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Functional Organization of the Endocrine System

I. General Characteristics of the Endocrine System

A. Terminology
1. What does the term endocrine imply?
2. Endocrine glands secrete ____________________
3. A hormone is a ligand (chemical substance) that:
a. ________________________________________
b. ________________________________________
c. ________________________________________
d. ________________________________________
B. Endocrine versus Nervous System Regulation
1. Increasing or decreasing hormone concentration in body fluids is referred to
as ________________________________________
a. The effects produced are in relation to hormone ____________________
2. The all-or-none of action potentials in the nervous system is referred to as
a. What represents a weak stimulus? ______________________________
b. What represents a strong stimulus? ______________________________
3. Compared to the nervous system, the responses of the endocrine system are:
a. Usually ____________________
b. Longer ____________________
c. More ____________________
4. The two systems cannot be separated either ____________ or ___________
a. Where does a neurohormone come from and what does it do? _________
b. Some neurons directly ____________________ endocrine glands and
influence ________________________________________
c. Some hormones from endocrine glands affect ______________________
and significantly ______________________________
C. Types of Chemical Signals
1. Intercellular chemical signals allow _________________________________
a. The nervous system uses __________________ & __________________
b. The endocrine system uses ______________________________
2. Autocrine chemical signals are released by cells and have a _____________
on __________________________________________________
3. Paracrine chemical signals are released by cells and affect ______________
____________________ without being ______________________________
4. Pheromones are chemical signals ____________________ the environment
that modify the _______________ & _______________ of _______________

II. Chemical Structure of Hormones

A. Chemically hormones can be either:
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
3. ______________________________
4. ______________________________
B. Glycoprotein hormones are composed of ____________________________ &
C. Lipid hormones are either _____________ or ____________________________

III. Control of Secretion Rate

A. The secretion of each hormone is controlled by a ____________________ so
that the body activity it regulates is ____________________ & ______________
B. Three major patterns of hormone regulation:
1. Pattern One
a. Involves the action of a substance other than a ____________________
b. The action causes hormone levels to _____________ or _____________
2. Pattern two involves ____________________ of the endocrine gland
a. Neurons synapse with cells that ______________________________
b. When action potentials occur in the neurons they release _____________
1. If stimulatory it causes ______________________________
2. If inhibitory it causes ______________________________
3. Pattern three involves control of secretory activity of one endocrine gland by a
______________ or ______________ secreted by _____________________
4. In addition to the major patterns a few hormones are regulated in a ________
____________________ mechanism

IV. Transport and Distribution in the Body

A. Hormones are dissolved in ____________________ and transported either in a
____________________ or bound to ____________________
B. Free Hormone Molecules
1. Free hormones can diffuse from _______________ to _______________
2. The rate of hormone movement is concentration dependent:
a. When blood hormone levels are higher ___________________________
b. When blood hormone levels are lower ____________________________
C. Protein Bound Hormones
1. Hormones bind to plasma proteins in a ______________________________
2. There is an equilibrium between the ______________ & ________________
a. The equilibrium is important because only ___________________ diffuse
D. Since hormones circulate in the blood they are ___________________________

V. Metabolism and Excretion

A. What limits the length of time that hormones are active? ___________________
B. What is a half-life? _________________________________________________
1. What type of hormone has a relatively short half-life? ___________________
a. Their concentrations within the blood _____________________________
b. They regulate activities that have a ______________ & ______________
2. Lipid-soluble hormones commonly are combined with ___________________
a. The combination reduces rate of ____________ & increases __________
b. Hormones with a long half-life have ____________________ blood levels
C. Hormones removed from the blood in four major ways:
1. Excretion by:
a. ____________________ into the ____________________
b. ____________________ into the ____________________
2. Metabolized or chemically modified by ____________________ in the blood
3. Actively transported into cells and ____________________
4. Conjugation by:
a. __________________ attaches ____________________ to the hormone

VI. Interaction of Hormones with Their Target Tissues

A. Define the following terms:
1. Ligand ________________________________________________________
2. Binding site ____________________________________________________
3. Receptor site __________________________________________________
4. Specificity _____________________________________________________
B. What determines which cells will respond to a particular hormone? ___________
C. Drugs with structures similar to ligands _________________________________
1. A drug may _____________ the receptor or _____________ of the receptor
D. Target Cell Responsiveness
1. Response to a given ligand concentration is __________ in some cases and
____________________ in others
2. The term "down-regulation" refers to ________________________________
a. Two known mechanisms for down-regulation are:
1. Decreases in the rate receptors are ____________________
2. Increases in the rate receptors are ____________________
a. Ligand and receptor are taken into the cell by _________________
3. Tissues that exhibit down-regulation are adapted to ____________________
4. Tissues that do not exhibit down-regulation respond to hormones maintained
5. The term "up-regulation" refers to __________________________________

VII. Classes of Hormone Receptors

A. Categories of Ligands
1. Ligands that cannot pass through the plasma membrane
a. They are __________ molecules and ____________________ molecules
b. They interact with ________________________________________
1. The receptor sites are exposed to _____________________________
c. The ligand binding to the receptor site initiates a ____________________
2. Ligands that pass through the plasma membrane
a. They are ____________________ and ____________________
b. They __________ through the membrane and bind to ________________
1. Intracellular receptors are in the _____________ or the ____________
c. The ligand and receptor bound together then interact with:
1. ______________________________ or
2. ______________________________
B. Membrane-Bound Hormone Receptors
1. Receptors That Directly Alter Membrane Permeability
a. Protein molecules that make up part of ____________________________
b. When the ligand binds to the receptor site it alters the ________________
1. This causes the channel to either __________ or __________
2. These channels are called ______________________________
c. The result is a change in the ____________________________________
d. Examples:
1. What type of channel does serotonin bind to? ____________________
2. Acetylcholine causes skeletal muscle contraction by ______________
2. Receptors That Activate G Proteins
a. List the three subunits of a G protein from largest to smallest:
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
3. ______________________________
b. Why are they called "G proteins"? _______________________________
c. When inactive a G protein has a guanine diphosphate bound to ________
d. The activation of G proteins by a receptor involves:
1. __________ binds to the receptor on the outside of the cell
2. Causes the receptor to ____________________
3. As a result the receptor joins with __________________ inside the cell
4. This binding causes GDP to be released from ___________________
5. This allows the more abundant guanine triphosphate to bind to the
____________________ which ____________________
6. Then the G proteins separate from the ____________________
7. The activated __________ subunit separates from _______ & ______
8. The activated ___________________ produces cellular responses by
altering the activity of molecules:
a. Within ______________________________
1. Such as opening or closing _____________________________
b. Inside ____________________
1. Altering the activity of ____________________
9. After a short time:
a. The activated __________ is turned off because ______________
b. The _________ then recombines with the _________ & _________
3. Receptors That Alter the Activity of Intracellular Enzymes
a. Ligand binds to membrane-bound receptor and directly _______________
1. Increases or decreases __________________________________
2. Results in the __________________________________________
b. The mediators or phosphorylated proteins activate __________________
c. What is the cascade effect? ____________________________________
C. Intracellular Hormone Receptors
1. Intracellular receptors are either in the ____________ or in the ___________
2. The activation of DNA by receptors involves:
a. Lipid-soluble ligands cross into the cell by the process of _____________
b. If the receptor is in the cytoplasm:
1. The ligand ____________________ to its receptor
2. The receptor and ligand __________ into the nucleus & ___________
c. If the receptor is in the nucleus:
1. The ligand __________ into the nucleus
2. Then binds to ______________ and then ____________________
d. "Fingerlike" projections interact with ______________________________
e. This increases the synthesis of __________________________________
f. The __________ molecules then move to the ____________________
g. They attach to _________________ and increase the ________________
h. The newly synthesized __________ produce the ____________________
3. Ligands operating in this manner have a _____________________________
a. During this time ______________________________________________
4. The cells __________ return to ____________________________________

Endocrine Glands
I. Functions of the Endocrine System
A. List and describe the eight major functions of the endocrine system:
1. ______________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________________________
6. ______________________________________________________________
7. ______________________________________________________________
8. ______________________________________________________________

II. Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus

A. Structure of the Pituitary Gland
1. What bony structure is the pituitary associated with? Sphenoid bone
2. What is the infundibulum? Stalk of tissue that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary
3. Posterior Pituitary or Neurohypophysis
a. It is continuous with the brain
b. It develops from an outgrowth in the area of the hypothalamus
c. The outgrowth forms the infundibulum
d. The enlarged distal end of the outgrowth forms the posterior pituitary
e. Secretions from posterior pituitary are properly called neurohormones
4. Anterior Pituitary or Adenohypophysis
a. Arises as an outpocketing of the roof of the embryonic oral cavity called the pituitary
b. List the three subdivisions of the anterior pituitary:
1. Pars Distalis
2. Pars Tuberalis
3. Pars Intermedia
c. Does the anterior pituitary also secrete neurohormones? No
B. Relationship of the Pituitary to the Brain
1. The hypothalamohypophysial portal system connects what to what? Hypothalamus to anterior
pituitary gland
a. The first capillary network is in the hypothalamus
b. The second capillary network is in the anterior pituitary
2. What substances travel in this portal system? releasing and inhibiting hormones
3. If a neurohormone causes the secretion of an anterior pituitary hormone it is
specifically called releasing hormones
4. If a neurohormone prevents the secretion of an anterior pituitary hormone it is
specifically called inhibiting hormones
5. Hormones produced in the anterior pituitary enter the secondary plexus capillaries
and are carried by anterior hypophyseal veins to their target tissues
6. Refer to any table from different books in the text for names and functions of the neurohormones
7. What is the hypothalamohypophysial tract? The axons of neurosecretory cells form this tract. It
begins in the hypothalamus and end near blood capillaries in the posterior pituitary.
8. Where are the neurohormones produced? Neurohormones are produced in the cell bodies of
neurosecretory cells (in paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of hypothalamus)
9. Where are the neurohormones stored until released? Posterior Pituitary
10. What stimulates release of the stored neurohormones? Action potentials (nerve impulses) cause
the release of neurohormones from axon terminals to the circulatory system

III. Hormones of the Pituitary Gland

A. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
a. Functionally ADH conserves body water by decreasing urine volume
b. ADH is also called vasopressin
1. What does this name refer to? Because at high concentrations it causes
constriction of blood vessels.
c. ADH is synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus
d. The primary target tissue for ADH is kidney tubules
1. Where it functionally:
a. Promotes water reabsorption by kidney tubules
b. Reduces water lost as urine
e. Secretion of ADH varies in response to changes in blood osmotic pressure
& blood volume
f. What is an osmoreceptor? It detects the osmotic pressure of body fluids.
g. Osmoreceptors connect to hypothalamus
h. In response to an increase in blood osmolality:
1. Osmoreceptors send action potentials at a hypothalamic neurosecretory cells
2. The neurosecretory cells respond by synthesizing and releasing ADH
3. ADH causes the kidneys to retain more water
4. The additional water dilutes blood solutes thus decreasing blood osmolality
5. In addition, the increase in blood osmolality may directly activates osmoreceptors
i. In response to a decrease in blood osmolality:
1. Frequency of action potentials from osmoreceptors reduce
2. So the neurosecretory cells release less ADH
3. Therefore the kidneys:
a. Retain less water
b. Produce larger volume of urine
4. Blood osmolality return to normal
j. The ADH neurosecretory cells are also influenced by receptors that detect
changes in pain, stress, trauma, anxiety, acetylcholine, nicotine, and drugs such as
morphine, tranquilisers, and some anaesthetics
k. Lower than normal blood pressure causes increase in ADH secretion
l. Higher than normal blood pressure causes decrease in ADH secretion
2. Oxytocin
a. Oxytocin is synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus
b. Functionally oxytocin:
1. Stimulates contraction of smooth muscle cells of uterus during childbirth
2. Also causes contraction of myoepithelial cells in mammary glands which in turn
causes milk ejection
3. Responsible for the feelings of sexual pleasure during and after intercourse
c. Release of oxytocin is stimulated by:
1. Stretch of cervix of the uterus (during delivery)
2. Mechanical stimulation provided by a suckling infant
3. Stimulation of nipples
B. Anterior Pituitary Hormones
1. General
a. Release of hormones from the anterior pituitary is controlled by hypothalamic
hormones(releasing or inhibiting hormones) from the hypothalamus
b. Chemically the hormones from the anterior pituitary are: Human growth hormone
(somatotropin), Thyroid-stimulating hormone(thyrotropin), Follicle-stimulating hormone,
Luteinising hormone, Prolactin, Adrenocorticotropic hormone(corticotropin), and Melanocyte-
stimulating hormone
c. The anterior pituitary hormones are transported into the general circulation and then travel
into the target tissues throughout the body
d. Anterior pituitary hormones have a half-life measured in minutes
e. Anterior pituitary hormones bind to membrane-bound receptors
2. Growth Hormone (GH)
a. Is also known as somatotropin
b. Functionally growth hormone:
1. Stimulates production of insulinlike growth factors
2. Plays role on carbohydrate metabolism
3. Regulator of blood glucose level
4. Increases the growth rate of the skeleton and skeletal muscles
5. Favors in the puberty stage
6. Also increases fat breakdown to provide the energy
7. Increases glycogen breakdown into glucose
8. Plays a role in regulating breakdown of proteins and use of amino acids for ATP
c. What are somatomedins? Small protein hormones called insulinlike growth factors
d. Functionally somatomedins:
1. Stimulate growth in bone by stimulating osteoblasts & by increasing the synthesis of
proteins needed to build new bone
2. Increase growth rate of skeletal muscles
e. When growth hormone binds to membrane-bound receptors they cause
change in activity inside the cell
f. Secretion of growth hormone is regulated by two neurohormones from
the hypothalamus called:
1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone(GHRH) or somatocrinin
2. Growth hormone- inhibiting hormone(GHIH) or somatostatin
g. What body conditions act on the hypothalamus to:
1. Increase GH secretion – abnormally low blood glucose concentration
2. Decrease GH secretion - abnormally high blood glucose concentration
h. Highest levels of GH are usually associated with deep sleep
3. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
a. Is also known as thyrotropin
b. TSH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two thyroid hormones
c. TSH also increase production and iodination of thyroglobulin
d. Functionally phospholipase TSH increases activity of phospholipase that opens Ca2+
channels, increasing Ca2+ concentration in cells of the thyroid gland
e. TRH from the hypothalamus controls TSH secretion
f. Thyroid hormones level controls TRH and TSH secretion
g. TSH levels are normally highest during pregnancy
4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) and Related Substances
a. The precursor molecule is called 39 amino acid peptide hormone
1. Functionally ACTH increases secretions of glucocorticoid hormones primarily
cortisol from cortex of adrenal glands
2. ACTH also binds to melanocytes in the skin & increase skin pigmentation
c. Lipotropins attach to membrane-bound receptors on adipose cells
1. This results in its lipid mobilizing functions such as lipolysis & steroidogenesis
d. Endorphins have the same effects as painkillers
1. They can play a role in reducing our perception of pain and act similarly to drugs such
as morphine
2. Secretion increases in response to pain sensations and times of stress
e. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
1. Binds to membrane bound receptors on melanocytes and stimulates dispersion of
melanin granules
5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Prolactin
a. Hormones that stimulate growth and function of the gonads are called: gonadotropins
b. LH and FSH stimulate the production of:
1. Gametes:
a. Males: sperm cells in the testes
b. Females: oocytes in ovaries
c. LH and FSH control the production of:
1. Reproductive hormones:
a. Females: oestrogen & progesterone in the ovaries
b. Males: testosterone in the testes
d. Release of LH and FSH is stimulated by the hypothalamic-releasing
hormone- Gonadotropin- releasing hormone(GnRH)
e. Prolactin plays an important role in milk production by the mammary glands
f. Prolactin also increases the number of receptors for _________________
(instead: Prolactin level rises, stimulated by prolactin-releasing
hormones from the hypothalamus)
g. After ovulation prolactin can bring about milk production
h. Neurohormones involved in the control of prolactin secretion include:
1. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone
2. Prolactin-releasing hormone

IV. Thyroid Gland

A. Structure and Histology
1. The thyroid gland is composed of ________________ lobes connected by an
____________________ called ____________________
2. The two lobes lie on either side of the ______________________________
3. Anatomically the thyroid gland is just inferior to the ____________________
4. Why does it appear redder than surrounding tissue? __________________
5. What is a follicle? ________________________________________
6. A follicle is composed of a single ___________________________________
7. Where is thyroglobulin found? ______________________________
8. Thyroglobulin is a ______________ to which __________________ is bound
9. Where are parafollicular cells found? ______________________________
10. What is produced by the parafollicular cells? _______________________
a. This hormone plays a role in ____________________________________
B. Thyroid Hormones
1. The two forms of thyroid hormone are:
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________ also called ___________________
2. Thyroid Hormone Synthesis
a. Which hormone from the anterior pituitary is required for synthesis of
thyroid hormones? ______________________________
b. Synthesis of thyroid hormones also requires _______________ in the diet
c. The synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormone involves:
1. Iodide ions are taken up by ________________ by _______________
2. Follicle cells synthesize the protein ____________________________
a. This protein contains numerous ________________ amino acids
3. One or two iodine atoms are bound to each ____________________
a. Thyroglobulin enters the lumen of the follicle by _______________
4. In the lumen of the follicle:
a. T4 is formed by ________________________________________
b. T3 is formed by ________________________________________
5. Thyroglobulin enters follicle cells by ____________________
a. What fuses with the vesicle? ______________________________
6. __________ enzymes (from the lysosomes) break down thyroglobulin
a. When __________ & __________ are released they move by
____________________ into the ____________________ & finally
3. Transport in the Blood
a. Thyroid hormones are transported in the circulatory system with
1. 70-75% bound to ______________________________
2. 20-30% bound to _______________________ including ___________
b. Thyroid hormone bound to proteins increases ____________________
c. Approximately 33-40% of __________ is converted to __________
1. Which form is the major hormone? __________
2. Which form is more potent? __________
4. Mechanism of Action of Thyroid Hormones
a. Thyroid hormones interact with receptors ____________________
b. After binding to the receptor the hormone causes ___________________
c. The newly made ____________________ moves to the ______________
d. In the cytoplasm new ____________________ are made
e. The newly synthesized __________ cause the ____________________
f. This process can take up to a __________ for maximal effect
5. Effects of Thyroid Hormones
a. Thyroid hormones affect _______________________________________
1. ____________________ is primarily affected in some tissues
2. __________ & ____________________ are influenced in others
b. Functions of thyroid hormones include:
1. Normal rate ________________________________________
2. Decline in ______________________________
3. Increased activity of ______________________________
4. Alter the number and _______________________________________
5. Normal __________ and ____________________ of organs
6. Normal __________ and ____________________ of the brain
7. Permissive role for ____________________
c. What symptoms might a person experience with thyroid hormone:
1. Hypersecretion ____________________________________________
2. Hyposecretion ____________________________________________
d. If hyposecretion occurs during development a person experiences:
1. Decreased ________________________________________
2. Abnormal nervous ________________________________________
3. Abnormal ____________________
4. Abnormal ____________________ of tissues
a. The result is a mentally ____________________ with __________
stature and distinctive form called a ____________________
6. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion
a. TRH from the hypothalamus and TSH from the anterior pituitary:
1. Increase in response to ____________________________________
2. Decrease in response to ___________________________________
b. TSH stimulates ____________________ secretion from the thyroid gland
1. TSH also stimulates ________________________________________
c. Thyroid hormones have a ____________________ effect
1. Increasing levels ____________________ TRH & TSH release
d. TSH levels in the blood increase dramatically when __________________
C. Calcitonin
1. Calcitonin secretion is increased in response to _______________________
2. The primary target tissue for calcitonin is ____________________
a. Decreases ______________________________
b. Lengthens ______________________________
3. The net result of calcitonin action is a ____________________ in blood levels
of ____________________ and ____________________
4. How important is calcitonin in regulating blood calcium levels? ____________
a. After a meal it may ___________________________________________
b. How do calcitonin levels change with age? _________________________
c. Complete thyroidectomy _______________________________________

V. Parathyroid Glands
A. Parathyroid glands are usually embedded ______________________________
B. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
1. PTH is important in the regulation of ______________________________
2. Functionally PTH:
a. Stimulates ______________________________ in bone
b. Can cause ______________________________ to increase
c. Induces ______________________________ within kidneys
d. Also increases ______________________________ in the kidneys
3. In relation to phosphate ions PTH
a. ____________________ from bone
b. ____________________ absorption in the gut
c. ____________________ in the kidney
4. The net effect of PTH is to:
a. ____________________ blood levels of calcium ions
b. ____________________ blood levels of phosphate ions
5. The release of PTH is:
a. Stimulated by ______________________________
b. Inhibited by ______________________________
6. Symptoms of hypocalcemia include: ________________________________

VI. Adrenal Glands

A. Structure and Histology
1. The adrenal glands are also called ______________________________
2. What is their position relative to the kidneys? _________________________
3. What does retroperitoneal mean? __________________________________
4. Composed of an inner _______________ and an outer _______________
a. The inner portion arises from ___________________________________
b. The outer portion is derived from ________________________________
5. The medulla consists of __________________________________________
6. The cortex is composed of ____________________ and subdivided into:
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________
c. ______________________________
7. The zona glomerulosa is:
a. Immediately ______________________________
b. Composed of ______________________________
8. The zona fasciculata is the __________ part of the adrenal cortex:
a. The cells form ____________________ or ____________________
9. The zona reticularis is the __________ layer of the adrenal cortex:
a. Thin ____________________
b. Irregularly ____________________
B. Hormones of Adrenal Medulla
1. The adrenal medulla produces about:
a. 80% ______________________________
b. 20% ______________________________
1. Why are these secretions considered to be neurohormones? _______
2. Functionally epinephrine:
a. Increases blood ______________________________
b. In skeletal muscle cells ______________________________
c. In adipose tissue ________________________________________
d. Cause dilation of blood vessels in ________________________________
3. Epinephrine and norepinephrine function to:
a. Increase the heart's __________ & ______________________________
b. Cause vessel constriction to ____________________________________
4. The effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine are _____________________
5. The release of hormones by the adrenal medulla is stimulated by:
6. Conditions resulting in release include: ______________________________
C. Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
1. Steroid hormones that are highly ______________ derived from __________
2. They leave the cells as soon as they are produced by ___________________
3. They are transported in the blood in combination with ___________________
4. They bind to ____________________ receptors and stimulate synthesis of
______________________________ which are responsible for __________
5. Mineralocorticoids are produced in the ______________________________
a. ____________________ is produced in the greatest amount
b. Functionally aldosterone:
1. Increases the rate of ___________________________ by the kidneys
a. As a result blood levels ____________________
2. Increases K+ __________________________________ by the kidneys
a. As a result blood levels ______________________________
3. Also increases the rate of __________ excretion into the urine
6. Glucocorticoids are produced in the ______________________________
a. The major glucocorticoid is ______________________________
b. The responses are classified into three categories:
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
3. ______________________________
c. Metabolic responses include:
1. ____________________ fat catabolism
2. ________________ glucose and amino acid uptake in skeletal muscle
3. ____________________ gluconeogenesis
a. What is gluconeogenesis? ________________________________
4. ____________________ protein degradation
d. Developmental responses include:
1. Maturation of ________________________________________
2. Development of ________________________________________
e. Anti-inflammatory responses include decreasing both the number of
______________________________ & ___________________________
f. Control of secretion involves:
1. CRH from the hypothalamus released in response to ____________ or
2. CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the ___________________
3. ACTH stimulates the:
a. Zona glomerulosa to ______________________________
b. Zona fasciculata to ______________________________
4. CRH release is inhibited by ______________ & ______________
5. High levels of cortisol ____________________ ACTH release
6. Low levels of cortisol ____________________ ACTH release
7. Adrenal Androgens
a. Produced in the ______________________________
b. Weak androgens including ______________________________
c. Converted by peripheral tissues to ______________________________
d. Functionally in females adrenal androgens:
1. Stimulate __________ & __________ hair growth and _____________
e. Functionally in males their effects are _____________________________

VII. Pancreas
A. Structure and Histology
1. The pancreas lies ____________________ between the ________________
____________________ and the ____________________
2. Exocrine portion consists of ______________ that produce ______________
secreted into a __________ system that empties ______________________
3. Endocrine portion consists of ____________________ that produce
____________________ that enter the ____________________
4. Each pancreatic islet is composed of:
a. 20% ____________________ that secrete ____________________
b. 75% ____________________ that secrete ____________________
c. 5% ____________________ including ____________________ that
secrete ____________________
5. The pancreatic islets have "dual innervation" which means _______________
_______________________________ (see Chapter 16 if needed for review)
B. Effect of Insulin and Glucagon on Their Target Tissues
1. The main insulin target tissues include _______________________________
2. Insulin causes an increase in active-transport proteins for ________________
and ____________________
3. As a result the general response is an ____________________ in the ability
to take up and use ____________________ and ____________________
4. Even though blood levels of glucose are very high in the absence of insulin
the ability of the cell to take in glucose and amino acids _________________
5. In contrast high levels of insulin can cause blood levels of glucose to _______
because target tissues are ______________________________
a. This can cause malfunctions of the ______________________________
6. Glucagon primarily effects the __________ but has some effect on ________
____________________ & ____________________
7. Functionally glucagon causes:
a. Breakdown of ______________________________
b. Increased ________________________________________
c. Increases the breakdown of ____________________
C. Regulation of Pancreatic Hormone Secretion
1. Beta cells are directly influenced to:
a. Release insulin in response to __________________________________
b. Inhibit insulin release in response to ______________________________
c. Certain amino acids __________________________________________
2. The autonomic nervous system influences insulin secretion:
a. Parasympathetic nerve impulses ______________________________
b. Sympathetic nerve impulses ______________________________
3. What hormones from the gastrointestinal tract stimulate insulin release?
4. What effect does somatostatin have on insulin and glucagon? ____________
5. Secretion of glucagon is:
a. ____________________ by low blood glucose levels
b. ____________________ by high blood glucose levels
6. Glucagon secretion is also increased by ______________ & _____________
7. After a high-protein meal:
a. Amino acids increase ______________ & _______________ secretion
b. Insulin causes _______________________________________________
c. Glucagon increases __________________________________________

VIII. Hormonal Regulation of Nutrients

A. After a meal and under resting conditions:
1. There is reduced secretion of __________, __________, __________, &
2. Insulin secretion increases in response to:
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________
3. This causes target tissues to increase their uptake of __________,
__________, and __________.
4. Molecules not needed for immediate metabolism are ___________________
a. Glucose is converted to __________ in _______________ & __________
b. Glucose is used for __________ synthesis in __________ & __________
5. The rapid uptake and storage of __________ prevents __________________
6. Amino acids are ______________________________
7. Ingested fats are ________________________________________
B. Within 1-2 hours after the meal:
1. Absorption of digested material __________ and blood glucose levels ______
2. This causes increased secretion of __________, __________, _________, &
3. Results in release of ____________________ from tissues
4. Insulin secretion ______________ & glucose uptake by cells _____________
5. Stored glycogen is converted to __________ and released into __________
6. This maintains blood glucose levels necessary for _____________________
7. Cells using less glucose start using more __________ & __________
8. Adipose tissue ____________________ & the liver releases _____________
C. During exercise:
1. Sympathetic nerve impulses stimulates release of ____________________
from the adrenal gland and ____________________ from the pancreas
2. These hormones induce the conversion of __________ to __________
in the liver and the ____________________
3. During sustained activity blood glucose levels may fall too low for normal
a. A decrease in insulin prevents ______________________________
b. Fatty acids, triglycerides, and ketones increase in the blood due to
increased levels of __________, __________, __________, & _________
c. GH also prevents muscles from using themselves as an energy source by
d. Therefore, in skeletal muscles the metabolism of:
a. Glucose ____________________
b. Fat ____________________

IX. Hormones of the Reproductive System

A. Male Hormones
1. Main endocrine glands of the male reproductive system are the __________
2. Their function depends on ____________________ from the anterior pituitary
3. Functionally testosterone regulates:
a. Production of ________________________________________
b. Development and ________________________________________
4. Inhibin functions to _____________________________________________
5. Which is the main hormone secreted by the testes? ____________________
B. Female Hormones
1. Main endocrine glands of the female reproductive system are the _________
2. Their function depends on ____________________ from the anterior pituitary
3. The main hormones secreted by the ovaries are __________ & __________
4. Functionally these hormones with FSH and LH control:
a. Female ______________________________
b. Prepare ______________________________
c. Maintain ______________________________
5. Estrogen and progesterone are responsible for development of __________
____________________ and female ______________________________
6. The ovaries also secrete __________ which inhibits __________ secretion
7. During pregnancy both the ______________ and ______________ secrete
____________________ and ____________________
8. What is the function of the hormone relaxin? __________________________
X. Hormones of the Pineal Body
A. List the two hormones secreted by the pineal body:
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
B. Functions
1. Melatonin can decrease __________ secretion from the _________________
a. May inhibit ________________________________________
2. Melatonin may also help regulate ___________________________________
C. Control of Secretion
1. What is photoperiod? ____________________________________________
2. Increased daylight results in ____________________ pineal secretions
a. Therefore in the spring when the days get longer there will be less
____________________ of reproductive function
3. Decreased daylight results in ____________________ pineal secretions
a. Therefore in the fall and winter reproductive function is _______________
D. The exact function of pineal body hormones in humans is __________________

XI. Hormones of the Thymus

A. The thymus is located in the neck ____________________ to the heart
B. It secretes the hormone ____________________
C. The thymus and its hormone play a role in ______________________________

XII. Hormonelike Substances

A. Prostaglandins
1. Prostaglandins are involved in a wide range of activities including:
a. Regulation of ________________________________________
b. Process of ______________________________
c. Inhibition of ________________________________________ luteum
d. ____________________ function
e. Modification of the ________________________________________
f. Pain receptors are ______________________________
g. Cause ____________________ of blood vessels
2. Anti-inflammatory drugs ________________________________________
B. Substances that moderate the sensation of pain include:
1. ______________________________
2. ______________________________
3. ______________________________
C. Growth Factors
1. Epidermal growth factor ________________________________________
2. Interleukin-2 stimulates ________________________________________

XIII. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System

A. With increased age:
1. Secretion levels of GH ____________________
a. There is a greater change in people who __________________________
b. Change in GH secretion may explain _____________________________
2. Secretion levels of thyroid hormones ______________________________
a. Thyroid gland may also be damaged by _________________________
3. Parathyroid hormone secretion ___________________________________
4. Reproductive hormone secretion ___________________________________
5. The ability to regulate blood glucose levels ___________________________
6. The immune system becomes less effective because ___________________