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By Héctor Ortíz Unit 4 Moisés A. Bittner Phonetics and Phonology Autumn Term
By Héctor Ortíz Unit 4 Moisés A. Bittner Phonetics and Phonology Autumn Term
By Héctor Ortíz Unit 4 Moisés A. Bittner Phonetics and Phonology Autumn Term
By Héctor Ortíz Unit 4 Moisés A. Bittner Phonetics and Phonology Autumn Term
By Héctor Ortíz
By Héctor Ortíz

Unit 4

By Héctor Ortíz Unit 4 Moisés A. Bittner Phonetics and Phonology Autumn Term

Moisés A. Bittner Phonetics and Phonology Autumn Term

Introduction  Weak forms are an essential feature of English pronunciation.  Students who wish
Introduction  Weak forms are an essential feature of English pronunciation.  Students who wish
Introduction  Weak forms are an essential feature of English pronunciation.  Students who wish
Introduction  Weak forms are an essential feature of English pronunciation.  Students who wish

Introduction

Weak forms are an essential feature of English pronunciation.

Students who wish to acquire a high level of oral performance, as is the case of future teachers of English, must be aware of their existence, since failure to produce them will affect English rhythm quite considerably and even lead to misunderstanding.

Spanish-speaking learners face a number of difficulties in this respect:

Weakening of the grammatical items which make up the weak form inventory in non-prominent contexts does not exist in Spanish.

English spelling does not provide learners with the information they need to make

the correct choice unless the weakened pronunciations are represented with a

contracted form, i.e. by the use of apostrophes.

e.g. I could’ve helped if you’d asked me /ai kUd v helpt if jud A:st mi/

 There is a small group of about 35 to 40 very common structural words
 There is a small group of about 35 to 40 very common structural words
 There is a small group of about 35 to 40 very common structural words
 There is a small group of about 35 to 40 very common structural words

There is a small group of about 35 to 40 very common structural words in English which are pronounced in

mainly two different waysa weak form and a strong

form; some of these words have more than one weak form.

In general, weak forms are much more common than strong forms; in fact, weak forms are the normal pronunciations and for this reason students should identify them and use them from the very early stages.

 A weak form usually contains a weak vowel – mainly /  / ,
 A weak form usually contains a weak vowel – mainly /  / ,
 A weak form usually contains a weak vowel – mainly /  / ,
 A weak form usually contains a weak vowel – mainly /  / ,

A weak form usually contains a weak vowel mainly //, sometimes the neutralised versions /i/ and /u/ and, in some cases, no vowel.

e.g. come and kiss me /kVm n kIs mi/

e.g. bread and butter /bred n bVt/

 Students must learn when to use weak forms and when not to use them.
 Students must learn when to use weak forms and when not to use them.
 Students must learn when to use weak forms and when not to use them.
 Students must learn when to use weak forms and when not to use them.

Students must learn when to use weak forms and when not to use them. The correct choice depends mainly on three factors, all of which are exemplified below, viz.

(i)

ACCENT:

unaccented?

Is

the

weak-form

word

accented

or

(ii) STRANDING (exposure): Is the weak-form word

exposed as a result of a grammatical operation implying

movement or deletion?

(iii) PHONETIC ENVIRONMENT: Is the weak-form word followed by a vowel or a consonant? Does the weak-form word beginning with /h/ occur after a pause?

 ACCENT: Is this for us or for them ? / Iz DIs fr Vs
 ACCENT: Is this for us or for them ? / Iz DIs fr Vs
 ACCENT: Is this for us or for them ? / Iz DIs fr Vs
 ACCENT: Is this for us or for them ? / Iz DIs fr Vs

ACCENT: Is this for us or for them? /Iz DIs fr Vs  O: f Dem/

STRANDING: What’s it made of?

(exposure)

/wQts it meId Qv/

PHONETIC ENVIRONMENT:

To eat and to drink /tu i:t n t drINk/ He said he was coming /hi sed I wQz kVmIN/

The inventory of weak-form words (i) ARTICLES AND ADJECTIVAL WORDS: a, an, the, some, his,
The inventory of weak-form words (i) ARTICLES AND ADJECTIVAL WORDS: a, an, the, some, his,
The inventory of weak-form words (i) ARTICLES AND ADJECTIVAL WORDS: a, an, the, some, his,
The inventory of weak-form words (i) ARTICLES AND ADJECTIVAL WORDS: a, an, the, some, his,

The inventory of weak-form words

(i) ARTICLES AND ADJECTIVAL WORDS: a, an, the, some, his, her

(ii)

PRONOUNS: he, him, her, us, them, there

(iii)

CONJUNCTIONS: and, as, but, than, that

(iv)

PREPOSITIONS: at, for, from, of, to

(v)

AUXILIARY AND MODAL VERBS: am, is, are, was, were have, has, had

do, does

shall, will can, must, would

References  Ortíz, Héctor. 2008. The 37 essential weak-form words .  Roach, Peter. 2002.
References  Ortíz, Héctor. 2008. The 37 essential weak-form words .  Roach, Peter. 2002.
References  Ortíz, Héctor. 2008. The 37 essential weak-form words .  Roach, Peter. 2002.
References  Ortíz, Héctor. 2008. The 37 essential weak-form words .  Roach, Peter. 2002.

References

Ortíz, Héctor. 2008. The 37 essential weak-form words.

Roach, Peter. 2002. A Little Encyclopaedia of Phonetics.

Roach, Peter. 1991. English Phonetics and Phonology, a practical course, 2 nd Edition.

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