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MANA 3153

Bryan Gonzales

Prof.Jennifer D.G Munsayac
1. From the standpoint of the supervisor, what is the significance of the

 Frederick Taylor
Frederick Taylor's scientific management theory, also called the classical management
theory, emphasizes efficiency, much like Max Weber's. However, according to Taylor, rather
than scolding employees for every minor mistake, employers should reward workers for
increased productivity.

"The principal object of management should be to secure the maximum prosperity for the
employer, coupled with the maximum prosperity for each employee," said Taylor. "The words
'maximum prosperity' are used, in their broad sense, to mean not only large dividends for the
company or owner, but the development of every branch of the business to its highest state of
excellence, so that the prosperity may be permanent."

 Fayol’s functions of management

The 5 functions put forth by Henri Fayol may not entirely represent the complexities
encountered by the managers and the normative proposition is too stiff to illustrate what
functions the managers need to perform in the contemporary organizations. Nonetheless, the 5
functions illustrated by him present a structural overview of several tasks needed to be
performed by all managers. This gives managers an initial overview of the main functions to
focus on their everyday routine. Each of these functions is about solving potential problems
creatively. It begins with an environmental analysis of the organization and ends with evaluating
the results of the solution that is implemented.

 The Hawthorne studies

C Henri Fayol's "14 Principles of Management" have been a significant influence on
modern management theory. His practical list of principles helped early 20th century managers
learn how to organize and interact with their employees in a productive way.

Although the 14 Principles aren't widely used today, they can still offer guidance for today's
managers. Many of the principles are now considered to be common sense, but at the time they
were revolutionary concepts for organizational management.
 Behavioral science

The Behavioral science is of great importance to a business management, as it deals with

science studying behavior. It is the study of sociology and psychology. It is very much concerned
with the ways in which people behave. While on the other hand, anthropology which is also
included in behavioral sciences involves the study of mankind relating to all aspects. Especially,
it deals with human culture and human development.

 The quantitative/systems approaches

Mathematics has made inroads into all disciplines. It has been universally recognised as an
important tool of analysis and a language for precise expression of concept and relationship.

Evolving from the Decision Theory School, the Mathematical School gives a quantitative basis for
decision-making and considers management as a system of mathematical models and
processes. This school is also sometimes called, ‘ Operations Research” or “Management Science
School’. The main feature of this school is the use of mixed teams of scientists from several
disciplines. It uses scientific techniques for providing quantitative base for managerial decisions.
The exponents of this school view management as a system of logical process.

2. Of those factors or trends projected to reshape the workplace and the

economy, how might the changes over the next year or two affect you,
your lifestyle, and the work of your organization?
 Staying abreast of rapidly changing technology,
 Keeping employees motivated during economic downturns when there is great likelihood that
employees will not receive pay increases

Which will create the greatest challenge for supervisors? Why?

 When they must continually train new employees, it can be difficult for supervisors to meet
deadlines and maintain structure in their departments. Supervisors face challenges of finding
out how best to entice employees to remain on the job. Although the majority of managers
think they lose employees for financial reasons, in actuality, most employees leave for other
reasons, such as poor management and dissatisfaction with the culture.
3. Some people have postulated that the “hand of government should be
invisible” in the marketplace. What are some arguments for having the
federal, state, and/or local governments regulate business?

 Creature of the State: This argument for government regulation of business, made prominent by
Ralph Nader and others, holds that because corporations are chartered by states, corporate
commerce should be regulated. In this view, the state charter actually “creates” the
corporation, and government should regulate the behavior of its “dependent,” the corporation.

 Market Failure: The second moral argument for government regulation of business recognizes
that a free market usually enables people to do the best that can be done. On the one hand,
free markets encourage maximum efficiency. On the other hand, free markets foster
responsible conduct, and encourage the production of goods and services which are of value to
members of the community.

 Rights Protection: Another “justification” for government regulation of business is the belief that
government is established to protect our fights, and that there are many rights which go
unprotected in a free market. How do we know there are such fights? Different sources for
these rights have been provided in the philosophical community.

 Judicial Inefficiency: The last argument for regulation that we will consider rests on a belief in
the considerable power of the free market to remedy mistakes in most circumstances. But
advocates of regulation point to one area where this power seems to be ineffective—pollution.
Kenneth J. Arrow of Stanford University has most recently spoken about the need for regulation
to overcome judicial inefficiency. His case goes roughly as follows:

4. At the end of the day, how do you measure whether you have been
 Highly motivated people often focus too much on execution without spending enough time to
think about what to execute in the first place. Being able to achieve a success metric is hard, but
knowing which metric to achieve is important.
 We have a tendency to measure our success in comparison to our peers. If your friend Ashely is
making more money than you, you might feel like a failure.