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# CHAPTER 10

(T.D EASTOP)
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
MACHINES
Part 3
ENERGY BALANCE FOR A TWO-STAGE
MACHINE WITH INTERCOOLER
As the steady-flow energy equation (S.F.E.E.) is given as:

Applying the S.F.E.E. to the L.P.S., the intercooler, and the H.P.S.,
in turn (Fig. 12.19). Changes in K.E. and height can be neglected
from the S.F.E.E.

Fig. 12.19

## For the L.P.S (for unit mass flow rate): ℎ1 + 𝑄𝐿 + 𝑊𝐿 = ℎ𝑖

ENERGY BALANCE FOR A TWO-STAGE MACHINE
WITH INTERCOOLER Cont.
For mass flow rate, 𝑚:
𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇1 + 𝑄𝐿 + 𝑊𝐿 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇𝑖
𝑄𝐿 = − 𝑊𝐿 − 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇1
Thus heat rejected in L.P.S. = 𝑊𝐿 − 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇1 (12.24)

## For the intercooler (for unit mass flow rate):

ℎ𝑖 + 𝑄1 = ℎ1
For mass flow rate, 𝑚:
𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇𝑖 + 𝑄1 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇1
𝑄1 = −𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇1
Thus heat rejected in intercooler = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇𝑖 − 𝑇1 (12.25)
ENERGY BALANCE FOR A TWO-STAGE MACHINE
WITH INTERCOOLER Cont.
For the H.P.S. (for unit mass flow rate):
ℎ1 + 𝑄𝐻 + 𝑊𝐻 = ℎ2
For mass flow rate, 𝑚:
𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇1 + 𝑄𝐻 + 𝑊𝐻 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇2
𝑄𝐻 = − 𝑊𝐻 − 𝑚𝑐𝑝 𝑇2 − 𝑇1

## With complete intercooling and the compressor designed for

minimum work, then from eqn. (12.11):
𝑛
𝑊𝐿 = 𝑊𝐻 = 𝑚𝑅(𝑇2 − 𝑇1 )
𝑛−1

(𝒂)
The non-flow equation for a reversible process states:
𝑑𝑄 = 𝑑𝑢 + 𝑝𝑑𝑣 (𝑏)
Combining (a) & (b) gives:
𝑑ℎ = 𝑑𝑢 + 𝑝𝑑𝑣 + 𝑑𝑊
But, ℎ = 𝑢 + 𝑝𝑣
𝑑𝑢 + 𝑝𝑑𝑣 + 𝑣𝑑𝑝 = 𝑑𝑢 + 𝑝𝑑𝑣 + 𝑑𝑊
𝑑𝑊 = 𝑣𝑑𝑝
2
Then, 𝑊 = 1
𝑣𝑑𝑝 = area 12ba1 (Fig. 12.21)

2
1 𝑑𝑝
𝑊=𝐶 𝑛
1
As p𝑣 𝑛 = 𝐶
1 𝑝 𝑛

𝑛 𝑛𝑅
𝑊= 𝑝 𝑣 − 𝑝1 𝑣1 = 𝑇 − 𝑇1
𝑛−1 2 2 𝑛−1 2 Fig. 12.21
ROTARY MACHINES
The machines in this category are generally uncooled and the
conditions are approximately adiabatic owing to a high rate of
compression.
Following are two important types of rotary machines:
a) The roots blower
b) Vane type

## THE ROOTS BLOWER

The two-lobe type is shown in Fig. 12.22, but three-and four-lobe
versions are in use for higher compression ratios. One of the
rotors is connected to the drive and the second rotor is gear
driven from the first, leading to the in-phase rotation of the
rotors.
THE ROOTS BLOWER Cont.
There is correct mating of the
lobes to seal the delivery side
from the inlet side, and some
clearance between the lobes &
between the casing and the lobes
must be provided to reduce the
wear.
This clearance forms a leakage
path which has an increasingly
adverse effect on efficiency as the
pressure ratio increases.
Fig. 12.22
As each side of each lobe faces its
side of the casing, a volume of gas
V is displaced towards the delivery
side at constant pressure 𝑝1 .
THE ROOTS BLOWER Cont.
A further rotation of the rotor opens this volume to the receiver,
and the gas flows back from the receiver, since this gas is at a
higher pressure 𝑝2 . The process is carried out four times per
revolution of the driving shaft.
The p-V diagram for this machine is shown in Fig. 12.23.
Work done per revolution = 𝑝2 − 𝑝1 𝑉𝑠
Work done per revolution = 4 𝑝2 − 𝑝1 𝑉 (12.27)
Power input = 𝑝2 − 𝑝1 𝑉𝑠 (12.28)
From eqn. (12.7) with 𝑛 = 𝛾, the power
input for a reversible adiabatic (i.e.
isentropic) process is given by:
Fig.12.23
THE ROOTS BLOWER Cont.
𝜸−𝟏
𝜸
𝜸 𝒑𝟐
𝑷𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 𝒊𝒏𝒑𝒖𝒕 = 𝒑 𝑽 −𝟏
𝜸−𝟏 𝟏 𝒔 𝒑𝟏

AS
THE ROOTS BLOWER Cont.
Therefore

 VANE TYPE:
VANE TYPE Cont.
VANE TYPE Cont.
EXAMPLE

SOLUTION
Now
Also,
VACUUM PUMPS
VACUUM PUMPS Cont.
AIR MOTORS
AIR MOTORS Cont.
AIR MOTORS Cont.
PROBLEM 1

solution 𝜸
(a) 𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 = 𝒎 𝑹 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏
𝜸−𝟏
𝒑𝑽 𝟏.𝟎𝟏𝟑×𝟏𝟎𝟓 ×𝟎.𝟑
As 𝒎 = = = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟔𝟖 kg/min &
𝑹𝑻 𝟐𝟖𝟕×𝟐𝟖𝟖
𝛾−1
𝑃2 𝛾
𝑇2 = 𝑇1 = 500.32℃
𝑃1
𝟏. 𝟒 × 𝟎. 𝟑𝟔𝟖 × 𝟐𝟖𝟕 × (𝟓𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟐 − 𝟐𝟖𝟖)
𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝑷𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 =
𝟏𝟎𝟑 × 𝟔𝟎 × (𝟏. 𝟒 − 𝟏)
= 𝟏. 𝟑𝟎 𝒌𝑾 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
(b)
𝑝 0.3 7
𝑖. 𝑝 = 𝑝1 𝑉 ln 𝑝2 = 1.013 × 102 × 60 × ln 1.013 = 0.98 𝑘𝑊 Ans.
1

𝑇2 = 𝑇1 = 15℃
(c)
𝒏
𝒊𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝒑𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 = 𝒎 𝑹 𝑻𝟐 − 𝑻𝟏
𝒏−𝟏

𝑛−1
𝑃2 𝑛
𝑇2 = 𝑇1 = 423.93𝐾 = 150.9℃
𝑃1

## 𝟏. 𝟐𝟓 × 𝟎. 𝟑𝟔𝟖 × 𝟐𝟖𝟕 × (𝟒𝟐𝟑. 𝟗𝟑 − 𝟐𝟖𝟖)

𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒄𝒂𝒕𝒆𝒅 𝑷𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓 =
𝟏𝟎𝟑 × 𝟔𝟎 × (𝟏. 𝟐𝟓 − 𝟏)
= 𝟏. 𝟏𝟗 𝒌𝑾 𝑨𝒏𝒔.
PROBLEM 2

0.3 𝑚3
Volume induced = 𝑟𝑒𝑣
1000

𝜋 0.3
𝑉𝑠 = × 𝐷2 × 𝐿 =
4 1000

But 𝐿 𝐷 = 1.2 1

𝐷 = 0.0683 𝑚 𝐴𝑛𝑠.
PROBLEM 3

solution
0.25
𝐹𝐴𝐷, 𝑉 = (𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑑 ) = = 0.00025𝑚3 → (1)
1000

As 𝑉𝑑 = 0.3533𝑉𝑠
As
𝑉𝑎 = 1.03𝑉𝑠
1 𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑑 = 1.03𝑉𝑠 − 0.3533𝑉𝑠 = 0.677𝑉𝑠 = 0.00025 𝑚3
𝑚 3
𝑉𝑠 = 0.0003694 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒
Also
𝑉𝑠 = 𝐴 × 𝐿 𝐷 = 73.2 𝑚𝑚 & 𝐿 = 1.2 × 73.2 = 87.82 𝑚𝑚
1
𝑛
𝑉𝑐 𝑝2
𝜂𝑣 = 1 − − 1 = 1 − 0.03 24.680.769 − 1 = 0.6766 = 67.66%
𝑉𝑠 𝑝1

= 𝟐 𝒌𝑾
As
𝑝2 𝑝2
𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑝1 𝑉 ln = 𝑚𝑅𝑇1 ln = 1.35 𝑘𝑊
𝑝1 𝑝1

## 𝐼𝑠𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 1.35

η𝑖𝑠𝑜 = = = 67.66%
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 2
PROBLEM 4

SOLUTION
1
25 1.3
𝑉𝑑 = 0.03𝑉𝑠 = 0.357𝑉𝑠
1 xx
𝑉𝑎 − 𝑉𝑑 = 0.673𝑉𝑠 = 0.673 × 0.000369 = 0.000248 𝑚3
(swept volume as per problem 12.3)

𝑭.𝑨.𝑫. 𝑻 𝒑𝟏
As 𝒄𝒚𝒄𝒍𝒆 , 𝑽 = 𝑽𝒂 − 𝑽𝒅 .
𝑻𝟏 𝒑

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟐𝟔 𝟑
𝑽 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟐𝟔 𝒎𝟑 /𝒓𝒆𝒗 = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐𝟔 𝒎 𝒎𝒊𝒏
𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎
As
𝑝𝑉 1.013×105 ×0.226
𝑚= = = 0.277 kg/min
𝑅𝑇 287×288

Also
𝑛−1
𝑃2 𝑛
𝑇2 = 𝑇1 = 658 𝐾
𝑃1

## 𝑛 1.3 × 0.277 × 0.287 × (658 − 313)

𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝑚𝑅 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 =
𝑛−1 0.3 × 60

𝑖. 𝑝. = 1.98 𝑘𝑊
Finally,
𝑉 (𝐹𝐴𝐷) 0.226
𝜂𝑣 = = = 61.2%
𝑉𝑠 0.000369 × 1000

## But, η𝑣 = 67.7% (from Problem 12.3)

Home Assignment
Solve the following:
EXAMPLES: 12.1 to 12.10
PROBLEMS: 12.1 to 12.4
Thanks