of the system to controller after supplying the values

of ‘k’ and ‘a’ arrived at on the command window was also perturbed with a unit step response to

better the effect of PID controller on the motor system control

(http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Transient/TransInputs/TransStep.html).

The response arrived at using MATLAB program is given below.

Figure 7.1: Unit Step Response of the Overall System Transfer Function with PID Controller

The rise time reduced from 1.0 sec to 0.9 sec also the settling time reduced to 4.4 sec from 5.02 sec,

these show that PID controller has a fairly moderate control over the initial response of the system

given the motor response which indicate a reduction in the instability in the system.

The fuzzy logic controller block diagram was constructed on the already well-know set parameter of

an AC Asynchronous motor characteristic. The block diagram below presents a comprehensive

relation. FLC fine tuning was carried out to ensure a better control of the servomotor system, setting

our constant for best result as compared with other controller ( Below is the FLC simulation block

diagram.

Figure 7.2: A complete Simulink block diagram on SIMULINK window in MATLAB environment for

the implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller.

A square wave signal was fed into the block diagram with the designed FLC recalled in the block

diagram in the SIMULINK environment since the controller developed has been stored both on the

workspace and the MATLAB file for applications. The comparator compares the reference signal to

that of output signal from the FLC on the motor and also that of the PID controller

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-D_amplifier)

The switch alternate between the signals that will get to the comparator scope, the scope views the

output signal from either the PID or FLC controller in the simulation block diagram.

Figure 7. 3: Square Wave Input at Comparator End with PID Controller

Figure 7.4: Square Wave Input at Comparator End with Fuzzy Logic Controller

RESULTS AFTER TUNING FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER’S PARAMETER CONSTANTS

After proper tuning of our fuzzy logic controller parameter constants, we arrived at a better response

as shown below.

Figure 7.5: Simulation results with reference speed as a staircase waveform and an intermittent load.

Since there is need for us to establish a true comparison of the two controller mentioned earlier (FLC

controller) and (PID) using a unit-step input signal at signal generator end in the Simulink block

diagram. Therefore the FLC controller simulation diagram as shown below.

Figure 7.6: FLC Controller Simulation Block Diagram with Unit-Step Input.

In this simulation the duration was reduce to 100 seconds to see how fast the output response

converge to the right signal being monitored. It can be seen from the above figure (7.3 & 7.4) that

while using the Fuzzy Logic Controller the overshoot obtained is 1.01 as compared to that of PID

Controller which is 1.05. The settling time is also less in case of the Fuzzy Logic Controller which is

1.4s, but the rise time is larger. Fuzzy Logic Controller, however, portraits a better response when

the reference speed is changed (Jyoti, 2016). It tends to approach the new reference speed faster and

has, comparatively, a very low overshoot. It can be observed from Fig 7.1 that the PID controller

diverges from the new reference speed and does not attend a steady state when it is very less as

compared to the base speed or greater than the base speed.

The Fuzzy Logic Controller on the other hand attains a steady state. Even though this attained speed

is not exactly equal to the new reference speed, it is very much close to it.

Comparism between FLC and PID

The result shown above indicates the best possible tuning of our simulation block diagram with FLC

controller in use. The peak overshoot is now 1, showing that the fuzzy logic controller has an

excellent controllability over the speed of three-phase Ac induction motor.

It could be seen that the FLC controller when perfectly tuned monitors the Induction motor System

response to the desire output response confirming the superiority of our FLC controller over the

conventional PID controller.

7.0 CONCLUSION

The speed control of an induction motor drive by means of the fuzzy technique has been investigated

in this paper and also PID controller.

By considering the speed comparison of both controllers Fig 6.6, the fuzzy controller has shown

good performances and also settling time of the speed matched with the desired values that were

taken during the simulations.

By the method presented in this paper, the efficiency, performance and reliability of induction motor

drive increases by the use of FLC rather than that of using PID Controller. PID controller cannot be

applied to systems which have a fast change of parameters, because it would require the change of

PID constants in the time. It was shown that an excellent performance of the fuzzy control in

contrast to the conventional one for the speed control of asynchronous machines could be achieved.

Based on this FLC is more efficient and reliable than that of PID Controller for this speed control of

induction motor.

8.0 RECOMENDATION

In this work, I have studied the fundamentals of induction motor drives, the main topic of concern

being speed control. My focus is to develop a Fuzzy Logic Based Controller so as to achieve

precision in control.

The controller attempts to attain a certain level of human intelligence by utilizing the linguistic

variables instead of numerical ones. Its main advantage is that it completely avoids the mathematical

computations, which relieves the designer from using cumbersome techniques.

Simulation of the block diagram for speed control of induction motor given in Fig 7.5 has been

performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the results have been studied.

The Fuzzy Logic Controller was designed and tuned so as to achieve desirable results.

This controller can be implemented in different practical applications of induction motors, the

feasibility and effectiveness of the controller in the corresponding applications can be studied and

changes can be made according to the system requirement so as to achieve an optimum value for the

rise time, settling time and peak overshoot.

References

Induction Motor Using Fuzzy Logic And PI Controller And Comparison Of Controllers

Based On Speed”, 2015, pg83.

2. Besir Dandil, Muammer Gokbulut and Fikret Ata, 2005. A PI Type Fuzzy-neural Network

Controller for Induction Motor Drives. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5: 1286-1291.

3. Osofisan, P.B. and O.J. Obafaiye. 2007. “Fuzzy Logic Modeling of the Fluidized Catalytic

Cracking Unit of a Petrochemical Refinery”. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology.

8(1):59-67.

4. L.A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control 8, pp. 338–353, 1965

5. Aakanksha Tripathi and Naveen Asati “Artificial Neural Network Controller for Induction

Motor Drive”, 2003

6. Sayyad Naimuddin, S. B. Warkad, Dr. G. M. Dhole and Mohammad Nasiruddin.

“Enhancing the Operational Availability of CNC Machine Using Fuzzy Logic Controller”.

7. Besir Dandil, Muammer Gokbulut and Fikret Ata “A PI Type Fuzzy-neural Network

Controller for Induction Motor Drives”. Journal of Applied Sciences, 5: 1286 – 1291, 2005

8. Ghiaus C., “Fuzzy model and control of a fan-coil”, Journal of Energy and Buildings,

Volume 33, 2001, pp 545–551

9. Three Phase Induction Motors Engineering Essay. Retrieved from

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/engineering/three-phase-induction-motors-engineering-

essay.php?cref=1)

10. Amer Mohammad Jarjees, “Optimal Speed Control Single Phase Induction Motor using

Fuzzy Controller Tuning by Adaptive Tabu Search Technique”, 2015

11. Ravindra Sangu , Veera Reddy.V.C, Sivanagaraju.S “Damping Power System Oscillations

By Sssc Equipped With A Hybrid Damping Controller”, 2013, pp.3040 – 3048

12. A. Guettaf, F. Benchabane, M. Bahri • O., et al. “Torque ripple minimization in switched

reluctance motor using the fuzzy logic control technique” (2014)

13. D. Ben Attous and Y. Bekakra. “Speed Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Motor using

Fuzzy Logic Techniques”, 2010

14. http://lpsa.swarthmore.edu/Transient/TransInputs/TransStep.html

15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Class-D_amplifier

16. Jyoti Yadav. “Speed Control of Induction Motor using Fuzzy Logic Approach”, 2016

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