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The Cardiovascular System Anatomy of the Heart

 A closed system of the heart and blood vessels  Size of a human fist, weighing less than a pound
 The heart pumps blood  Located in the thoracic cavity, between the lungs
 Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the in the inferior mediastinum
body
 Orientation
 Functions of the cardiovascular system
 Apex is directed toward left hip and rests on the
 Transport oxygen, nutrients, cell wastes, hormones to diaphragm
and from cells
 Base points toward right shoulder

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Figure 11.1a Location of the heart within the thorax. Figure 11.2 Heart wall and coverings.

Anatomy of the Heart


• Walls of the heart
1. Epicardium
• Outside layer; the visceral pericardium
2. Myocardium
Pericardium—a double-walled sac
• Middle layer
Superior Aorta
vena cava • Mostly cardiac muscle
Parietal
pleura (cut) 3. Endocardium
Pulmonary Left lung • Inner layer known as endothelium
trunk
Pericardium Fibrous
Pulmonary
(cut) trunk pericardium
Parietal layer of
Apex of serous pericardium Pericardium
heart
Diaphragm Pericardial cavity

Visceral layer of
serous pericardium

Epicardium
(a)
Myocardium Heart wall
Endocardium

Heart chamber

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Figure 11.3b Gross anatomy of the heart.

Chambers and Associated Great Vessels Chambers and Associated Great Vessels
Superior vena cava Aorta  Heart functions as a double pump
 Right side - pulmonary circuit pump
Figure 11.4 The systemic and pulmonary circulations.
Left pulmonary artery
Right pulmonary artery
Left atrium  Left side - systemic circuit pump
Right atrium Left pulmonary veins

Right pulmonary
veins Pulmonary semilunar valve
Left atrioventricular valve
Fossa ovalis (bicuspid valve)
Aortic semilunar valve
Right atrioventricular
valve (tricuspid valve)
Left ventricle
Right ventricle

Chordae tendineae Interventricular septum


Inferior vena cava
Myocardium

(b) Frontal section showing interior chambers and valves Visceral pericardium
(epicardium)
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Figure 11.3b Gross anatomy of the heart.

Heart Valves Superior vena cava Aorta

Left pulmonary artery


Right pulmonary artery
 Allow blood to flow in only one direction, to prevent Left atrium
backflow Right atrium
 Atrioventricular (AV) valves—between atria and
ventricles Pulmonary semilunar valve
Left atrioventricular valve
1. Left AV valve: bicuspid (mitral) valve Fossa ovalis (bicuspid valve)
2. Right AV valve: tricuspid valve Aortic semilunar valve
Right atrioventricular
 Semilunar valves—between ventricle and artery valve (tricuspid valve)
Left ventricle
1. Pulmonary semilunar valve Right ventricle
2. Aortic semilunar valve Chordae tendineae Interventricular septum
 Valves open and close in response to pressure
changes in the heart
(b) Frontal section showing interior chambers and valves

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Figure 11.6a Operation of the heart valves. Slide 1 Figure 11.6b Operation of the heart valves. Slide 1

(a) Operation of the AV valves


(b) Operation of the semilunar valves

Pulmonary
1 Blood returning trunk Aorta
4 Ventricles contract,
to the atria puts forcing blood against 1 As ventricles 2 As ventricles relax
pressure against AV valve cusps. contract and and intraventricular
AV valves; the AV
intraventricular pressure falls, blood
valves are forced
open. 5 AV valves close. pressure rises, blood flows back from
is pushed up against arteries, filling the
2 As the ventricles 6 Chordae tendineae semilunar valves, cusps of semilunar
fill, AV valve cusps tighten, preventing forcing them open. valves and forcing
hang limply into valve cusps from them to close.
ventricles. everting into atria.

3 Atria contract, Ventricles


forcing additional
blood into ventricles.

AV valves open; AV valves closed; Semilunar valves open Semilunar valves closed
atrial pressure atrial pressure
greater than less than
ventricular pressure ventricular pressure

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Figure 11.3a Gross anatomy of the heart.

Cardiac Circulation

 Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the


myocardium
Left atrium
 The heart has its own nourishing circulatory
system consisting of: Right atrium
Circumflex artery
 Coronary arteries—branch from the aorta to supply the Right coronary artery
Left coronary artery in
in coronary sulcus (right
heart muscle with oxygenated blood atrioventricular groove) coronary sulcus (left
atrioventricular groove)
 Cardiac veins—drain the myocardium of blood Anterior cardiac vein
Left ventricle
 Coronary sinus—a large vein on the posterior of the Right ventricle
Great cardiac vein
heart; receives blood from cardiac veins Marginal artery
Anterior interventricular
Small cardiac vein
 Blood empties into the right atrium via the artery (in anterior
interventricular sulcus)

coronary sinus Apex


(a) Anterior view of heart showing major vessels
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Physiology of the Heart

 Intrinsic conduction system of the heart


 Two systems regulate heart activity
 Autonomic nervous system
 Intrinsic conduction system, or the nodal system
 Sets the heart rhythm
 Composed of special nervous tissue
 Ensures heart muscle depolarization in one direction only
(atria to ventricles)
 Enforces a heart rate of 75 beats per minute

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Figure 11.7 The intrinsic conduction system of the heart.

Components of the Intrinsic conduction system, Physiology of the Heart


or the nodal system
Superior  Cardiac cycle and heart sounds
vena cava
 The cardiac cycle refers to one complete heartbeat, in which both
Sinoatrial (SA) atria and ventricles contract and then relax
node (pacemaker) Left atrium  Systole = contraction
Atrioventricular  Diastole = relaxation
(AV) node  Average heart rate is approximately 75 beats per minute
Right atrium Atrioventricular  Cardiac cycle length is normally 0.8 second
(AV) bundle
(bundle of His)
Bundle branches  Heart sounds
 Lub—longer, louder heart sound caused by the closing of the AV
Purkinje fibers valves
Purkinje fibers Interventricular  Dup—short, sharp heart sound caused by the closing of the
septum semilunar valves at the end of ventricular systole

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Physiology of the Heart Physiology of the Heart


 Cardiac cycle and heart sounds (continued)
1. Atrial diastole (ventricular filling)  Cardiac cycle and heart sounds (continued)
 Heart is relaxed 2. Atrial systole
 Pressure in heart is low  Ventricles remain in diastole
 Atrioventricular valves are open  Atria contract
 Blood flows passively into the atria and into ventricles  Blood is forced into the ventricles to complete
 Semilunar valves are closed ventricular filling

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Physiology of the Heart Physiology of the Heart

 Cardiac cycle and heart sounds (continued)  Cardiac cycle and heart sounds (continued)
3. Isovolumetric contraction 4. Ventricular systole (ejection phase)
 Atrial systole ends; ventricular systole begins  Ventricles continue to contract
 Intraventricular pressure rises  Intraventricular pressure now surpasses the pressure in
 AV valves close the major arteries leaving the heart
 For a moment, the ventricles are completely closed  Semilunar valves open
chambers  Blood is ejected from the ventricles
 Atria are relaxed and filling with blood

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Physiology of the Heart

 Cardiac cycle and heart sounds (continued)


5. Isovolumetric relaxation
 Ventricular diastole begins
 Pressure falls below that in the major arteries
 Semilunar valves close
 For another moment, the ventricles are completely
closed chambers
 When atrial pressure increases above intraventricular
pressure, the AV valves open

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Physiology of the Heart Physiology of the Heart

 Cardiac output is the product of the heart rate  Regulation of stroke volume
(HR) and the stroke volume (SV)  60 percent of blood in ventricles (about 70 ml) is
 CO = HR × SV pumped with each heartbeat
 CO = HR (75 beats/min) × SV (70 ml/beat)  Starling’s law of the heart
 CO = 5250 ml/min = 5.25 L/min  The critical factor controlling SV is how much cardiac
muscle is stretched
 The more the cardiac muscle is stretched, the stronger
the contraction
 Venous return is the important factor influencing the
stretch of heart muscle

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Physiology of the Heart Blood Vessels

 Factors modifying basic heart rate  Blood vessels form a closed vascular system that
1. Neural (ANS) controls transports blood to the tissues and back to the
 Sympathetic nervous system speeds heart rate heart
 Parasympathetic nervous system, primarily vagus nerve  Vessels that carry blood away from the heart
fibers, slow and steady the heart rate  Arteries and arterioles
2. Hormones and ions  Vessels that play a role in exchanges between tissues
 Epinephrine and thyroxine speed heart rate and blood
 Excess or lack of calcium, sodium, and potassium ions  Capillary beds
also modify heart activity
 Vessels that return blood toward the heart
3. Physical factors
 Venules and veins
 Age, gender, exercise, body temperature influence
heart rate

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Figure 11.10a Structure of blood vessels. Figure 11.10b Structure of blood vessels.

Tunica intima
Artery Vein
• Endothelium
• Loose connective tissue
Internal elastic lamina
Tunica media
• Smooth muscle
• Elastic fibers
External elastic lamina
Tunica externa
• Collagen fibers
Valve

Venule
(a) Artery Vein Arteriole
Capillary
Lumen bed Lumen
Basement membrane
Endothelial cells

(b) Capillary
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Figure 11.11 Operation of the muscular pump. Figure 11.12a Anatomy of a capillary bed.

 Blood flow through a capillary bed is known


as microcirculation
Valve (open)
Vascular shunt
Precapillary sphincters
Contracted
skeletal
muscle

Valve (closed)

Vein
True
capillaries
Terminal arteriole Postcapillary
Direction of venule
blood flow
(a) Sphincters open; blood flows through true
capillaries.
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Figure 11.12b Anatomy of a capillary bed.

Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels

 Major arteries of systemic circulation


 Aorta
 Largest artery in the body
 Leaves from the left ventricle of the heart
 Regions
 Ascending aorta—leaves the left ventricle
 Aortic arch—arches to the left
Terminal arteriole Postcapillary  Thoracic aorta—travels downward through the thorax
venule  Abdominal aorta—passes through the diaphragm into
(b) Sphincters closed; blood flows through the abdominopelvic cavity
vascular shunt.

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Figure 11.3a Gross anatomy of the heart. Figure 11.13 Major arteries of the systemic circulation, anterior view.

Brachiocephalic trunk Left common carotid artery


Arteries of the head and trunk
Superior vena cava Left subclavian artery Internal carotid artery
External carotid artery
Right pulmonary artery Aortic arch Common carotid arteries
Vertebral artery Arteries that supply the upper limb
Ligamentum arteriosum Subclavian artery Subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic trunk
Ascending aorta Aortic arch Axillary artery
Left pulmonary artery Ascending aorta
Coronary artery
Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary veins Thoracic aorta
(above diaphragm) Brachial artery

Celiac trunk
Right pulmonary Left atrium Abdominal aorta
veins Superior mesenteric
Radial artery
artery Ulnar artery
Renal artery
Right atrium Gonadal artery
Circumflex artery Deep palmar arch

Right coronary artery Superficial palmar arch


in coronary sulcus (right Left coronary artery in
Digital arteries
atrioventricular groove) coronary sulcus (left
atrioventricular groove) Arteries that supply the lower limb
Inferior mesenteric artery
Common iliac artery
Anterior cardiac vein External iliac artery
Left ventricle Femoral artery
Right ventricle Popliteal artery
Great cardiac vein Internal iliac artery
Marginal artery Anterior tibial artery
Anterior interventricular Posterior tibial artery
Small cardiac vein artery (in anterior
interventricular sulcus)
Inferior vena cava Dorsalis pedis artery

Apex Arcuate artery


(a) Anterior view of heart showing major vessels
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Figure 11.15a Arterial supply of the brain.

Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels


Cerebral arterial circle
Anterior
Frontal lobe (circle of Willis)
 Arterial supply of the brain and the circle of Willis
Optic chiasma • Anterior communicating
Middle cerebral artery
artery • Anterior cerebral artery  Anterior and posterior blood supplies are united by
Internal carotid • Posterior communicating small communicating arterial branches
artery artery
Mammillary body • Posterior cerebral artery
 Result—complete circle of connecting blood vessels
Temporal lobe Basilar artery called cerebral arterial circle, or circle of Willis
Pons Vertebral artery
Occipital lobe
Cerebellum  Provides more than one route for blood to reach the
(a) Posterior brain

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Figure 11.3a Gross anatomy of the heart. Figure 11.14 Major veins of the systemic circulation, anterior view.

Brachiocephalic trunk Left common carotid artery Veins of the head and trunk

Left subclavian artery Dural venous sinuses


Superior vena cava
External jugular vein

Right pulmonary artery Aortic arch Vertebral vein


Internal jugular vein Veins that drain the upper limb
Ligamentum arteriosum Right and left
Subclavian vein
Axillary vein
Ascending aorta brachiocephalic veins
Cephalic vein
Left pulmonary artery Superior vena cava Brachial vein
Great cardiac vein Basilic vein
Pulmonary trunk Left pulmonary veins Hepatic veins
Splenic vein
Right pulmonary Left atrium Hepatic portal vein
Renal vein Median cubital vein
veins
Superior Ulnar vein
mesenteric vein Radial vein
Inferior
Right atrium mesenteric vein
Circumflex artery Digital veins

Right coronary artery


in coronary sulcus (right Left coronary artery in
atrioventricular groove) coronary sulcus (left
atrioventricular groove) Veins that drain the lower limb
External iliac vein
Anterior cardiac vein Inferior vena cava Femoral vein
Left ventricle Common iliac vein Great saphenous vein
Right ventricle Popliteal vein
Internal iliac vein
Great cardiac vein
Posterior tibial vein
Marginal artery Anterior tibial vein
Anterior interventricular Small saphenous vein
Small cardiac vein artery (in anterior
interventricular sulcus)
Inferior vena cava
Dorsal venous arch
Apex Dorsal metatarsal veins
(a) Anterior view of heart showing major vessels
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Gross Anatomy of Blood Vessels

 Hepatic portal circulation is formed by veins


draining the digestive organs, which empty into
the hepatic portal vein
 Digestive organs
 Spleen
 Pancreas
 Hepatic portal vein carries this blood to the liver,
where it is processed before returning to systemic
circulation

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Figure 11.16 The basic scheme of the hepatic portal system. Figure 11.17 The hepatic portal circulation.

Inferior vena cava


(not part of hepatic
Arterial Venous portal system)
blood blood
Inferior
vena cava Gastric veins
Stomach and intestine Liver Liver
Spleen
Nutrients and Liver cells (hepatocytes) Stomach
toxins absorbed Hepatic portal vein
Nutrients Splenic vein
and toxins
leave Pancreas

Inferior
mesenteric vein

Hepatic Superior
portal vein mesenteric vein

First capillary bed Second capillary bed Small intestine


(liver sinusoids) Hepatic Large intestine
vein
Hepatic portal system

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