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# Natural Gas Engineering

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Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)

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G Dr Pankaj Tiwari
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Petroleum Production System

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IPR

## • IPR: Potential of gas production rate

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kh
S p
. qB s
1412

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Gas reservoir deliverability
Gas reservoir deliverability is evaluated using well inflow performance relationship (IPR).
Determination of the flow capacity of a gas well requires a relationship between the inflow gas rate and the
sandface pressure or bottom pressure

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Gas production rate is a nonlinear function of pressure drawdown (reservoir pressure minus bottom hole

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pressure).

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 Compressible or incompressible
 IPR depends

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 Single phase or multiphase
Flow regime (boundary conditions)
 Flow behaviour

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Fluid properties
Formation properties
 Darcy or non-Darcy flow
Geometry
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 Vertical well or horizontal well
 With or without Hydraulic fractures

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Gas reservoir deliverability

Geometry

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Gas reservoir deliverability

Geometry

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Side View

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Gas reservoir deliverability

Flow Regime

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pressure
p
 0, at r = re
r

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Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR Curve)
 Material balance equation:
 Relationship between pressure drop and flow rate

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 Analytical and Empirical expressions for IPR

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 Mathematical expression:

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 Single phase gas flow : Type of Fluid

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Gas reservoir deliverability
•q is the gas production rate in Mscf/d,
•k is the effective permeability to gas in md,

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•h is the thickness of pay zone in ft,

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•m(p) is the real gas pseudopressure in psi2/cp at the

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reservoir pressure p in psi,

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•m(pwf) is the real gas pseudopressure in psi2/cp at the
flowing bottom hole pressure pwf,

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Assumptions:
•T is the reservoir temperature in R,
-Single phase flow in the reservoir
-Compressible isothermal fluid flow
•re is the radius of drainage area in ft,

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-Homogeneous and isotopic reservoir system •rw is wellbore radius in ft,
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-Constant permeability •s is skin factor, and
•D is the non-Darcy coefficient in d/Mscf.
- Laminar (Viscous flow)
- Constant Pay-zone

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IPR Curve- Material Balance
Conservation of Mass

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What goes in = What comes out + What is left behind

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Assumptions:

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-Single phase flow in the reservoir
-Compressible isothermal fluid flow
-Homogeneous and isotopic reservoir system

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- Laminar (Viscous flow)
- Constant Pay-zone

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Basic Form of IPR

## • Reservoir Properties: Transportation equation- Darcy’s Law

• Fluid Properties: Isothermal compressibility

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• Equation of state for Real gas

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IPR solution: Approximations

Approximations

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Pressure-approximation (p)
2P

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𝜇𝑍

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or
1 m(p) approach

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Pressure-approximation (p)
𝜇𝐵𝑔 Properties at average pressure 𝑝 2𝑝 𝑝2 −𝑝𝑏2
m(p) =‫𝑝׬‬ 𝑑 ≈

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m(p) approach 𝑏 µ𝑧 𝜇𝑧

p2 approach p2 approach
Region 1 Region 2

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2000 3000
Pressure

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q = constant

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pressure

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p
 0, at r = re
r

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IPR Curve: Analytical Expression

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𝑞𝜇 2
General relationship between 𝑞𝜇
P&R − = 𝑙𝑛 − = 𝑙𝑛 −

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2𝜋𝑘ℎ 2𝜋𝑘ℎ 2
2

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Inflow equation expressed in 𝑞𝜇 𝑞𝜇 1
term of − = 𝑙𝑛 − = 𝑙𝑛 −
2𝜋𝑘ℎ 2𝜋𝑘ℎ 2

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p = pe at r = re

## Inflow equation expressed in

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𝑞𝜇
𝑙𝑛 −
1
− =
𝑞𝜇
𝑙𝑛 −
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terms of average pressure 2𝜋𝑘ℎ 2 2𝜋𝑘ℎ 4

## • Similar expression can be written for P2 approach and m(p) approach

• The expressions can be formulated to known parameters, like formation volume factor, viscosity, etc

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IPR Curve: Analytical Expression- Pseudo steady state

kh p res  2 p 

 pwf   g TZ 
q dp
 re
1422T  ln  0.75 

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ZT
 rw  Bg  B  0.00504
p

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7.08 10 6 kh  p res  

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 1 dp
 pwf   g Bg
q
 re 

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1422T  ln  0.75 
 rw 

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q
 
kh.m p res  m pwf  m pwf   2
pwf p
dp
Z
 re 
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1422T  ln  0.75  s 
 
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p
 rw 
p res
m p res  2  dp
0 Z

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ҧ 𝑤𝑓 ]
𝑘ℎ[𝑝−𝑝 𝑝 2𝑝 𝑝2 −𝑝𝑏2
 Pressure approximation approach q= 𝑟 m(p) =‫ 𝑝׬‬µ𝑧 𝑑 ≈ 𝜇𝑧
141.2 × 103 𝐵𝑔 𝜇[ln 𝑟 𝑒 ] 𝑏
𝑤

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•q is the gas production rate in Mscf/d,

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 Pseudo pressure approach 𝑘ℎ[𝑚 𝑝ҧ −𝑚(𝑝𝑤𝑓 )] •k is the effective permeability to gas in md
q= 𝑟𝑒
1424𝑇 ln

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𝑟𝑤 •h is the thickness of pay zone in ft,
•m(p) is the real gas pseudopressure in psi

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2 2 at the reservoir pressure p in psi,
𝑘ℎ[𝑝 − 𝑝𝑤𝑓 ]
 Pressure square approach

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q= 𝑟 •m(pwf) is the real gas pseudopressure in
1424𝑇 𝜇 𝑧 [ln 𝑟 𝑒 ]
𝑤
psi2/cp at the flowing bottom hole pressure

## G •T is the reservoir temperature in R,

•re is the radius of drainage area in ft,
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•rw is wellbore radius in ft,
•s is skin factor, and
•D is the non-Darcy coefficient in d/Mscf.

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ҧ 𝑤𝑓 ]
𝑘ℎ[𝑝−𝑝 𝑝 2𝑝 𝑝2 −𝑝𝑏2
 Pressure approximation approach q= 0.472𝑟𝑒 m(p) =‫ 𝑝׬‬µ𝑧 𝑑 ≈ 𝜇𝑧
141.2 × 103 𝐵𝑔 𝜇[ln 𝑟𝑤
] 𝑏

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•q is the gas production rate in Mscf/d,

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 Pseudo pressure approach 𝑘ℎ[𝑚 𝑝ҧ −𝑚(𝑝𝑤𝑓 )] •k is the effective permeability to gas in md
q= 0.472𝑟𝑒
1424𝑇 ln

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𝑟𝑤 •h is the thickness of pay zone in ft,
•m(p) is the real gas pseudopressure in psi

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22 at the reservoir pressure p in psi,
𝑘ℎ[𝑝 − 𝑝𝑤𝑓 ]
 Pressure square approach

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q= 0.472𝑟𝑒 •m(pwf) is the real gas pseudopressure in
1424 𝑇𝜇 𝑧 [ln 𝑟𝑤
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psi2/cp at the flowing bottom hole pressure

## G •T is the reservoir temperature in R,

•re is the radius of drainage area in ft,
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•rw is wellbore radius in ft,
•s is skin factor, and
•D is the non-Darcy coefficient in d/Mscf.

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162.6𝑞𝐵𝜇 𝑘
= 𝑖− log 𝑡 + log − 3.2275

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𝑘ℎ ф𝜇𝑐𝑡 2

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ф𝜇𝑐𝑡 2

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𝑡𝑝𝑠𝑠 ≈ 1200
𝑘

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Petroleum Production System

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IPR

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Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR)- II

 Analytical Expression
 Skin Effect

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 Non-Darcy Effect

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 Empirical Methods

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 Simplified treatment approach- Back pressure approach

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 Laminar-inertial treatment approach- Forchhiemer approach

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